Art Education in Ireland Irish culture, observations, practical experience, research and documentation
Desi van Es Lieve van der Heijden January 2009 â€“ May 2009
Prologue................................................................................................................. 3 Our vision on art education..................................................................................................... 4 Practical experience................................................................................................ e v+ a 2009................................................................................................. Family days................................................................................................. Primary education....................................................................................... Secondary education...................................................................................
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Theoretical research............................................................................................... Arts council................................................................................................ Irish education system................................................................................ LCGA.........................................................................................................
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Prologue Art education in Ireland and the Netherlands. Young children and art education. In the Netherlands it’s very common. From the moment they enter day nursery until the day they graduate from secondary school. And for those who can’t get enough of it, there are lots of possibilities for out of school art education in so called art centres that are located in almost every city and that pops up in the smaller villages. Art and being creative, take a big part in education. But not only in education. In the lives of children, adolescents and even seniors creativity fulfils a big part. In the Dutch cultural policy “The art of living” minister Plasterk wrote; “Cultural citizenship differences its self by the possibility for citizens to explore their past or express themselves in an art discipline.” It’s logical (for most) Dutch people that art fulfils a big part in life and especially in the education of our children. Making art and being creative stimulates the locomotion, learns how to think creative and at some moments it can even be helpful in a therapeutical way. Art fulfils a leading role in Dutch culture. But how is that in Ireland? Is it at as common as it is here? In what ways does art education occur in Limerick, Ireland? And is that type of art education obligatory and especially focused on students in primary and secondary schools? Or is there more? Is there such a thing as “out of school art education” like there is in the Netherlands? • •
museum education art centres for children, where they can make art, but isn’t interconnected with a school
Almost all of these questions were being answered when we became volunteers at Limerick City Gallery of Art. There we got the opportunity to explore art education that was initiated by a gallery and that in most cases wasn’t interconnected with a school. But still, that type of art education (initiated by a gallery/museum) is the only type there is. There is such a thing as “out of school art education”, but there isn’t one that is not initiated by a gallery/museum... That is a pity, but the other education programs and art activities that Limerick had to offer were also very interesting to explore. It gave us a good insight in how Limerick and Ireland as well is involved with art education.
Our visions on art education; Desi van Es My vision on art education What is the meaning of making art for me? You can create images out of a fascination, a dream, a feeling or an idea. Everyone can make images and it’s a craft to get better at it. By using art as a medium you can make a statement. When you’re making art, you want to make something that satisfies you. But while you’re making art, beautiful things can happen. Even before your art piece is completed. The process is just as important as the final art piece. You need a good starting point to develop yourself in art. So you need to learn crafts and you must keep looking at your process. After that, it’s important to reflect on what you really want to show. What’s going to be your final result? What do you want to say with your work? I find it really important to get children in touch with art and culture. Art education allows the child to explore their creativity. I think everybody has the ability to be creative and it’s my passion to stimulate that at a young age. Through art you can express yourself. Designing, drawing/painting, building… your ideas are crucial. It’s an opportunity to translate your fantasy to paper. What’s the perfect way to show your idea? It’s a journey where you have to use different materials, crafts and views of art. I believe that children can learn a lot of meaningful things from their daily life. The creative process mainly consists of observations and actions. Just by making things there’s a lot to learn and experience. Art is about experimenting and creating your own world. In Arts and crafts children get the chance to design things on their own. And they can see the opportunities of designing. Not only by making their own projects, but also when they get in touch with art and artists. When it’s comes to craft, I believe everything depends on this. The learning process is very important in art education. When you express yourself, you also get to know yourself. You get to know what you’re capable of and what you can do by using just your imagination. What are your preferences in images and shapes? It’s important to think about that, since everything around you consists of images and shapes. When you want to learn something you have to keep a goal in mind. Everyone has is own way of working and follows their own process. In art, it’s not a matter of good or wrong, it’s about the learning process. Besides your own creativity, you also learn the tricks of art. You will learn about aspects and concepts and you become acquainted with materials and competencies. Children will get independent when they work this way. They will come across ‘problems’ during their creative process. But because there are a lot of solutions in art, they will find their way out. This will encourage them. Working together can also be very important here. Working together on assignments or using materials together. Even looking at each others work will help them.
