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Fish ID PROJECT  3rd block    Xavier Powell  5/12/2014       

      


Title: Freshwater fishes Species #: 1 Common Name: catfish Scientific Name: Icturlurus punctatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Silfurifomes

Family: Ictalurida Geography / Habitat: The native range of Ictalurus punctatus is the Neartic in Lower Canada and throughout the Midwest of the United States. Channel catfish have been introduced in the Palearctic in Cyprus, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, and Spain (Elvira, 2001) as well as Malaysia (FFRC, 2004). ("The Department of Fisheries Malaysia and FFRC", 2004; Elvira, 2001) Channel catfish can live in both fresh and salt water and brackish water yet they are generally found in freshwater environments.

Life Strategy: The life expectancy of a channel catfish is around 14 years old but they can exceed this number. In captivity the channel catfish is generally harvested after 2 years (Wellburn, 1988). (Wellburn, 1988)

Food / Feed Strategy: Ictalurus punctatus can be thought of as one large mouth because there are taste buds located all over their body. The olfactory system is used mostly in consumption of food. Adult channel catfish, over 45 cm, consume fishes such as yellow perch and sunfish. The diet of adults consists of snails, algae, snakes, frogs, insects, aquatic plants, and even birds occasionally. Younger channel catfish are more consistently omnivorous, eating a large variety of plants and animals (Northwest, 2004). ("Northwest Power and Conservation CouncilSubbasin Planning", 2004; Wellburn, 1988)

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Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ictalurus_punctatus/pictures/collection s/contributors/usfws/channelcatfish

Title: Freshwater fishes Species #: 2 Common Name: Common eel Scientific Name: Anguilla Rostrata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinoperygii

Order: Angulliformes

Family: Angullida

common eel is a catadromous species that spawns in the Atlantic Ocean and ascends streams and rivers in North and South America. Found in Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mississippi, the Gulf Basin, and south to South America. Habitat live in freshwater as adults, usually in larger rivers or lakes, primarily swimming near the bottom in search of food. The species prefers to hunt at night and resides in crevices or other shelter from the light during the day, often times burying themselves in the substrate, whether mud, sand or gravel (Landau, 1992)

Geography / Habitat:

is a catadromous species, living most of its life in freshwater, but spawning in saltwater (Sumich, 1999). Sexually mature adults migrate to the Sargasso Sea, to spawn and supposedly die. Eels may reside in freshwater systems for up to 20 years before leaving to spawn at sea. The female lays up to 4 million buoyant eggs, which are fertilized by the male. Despite the use of technologically advanced SONAR tracking methods, adult eels are yet to be conclusively observed or captured in the presumed spawning areas in the Sargasso Sea (Sumich, 1999).

Life Strategy:

Food / Feed Strategy: Feeding habits of A. rostrata vary with level of maturity. The leptocephalus is planktivorous as it drifts to coastal waters and develops into an elver, which feeds on aquatic insects, small crustaceans, and dead fish (Landau, 1992). Yellow and Silver eels are primarily nocturnal carnivorous feeders, consuming insects, crustaceans, clams, worms, fish and frogs. Eels at this stage will also eat dead animal matter. Adult eels use rotational feeding to tear portions from prey by causing a twist in their bodies and spinning to generate force to remove pieces of food (Helfman et al., 1999). This behavior actually wastes large portions of food in eel aquaculture systems (Landau, 1992).

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Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Anguilla_rostrata

Title: Freshwater fishes Species #: 3 Common Name: StoneCat Scientific Name: Noturus Flavus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinoperygii

Order: Silifuriforms

Family: Anguillida

Geography / Habitat: Stonecat are native to the Neartic region. They occur throughout the upper Mississippi Basin, much of the Great Lakes drainage. Stonecats live in freshwater environments. They are found in large creeks and small rivers. They occasionally occur in tiny creeks or rivers as large as the lower Mississippi (Etnier and Starnes, 1993). Stonecats occupy gently- to fast-moving riffle areas that have a rocky substrate. Stonecats spend the majority of their time in moderate moving, shallow riffles. They can also be found in deeper water in the 2 to 3 meter range. Stonecats also occur in natural lakes such as Lake Erie. There they prefer rock and gravel bars that are subject to a lot of wave action. (Branson and Batch, 1974; Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Hammerson, 2005; Kline and Morgan, 2000)

Life Strategy: Stonecats form monogamous pairs for breeding Food / Feed Strategy: Stonecats are primarily invertivores. The young will feed upon the larvae of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera) caddisflies (Trichoptera), and midges (Chironomidae). Adult stonecats will feed on mainly mayfly larvae and crayfish (Astacoidea), but they will also take small darters and minnows. (Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Hammerson, 2005)


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● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Noturus_flavus/

Title Freshwater fishes species# 4 Common Name: yellow madtom Scientific Name: Noturus Flavipinnis Kingdom: animala

Phylum: chordata

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Geography / Habitat: yellowfin madtom can be found only in the upper portion of the Tennessee River drainage, in the Powell River and Citico Creek in Tennessee, and in Copper Creek in Virginia. Inhabits pools and backwaters of streams, where it can find cover beneath tree roots, sunken leaves, brush piles, or bedrock ledges. Individuals can be found in shallow pools less than one meter deep, and are usually not found further down than two meters in deeper pools. The streams where Noturus flavipinnis can be found are clean, with little siltation. Spawning habitat may be in the cleaner substrate of quicker currents than their usual habitat. (Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Page and Burr, 2005; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996; Virginia Tech Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange, 1996)

Life Strategy: reproduces from late May to mid July. Females may be able to spawn twice per season, and as the male guards the nest, mating is probably polyandrous, with no pair bonds formed. (Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Virginia Tech Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange, 1996) Food / Feed Strategy: Feeding by Noturus flavipinnis takes place mainly at night. It may, however, sometimes feed during the day. Its diet consists mostly of aquatic insect larvae, but crayfish may also be eaten. This species may exhibit some preferences in diet, but it is also an opportunistic feeder. It is also known to be a benthic feeder. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996; Virginia Tech Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange, 1996)


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● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Noturus_flavipinnis/

Title: Freshwater fishes species# 5 Common Name: yellow bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus Natalis Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

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Geography / Habitat: Yellow bull range throughout the eastern United States, extending north to southeastern Canada and west to the Great Plains and Rio Grande drainage

Life Strategy: Yellow bullhead males dig nests, which may range from a shallow depression in muddy sediment to a deep burrow in the stream bank. Protected nest sites near rocks and stumps with dense vegetation are preferred. Nest sites attract females for mating. ("Ameiurus natalis (LeSueur)", 2005; Armstrong, 1962; Eddy and Surber, 1943; Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Hubbs and Lagler, 1958; Klossner, 2005)

Food / Feed Strategy: Like all other catfish species, yellow bullheads are opportunistic feeders. Yellow bullheads feed at night. They have been known to eat minnows, crayfish, insects and insect larvae, aquatic invertebrates, and worms. Compared to the other two bullheads, the yellow bullheads consume more aquatic vegetation. The young will feed on aquatic invertebrates. (Eddy and Surber, 1943; Eddy and Underhill, 1974; Hubbs and Lagler, 1958; Trautman, 1981)


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ameiurus_natalis/ Title: Freshwater fish species# 6 Common Name: Brown catfish Scientific Name: Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

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Geography / Habitat: Brown bullheads are native to freshwater habitats in Canada

and the United States from 25° to 54° north latitude . Brown bullhead are found in pools and slower-moving runs of creeks and rivers, reservoirs, ponds, and lakes. They are tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions, including water temperatures up to 36 degrees Celsius and oxygen levels to 0.2 ppm. They prefer habitats with vegetation and substrate. They survive well in domestically and industrially polluted waters. They are bottom dwelling fish. (Barnes and Hicks, 2003; Becker, 1983; Blazer, et al., 2009a; Blazer, et al., 2009b; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2010; Froese and Pauly, 2010; Page and Burr, 1991)

Life Strategy: Brown bullhead are monogamous during the breeding season. Blumer (1985) and Becker (1983) were unable to determine how pairing occurred. Courtship, occurring near nesting sites, involves holding the partners jaw, tail, or head with the mouth, head butting, nibbling bodies, and caressing barbels. Sideby-side swaying has also been observed. Pairs settle over nests and face away from each other during gamete release. (Becker, 1983; Blumer, 1985; Encyclopedia of Life, 2010)

Food / Feed Strategy:Brown bullhead are benthic, opportunistic omnivores. In aquarium settings they eat most food given to them. Juveniles eat zooplankton,


including chironomids, cladocerans, ostracods, and amphipods, insects, including mayfly larvae and caddisfly larvae, and plants. Adults feed on insects, small fish, fish eggs, mollusks, plants, leeches, worms, and crayfish. They typically are nocturnal feeders, but have been observed feeding during the day. They use their barbels to locate food. (Barnes and Hicks, 2003; Becker, 1983; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2010; Froese and Pauly, 2010; Kline and Wood, 1996; Raney and Webster, 1940)

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: â—? Mouth Position â—? Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ameiurus_nebulosus/ Title: freshwater fish species# 7 Common Name: Sheephead Scientific Name: aplodinotus grunniens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Periformes

Family: Sciaenidae

Geography / Habitat: Freshwater drum are the only members of the family Sciaenidae that inhabit freshwater. They have a vast distribution range that extends from as far north as the Hudson Bay to their extreme southern range in the Rio Usumacinata Basin of Guatemala. Freshwater drum inhabit backwaters and areas of slack current in a wide range of habitats including deep pools in medium to large rivers and large, deep to shallow lacustrine environments. They are a benthic fish that particularly like silty to rocky substrates.

Life Strategy: Freshwater drum breed seasonally in open water. The eggs are fertilized and left floating near the surface of the water, where the eggs, and subsequently the larvae, are carried by currents. This unique characteristic is thought to be the explanation of their wide distribution. Freshwater drum are seemingly promiscuous because males and females disperse eggs and sperm into


the water column where fertilization is rather random. However scientific evidence to justify this statement has not been documented. (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2005)

Food / Feed Strategy: Freshwater drum feed on prey at all hours of the night. They peruse the bottom in schools in search of many different items. They generally root around and move rocks and other substrates to flush their prey. Adults feed primarily on aquatic insects such as mayflies,

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Aplodinotus_grunniens/ Title: Freshwater Fish species# 8 Common Name: Longtail Knifewish Scientific Name: Sternopygus macrurs Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: gymnotiformes

Family: Sternopygidae

It is known to inhabit the area from the Magdalena River to the Sao Francisco River and western Ecuador. It is also found in the Catatumbo River and the Amazon in Peru. (Ortega and Vari 1986) Sternopygus macrurus is most common in benthopelagic and freshwater bodies such as swamps, creeks, and rivers with lentic waters. The pH range for S. macrurus is 6.0 to 6.5 and the dH range is 4.0 to 15.0. (Ortega and Vari 1986)

Geography / Habitat:

Life Strategy: The male Sternopygus macrurus defends a territory. Just before or during the rainy season, the male will attract a female passing though his territory as a spawning partner. He attracts a female using electric signal from his electric


organ. A single mating results in over 6000 eggs. (Hopkins 1972; Provenzano 1984; Kirschbaum 1995)

Food / Feed Strategy: is a predator of small invertebrates. Its diet is mainly composed of aquatic insect larvae. (Planquette, Keith, and LeBail 1996)

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sternopygus_macrurus/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Asian Seabass Scientific Name: Lates Calcarifer

species# 9

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Periformes

Family: Latidae

Geography / Habitat: Barramundi are catadromous, spending most of their life in fresh water and migrating to salt water in order to breed. Smaller fish are found in rivers and streams and larger fish are found in the ocean and estuaries (Pender, 1996; FAO, 1999). There are exceptions to this patter, however, with populations of all sizes of fish found throughout their natural range. Pender and Griffin confirmed through chemical analysis that there are populations that spend their entire life cycle in salt water, in brackish water, or in fresh water (Pender, 1996).


Barramundi can survive in a wide range of salinities, but must be introduced slowly to a new salinity to avoid shock (Webster, 2002). Barramundi generally prefer to hide under logs or other objects. (Pender and Griffin, 1996; UN Fish and Agricultural Organization, 1999; Webster and Lim, 2002)

Life Strategy: Barramundi spawn seasonally (Moore, 1982). Since they are broadcast spawners (Luna, 2008; Moore, 1982), it can be inferred that there is very little social interaction among individuals. Males and females congregate for the purpose of spawning. Spawning events tend to take place at the mouths of estuaries on or near a full moon, after which tides draw the eggs up into the estuaries (Luna, 2008). (Luna, 2008; Moore, 1982)

Food / Feed Strategy: They eat microcrustaceans such as copepods and amphipods as juvenile fish under 40 mm. As larger juveniles they eat macrocrustaceans like Penaeidae and Palaemonidae.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lates_calcarifer/ Title: Freshwater fish species# 10 Common Name: American pike Scientific Name: Esox Lucius ● ● ●

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Esocidae

Geography / Habitat: They are found from Labrador west to Alaska, south to Pennsylvania, Missouri and Nebraska. In Europe they are found throughout northern and western Europe, south throughout Spain and east to Siberia. They


are found in almost every type of freshwater, from cold deep lakes, to warm shallow ponds, to muddy rivers.

Life Strategy: Northern pike are considered random spawners not nest builders. Spawning occurs in the shallows when the water temperature reaches 4-7 degrees Celsius (40-45 degrees Fahrenheit). Spawning lasts for 5 to 10 days after which the female leaves. Males remain in the spawning area for several weeks, but do not protect the eggs. At this stage the eggs are vulnerable to predators. The eggs that do survive hatch in about 2 weeks. With their insatiable eating habits young E. lucius grow rapidly in both length and weight. Males become sexually mature at 2-3 years-old and females at 3-4 years-old. Esox lucius are a carnivorous fish. Equipped with sharp teeth and very complex skull and jaw structures they are predators of smaller fish, frogs, crayfish, small mammals and birds.

Food / Feed Strategy:

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Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Bluntnose minnow Scientific Name:

species# 11

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes


Family: Cyprinida

Geography / Habitat: The bluntnose minnow is widely distributed in small and medium-sized streams in North America. They occur from southern Quebec and Manitoba south to Louisiana, west to the Mississipi River drainage (but not the Mississippi River itself).(Froese and Pauly, 2002; State of Iowa DNR, 2001) Bluntnose minnows prefer clear, rocky streams and creeks that are small to medium in size. They also occur in natural and man-made lakes.

Life Strategy: During breeding season the males use at least two methods of communication. First, their physical appearance changes (as described in the reproductive section). Second, males make a variety of pulsed sounds when acting aggresively with other males. It is not known if these sounds are also used in courtship or spawning.

Food / Feed Strategy: Bluntnose minnows eat algae, aquatic insect larvae, diatoms, and small crustaceans called entomostracans. Occasionally they will eat fish eggs or small fish. (State of Iowa DNR, 2001)

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Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Gemfish Scientific Name: Atractosteus spatula

species# 12

Kingdom: Animalia

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Geography / Habitat: Alligator gars are found in large lakes, rivers, and bayous. Typically they are found in backwaters and bottomland swamps. They are found in both freshwater and brackish waters, they rarely enter marine waters (Etnier, 1993; Knopf, 2002). (Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Knopf, 2002)

Life Strategy: Female alligator gars lay eggs that are dark green or red and stick to rocks and vegetation. The eggs are poisonous if eaten. Alligator gar may take many years to reach sexual maturity, although little is known about reproduction in this species. (Goddard, 2005; Schultz, 2004)

Food / Feed Strategy: Alligator gars are opportunistic carnivores and sit-and-wait predators. They appear to be sluggish, but can ambush prey with short bursts of speed (Goddard, 2005). They feed on almost anything, including fish, ducks, turtles, small mammals, and carrion (Schultz, 2004). (Goddard, 2005; Schultz, 2004)

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Atractosteus_spatula/ Title: Freshwater fish species# 13 Common Name: Blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis Marnoratus Kingdom: Animalia

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Geography / Habitat: River blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) have a relatively limited range, inhabiting freshwater rivers in southeastern Australia. They are found both north and south of the Great Dividing Range, a mountainous geographic barrier that divides Victoria into two separate regions. (Barnham, 2007) Although river blackfish can be found in both slower and faster flowing waters, they prefer to stay in low-velocity (0 to 20 cm/s), highly sheltered pools of lowland rivers.

Life Strategy: River blackfish reproduce sexually, but their mating system is unknown. Fertilization of eggs occurs outside of the mother’s body, and eggs are normally laid inside hollow logs. Egg deposition has also been observed inside of man-made structures (e.g., hollow pipes), which may simulate the conditions of hollow logs. (Barnham, 2007; Jackson, 1978a; Jackson, 1978b Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. They prefer to ambush prey areas of cover in order to most efficiently use their short, quick bursts of speed. They have a diverse diet. Prey items include insects, mollusks, crustaceans, small fish, and terrestrial invertebrates that fall into the water. Of all their prey items, larval mayflies are most important, comprising 50% of the diet. Terrestrial insects make up the second greatest portion of the blackfish diet, 10% of their overall intake. (Barnham, 2007; Jackson, 1978a; Jackson, 1978b)

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gadopsis_marmoratus/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Eel Sucker

species# 14


Scientific Name: Petromyzon Marinus Kingdom: Animalia

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Geography / Habitat: Sea lampreys are native to the Atlantic Ocean. Between the

months of March and October, they can be found along the coast of the United States as far north as Massachusetts and as far south as South Carolina. Sea lampreys are anadromous, and migration is triggered by changes in water temperature. In general, they prefer shallow coastal areas, though they are found at depths between 0.91 and 4.57 m.

Life Strategy: Little is known about the mating systems of sea lampreys. It is thought that male sea lampreys emit a pheromone composed of bile acids that alerts ovulating females to their presence. This signal may also be related to mating preferences and may be sent over large distances. Male sea lampreys selectively dig holes into river or stream bottoms and fertilize eggs once the female has laid them. This external fertilization allows multiple males to fertilize eggs. (Bryan, et al., 2005; "The Great Lakes Fishery Commission", 2000; Lavis, et al., 2001; Lavis, et al., 2003; Lesinski, 1996; Li, et al., 2003; Rohde, et al., 1994; Trautman, 1981)

Food / Feed Strategy: Newly hatched larval sea lampreys are freshwater filterfeeders that consume detritus, algae, and other organic material found at river bottoms. Once in a saline environment (or in the Great Lakes), sea lampreys develop parasitic abilities, attach themselves to a fish and ingest their blood and skin. Sea lampreys ultimately break down the fish while the fish is still alive. This species is capable of attaching itself to a variety of species of fish and does not seem to have a preference of host species. Once sea lampreys reach sexual maturity, they no longer feed. (Bryan, et al., 2005; Lavis, et al., 2001; Lavis, et al., 2003; Somervill, 2008)

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Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Coast rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss

species# 15

Kingdom: Animalia

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Oncorhynchus mykiss are only native to the Pacific Coast of North America, extending from Alaska down to the border between California and Mexico. However, they have been introduced throughout the United States. Freshwater, brackish, or marine waters of temperate zones. The anadromous form, called steelhead, spawn and complete their early development in freshwater mountain streams, then migrate to spend their adult life in the ocean.

Geography / Habitat:

Life Strategy: Female fish find suitable nest sites while their male mate guards the

site from other interested males and predators. The female digs the nest (called a redd) with her anal fin and then descends upon it to position her vent and anal fin into the deepest part of the redd. The male joins her in a parallel position so that their vents are opposite each other. The male and female open their mouths, arch their backs, and deposit the eggs and milt (fish sperm) at the same time. The eggs are enveloped in a cloud of milt and are fertilized. Only a few seconds elapse from the time the female drops into the redd and fertilization occurs. The female then covers the nest with gravel and repeats the process again a few times until she has deposited all of her eggs. ("The Life Histories of the Steelhead Rainbow Trout and Silver Salmon", 1954

Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout and steelhead are insectivorous and piscivorous. Resident rainbow trout tend to eat more fish than steelhead. Both species primarily feed on invertebrate larvae drifting in mid-water to conserve energy that would be expended if they were foraging for food in the substrate. Young rainbow trout and steelhead eat insect larvae, crustaceans, other aquatic invertebrates, and algae. (Behnke, 1992; Delaney, 2005; Klontz, 1991; "Steelhead: Oncorhynchus Mykiss", 2005; Smith, 1991; Van Hulle, 2005)


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_mykiss/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Blackmouth Scientific Name:

species# 16

Kingdom: Animalia

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Geography / Habitat: Chinook Salmon are found natively in the Pacific from

Monterey Bay, California to the Chukchi Sea, Alaska in North America and from the Anadyr River, Siberia to Hokkaido, and Japan in Asia. The Chinook Salmon is anadromous– born in freshwater, migrating to the ocean, and returning as mature adults to their natal streams to spawn. Freshwater streams, estuaries, and the open ocean are all important habitats.

Life Strategy: The Chinook Salmon have seasonal runs in which all adults return to their natal streams and spawn at approximately the same time of year. Sexual maturity can be anywhere from 2-7 years, so within any given run, size will vary considerably. Salmon are semalparous, and shortly after spawning they die.

Food / Feed Strategy: While in freshwater, Chinook Salmon fry and smolts feed on plankton and then terrestrial and aquatic insects, amphipods and crustaceans. After migrating to the ocean, the maturing adults feed on large zooplakton, herring, pilchard, sandlance and other fishes, squid, and crustaceans. Once the adult salmon have re-entered freshwater, they do not feed. In the Great Lakes, Chinook Salmon were introduced to control the invasive alewife population (National Wildlife Federation, 2002; Delaney and ADFG, 1994; Government of Canada, 2002).


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_tshawytscha/ Title: Freshwater fish species# 17 Common Name: Sleepers Scientific Name: Eleotridae Kingdom: Animalia

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Geography / Habitat: Eleotrids can be found worldwide between the 40th parallels (tropical and subtropical regions), reaching farther south in New Zealand. Eleotrids occupy mostly fresh and brackish water.