Creativity has a lot to do with design. Look around you, (almost) everything is designed! I think, this makes it’s clear that art education is important for a child. Being creative gives you the ability to comprehend forms in space and understand relationships of places and solid objects. They’ll be more open-minded. They get to see that everyone is different, not only in their class, but also in other cultures. Lieve van der Heijden What is the importance of art education and what are the foundations that are (according to me) the basis of artistic development? I find it important that children get a certain knowledge of art and culture; which should be integrated in the upbringing and education of a child. This aspect could be the basis for appreciation of art and culture when they grow up. I also think that children, adolescents and adults should have the possibilities to explore their talents, deepen in their cultural background and express themselves in an art discipline. The fact that these things are in the Dutch culture policy, to me, that’s a good thing. Art and being creative fulfil a big part in the upbringing of a human being. It stimulates the locomotion, teaches you to think and act creative (as an individual but also in a group), it changes your perception on things and the way you look at the world, objects and your personal experiences. I also found out that at some moments it can even be helpful in a therapeutical way. What’s also important to me is that through art education a big self development can take place (emotionally and socially) and someone can endure psychological growth. Art should fulfil a functional and natural part in the social life of a human being. Art and human beings go hand in hand. And when you talk about art, you talk about craft. And craft has been existing for ages in mankind. A logical line of thought I would say. In a country there are different factors that underlie in the way that children are being raised, how they look at the world and at themselves. Cultural heritage fulfils a big part, but not only culture, also religion and politics are important factors in the development of a country and the people who live there. Of course these factors will develop themselves during time, but these factors are things that will be passed on per generation and in that way fulfil a big part in the upbringing of children. I think that things like religion and politics shouldn’t be integrated in education, however that is almost inevitable. Politics and education should be separate as well as religion and education. I think that if these factors are being mixed with education a child will loose certain values. Honesty, objectivity and exchanging of ideas will be blocked and these values will become the country’s values and won’t apply on the children any more. I find it important that children are being confronted with themselves. In that way a child will learn what he/she is capable of. They will also learn to form their own opinion on the things they perceive. When children are aware of the things they perceive I’m honestly convinced that that will give them a new perspective on life. That awareness means that the things that they perceive can also be reproduced.
That awareness plus an inspirational teacher are the keys to creative development and expanding talents.
Practical experience e v+ a 2009 exhibition & e v+ a 2009 education program • family days • primary education Secondary education • school visits • observations
e v+ a 2009-reading the city About e v+ a exhibition of visual+ art e v+ a exhibition of visual+ art is an annual exhibition of contemporary art, the premier exhibition of its kind in Ireland. e v+ a takes place in Limerick, Ireland every year in late spring and early summer (March to June) for between 10 and 12 weeks. Curated each year by a different, single, invited curator of international standing, e v+ a presents the work of Irish and international contemporary artists in a range of venues and settings, formal and alternative, throughout the city of Limerick. The artists, their works, and the venues and settings are determined each year by the decisions of the curator, in response to both the nature of the work submitted, and to the curator's own response to the canvas of Limerick city. Now in its 33rd year, e v+ a has established itself as one of the major arts organisations in Ireland attracting international and Irish artists and curators to Limerick for an annual celebration of contemporary art. As an international exhibition its presence in Limerick helps to foster a range of creative endeavours and widen understanding and participation in the arts.
Origin of e v+ a exhibition of visual+ art A group of Limerick artists began the exhibition of visual+ art, e v+ a, in 1977 as a way of bringing their work as contemporary artists into contact with audiences who shared a common interest in contemporary visual art. Almost three decades later, e v+ a has become Ireland’s premier annual exhibition of contemporary art and has grown to occupy a position of note and influence in the international arts calendar. The e v+ a '+' plus sign The plus sign (+) incorporated into the word ‘visual+’ in the exhibition’s title and with the letter ‘v+’ in the logo, does not represent the conjunction ‘and’. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that that art as product and process engages and integrates all the senses, not mainly or only the visual sense. All art springs from how we perceive through all our – at psychology’s recent count – eleven senses. There’s more to art than meets the eye or ‘I’. Modernism in whatever direction it took, in any of its forms and subsequent developments, consistently bears witness to the realisation that sense perception as it actually happens exists in a complex and fully integrated way, even if we choose to ignore or repress this integrated complexity under the influence of our culture's ingrained institutionalised bias for the 'visual'. e v+ a mission & aims e v+ a’s mission is to establish and maintain a world class contemporary visual art event in Limerick that celebrates and encourages excellence, risk, creativity, diversity, participation and debate through partnership, profile building, development of art infrastructure, quality, access and education.
Participation between and among artists and audiences forms the very basis of e v+ a. Those who work within the organisation of the exhibition recognise it as more than a participation; rather, a collaboration - among artists, curators, workers, sponsors and a great variety of audiences. Enhancements of that commitment to collaboration were made in 1984, 1994 and 1997; and the experiences gained in recent e v+ a s further that spirit of collaboration. e v+ a aims to: · continue to create an event of significant quality for the international art community. · broaden the audience in Ireland for contemporary art through creating access to contemporary international art, providing education/community programmes, creating diversity of product and creating enjoyment and fun. · raise the profile of Limerick’s external image as a cultural centre for tourism. · strengthen the art infrastructure and profession in the region through partnership. e v+ a exhibition formats The original, open submission format, OPEN e v+ a, has been maintained throughout e v+ a's history. As e v+ a developed in time, a number of additional formats have been integrated into e v+ a 's scope and provision. YOUNG e v+ a is the education and outreach project of e v+ a to promote education, self-expression and social inclusion through contemporary art practices. Since 1984 e v+ a‘s artistic policy has included the programme of YOUNG e v+ a devoted to fostering close, hands-on contact between contemporary artists and various young audiences. This is a two part programme: the initial approach which has undergone many variations brought together youngsters in their primary and secondary schools, and youth centres; and, subsequently, groups drawn from secondary schools in the Limerick’s catchment areas worked within the environment of the Limerick City Gallery of Art’s collections under the leadership of a selection of contemporary (most often themselves e v+ a) artists in a series of workshops aimed at offering the work produced by the students in a ‘work in progress’ exhibition held at the Belltable Arts Centre to coincide with the e v+ a exhibition. The second part of the YOUNG e v+ a programme, Artists In the Gallery, consists of a schedule during the run of the e v+ a exhibition in which e v+ a artists spend a full day in contact with audiences as they come and go individually or in groups, to discuss their approaches to artwork, and to issues that arise out of contemporary art and culture in general. Since 1994, and every second year since then, an INVITED e v+ a has been joined with the annual OPEN e v+ a. This has greatly increased the exhibition’s opportunities to collaborate with artists, curators and audiences on a broader, deeper and more international level. The distribution of the overall resources dedicated to INVITED e v+ a is determined by the appointed curator for the given year. Each curator has the discretion to shape the budget to fit the concept and the selected artworks in a way that seems most fitting and appropriate. How much and in what ways this serves INVITED e v+ a specifically is a curatorial prerogative.
Since 1997 the e v+ a Colloquies on Contemporary Art and Culture alternating with INVITED e v+ a offer audiences a weekend of broad discussions on the issues and concepts at the heart of contemporary art and culture. Distinctive features of e v+ a e v+ a has become over the last 15 years of its 31-year history widely acknowledged, nationally and internationally, as the pre-eminent annual exhibition of contemporary art in Ireland. This is due to a number of factors that make e v+ a, as an exhibition, unusual if not unique in Ireland and elsewhere. These factors clearly distinguish it from the ‘annuals’ that preceded it (e.g. Living Art, Independent Artists, and Oireachtas exhibitions) and those that presently accompany it in the artistic calendar (ie. Iontas, Claremorris Open, Cork Open). These distinctive factors are, as well, the core activities and can be briefly described as follows: · e v+ a remains as always open to all artists, regardless of their origin or base of operations or artistic orientation. · e v+ a remains open to artworks in any and all materials, media, styles, and genres. · e v+ a places all the decisions that give shape to each year’s exhibition in the hands of a single Curator. These curators are drawn from culturally diverse backgrounds, all have wide experience, and come from the highest international levels of expertise. The only limits each Curator must work within are those of available funds, space and time. Members of e v+ a’s committee and administration exercise no influence on the Curator’s process of selection (from typically 500+ entries), on the exhibition design, and the granting of the OPEN e v+ a awards. · Every other year the budget allows for an INVITED section of e v+ a consisting of artists of established international prominence especially chosen by the single Curator as a counterpart to the OPEN e v+ a section. · e v+ a’s annual programme includes YOUNG e v+ a, one part of which gives young adults access to workshops and exhibition opportunities, and another, an ongoing schedule of Artists In the Gallery where e v+ a artists have direct first-hand contact with audiences young and old. · The e v+ a Colloquies of Contemporary Art and Culture, a weekend of discussion among past curators, artists and audiences, are held every other year alternating with the INVITED e v+ a. e v+ a curators/adjudicators The initiatives for each successive e v+ a originate with the committee’s deliberations on choosing and inviting the curator. Curators are chosen on the recommendation of previous curators, their peers, and from others in keeping with the idea of bringing to Ireland, to e v+ a, in Limerick, persons of broad international experience in contemporary practice, drawn from contrasting cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Recent e v+ a curators/adjudicators include Klaus Ottmann (Germany/USA) 2007; Katerina Gregos (Greece) 2006; Dan Cameron (USA) 2005; Zdenka Badovinac (Slovenia) 2004; Virginia Perez-Ratton (Costa Rica) 2003; Apinan Poshyananda (Thailand) 2002; Salah M. Hassan (Sudan/USA) 2001; Rosa Martinez (Spain) 2000.