Life Strategy: No information was found that addresses mating systems specifically in eleotrids, but Thresher (1984) includes Eleotridae in his general account of reproduction in the suborder Gobioidei. Gobies exhibit a wide variety of mating systems but most seem to be promiscuous, either organized into a hierarchical social system or small territories maintained by individuals. At least one species of eleotrid (Thalasseleotris adela) is usually found in pairs. In gobies, a typical mating sequence begins with nest preparation by the male, which involves clearing and cleaning the area where eggs will be deposited. The female’s readiness for spawning is evidenced by her swollen ventral area. The male swims back and forth between the female and the nest site and in some cases he will nudge her with his snout. Eleotrid courtship behavior probably follows a similar pattern, with some males assuming intense courtship colors and leading females to the nest. (Berra, 2001; Kuiter, 1993; Thresher, 1984)


Food / Feed Strategy: Eleotrids are carnivores that feed on crustaceans and other benthic invertebrates, small fishes, and insects. Many species pass through a marine larval stage during which they feed on plankton. (Allen and Robertson, 1994; Berra, 2001; Graham, 1997; Helfman, et al., 1997)

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Eleotridae/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Mountain Perch Scientific Name: Macquaria australasica

species# 18

Kingdom: Animalia

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Geography / Habitat: Macquaria australasica is only found in Australia. This freshwater species lives in rivers and stream, preferring deep, rocky pools. (Reide, 2004). They also favor cool and clear water with slow-moving riffles or shallow running water. Macquaria australasica spawn in lakes and above holes in faster moving riffles at depths of 0 to 4 meters. (DEH, 2005). (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2005; Merrick and Schmida, 1984; Reide, 2004)

Life Strategy: Breeding fish migrate upstream and gather in schools which can last for several weeks. Males nudge the female vent region which causes the release of eggs and then fertilization. Females are oviparous and mate each year. (Merrick and Schmida, 1984). (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2005; Merrick and Schmida, 1984)


Food / Feed Strategy: The bulk of their diet consists of aquatic invertebrates such as caddisfly, stonefly and mayfly species, with a small quantity of terrestrial insects taken as well. Adults feed at the bottom of lakes and rivers. Young are zooplanktivores, and eat water fleas, rotifers and water mites by sucking them up into their mouths. (Merrick and Schimda, 1984). (ACT Government, 1999; Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2005; Merrick and Schmida, 1984; Paxton, et al., 1989)

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Macquaria_australasica/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Candira Scientific Name: Vandellia cirrhosa

species# 19

Kingdom: Animalia

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Geography / Habitat: Candiru are found exclusively in the upper Amazon River and Orinoco River basins in northern South America. ("Vandellia cirrhosa: Candiru", 2012; Berra, 2007; Cheng, 1986; Spotte, 2002; Uhlenbroek, 2011) Candiru live in shallow, slow moving, acidic waterways with muddy or sandy bottoms. These demersal fish can be found burrowed in the riverbed most of the time, only emerging to feed or mate. (Froese and Torres, 2012; Piper, 2007; Spotte, 2002; Uhlenbroek, 2011)


Life Strategy: Mating behaviors of candiru have not been observed in the wild.

There is only one recorded instance of these fish spawning in captivity. In this record, a male fish swam around a female, driving her down toward the substrate. Eggs and sperm were released when the fish were in direct lateral contact with each other. (Kik, 2010; Spotte, 2002)

Food / Feed Strategy: Candiru are parasites, feeding on the blood of other fish. When a candiru locates a host , it heads towards the gills, where it either forces itself under the operculum or waits for it to open naturally.

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Vandellia_cirrhosa/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Black river stingray Scientific Name: potamotrygon motoro

species# 20

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Ocellate river stingrays are endemic to, and widespread

throughout, several South American river systems. Ocellate river stingrays are habitat generalists of tropical (24°C-26 C) freshwater rivers. As a bethopelagic animal, habitat depth varies with the depths of the rivers they inhabit; studies have found these stingrays at depths of 0.5-2.5 meters in the upper Paraná River, but at depths of 7-10 meters in the Uruguay River.

Life Strategy: Mate location methods have not been studied in this species.

Information on mating systems has been observed in a captive population, and


may exhibit differences from wild populations. Copulation occurs mainly at night. A male attaches himself to a female by firmly clamping his jaws onto the posterior margin of her disk, sometimes leaving prominent bite marks.

Food / Feed Strategy: Food types consumed depend on age and environment. Shortly after birth, young eat plankton and juveniles add small mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic insect larvae to their diets. Adults are primarily consumers of fish, including loricariids, Astyanax species, and graceful pimelodellas (Pimelodella gracilis), as well as crustaceans (Palaemonidae sp.). They are also known to eat gastropods (Ampullariidae and Hydrobiidae sp.), aquatic insects (Baetidae, Chironomidae, Elmidae, and Naucoridae sp.), and flying insects (Pyralidae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, Hydropsychidae, Leptoceridae, and Odontoceridae sp.). (Silva and Uieda, 2007; Torres and Sampang, 2012)

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Potamotrygon_motoro/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus Dolomica

species# 21

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:


Geography / Habitat: The native range of Micropterus dolomieu encompasses the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway drainages from southern Quebec and New Hampshire to North Dakota, and the Mississippi River drainage as far south as Alabama (Page and Burr, 1998). Typically is found in cooler rivers and lakes, with rocky or sandy substrates (Berra, 2001). Life Strategy: Like other centrarchids, the male will excavate and guard a small, round nest. Suitability for nest-building is maximized between 1-2.5 m in depth, with particle size of substrate near 30 mm (Clark et al., 1998). Several females may spawn in the nest of one male (Etnier and Starnes, 1993). Individual females may also spawn in the nests of several males. (Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Clark, et al., 1998; Etnier and Starnes, 1993)

Food / Feed Strategy: Fry and juvenile diets consist primarily of zooplankton and insect larvae. Adults have a more diverse palate, subsisting on such varied foods as crayfish, amphibians, insects, and other fish (Scott and Crossman, 1973; Etnier and Starnes, 1993). Adults also cannibalize young of other parents (Scott and Crossman, 1973). (Etnier and Starnes, 1993; Scott and Crossman, 1973)

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Micropterus_dolomieu/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Barbel Scientific Name: Clarias Gariepines

species# 22

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class:

Order:


Family:

Geography / Habitat: North African catfish have been widely introduced around the

world. They are found as far south as South Africa and north into northern Africa. North African catfish live in a variety of freshwater environments, including quiet waters like lakes, ponds, and pools. They are also very prominent in flowing rivers, rapids, and around dams

Life Strategy: This species participates in mass spawning.

Food / Feed Strategy: North African catfish are omnivores. They are not specific in their food requirements. They are known to feed on insects, plankton, snails, crabs, shrimp, and other invertebrates. They are also capable of eating dead animals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, small mammals, other fishes, eggs, and plant matter such as fruit and seeds. Because they are mobile on land, they are able to prey on terrestrial organisms. This species may also hunt in packs on occasion by herding and trapping smaller fish. They are also refered to as sharptooth catfish because of fine, pointed bands of teeth (Skelton 1993). (Skelton, 1993)

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Clarias_gariepinus/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Black head minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas

species# 23


Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Fathead minnows are native to the Nearctic region. The northern limits of their geographic ranges extends from Quebec to Alberta and Northwest Territories, Canada. Their southern limites of their geographic range extends as far southward as Alabama, Texas, and New Mexico. In addition to small rivers and ponds,fFathead minnows are commonly found in muddy pools of headwaters and creeks. Life Strategy: Fathead minnows are polygynandrous and spawn between the

months of May and September, producing anywhere from 1000 to 10000 offspring per season.

Food / Feed Strategy: Fathead minnows are opportunistic omnivores that can be

characterized as benthic filter feeders, sifting through mud and silt in order to find food. Freshwater sediments often contain a large abundance of algae and protozoans, which represent a significant proportion of the fathead minnow diet. Secondary prey items include diatoms, filamentous algae, small crustaceans, and insect larvae.

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pimephales_promelas/

Title: Freshwater fish

species# 24


Common Name: American shad Scientific Name: Alosa sapidissima Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: American shad are restricted to temperate climates and spend the majority of their lives in coastal areas of the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. Adult American shad are predicted to swim over 19,000 km in their lifetime, during which they are found in many habitats. Life Strategy: In the late months of winter, American shad enter freshwater rivers of the United States, Canada, and Mexico to spawn. One or more males chase a female up a river and may also nudge her belly until the female releases her eggs in open water. The pursuing males then fertilize the eggs. The eggs separate from each other and may drift many kilometers before they hatch. This mobility of eggs may increase survival rates, as eggs are not all at risk in one location if discovered by a predator. (Page, 1991; Wiley, 1986)

Food / Feed Strategy: Juvenile American shad are omnivores with a diet consisting of mostly zooplankton and insect larvae. Juveniles eat more once they have left spawning areas. As they get older, American shad broaden their diet to include small fish, crustaceans, plankton, worms, and occasionally fish eggs. During migration in the late months of winter, American shad eat very little food, if any. However, as water temperatures increase in spring, their diet returns to normal. (Weiss-Glanz,, 1972)

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position:


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Alosa_sapidissima/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Common brook trout; Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis

species# 25

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Brook trout are found as far south as Georgia in the

Appalachian mountain range and extend north all the way to Hudson Bay. From the east coast their native range extends westward to eastern Manitoba and the Great Lakes (Willers, 1991). Brook trout are found in three types of aquatic environments: rivers, lakes, and marine areas.

Life Strategy: Usually only a single male is able to fertilize the eggs that a female lays in a redd, but occasionally more than one male is able to do so. Usually the largest males are the most successful breeders. (Blanchfield, et al., 2003)

Food / Feed Strategy: The food habits of brook trout vary according to their age and life history stage. As fry, or very young fish, brook trout feed primarily on immature stages of aquatic insects (Everhart, 1961).

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style:


â—? â—?

Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Salvelinus_fontinalis/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Cub shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus leucas

species#26

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: The Bull Shark inhabits coastal waters in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide. (Enchanted Learning 2000). Although Bull Sharks have been caught in considerably deeper water, they most often reside in water between 30 meters and waist deep. The sharks also seem to favor murky water for hunting. It is one of the only sharks that is able to survive in freshwater for extended periods of time. (Australian Museum 1999, Smith 1999)

Life Strategy: Bull Sharks are viviparous, meaning they give birth to live young that are nourished inside the mother shark. Sexual maturity is reached between the ages of 8 - 10. Bull Sharks breed in the summer months and the young sharks are born approximately one year later. The pups are born in litters of up to 13 and are around 28 inches at birth. A common breeding place for the Bull Shark is the brackish water where freshwater rivers meet the saltwater oceans. (Microsoft Encarta 1997, Enchanted Learning 2000)

Food / Feed Strategy: The Bull Shark is an omnivorous animal. It routinely preys upon fish, sharks (especially young sandbar sharks), rays, turtles, echinoderms, birds, mollusks, dolphins, and almost anything else it can find. Remains of everything from humans to hippopotami have been found in Bull Sharks' stomachs. (Australian Museum 1999, Bilson and Bilson 1999)


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carcharhinus_leucas/ ●

Title: Freshwater fish

species# 27

Common Name: Tetra perez

Scientific Name: Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Bleeding heart tetras are native to the neotropical region. The

distribution is described as the Upper Amazon River basin. Bleeding heart tetras are found in the Rio Negro of Brazil as well as other regional rivers. The native habitat of Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma is inland, tropical freshwater rivers and streams, including the Amazon, Rio Negro, and other rivers. These fish are commonly found in small creeks and river bends where vegetation is dense. (Butler, 2006; Evans, 2006; Fowler, 1943; Sharpe, 2006; Butler, 2006; Evans, 2006; Fowler, 1943; Sharpe, 2006

Life Strategy: Information describing the reproduction of bleeding heart tetras comes mostly from studies in aquaria. Reproduction is through external fertilization. Females often reject or do not respond to mating attempts of males in captivity. Spawning begins with vigorous swimming among dense vegetation and is followed by mates pressing their sides together. Eggs are released after brief quivering. Eggs then attach to vegetation or fall to the bottom. (Butler, 2006; Fowler, 1943; Sterba, 1963)

Food / Feed Strategy: In captivity, bleeding heart tetras eat a variety of foods. It is likely that their wild diet is similar, being made up of small crustaceans, insects, zooplankton, and other organic matter. (Evans, 2006; Fowler, 1943; Sharpe, 2006)


Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: â—? Mouth Position: â—? Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hyphessobrycon_erythrostig ma/ Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Giant Sturgeon Scientific Name: Huso huso

species# 28

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Beluga sturgeon are considered euryhaline, capable of moving freely between freshwater and estuaries. Species of the order Acipenseriform often enter rivers for migration to other areas or for spawning.

Life Strategy: Beluga do not spawn every year and females will resorb eggs unless conditions are suitable (Artyukhin et al. 1979). Sturgeon can take between 6 and 25 years to reach sexual maturity, and females of this species may reproduce only every four to eight years (Raspopov 1993).