It is testimony to the international reputation of e v+ a that it has successfully retained such high calibre people with substantial experience of working at the highest level including curators of the Venice Biennale and the Istanbul Biennial. The role of the adjudicator/ curator transcends that of the organising committee in what the audience experiences, providing external stimulation and thinking, and preventing any narrowing in direction and emphasis. The substantial local effort in bringing the exhibition to fruition each year is always framed within a wider international context.
e v+ a artists Many hundreds of artists have participated in the exhibition over the years with many subsequently becoming prominent nationally or internationally in contemporary art practice including Irish artists Felim Egan, Dorothy Cross, Camille Souter and Gerard Byrne. In the Ireland Pavilion at the Venice Biennale 2005, 6 of the 7 artists selected to represent Ireland had shown in e v+ a, and the 2006 Turner Prize included two e v+ a artists, Mark Titchner and Phil Collins. At the Venice Biennale 2007, Gerard Byrne was the solo artist selected to represent Ireland. The number of foreign based artists that submit their work for the exhibition is a demonstration of e v+ a’s recognition among the international arts community. e v+ a venues, places and spaces Held each year in Limerick, e v+ a encompasses a range of venues throughout the City including Limerick City Gallery of Art, located at Pery Square, the Bourn Vincent Gallery at the University of Limerick, Limerick School of Art & Design, Belltable Arts Centre and a number of satellite venues, galleries and alternatives spaces throughout the city. Since its inception, the exhibition has also gone beyond formal art sites to alternative sites, venues and spaces within Limerick. Shops, restaurants, parks, pubs and offices exhibit much of the art produced by Irish and international artists each year which culminates in a city-wide celebration of contemporary art and culture for almost three months annually. Formal art spaces include the Limerick City Gallery of Art, the Belltable Arts Centre and the Bourn Vincent Gallery at the University of Limerick. Since 1992 adjudicators have extended the e v+ a exhibition well beyond formal artsites, to alternative venues and spaces within the city of Limerick and beyond. Limerick City Gallery of Art (LCGA) Limerick City Gallery of Art is the home base of e v+ a. The City Gallery is Limerick’s pre-eminent art space and one of the best art spaces in Ireland. It occupies a two-storey converted 1906 library in Neo-Romanesque style on Pery Square at the People’s Park. Recently renovated and extended, it has a total exhibition space of 650 sqm. In variously sized rooms radiating off a central atrium space. LCGA houses a Permanent Collection comprising over 800 works and hosts a programme of contemporary exhibitions by Irish and international artists. (www.limerickcity.ie/lcga)
The Belltable Arts Centre, established in 1981, is located at 69 O’Connell Street. It offers two modestly-sized, well proportioned formal exhibition spaces. (www.belltable.ie) The Bourn Vincent Gallery is a medium-sized, one-room, formal exhibition space housed in the Foundation Building of the University of Limerick at Plassey. Other regular formal venues include the Church Gallery at Limerick School of Art and Design, Daghdha Space (Daghdha Dance Company) and The Hunt Museum. Other Venues: Non-arts venues that have been regularly chosen by curators to present work include St. Mary's Cathedral, King John’s Castle and City Hall (Istabraq Hall the exhibition space, the glazed street, and the plaza outside). Alternative Spaces and Sites: A tremendous variety of off-site spaces in Limerick city have been used, differing from year to year depending upon the decisions of the curator. Such spaces have included St. Michael’s Church, Colbert Railway Station, The Granary, shopping centres, shops, business and office premises, hotels, banks, bars, bistros, cafes, restaurants, vacant buildings, parks, streets, footpaths, billboards, the River Shannon and riverside locations. Limerick and e v+ a Limerick City, the third largest in the Republic of Ireland, was founded in 812AD as a Viking centre of conquest and trade. It enjoys a complex, heroic past as succeeding cultural intrusions (Norman, Williamite, Cromwellian, Industrialism, Consumerism) have added to its mosaic, multi-layered character. Always open to the ups and downs of change, Limerick in the past quarter century has once again become a dynamic centre of retail trade and, in this new generation, a centre for the innovative, creative industries of electronics and IT. It has renewed its regard and love for the river that runs through it, the Shannon, one of Europe’s greatest and most graceful waterways. Recent changes, the result of distinct singular initiatives in many areas of endeavour, have had and continue to have a synergistic effect transforming the whole city and its catchment areas. The arts in Limerick have been a basic, somewhat hidden part of these changes. e v+ a, in its 30 years, has itself had a great part to play in this transformation. Contemporary art is one of the best fomenters of positive change and probably the best watchdog critic and witness of those changes. Jan Hoet, e v+ a curator in 1994, said, in Limerick, that the future of contemporary art firmly rested in the cities of the world. e v+ a funding and support The Arts Council is the major funder of e v+ a. The Arts Council has progressively increased its core funding allocation over the years, since it first awarded an annual allocation. Significant increases in funding allocations were awarded on specific occasions as e v+ a grew in scope and scale, for example, to improve the quality of catalogue production, which has been maintained ever since. The Arts Council has also awarded grants to e v+ a under its Minor Capital Grants Scheme to purchase equipment. The most recent allocation was in 2006, enabling e v+ a to improve its IT and office equipment, and to add to its production stock
(principally, digital projectors, to support the increased number works employing computer/video/DVD projections that now regularly feature in the exhibition). Limerick City Council, the statutory local authority for Limerick City, is a long-time supporter of e v+ a, providing funding together with extensive support. The City Arts Office provides its resources to assist in the organisation and delivery of the exhibition each year. Fáilte Ireland, Ireland’s national tourism development authority, has in recent years allocated funding to e v+ a to enable it to improve its marketing and promotional programmes, particularly for overseas visitors. Limerick City Gallery of Art (LCGA), the principal venue of e v+ a, provides extensive planning, organisational, technical and administrative support. e v+ a features as one of the principal exhibitions in LCGA’s Temporary Exhibitions Programme of the work of national and international contemporary artists. e v+ a has been fortunate to receive extensive support-in-kind from corporate and local business donors, in particular to help meet the production requirements of each exhibition.
e v+ a's international relationships Based on the successful launch of OPEN / INVITED e v+ a 2006 at the Venice Biennale 2005 , plans now include continuing the presence of e v+ a at future biennales(continued for the Venice Biennale 2007) in association with Culture Ireland and the Irish Pavilion. e v+ a is linked to the International Association of Curators of Contemporary Art (IKT). Looking ahead The basic approach e v+ a takes in fulfilling its mission will be maintained over the coming years. These next exhibitions will continue produce entirely distinct and different results due to two factors: 1) the different Curators, unhindered by aesthetic compromises, will, by setting a personal stamp on the exhibition, produce ‘their own’ e v+ a; each will result in quite different exhibition distinct, one from another; 2) the increased participation of artists from within Ireland and from international bases through their submissions and through the selections determined by the Curator will continue to provide variety to the character of the exhibitions. The priorities established by e v+ a are, first and foremost, to serve the interests of artists; then, to support the invited curator’s decisions as far as is possible. Both the artists and the curators have a vested interest in serving the audiences in the work they do. So in the basic approach e v+ a takes, the audience, in its own way, is on a par with both. In serving the artists and the curators properly e v+ a serves the audience.