Food / Feed Strategy: Adult beluga sturgeon are mainly piscivores, swimming at middle depths and preying mostly on pelagic fish species. This is unlike most other sturgeon species, which normally feed on bethic invertebrates while swimming along the bottom. In the Black Sea they feed on species such as flounder (Platichthys flesus) and other flatfish, gobies (Gobiidae), and Black Sea anchovy


(Engraulis encrasicolus) (Berg 1948). In the Caspian they are reported to feed mainly on the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus), but also on herring and native gobies. Little is known about the diet of larval and juvenile H. huso.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Huso_huso/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Greenside darter Scientific Name: Etheostoma blennioides

species# 29

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Geographic Range Etheostoma blennioides, the

greenside darter, is restricted to a few major watersheds of North America. Its range extends from New York and the Potomac River drainage west to Kansas and south to Oklahoma, Arkansas, Mississippi and Alabama, mostly within the Mississippi River and its tributaries. Greenside darters are benthic

organisms and spend their lives associated with the substrate. They live in deep riffle habitats consisting of cobble and loose boulders covered by filamentous green algae, upon which they lay their eggs Life Strategy: Both sexes of greenside darters reach sexual maturity and spawn in the spring 1 year after hatching. Breeding only occurs


when the water temperature has reached and remained at at least at 10.6 degrees Celsius for several days. Food / Feed Strategy: In general, greenside darters feed on immature benthic insects in the 1-6 mm range (Wynes and Wissing, 1982), although this diet varies with season and prey availability (Gray et al., 1997).

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Etheostoma_blennioides/ Title: Freshwater fish species# 30 Common Name: Carp Scientific Name: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, are native to eastern Asia and are commonly found in northeastern China and Siberia. Silver carp live in freshwater in temperate (6 to 28 °C) to subtropical climates. They are commonly found in impoundments or backwaters of large slow flowing rivers or large lakes. Life Strategy: Silver carp generally reproduce during the spring or

summer. Reproduction is primarily cued by increased water temperature.


Food / Feed Strategy: Silver carp are filter feeders, feeding primarily

on phytoplankton

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation:http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hypophthalmichthys_molitrix /

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Green neon tetra Scientific Name: Paracheirodon simulans

species# 31

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Geographic Range Paracheirodon simulans is native to the neotropical region. These fish, which are commonly called green neon tetras, are found in northwest Brazil to Colombia in the River Negro, and in Venezuela in the upper Orinoco River basin. ("Aquaria Central", 1997; Binohlan and Casal, 2003; "Paracheirodon simulans (Green Neon Tetra)", 1998; Robins, et al., 1991. Paracheirodon simulans is mainly found in black water rivers of the South American tropics


Life Strategy: these species generally spawn in schools, although single males and females may become closely associated while the female releases her eggs and the male releases his sperm Food / Feed Strategy: These fish tend to eat small live foods such as crustaceans, fish larvae, and insects. ("Paracheirodon simulans (Green Neon Tetra)", 1998)

Body Form or Style: â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: â—? Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Paracheirodon_simulans/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Osphronemidae Scientific Name: Osphronemidae

species# 32

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: All members of the Belontiidae family inhabit freshwater and are indigenous to Africa and Southern Asia. Gouramies are uniquely adapted to the stagnant waters of tropical areas.


Life Strategy: Female gouramies use pheromones to attract males during spawning. The female deposits eggs into the water and they are collected by the male to deposit into the nest. The courting behavior of some gouramies is quite elaborate and spawning territory is maintained aggressively by the male. (McKinnon and Liley, 1987; Moyle and Cech, 2000) Food / Feed Strategy: Members of the genera Belontia, Trichopsis, and Macropodus are omnivores, while Trichogaster is primarily herbivorous, and Betta and Colisa are carnivorous, feeding on shrimp, fish and insects in or out of water. Colisa uses the same technique as archerfishes to prey on insects just above the water. Bullets of water are created by compressing the gill covers and forming a groove using the tongue and palate. The fish “shoots” insects out of overhanging vegetation with these bullets and eats them when they hit the water. (Graham, 1997; Helfman, et al., 1997)

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Osphronemidae/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Alabama Cavefish Scientific Name: Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni

species# 33

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:


Family:

Geography / Habitat: cavefish whose range is limited solely to Key Cave, Lauderdale County, Alabama, north of the Tennessee River. Key cave, the single locale of S. poulsoni, is a large underground multilevel structure that has thousands of meters of mapped area. The pools of water in the cave in which the fish dwell are typically 5 to 10 feet deep Life Strategy: Nothing is known about mating systems in this

species of cavefish. Food / Feed Strategy: No invasive studies have been done due to the

species extremely endangered status and the fragility of their cave habitat.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Speoplatyrhinus_poulsoni/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Arapaima Scientific Name: Arapaima gigas

species# 34


Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography: exclusively inhabits the Amazon River Basin of South America. Within the Amazon basin, A. gigas is found in several different types of habitat, such as the floodplain lakes of this region. Life Strategy: lays it's eggs during the months of February, March, and April when the water levels are low.

Food / Feed Strategy: is a predator that mainly eats other fish/

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Arapaima_gigas/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Rainbow darter Scientific Name: Etheostoma caeruleum

species# 35


Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: The rainbow darter is found in North America, throughout the Great Lakes region and the Ohio River valley extending into northern Alabama and as far west as Missouri and Arkansas (Kuehne and Barbour, 1983). Rainbow darters prefer the fast-moving currents of shallow riffles in creeks and small rivers. Life Strategy: Rainbow darters prefer to breed in water temperatures between 17-18°C (Kuehne and Barbour, 1983). Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow darters feed on a variety of aquatic insect larvae, small snails, and crayfish. They will also feed on various fish eggs, typically either minnow or lamprey eggs (Kuehne and Barbour, 1983).

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Etheostoma_caeruleum/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Redbelly piranha

species# 36


Scientific Name: Pygocentrus nattereri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

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Family:

Geography / Habitat: found in South America. Typically found in whitewater streams in South America Life Strategy: Eggs are placed in the sediment, in bowl shaped

nests. These nests are around 4-5 cm in depth and 15 cm in diameter. Food / Feed Strategy: Foraging methods vary in different life stages of P. nattereri.

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pygocentrus_nattereri/

Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Bluntnose darter

species# 37


Scientific Name: Etheostoma chlorosoma Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

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Family:

Geography / Habitat: Bluntnose darters, Etheostoma chlorosoma, are primarily found in the Mississippi River drainage basin. Bluntnose darters are typically found in sandy, slow running, shallow water. Life Strategy: Bluntnose darters are polygynandrous, where females go from one male to the other to maximize their reproductive success. They show dichromatism during the breeding season. Dichromatism is when the species changes color when it is time to attract a mate Food / Feed Strategy: Bluntnose darters are invertivores. Bluntnose darters feed on minute freshwater organisms such as chironomid, blackfly larvae, Cyclops species, and Daphnia species. ("NatureServe Explorer", 2005; "Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources", 2003; Froese and Pauly, 2005)

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Etheostoma_chlorosoma/


Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: Gila trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus gilae

species# 38

Kingdom: Animalia

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Geography / Habitat: Gila trout are found in freshwater streams of the American Southwest. Gila trout live in freshwater rivers and perennial streams at elevations from 1,650 m to 2,800 m. Life Strategy: Gila trout spawn in the spring when water temperatures begin to warm. Though little research has been done on the mating systems and behavior of Gila trout specifically, extensive research has been conducted on closely related species in the genus Oncorhynchus. Food / Feed Strategy: Gila trout are insectivores. Throughout the year, their diet is comprised of a changing assortment of macroinvertebrates. They feed primarily on dipterans, trichopterans, ephemeropterans, and coleopterans.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_gilae/ ●


Title: Freshwater fish Common Name: American burbot Scientific Name: Lota lota

species# 39

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Burbot, Lota lota, are a holarctic species native to the cold fresh waters of the Nearctic and Palearctic regions found between 40 and 70 degrees North latitudes. (Cohen, et al., 1990). Burbot are demersal fish found in deep temperate lake bottoms and slow moving cold river bottoms between 4 and 18 degrees C. Life Strategy: Burbot breed once per year in the winter, migrating to shallow water or to a smaller stream to spawn (Cohen 1990). Food / Feed Strategy: Newly hatched burbot are completely planktivorous, and remain so even when they are no longer gape limited (Ghan and Sprules 1993).


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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lota_lota/ Title: Freshwater fish species# 40 Scientific Name: Chanos chanos Common name: Awa Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

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Geography / Habitat: Milkfish are native to regions in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Milkfish are usually found along the coasts of continents or islands, particularly where reefs are well developed.

Life Strategy: Not much is known about mating systems and behaviors in milkfish. (Bagarinao, 1994) Food / Feed Strategy: Milkfish feed on a variety of foods depending on the type of environment. As larvae they feed on zooplankton.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chanos_chanos/


Title: Saltwater/Marine Fish Scientific Name: Centropomus undecimalis Common name: Common snook

species# 41

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Geography / Habitat: Common snook, Centropomus undecimalis, range from the coastal mid-Atlantic regions of the United States through the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean to parts of Central and South America. Common snook are amphidromous fish, moving

between fresh and salt water during their life, but not for the purpose of breeding. Life Strategy: Although common snook can occupy both freshwater

and marine environments, they must spawn in saltwater, as sperm can only become active in saline conditions.

Food / Feed Strategy: Common snook are pelagic feeders. Daily feeding peaks occurrs 2 hours before sunrise and 2 to 3 hours after sunset. Their feeding behavior is affected by the tidal cycle, and feeding activity noticeably increases with an increase in water flow following a period of standing flood or ebb tides


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Centropomus_undecimalis/

Title: species# 42 Scientific Name: Mola mola Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

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Geography / Habitat: Ocean sunfish, Mola mola, are found in the temperate and tropical regions of the Mediterranean, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans (Wheeler, 1969; Sims and Southall, 2002; Houghton et al., 2006). Adult ocean sunfish are found in temperate and tropical oceans across the globe.

Life Strategy: Little is known about the mating systems of ocean fish, although they are thought to have paired courtship (Muus,1964; Hutchins, 2004). Some individuals are thought to spawn in the Sargasso Sea. (Hutchins, 2004; Muus, 1964) Food / Feed Strategy: Ocean sunfish primarily feed on jellyfish and gelatinous zooplankton, such as ctenophores, salps, and medusae.


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Mola_mola/

Title: species# 43 Scientific Name: Hypsypops rubicundus Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

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Geography / Habitat: primarily found off the coast of California. lives in cooler temperate waters as opposed to tropical reefs.

Life Strategy: rubicundus spawn from mid-March through July Food / Feed Strategy: rubicundus feeds primarily on small sessile sponges, bryozoans, and plankton that are found in and around the kelp forests


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hypsypops_rubicundus/

Title: species# 44 Scientific Name: Dermatolepis dermatolepis Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

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Geography / Habitat: Dermatoplepis dermatolepis has a wide range

that covers mostl of the Eastern Central Pacific and the Southeast Pacific. Leather bass live in reef areas with a depth between 4 to 40 m in the subtropics Life Strategy: Leather bass assemble at dusk to mate. They locate a spot high on the reef, and then gather by the hundreds to spawn. The males and females pair off and hurry towards the surface, releasing a cloud of eggs and sperm. ("PBS Online", 2004)


Food / Feed Strategy: Leather bass can be found hovering above

rocky reefs during the day searching for food. They feed on small benthic fishes that are disturbed when foraging grazers come to feed in an area.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Dermatolepis_dermatolepis/ Title: species# 45 Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

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Geography / Habitat: occurs in the coastal waters of the tropical and subtropical zones of all seas they are found in highly salty to fresh waters that are warm or temperate from 8 to 24 C.

Life Strategy: Striped mullet are catadromous, that is, they spawn in saltwater yet spend most of their lives in freshwater.


Food / Feed Strategy: Mullet are diurnal feeders, consuming mainly zooplankton, dead plant matter, and detritus. Mullet have thickwalled gizzard-like segments in their stomach along with a long gastrointestinal tract that enables them to feed on detritus.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Mugil_cephalus/ Title: species# 46 Scientific Name: Chromis cyanea Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Blue chromis are found primarily in the western portion of the Atlantic Ocean. Blue chromis are found in lagoons and reef communities at depths of 3 to 60 meters; they are found most commonly at depths of 10-20 meters, where food and shelter are most abundant.


Life Strategy: Blue chromis are promiscuous, with multiple females visiting and laying eggs at many nests and males mating with multiple females. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue chromis feed mainly on plankton

suspended in the water column.

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● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chromis_cyanea/

Title: species# 47 Scientific Name: Pomacanthus annularis Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: live in the Indo-Pacific region ranging from Sri

Lanka to the Solomon Islands and from the Philippines to the


northern tip of Australia. Is a tropical, marine (salt water) fish that lives around coastal rocky coral reefs and other hard bottom coastal areas

Life Strategy: For members of the genus Pomacanthus, spawning normally begins with the onset of dusk and is thought to be triggered by the decrease in light. Food / Feed Strategy: omnivorous, eating benthic invertebrates such as zooplankton, sponges, tunicates and coral polyps.

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● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pomacanthus_annularis/

Title: species# 48 Scientific Name: Coris aygula Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:


Family:

Geography / Habitat: the clown wrasse is found primarily near

Eastern Africa and Southern Asia. Is a marine reef-associated fish, inhabiting rocky reef and coral areas. It lives in depth from 2 to 30 meters.

Life Strategy: When spawning, wrasses gather in loose aggregations where one dominant male oversees many females within a general territory.

Food / Feed Strategy: eat shelled mollusks, hermit crabs, other crabs, and sea urchins.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Coris_aygula/

Title: species# 49 Scientific Name: Sebastes caurinus Common name:


Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Copper rockfish are found in waters along the

Pacific coast ranging from Baja, California up to Kehui, Alaska. Copper rockfish are demersal, preferring the ocean bottom near low-profile rocks and reefs.

Life Strategy: No information could be obtained describing the mating behaviors of copper rockfish or any of the various rockfish species. Food / Feed Strategy: Copper rockfish are opportunistic carnivores that feed mainly on organisms present near the ocean floor.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sebastes_caurinus/

Title: species# 50 Scientific Name: Coryphaena hippurus Common name:


Kingdom:

Phylum:

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Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Tropical and subtropical areas of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In pelagic regions, Coryphaena hippurus is commonly found near floating objects, apparently because its prey seek refuge under the objects (Palko, et al. 1982).

Life Strategy: Males and females are sexually mature in their first year, usually by 4-5 months old. Spawning can occur at body lengths of 20 cm. Females may spawn two to three times per year, and produce between 80,000 and 1,000,000 eggs per event.

Food / Feed Strategy: They feed on teleosts, cephalopods, and crustaceans, with a positive correlation between dolphin size and prey size.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Coryphaena_hippurus/


Title: species# 51 Scientific Name: Albula vulpes Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Bonefish are found in warm tropical waters from the southern coast of Florida, through the Bahamas and along the eastern coast of South America. Bonefish are found in varying water depths.

Life Strategy: Reproduction occurs seasonally in bonefish, spawning mainly occurs from November to late May or early June. Food / Feed Strategy: They feed on many small mollusks and

crustaceans in shallow water.

● ● ●

● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Albula_vulpes/


Title: species# 52 Scientific Name: Anarrhichthys ocellatus Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Wolf-eels are found in the temperate North Pacific in coastal waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan to the Aleutian islands and along the western coast of North America to Baja California. Wolf-eels are exclusively marine, found in shallow, cold, coastal waters.

Life Strategy: Males and females form monogamous pairs at about 4 years old, or 91.4 cm in length. Some evidence suggests they mate for life. (Sempier, 2003).

Food / Feed Strategy: Wolf-eels use their robust jaws and teeth to eat hard-shelled invertebrates, such as crabs up to 114 mm in width, snails, sand dollars, sea urchins, mussels, clams, and abalone.


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Anarrhichthys_ocellatus/ Title: species# 53 Scientific Name: Synchiropus splendidus Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: is found in much of the western Pacific including the Philippines, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Australia, and New Guinea (Delbeek, 1989). Mandarin fish are tropical, marine fish found in waters with a temperature range of 24 to 26ºC. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs on areas of the reef where small groups of males and females gather during the night. Food / Feed Strategy: Mandarin fish feed on the bottom. They eat

small crustaceans such as amphipods and isopods, small worms and protozoans.


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Synchiropus_splendidus/

Title: species# 54 Scientific Name: Chaetodon auriga Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Threadfin butterflyfish are found throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Threadfin butterflyfish are found in tropical coral reef habitats (Nelson 1984; Herald 1975; Jobling 1907). Life Strategy: are monogamous, they mate with one partner and maintain this partnership for many years (Jobling 1995; Paxton and Eschmeyer 1998; Roberts and Ormond 1992). Food / Feed Strategy: benthic feeding fish that feed mostly on plankton (Pratchett 2001). However, they are omnivorous, and also feed on coral polyps, algae, shrimp, gastropods, nemertime worms, and polychaetes (Steene 1977).


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chaetodon_auriga/

Title: species# 55 Scientific Name: Zebrasoma flavescens Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Yellow tangs, Zebrasoma flavescens, are reef fish found in the waters west of Hawaii and east of Japan in the Pacific Ocean. Yellow tangs are reef-associated fish. Life Strategy: can spawn in groups or in pairs. When in groups, females release eggs and males release sperm into open water where fertilization occurs. Food / Feed Strategy: Yellow tangs have a long, down-turned mouth

with small teeth that are specialized for grazing on algae.


● ● ●

● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Zebrasoma_flavescens/

Title: species# 56 Scientific Name: Acanthurus triostegus Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Convict tangs are found throughout the Indo-Pacific region, as well as the eastern Pacific Ocean from the lower Gulf of California to Panama. Convict tangs are surgeonfish that prefer to occupy coral reefs, but are also found in tidepools and other nearshore habitats such as shallow, low current beach communities. Life Strategy: Convict tangs spawn in resident spawning aggregations. Food / Feed Strategy: Convict tangs are herbivores, grazing on algae found on rocks and corals.


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Acanthurus_triostegus/

Title: species# 57 Scientific Name: Scarus rivulatus Common name: Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Scarus rivulatus are distributed throughout the western Pacific. Scarus rivulatus inhabit coral reefs and are most abundant in the mid-shelf region. Life Strategy: Initial and terminal phase males have different mating behaviors. Initial males usually mate in large spawning groups made up of several males and females.


Food / Feed Strategy: S. rivulatus, as are all other scarids, are herbivores. They feed on many types microscopic algae that grow on calcareous material, such as coral skeletons.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Scarus_rivulatus/

Title: species# 58 Scientific Name: Dasyatis centroura Common name: rough-tailed stingray Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

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Geography / Habitat: Roughtail stingrays, Dasyatis centroura, reside in tropical and temperate waters of the coastal Atlantic Ocean, ranging from the coast of Massachusetts to Brazil, the Mediterranean Sea, the Bay of Biscay, and Angola. During summer months, roughtail stingrays are more prevalent in bays,


estuaries and coastal waters. Roughtail stingrays usually reside in benthic environments and in marine and brackish water. Life Strategy: Little is known about the natural mating behavior and mating system of roughtail stingrays.

Food / Feed Strategy: Roughtail stingrays are opportunistic carnivores, adapting their diet to include the most available prey.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Dasyatis_centroura/

Title: Scientific Name: Eleotrida Common name: Sleepers

species# 59

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Eleotrids can be found worldwide between the 40th parallels (tropical and subtropical regions), reaching farther south in New Zealand. Eleotrids occupy mostly fresh and brackish water.

Life Strategy: No information was found that addresses mating systems specifically in eleotrids


Food / Feed Strategy: Eleotrids are carnivores that feed on crustaceans and other benthic invertebrates, small fishes, and insects.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Eleotridae/

Title: species# 60 Scientific Name: Rhinobatos productus Common name: Guitarfish Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Shovelnose guitarfish are found along the Southwestern coast of North America, This species is usually found in the surf zone and in shallow coastal waters (average depth 13 m), though individuals have been observed at depths of up to 91 m.

Life Strategy: Shovelnose guitarfish mate once a year and are monogamous.


Food / Feed Strategy: Shovelnose guitarfish feed nocturnally on infaunal organisms

such as worms, crabs, clams, and smaller fish. In Elkhorn Slough, California, their preferred prey is yellow shore crabs.

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● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Rhinobatos_productus/

Title: species# 61 Scientific Name: Amphiprion perideraion Common name: Pink anemonefish Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:


Geography / Habitat: throughout tropical regions in the western Pacific and Indian Oceans. These fish are found in lagoons and seaward reefs (Fautin and Allen, 1992; Myers, 1991).

Life Strategy: are monogamous fish where only two of the representatives of a group are actually involved in the mating.

Food / Feed Strategy: use suction feeding. The maxilla pushes the premaxilla forward, which causes an area of low pressure inside the mouth, resulting in suction.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Amphiprion_perideraion/

Title: species# 62 Scientific Name: Diodon hystrix Common name: Giant porcupinefish

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:


Family:

Geography / Habitat: Spot-fin porcupinefish are found in the Pacific Ocean. Adults

are generally found in holes and crevices in inshore areas including lagoons, caves, shipwrecks, reefs, and ledges, and are also found in seamount areas.

Life Strategy: This species is a broadcast spawner; males and females mate promiscuously during spawning events.

Food / Feed Strategy: Spot-fin porcupinefish are durophagous and carnivorous,

having strong jaws and teeth that are fused together, specializations for eating hard-shelled creatures.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Diodon_hystrix/

Title: species# 63 Scientific Name: Thunnus thynnus Common name: horse mackerel

Kingdom:

Phylum:


Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Bluefin tuna are distributed throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in subtropical and temperate waters. Bluefin tuna are marine fishes, they occupy both coastal and pelagic waters.

Life Strategy: Bluefin tuna form spawning aggregations. Males and females synchronously produce eggs and sperm (milt), resulting in mating among many individuals at the same time.

Food / Feed Strategy: Bluefin tuna chase down their prey using their ability to swim at very high speeds. They can also use modified filter feeding to catch small, slow moving organisms. They have also been known to eat kelp.

• Body Form or Style:             ● ● ●

Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Thunnus_thynnus/

Title: species# 64 Scientific Name: Dactyloscopidae Common name: Sand stargazers


Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Dactyloscopids, or sand stargazers, are found in tropical and warm temperate waters of the western hemisphere. Dactyloscopids live buried in the sand with only the eyes, along with the snout and sometimes the top of the head, uncovered. Life Strategy: No information was found on mating systems in

Dactyloscopidae.

Food / Feed Strategy: Sand stargazers are carnivorous, lying in wait under the sand to attack small fishes and invertebrates. (Allen and Robertson, 1994; Wheeler, 1985).

• Body Form or Style:             ● ● ●

Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Dactyloscopidae/


Title: species# 65 Scientific Name: Anguilla rostrata Common name: Common eel Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: is a catadromous species that spawns in the Atlantic Ocean

and ascends streams and rivers in North and South America. live in freshwater as adults, usually in larger rivers or lakes, primarily swimming near the bottom in search of food.

Life Strategy: a catadromous species, living most of its life in freshwater, but spawning in saltwater (Sumich, 1999).