Family Days We spend a lot of time working at the Limerick City Gallery of Art (LCGA). Thirty nine hours to be exact. A big part of our work there, where the family days. The family days at LCGA investigated the themes of OPEN e v+ a 2009 – reading the city, including the built environment, cityscapes and the interaction of people within a city. Parents and children engaged with specific works within e v+ a 2009, and developed their own creative responses, making gigantic maps, cardboard cities, designing dream homes and collaborative collages. Saturday 21st February 11.30 – 1.00pm + 2.00 – 2.30pm Family Day: Discover Drawing Fun-filled Spring Family Days begin with Discover Drawing! Kids of all ages will visit the Into Irish Drawing exhibition, showing the drawings of 22 exciting Irish artists. Looking at many ways of making drawings, children will experiment with new and messy ways of drawings through mark making with twigs, straws, charcoal and powders! Saturday 21st March 11.30am + 2pm Family Day: Explore e v+ a Fun-filled e v+ a Family Days explore the images and structures of the Exhibition of Visual+ Art! Kids of all ages will visit the installations at the Gallery, developing creative responses to the exhibition. Looking at many ways of making art, children will experiment with new and exciting ways of making through drawing, painting, collage and sculpture! Children worked together to plan and map their own cityscape.
Saturday 25th April 11.30 – 1.00pm + 2.00 – 3.30pm Family Day: e v+ a Structures Fun-filled e v+ a Family Days explore the images and structures of the Exhibition of Visual+ Art! Kids of all ages will visit the installations at the Gallery, developing creative responses to the exhibition. Looking at many ways of making art, children will experiment with new and exciting ways of making through drawing, painting, collage and sculpture! This event took its inspiration from the varied representation of structures in the exhibition. Looking at Olaf Unverzart’s photographs of found object structures an Jan Freauchen’s Twenty-six Gasoline Stations, children worked together to build exciting new structures and cityscapes, and developed sculptural and three-dimensional skills.
Saturday 23rd May 11.30am + 2.00pm National Drawing Day: Family Day: e v+ a Compositions Facilitated by Desi van Es & Lieve van der Heijden
Fun-filled e v+ a Family Days explore the composition within photographs, drawings, paintings and videos of the Exhibition of Visual+ Art! Kids of all ages will visit the
installations at the Gallery, developing creative responses to the exhibition. Focusing on the skills of drawing and composition, children will celebrate National Drawing Day. Looking at many ways of making art, children will experiment with new and exciting ways of making through drawing, painting, collage and sculpture! This event examined the e v+ a 2009 title, reading the city, inviting each child to compose a building on paper, designing the internal and external aspects. The children’s representations of buildings, including houses, schools and shopping centres, then formed a city collage. Using drawings as a medium, the children learnt about composition within images.
We got the opportunity to create our own family day with relation to e v+ a 2009 This is our proposal and course material;
Proposal for family day Desi van Es & Lieve van der Heijden
As a main focus in the workshop we want to teach the children something about composition. Since the last few (and one upcoming) family days were focussed on; experimenting with materials ( into Irish drawing), bird-view (EV+A exhibition, 21st March) and structure (upcoming 25th April), composition seems an interesting subject to discuss. The assignment for the children will be: furnishing and designing apart of a city. The children will work in groups. Making their own building (a house, a school, a shopping centre). The outlines of the buildings will already be drawn on the paper by us in advance. At the end we’ll connect the separate buildings to each other. In that way a city will appear, they learn about composition and how to create a city! When collaborating together the children can learn a lot about each other and the harmony between them will be improved. What do we need/want to use: - Materials; some big pieces of paper (x4), crayons, pencils etc. - A big clock or timer - A beamer and laptop We would like to divide the hour-and-a-half into three parts: - Introduction (walking through the exhibition and showing some photo’s with a beamer) 15 minutes - The “making art” part (working on the assignment) 60 minutes - End (tidy up and a final chat about the work they made. Responding and looking at work of the other children) 15 minutes
We would like to have a big clock or timer in the room so that the children can see how much time they have left. Plus it’s fun for the children because some of them can practice reading time. We chose the subject composition because it has everything to do with this years EV+A exhibition. EV+A 2009 Reading the city Buildings Architecture =creating a city= composition Introduction We want to teach the children a new word: composition For about 15 minutes we want to talk to the children about composition, and what that really is. We want to show them examples of compositions by artists that participate in this years EV+A exhibition. But also we want to show them a few examples by other artists who used composition in their work. Famous architects, interior designers, painters and photographers from art history We would like to use a beamer/video so we can show them these examples. The “making art” part For 60 minutes the children (and parents) will create a building, furnishing and designing it together.. Using, markers, pencils, pieces of paper, buttons etc. End In the end we want to move the drawings (together with the children) and create a part of a city. Then we would like to talk to the children about what they made. Their buildings, city and composition..