Food / Feed Strategy: Feeding habits of A. rostrata vary with level of

maturity.

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● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Anguilla_rostrata/


Title: species# 66 Scientific Name: Chauliodus sloani Common name: Manylight viperfish Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Stomiiformes

Family: Stomiidae

Geography / Habitat: commonly called Sloane’s viperfish or Sloane’s fangfish, are known to inhabit almost all marine waters in the temperate and tropical zones.

are primarily bathypelagic fish. The bathypelagic region extends from 1000 to 2000 meters below the surface in the open ocean. Life Strategy: Hardly anything is known about the mating system of Chauliodus sloani. Food / Feed Strategy: Sloane’s viperfish have some characteristics typical of deep-water fishes which aid in acquiring food in regions of low light.


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chauliodus_sloani/

Title: species# 69 Scientific Name: Chanos chanos Common name: Awa Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Gonorynchiformes

Family: Chanidae

Geography / Habitat: Milkfish are native to regions in the Indian and

Pacific Oceans. Milkfish are usually found along the coasts of continents or islands, particularly where reefs are well developed.

Life Strategy: Not much is known about mating systems and

behaviors in milkfish. (Bagarinao, 1994) Food / Feed Strategy: Milkfish feed on a variety of foods depending on the type of environment. As larvae they feed on zooplankton.


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chanos_chanos/

Title: species# 70 Scientific Name: Zebrasoma veliferum Common name: Eastern sailfin tang Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae

Geography / Habitat: found in the Pacific Ocean from Indonesia and Christmas

Island to the Hawaiian and Tuamotu Islands, north to southern Japan, and south to the southern Great Barrier Reef, New Caledonia, and Rapa. This species can be found inhabiting lagoons and seaward reefs from the lower surge zone to a depth of 30 m or more.

Life Strategy: Both paired and group spawning have been documented among this species. As with other acanthurids, group spawning is the most common.

Food / Feed Strategy: primarily a diurnal herbivore and feeds on benthic

algae. Zebrasoma veliferum also feeds on zooplankton when it is abundant.


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Zebrasoma_veliferum/

Title: species# 71 Scientific Name: Scombridae Common name: Mackerels Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Tunas, mackerels, and bonitos can be found

worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas, with many species traveling periodically into cool temperate waters. (Johnson and Gill, 1998; Nelson, 1994). Scombrids are, for the most part, pelagic (open-ocean) fishes living in tropical and subtropical seas.

Life Strategy: No information was found regarding mating systems in Scombridae.

Food / Feed Strategy: Scombrids are active predators that feed on a wide range of organisms. The diet of a single species may include crabs,


shrimps, squids, and crustaceans, the larvae of fishes and invertebrates, and fishes several feet long.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Scombridae/

Title: species# 72 Scientific Name: Manta birostris Common name: Atlantic manta Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Myliobatidae

Geography / Habitat: Manta rays are found in tropical and warm temperate coastal regions of the world's oceans, generally between 35 degrees north and south latitude. Unlike most other rays, are found near the surface of the ocean and to depths of 120 meters.

Life Strategy: The mating season of sexually mature manta rays occurs from early December to late April.

Food / Feed Strategy: Manta rays are filter feeders and primarily planktivores. They often slowly swim in vertical loops.


Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Manta_birostris/

Title: species# 73 Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Common name:

Coast rainbow trout

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: are only native to the Pacific Coast of North America,

extending from Alaska down to the border between California and Mexico.

Freshwater, brackish, or marine waters of temperate zones Life Strategy: Female fish find suitable nest sites while their male mate guards the site from other interested males and predators.


Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout and steelhead are insectivorous and piscivorous. Resident rainbow trout tend to eat more fish than steelhead.

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● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_mykiss/

Title: species# 74 Scientific Name: Pterois antennata Common name: Ragged-finned firefish

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Scorpaenidae

Geography / Habitat: Broadbarred firefish (Bloch, 1787) are found in the IndoWest Pacific region. Broadbarred firefish are inhabitants of near and offshore coral and rocky reefs to depths of 50 meters.

Life Strategy: Information regarding specifics of the mating system of broadbarred firefish is currently unavailable.


Food / Feed Strategy: Broadbarred firefish are important predators in many coral reef environments, feeding mostly on crustaceans, as well as other invertebrates, and small fishes, including juveniles of their own species.

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● Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pterois_antennata/

Title: species# 75 Scientific Name: Acanthuridae Common name:

Surgeonfishes

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae

Geography / Habitat: Acanthurids are exclusively marine-dwelling and can be found in all tropical and subtropical seas but are absent from the


Mediterranean. (Johnson and Gill, 1998; Nelson, 1994). Acanthurids inhabit offshore coral reefs as adults but larvae are carried by the currents inshore where they quickly sink to the bottom and begin transformation to the juvenile form.

Life Strategy: Acanthurids spawn by forming individual pairs or groups of pairs, but in some species, both paired and group spawning have been observed.

Food / Feed Strategy: Acanthurids have small mouths and incisor-like, lobate teeth used to probe the reef for small animals (zooplankton) and plants.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Acanthuridae/ ● Title: species# 76 Scientific Name: Salmo salar Common name:

Atlantic salmon

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae


Geography / Habitat: The Atlantic salmon is native to the basin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from the Arctic Circle to Portugal in the eastern Atlantic, from Iceland and southern Greenland, and from the Ungava region of northern Quebec south to the Conneticut River (Scott and Crossman, 1973). The Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species, living in fresh water for at least the first 2 or 3 years of life before migrating to sea.

Life Strategy: Atlantic salmon spawn in October and November, the peak of spawning usually occurring in late October.

Food / Feed Strategy: Young Atlantic salmon in streams eat mainly the larvae of aquatic insects such as blackflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, and chironomids.

Body Form or Style:             ● ● ●

Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Salmo_salar/

Title: species# 77 Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis Common name: Aurora trout Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Salmoniformes


Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Brook trout are found as far south as Georgia in the Appalachian mountain range and extend north all the way to Hudson Bay. Brook trout are found in three types of aquatic environments: rivers, lakes, and marine areas.

Life Strategy: Usually only a single male is able to fertilize the eggs that a female lays in a redd, but occasionally more than one male is able to do so. Usually the largest males are the most successful breeders. (Blanchfield, et al., 2003).

Food / Feed Strategy: The food habits of brook trout vary according to their age and life history stage. As fry, or very young fish, brook trout feed primarily on immature stages of aquatic insects (Everhart, 1961).

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Salvelinus_fontinalis/ ● Title: species# 78 Scientific Name: Bothus lunatus Common name:

Flounder

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Pleuronectiformes


Family: Bothidae

Geography / Habitat: Peacock flounders, Bothus lunatus, live in the the West Atlantic Ocean in both tropical and subtropical regions. Peacock flounders are marine flatfish, living in clear oceanic waters. They live a benthic lifestyle on sand and rock bottoms, including coral reef environments.

Life Strategy: Peacock flounders have a "harem" mating system, in which one male mates with multiple females. Several females have subterritories within a male's territory.

Food / Feed Strategy: Adult peacock flounders are restricted to feeding on other benthic organisms.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Bothus_lunatus/ ● Title: species# 79 Scientific Name: Katsuwonus pelamis Common name:

Arctic bonito

Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes


Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, are marine fishes found in most waters all over the world but are rarely seen in the North Sea and have never been caught in the Black Sea. An epipelagic fish, skipjacks are distributed in water with temperatures ranging from 14.7 and 30 C. Larvae are mostly restricted to areas with temperatures of at least 25 C.

Life Strategy: Skipjack tuna spawn throughout the year, although they limit spawning from early fall to spring in regions near the equator (Collette and Nauen 1983).

Food / Feed Strategy: feed predominantly on fishes, crustaceans and mollusks. The wide variety of food items consumed suggests that the skipjack is a highly opportunistic feeder.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Katsuwonus_pelamis/ Title: species# 80 Scientific Name: Thunnus alalunga Common name: Ahi pahala

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata


Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Albacore reside in the subtropical regions of the North Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea. Have been found inhabiting depths of 0 to 600 m. Large albacore (~21 kg) typically occupy depths from 0 to 450 m, with a maximum abundance between 250 and 300 m.

Life Strategy: Albacore are polygynandrous. They spawn as a group by simply releasing their eggs and sperm into the water. (Collette and Nauen, 1983)

Food / Feed Strategy: The primary diet of albacore includes pacific saury, northern anchovy, crustacean zooplankton, gonatid squid, and Japanese anchovy. Albacore are opportunistic piscivores and their diet varies seasonally depending on location.

Body Form or Style: ● Swim / Locomotion Style: ● Mouth Position: ● Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Thunnus_alalunga/ Title: Salt Water                                                                                                             Species #:81

Common Name: Bicolor Angelfish


Scientific Name: Centropyge Bicolor Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinia

Order: Perciforms

Family: Pomacanthida

Geography / Habitat:

Life Strategy: The life spand of the bicolor angelfish is 5-10 years or even longer in its natural habitat.

Food / Feed Strategy: Bicolor Angel fish eat highly concentrated formula foods whether its live food, frozen food, or flakes this fish in the wild is known for eating algae so it mainly focuses on a strong veggatable intake.

• • •

Body Form or Style: The Bicolor Angelfish is concidered a juvenile fish they come in different shapes and sizes. Swim / Locomotion Style: The fish uses its dorsal fins for stability to help it swim. Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http//:Animaldiversity.ummz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name:

Species #:82


Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Tetraodontitformes

Class: Diodonttidae

Order: Chilomycterus

Family: Chilomycetrus Schoepfi

Geography / Habitat: this fish from the Caribbean prefers to live in a 70 gallon tank with water temperature of 72-78 degree F with a pH level between 8.1 to 8.4 Its is not aggressive with others in its own family/species Life Strategy: it is known to nip at slow moving fish and long finned fish. this is a semiaggresive fish with a difficult care level rate. Food / Feed Strategy: The Spiny Bow Puffer needs a varied diet of meaty foods including: squid,krill,clams and hard shelled shrimp to help wear down their ever growing teeth.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position:Superaterminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish

Species #:83


Common Name:Red/Orange Angler Scientific Name:Antennarius sp. Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Actinopterygii

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Antennarius

Family: Antennariidae

Geography / Habitat: Originates from Africa, Indonesia and south Asia and prefer to live in a 20 gallon or larger tank with a water temperature of 72-78 degrees F with a pH of 8.1 the colored anglers can range in color from vivid red to deep orange coloration. Life Strategy: no breeding habits were mentioned because of not being able to exactly determine the sex between male and female colored anglers Food / Feed Strategy:it will accept most meaty meal including feeder fish. an agler may eat any small inhavitant of the tan. That looks like a small fish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Deppressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Caraniform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Convict Tang

Species #:84


Scientific Name:Acanthurus triostegus Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: acanthurus

Class: actinnopeterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: acnthurideae

Geography / Habitat: this fish originates from the indo-pacific, Solomon islands and Tahiti and prefer to live in a 70 gallon tank with water temperature of 72-78 degrees with a ph level of 8.1 ppm.

Life Strategy:convict tangs have no distinguishing characteristics which help differentiate males from females, which make these fish very hard to breed in an aquarium setting because the fry remain in plank tonic stage for months and are in constant danger from filters.

Food / Feed Strategy: although this fish will eat meaty foods along with the other fish in the tank it is important that system reduce aggression and improve their overall health.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Cantangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name:Shark Egg

Species #:85


Scientific Name:Chiloscyllium Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: Chiloscyllium

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: Orectolobidae

Geography / Habitat: originate from the indo- pacific and prefer to live in a 180 gallon tank with water temperature of 72-78 degrees with a ph level between 8.1-8.4ppm. it is very hardy fish and is the most common shark kept in an aquarium.

Life Strategy: the hatching of the egg will be anywhere from 1-6 weeks depending on the stage of development and the environmental conditions in the tank.

Food / Feed Strategy: when the egg is hatched offer small pieces of cleaned squid or live salt feed shrimp in order to entice this fish to eat. Then it may be fed shrimp, scallops, or pieces of fresh marine fish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcrangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name:Green Mandarin

Species #:86


Scientific Name: Synchiropus splendidus Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: Synchiropus

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Callionymidae

Geography / Habitat: these fish originate from Indonesia and prefer to live in a 30 gallon tank. With the water temperature of 72 or 78 degrees. It is moderately hardy in reef tanks if given the right and special care. They look like a maze like combination of blue, orange, and green coloration. Life Strategy: the green mandarin has been known to spawn successfully in an aquarium. It is not overly aggressive towards other fish, expect for conspecifics. Food / Feed Strategy: it feeds on a variety of vitamin enriched live brine shrimp, live black worms, and natural prey on live rock and live sand.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Black Sea Horse

Species #:87


Scientific Name:Hippocampus erectus Kingdom: Animilia

Phylum: hippocampus

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Syngnathidae

Geography / Habitat: this tank bred seahorse prefers to live in a 30 gallon tank with water temperature of 72-78 degrees. Seahorses are probably the most recognizable fish in the world due to their unusual appearance and habits. Life Strategy: during the descent of seahorse breeding the pair will line up face to face, and the female will deposit her eggs into the males pouch (filled with sperm). In like 20 days the male seahorse gives birth to an average of 300 demersal fry that are able to swim around birth. Food / Feed Strategy: these tank bred seahorses are used to eating frozen shrimp, making them a smart alternative to their wild caught counterparts. They will also feed upon amphipods and other small crustaceans found in live rock. They will also accept vitamin enriched adult borne shrimp. But it should not make up their diet alone.

• • •

Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Fuzzy Dwarf Lionfish

Species #:88


Scientific Name:Dendrochirus Brachyterus Kingdom: Animilia

Phylum: Dendrochirus Brachyterus

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scorpaenidae

Geography / Habitat: These fish originate from the indo-pacific and prefer to live in a 30 gallon tank of water. With a temperature of 72-78 degrees. This is a personable fish that quickly recognizes and responds to its owners presences. Life Strategy: It will hide while acclimating to its new environment the top spines are venomous, causing reactions similar to a bee sting. You can see how this might affect someone. Food / Feed Strategy: when first introduced into the aquarium live saltwater feeder shrimp should be used to entice this fish to eat. The dwarf lionfish diet consists of meaty foods such as live shrimp live fish and sometimes crustacean flesh.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position:Suberminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name:Round Stingray

Species #:89


Scientific Name: Urobatis Halleri Kingdom: Animilia

Phylum: Urobatis

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percitforems

Family: Urolophidae

Geography / Habitat: this stingray originated from the eastern pacific and prefers to live in a 180 gallon tank with a water temperature of 72-78 degrees. Caution should be taken when nesting this fish or when it is not visible and maintenance is preformed in the tank. Life Strategy: it likes to cover itself on the soft substrate as camouflage. It will eat any crustacean or mollusk in the aquarium. Food / Feed Strategy: feeding may be difficult in the beginning when first introduced into the aquarium small pieces of cleaned squid or live saltwater feeder shrimp should be used to entice this fish to eat.

• • •

Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position:sub terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title: Saltwater fish Common Name: Snowflake eel

Species #:90


Scientific Name: Echidna Nebulosa Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: echidna

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: percitformes

Family: muaenidae

Geography / Habitat: originates from the indo-pacific and Vanuatu and prefer to live in a 50 gallon tank with the temperature to be around 72-78 degrees. It is one of the most beautiful morays and inhabits caves and crevices throughout the indo pacific reeds in the wild it can grow to 39 inches in captivity it can reach 24 inches. Life Strategy: the snow flake eel is safe to house with any fish it cannot easily swallow. It can be housed with some invertebrates, like anemones and corals but not crustaceans. They are semi aggressive and are an easy eel to care for. Food / Feed Strategy: the snowflake eel is nocturnal predator ambushing fish and crustaceans in the tank it will take frozen or freeze dried krill fish shrimp and most meaty foods it can be taught to hand feed although this should be done with caution as it can inflict a painful bite.

• • •

Body Form or Style: anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: anguilliform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Spotted Grouper

Species #:91


Scientific Name: Epinephelus Summana Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: epinephelus

Class: actinopterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: serranidae

Geography / Habitat: this fish originated in the pacific indo pacific and prefers to live in a 70 gallon tank of water with a temperature of 72-78 degrees. This fish is know and located by its dark brown to black body marked by white poka-dots. Life Strategy: it is an extremely aggressive fish and may eat its tank mates as well as many types of crustaceans. Food / Feed Strategy: the spotted grouper prefers a diet of meaty foods such as krill shrimp and other small fish.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: cargangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Starcki Damsel

Species #:92


Scientific Name: Chrysiptera Starcki Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: Chrysiptera

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae

Geography / Habitat: this fish originated from Australia java and Vanuatu and prefers to live in a 30 gallon tank with water temperature 72-78 degrees. It comes from the reef of the Coral Sea. This is a very active fish that will add movement to any marine tank. Life Strategy: It will ignore invertebrate in the tank and feed on zooplankton and algae which makes it a good fish for a reef aquarium these damsels are aggressive towards their own kind and only one per aquarium should be kept unless the tank is very large. Food / Feed Strategy: a varied diet of meaty items such as shrimp and vitamin enriched brine shrimp should be offered.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Chalk Bass

Species #:93


Scientific Name: Serranus tortugarum Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: serranus

Class: actinopterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: serranidae

Geography / Habitat: originated Caribbean and the tropical western atlantic and prefers to live in a 30 gallon tank, with the water temperature to be around 72-78 degrees. It is one of the smaller bass within this family, and is a great fish for beginners. The body is orange in color with a purple mid-section. Life Strategy: they are not aggressive towards other fish and multiple specimens can be added to the tank and long as it is at the same time they will not pick at corals or sessile.

Food / Feed Strategy: an extremely hardy fish the chalk bass requires a diet consist of a variety of chopped meaty items brine shrimp and mysis shrimp.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Tassle Filefish

Specie#:94


Scientific Name: Chaetodermis Pencilligerus Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: Chaetodermis

Class: Actinppterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Monacanthidae

Geography / Habitat: The fish originated form the indo-pacific and prefers to live in a 70 gallon tank with a water temperature of 72-78 degrees. This fish is camouflaged by its light body with dark horizontal stripes. Life Strategy: It is very peaceful fish that does not bother its tank mates, with the exception of members of its own family or related kinds. Food / Feed Strategy: the tassel filefish feeds on a diet of meaty foods including chopped up shrimps, squid and frozen fish. it should be fed no fewer than three times per day.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Derpressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Popeye Catalufa Soldierfish

Species #:95


Scientific Name: Pristigenys Serrula Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: Pristigenys

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciforms

Family: Pristigenys Serrula

Geography / Habitat: This fish originates from costa Rica and prefers to live in a 70 gallon tank with the temperature to be 72-78 degrees it is a burnt orange color with several white highlights. Life Strategy: gives these fish generous amounts of live rocks hiding places and swimming room it will do well with other of its own species as long as there are adequate hiding locations and plenty of space. Food / Feed Strategy: when first introduced into the rank, live saltwater feeder shrimp should be used to entice this fish to eat. The diet should vary between live feeder shrimps; freeze dried shrimp and chopped marine meats.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Deoresiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Teira Batfish

Species #:96


Scientific Name: Platax teria Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: platax

Class: actinopterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: ephippididae

Geography / Habitat: These fish originate from Indonesia and prefer to live in a 180 gallon tank with a water temperature 72-78 degrees. The body and fins of this fish have wide vertical alternate bands of black and a pale yellow or tan. Life Strategy: the tetra batfish can grow to an impressive size of 24 inches, measuring from the top of the dorsal to the tip of the anal fin. Not good reef dweller, it will eat many types of sessile invertebrates including corals and anemones. Food / Feed Strategy: a varies diet of meaty foods such as shrimp scallops vitamin enriches brine shrimp and frozen fish and it is best to feed it three times a day this species if batfish can become very tame.

• • •

Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Blue/Green Reef Chromis

Species #:97


Scientific Name: Chromis Viridis Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: chromis

Class: actinopterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: pomacentridae

Geography / Habitat: originates from Indonesia and prefers to live in a 30 gallon tank with a water temperature of 72-78 degrees.

Life Strategy: native to reefs ranging from mid depth to shallow lagoons of the indo pacific and south pacific wild specimens to prefer to school in large schoals amongst branching corals like acropora. Food / Feed Strategy: for best care feed several times throughout the day with a varied diet of meaty foods.

• • •

Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish Common Name: Bicolor Blenny

Species #:98


Scientific Name: Ecsenius Bicolor Kingdom: Animilia

Phylum: Escnuis

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Blenniidae

Geography / Habitat: originates in Fiji Indonesia and sri lank and prefers to live in a 30 gallon tank with a temperature of 72-78 degrees. Generally found amid crevices and rocks on the bottom of its environment the bicolor blenny needs a tank of at least 30 gallons with scattered rocks for perching and hiding. Life Strategy: these fish are normally peaceful tank members but have been known to pick at other blennies smaller gobies and dart fish.

Food / Feed Strategy: the diet of the bicolor blenny should include vegetable matter including frozen and dried foods containing marine and blue green algae.

• • •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish

Species #:99


Common Name: Foxface Lo Scientific Name: Sigainidae vulpinus Kingdom: animilia

Phylum: siganidae

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: percitformes

Family: Siganidae Vulpinus

Geography / Habitat: these fish originate from Indonesia and Vanuatu and prefer to live in 70 gallon tanks with a water temperature of 72-78 degrees. This fish has very unique body color they are very hardy fish.

Life Strategy: Rabbitfish are generally reef safe if they are well fed. If not it is possible for them to nip and consume some species of lps and soft coral

Food / Feed Strategy: the foxface lo diet consists of a variety of fresh vegetables and undesirable species of algae it does nip and possibly eat some soft and hard coral polyps

• • •

Body Form or Style: depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: supraterminal

Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz

Title:Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #:100   


Common Name: Flame Cardinal    Scientific Name: Apogonidae       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: apogon 

Class: actinopterygii 

Order:  perciformes 

Family:  apogonidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: these fish originate in the Caribbean and Costa Rica and prefer to live in a 30  gallon tank. It is fiery red color with light accents of blue and green.    Life Strategy: it should be kept in a large group because of its aggressive behavior toward other  cardinal fish, although it does well in made pairs it is nocturnal fish and may be watched using a red  light.    Food / Feed Strategy: the flame cardinal requires a well balanced and vitamin enriched dies. Shrimp,  blood worms and marine flesh.  •

Body Form or Style: fusiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz    Title:Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #:101   


Common Name: Kaudern’s Cardinal    Scientific Name: Pterapogon       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: pterapogon 

Class: actinopteygii 

Order:  perciformes 

Family:  apongonidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: these fish originate from Indonesia and prefer to live in a 30 gallon tank with a  water temperature of 72‐78 degrees. This fish is metallic silver highlighted cardinal with black and  white stripes.  Life Strategy: thus fish is relatively easy to breed in an aquarium setting once spawning has occurred  the male carries the eggs in his mouth to protect them.    Food / Feed Strategy: the kaudern’s cardinal should be fed a well balanced dies of meaty foods such  as a feeder shrimp, marine flesh, bloodworms and depending on its size a live feeder fish.      • •

Body Form or Style: N/A  Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform 

Mouth Position:  terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz    Title:Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #:102   


Common Name: purple tile fish    Scientific Name: hoploltilus purpureus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: hoplolatilus 

Class: actinopterygii 

Order:  persiformes 

Family:  malacanthidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: this fish originates from Indonesia and vantuatu and prefers to live in a 50 gallon  tank witht eh temperature to be around 72‐78 dregrees this fish  also has an attractive sold lilac  purple body color with darker crimson red markings highlighting a v shape  Life Strategy: the purple tilefish Is known to spawn successfully in a tank it may be aggressive toward  members of its own species but is peaceful with other fish.  Food / Feed Strategy:  the diet should include a variety of marine fish crustacean flesh and mysis  shrimp and it should be fed at least twice a day;        •

Body Form or Style: sagittiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform 

Mouth Position:sub terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title:Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 103   


Common Name: Coral Hogfish    Scientific Name: Bodianus mesothorax       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: bodianus 

Class: actinopterygii 

Order:  perciformes 

Family:  labridae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: this fish originated from the indo‐pacific sumtra and vauntu and prefers to live  in a tank between 50‐70 gallon tank it has a burgundy face with a rosy yellow posterior separated by a  black stripe.  Life Strategy: the reef becomes this fish’s buffet this fish is aggressive toward small docile fish that are  easily bullid.  Food / Feed Strategy: the mature adult coral hogfish will eart snails works mussels small fish and  squid.        •

Body Form or Style: fusiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title:Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #:104   


Common Name: Black Cap Jawfish     Scientific Name: Opistognathus randalli       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum:  

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciforms   

Family:  Opistognathidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: This fish originates from the indo‐pacific and prefers to live in a 30 gallon tank  with a water temperature of 72‐78 degrees. They are green with faint orange stripes.  Life Strategy: the black cap jaw fish is hardy and will spawn successfully in an aquarium. It poses a  possible threat to small shrimp.   Food / Feed Strategy: The diet should consist of a variety of marine fish crustacean flesh and mysis  shrimp. It prefers to be fed at least three times per day.        •

Body Form or Style: Taeniform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform  

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz    Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #:105   


Common Name:  Spotted Sweetlips    Scientific Name: Plectorhinchus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Plectorhinchus 

Class: Acinopreygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Haemulidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: This Fish originates from Indonesia and Vanuatu and prefers to live in a 150  gallon tank with a water temperature of 72‐78 degrees. It grown at a rapid pace to almost 3 feet in  length.   Life Strategy: no breeding habitats were mentioned  Food / Feed Strategy: when first introduced into a tank, live saltwater feeder shrimp should be used  to entice this fish to eat. Once it had acclimated, most marine carnivore preparations will be  acceptable. They will also eat smaller shrimp. Smaller fire worms and small snail.        •

Body Form or Style: Compresiform  

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 106   


Common Name: Porkfish    Scientific Name: Anisotremus Virginicus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Anisotremus 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Haemildae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: This fish originated from the Caribbean and prefers to live in a 70 gallon tank  with a water temperature of 72‐78 degrees. They have a yellow head and fins accenting silver gray  vertical stripes  Life Strategy: It prefers to hover around reefs and need a cave or ledge for refuge. They are very  peaceful fish that make a wonderful addition to any peaceful saltwater fish only tank.  Food / Feed Strategy: these fish will consume any crabs, snails, shrimp and starfish        •

Body Form or Style: Depress form 

Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz    Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 107   


Common Name: Catalina Coby    Scientific Name: Lythrypnus dalli        Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Lythrypnus 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Gobiidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: This fish originates from the USA. Off the eastern pacific to be more precise and  prefers to live in a 10 gallon tank with a water temperature. It has a bright red body and the tail has a  yellowish tint.  Life Strategy: when ready to breed, a behavioral male choose a cave in which to care from his brood.  He lured the female inside when she will attach her eggs to the wall of the cave. He will care for the  eggs until they are hatched.  Food / Feed Strategy: This fish is very hardy and easy to feed in captivity. It will accept almost any size  meat.        •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 108   


Common Name: Red Hawkfish    Scientific Name: Cyprinocirrhites polyactus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Cyprinocirrhites 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Periformes 

Family:  Cirrhitidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: This fish originates from the indo‐pacific and prefers to live in a 30 gallon tank.  This fish has a mottled orange to red body. It’s Iyre shaped tail sets it apart from most of the other  hawk fish in appearance.  Life Strategy: it may be grouped with other red hawk fish if all are introduced to the tank at the same  time, although it eats small fish and shrimp.  Food / Feed Strategy: This fish diet consist of a variety of marine meats, and frozen shrimp.        •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminalCitation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz 

      Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 109   


Common Name:     Scientific Name:        Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum:  

Class:  

Order:  

Family:   

 

  Geography / Habitat:   Life Strategy:  Food / Feed Strategy:         •

Body Form or Style:  

Swim / Locomotion Style:  

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz        Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 110   


Common Name:  Yellow Longnose Butterflyfish    Scientific Name: forcipiger flavissimus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Forcipiger 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Chaetodontidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: this fish originates from Hawaii. This fish has a long snout that resembles a pair  of needle nose pliers for picking food out of creviced and between coral heads. They also have a  beautiful body of color black, and yellow and white.  Life Strategy: This is a very peaceful fish and when acclimated properly, they are a wonderful hardy  addition to and fish only saltwater tank.  Food / Feed Strategy: This fish should be fed a varied diet of meaty foods like mysis shrimp meat and  frozen preparations.        •

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: N/A 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 111   


Common Name:  Leaf Fish    Scientific Name: Taenianotus triacanthus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Taenianotus 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Scropaenidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: This fish originates from Hawaii and Indonesia and prefers to live in a 30 gallon  tank with a water temperature of 72‐78 degrees. Their body color varies between red, yellow, brown  or blue.  Life Strategy: It uses the live rock for hiding as well as for perching while looking for food. It has  poison glands attached to the dorsal anal and pelvis spines.  Food / Feed Strategy: when first introduced into the tank, live saltwater feeder shrimp should be used  to entice this fish to ea. The leaf diet consists of live foods such as feeder fish or small shrimp.        •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: Superterminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 112   


Common Name:  Clown Triggerfish    Scientific Name: Balistoides conspicillum       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Balistoides 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Balistdae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: This fish originates from Indonesia and Sumatra and prefers to live in a 125  gallon tank, this fish has a dramatic coloration making this species a most sought after addition to the  home tank.  Life Strategy: these are very aggressive fish and are semi easy to take care of.  Food / Feed Strategy: The clown triggerfish needs a varied diet of meaty foods including: squid, krill,  clams, small fish and hard shelled shrimp to help wear down their ever growing teeth.        •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz    Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 113   


Common Name:  Two spot Goby    Scientific Name: Signigobious biocellatus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Signigobius 

Class: Actinopteryggi 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Gobiidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: These fish originate from Indonesia and Vanuatu and prefer to live in a 10 gallon  tank. It will rarely act aggressively towards other fish, but it is territorial, and will fight with its own  kind unless they are mated pair.  Life Strategy: Under correct conditions, the two spot goby will spawn successfully in an aquarium.  Food / Feed Strategy: Usually the two spot goby feeds off the bottom sifting through the sand for food  it should be fed a variety of either live or vitamin enriched frozen brine shrimp.        •

Body Form or Style: N/A 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform  

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz    Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 114   


Common Name: Kole Yellow Eye Tang    Scientific Name: Ctenichaetus Strigosus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Ctenocjaetus 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Periformes 

Family:  Acanthuridae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: These fish originate from Hawaii and prefer to live in a 70 gallon tank. This fish  can either have a majority of spots or stripes highlighting the body.  Its Body color rangers from blue  to burgundy.  Life Strategy: it is aggressive towards other tangs; therefore, it is best to only keep one per tank, it will  not harm sessile invertebrate in the reed tank environment.  Food / Feed Strategy: These fish will eat meaty foods along with dried seaweed and algae. They need  to be fed 3 times per day.        •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 115   


Common Name:  Flame Hawkfish    Scientific Name: Neocirrhitus armatus       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Neocirrhitus 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Cirrhitidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: These fish originate from Fiji and prefer to live in a 30 gallon tank. They are very  personable fish, and are great for reef tanks as long as there is no small shrimp maintained in the  aquarium.  Life Strategy: They are bottom dwellers and tend to hangout on rock perches waiting and readying  themselves for food to come by. They are mostly a peaceful fish that spends most of its time perching  and swimming within the branches of hard corals.  Food / Feed Strategy: the flame hawk fish diet should consist of a verity of marine meats, frozen  preparations and live feeder fish.        •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: Superterminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 116   


Common Name: Purple Firefish    Scientific Name: Nemateleotris decora       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Nemateleotris 

Class:  Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Gobiidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: this fish originates from Indonesia and the Maldives and prefers to live in a 10  gallon tank. It was first discovered in the indo‐west Pacific Ocean in 1973 by Randall and Allen.  Life Strategy: It will rarely become aggressive towards other fish, but is territorial, and will fight with  its own kind unless they are mated pair.  Food / Feed Strategy: This fish diet should consist of chopped or shaved seafood. The vibrant coloring  will fade if not fed a vitamin enriched diet.        •

Body Form or Style: Taeniform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz    Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 117   


Common Name: Neon Dottyback    Scientific Name: N/A       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Pseudochromidae 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Pseudochromidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: this fish originates from the USA and prefers to live in a 30 gallon tank. It has  yellow and red on the body with blue stripes that run along the top and in the fins.  Life Strategy: it may eat ornamental shrimp, but makes an excellent predator of bristle worms in a  reef aquarium.  Food / Feed Strategy: The diet should consist of meaty foods including brine shrimp and prepared  frozen foods.        •

Body Form or Style: Taeiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz    Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 118   


Common Name: Banana Wrasse    Scientific Name: Thalassoma Lutescens       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Thalassoma 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: Perciformes 

Family:  Labridae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: This fish originates from Fiji and Vanuatu and prefers to live in a 125 gallon tank.  Both sexes of this fish have facial markings in green fine vertical stripping along the body.  Life Strategy: they are active fish and require plenty of rocks for hiding and a tight fitting lid. It will  become territorial and harass any new additions to the community.  Food / Feed Strategy: the banana wrasse diet should consist of vitamin enriched frozen mysis shrimp,  frozen brine shrimp, and other meaty foods along with high quality marine flake and marine pellet  food.        •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz  Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 119   


Common Name: Yellow Goatfish    Scientific Name: Parupeneus cyclostoma       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: Parupeneus 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: perciformes 

Family:  Mullidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: These fish come from Fiji and Melanesia and prefer to live in a 125 gallon tank.  Life Strategy: the young yellow goatfish may be sifting the sandy bottom of the tank in search of  invertebrates to eat. They are prone to eat small crustaceans, fish and worms.  Food / Feed Strategy: The diet should consist of a variety of meaty items fed at least four times a day.        •

Body Form or Style: Fusiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform 

Mouth Position: terminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz      Title: Saltwater fish                                                                                                      Species #: 120   


Common Name: Emperor Anglefish    Scientific Name: Pomacanthus imperator       Kingdom:  animilia 

Phylum: pomacanthus 

Class: Actinopterygii 

Order: perciformes 

Family:  Pomacanthidae 

 

  Geography / Habitat: this fish originates from Fiji Indonesia the Maldives and prefers to live In an 100  gallon tank with a water temperature of 72‐78 degrees. This is a striking blue black mask covers the  eyes and a similar colored vertical band extends from the pectoral fin two thirds of the way up the  body.  Life Strategy: It will nip at stony and soft corals and clams and mantles, but may be kept with small  polped stony corals and somewhat noxious soft corals.  Food / Feed Strategy: it should be fed a diet of spirulina, marine algae or frozen shrimp and other  meaty items.        •

Body Form or Style: Depressiform 

Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform 

Mouth Position: Superterminal 

  Citation: http//: animaldiversity.uumz     



Fish id final completion[1]