Shopping Centre (x2)
Photoâ€™s Family Days
Primary Education Meet-the-artist talks and workshops at LCGA offered the opportunity to participate in digital video workshops, collect information to produce their own derivé, and construct giant collages. Friday 8th May 10.00 – 1.00pm Drawings and text ‘Artist workshop’ with Gavin Redmond Two groups, 5th and 6th class making text collages.
Thursday 14th May 10.00 – 1.30pm Animation/film One group, 5th class, making a stop motion film with their own drawings. Primary school workshop with Nicky Larkin and Lynda Devenny The artists collaborated on a digital video workshop. Students prepared for the filming by exploring ideas and creating storyboards, and worked together on the filming and editing to create a short movie. After the workshop each participant received a DVD of the finished movie.
Secondary Education We visited three secondary schools. We had a look around and made some observations These are the school we visited:
Scoil Carmel; Convent of Mercy O’connell Street, Limerick, Ireland. This is a girl’s secondary school, run under the auspices of the religious order of the Sisters of Mercy. The student numbers are about 550, with a teaching and administrative staff of about 50. They cater for students taking the “Leaving and Junior Certificate Examinations”, “the Leaving Certificate Applied”, and the “Transition Year Programme”. Lieve van der Heijden visited this school with Catríona Ni Chonchuir
Salesians Secondary School Palleskenry, Co. Limerick, Ireland The Salesian Secondary School belongs to a network of Salesian schools which span the globe and were founded by St. John Bosco to educate young people. The Salesian ideal of education is the development of the whole person in reaching spiritual, academic, social and physical potential. Desi van Es & Lieve van der Heijden visited this school with Kieran Larkin
Castletroy College Newtown, Castletroy, Co. Limerick, Ireland The mission in Castletroy College is the holistic education of the individual, enabling students to become responsible, caring members of society as well as encouraging them to reach their full potential. In our daily lives we value the principles of justice and mutual respect embracing all denominations and cultures. Desi van Es visited this school with Meghan Treacy
Observations that were made when we visited the secondary schools. Scoil Carmel; Convent of Mercy: 20th of April 5th year, double class Assignment with relevation to e v+ a exhibition. The students will make their own exhibition. According to the students in the e v+ a exhibition there where a lot of ugly things shown of Limerick city. That’s why they wanted to portray the nice things of Limerick city. Starting point was photographs they made. All the photo’s where about the nice things in the city. At this moment they’re drawing the photos they made. Coloured pencils and normal pencils are being used. The materials that are in stock at the school are limited. The students have a responsibility to buy a variety of different pencils. Still nobody has bought them. “Make sure your pencils are sharpened before you use them, except if you want to experiment with different tones.” This is 5th year?! They should have known that. The level of drawing (& creativity) is very low. There are a few students that are above average but most of them aren’t much developt. When the class started, there was a direct introduction. After that everybody started working on their assignment. In general the class is calm and “working on their assignment”. There are a few students that don’t do any work and are chatting the entire time. Catríona seems to be ok with... As long as they’re not too loud. I notice that Catríona finds individual guidance very important. She takes her time for that and talks to almost every student. There was a girl texting and playing with her phone. Catríona didn’t notice. After 30 minutes she did. That same girl is eating right now... Catríona doesn’t notice that either. It’s clearly that all the students have a different background. You can recognise the differences by their behaviour and social skills. The photo that the students have to draw has to be realistic. Catríona walks passing the tables telling the students the best way to get it as realistic as possible. The exhibition of their work is only one week away and most of the students didn’t even finish half of their drawing. Catríona does everything for the students. She sharpens their pencils, draws in their drawing and erases when someone asks her to. She doesn’t notice everything that happens in her classroom, but she does hear everything! When the students get a little too loud she says something about it and takes action.
The “real” teacher of the students is also present in the classroom but doesn’t do anything. It is clear that it is Catríona class right now. Groups in the class. It was clear that before the class even started that there are different groups in the class. For weeks now, 4 different groups sit separate at a table. It’s clear who are “the loud ones” and who are the ones that want to do something during class. One group put some music on on their phones. Catríona doesn’t say anything about it. Is she ok with this? Doesn’t she notice? After 45 minutes... The students are much louder then when the class started. That is logical. It is their second class after the holidays. I notice that everybody is very loud and impatient but all of them are drawing! They’re eating/drinking/texting/listening to music... How can this be? Because the students aren’t very motivated Catríona decides to have a democratic vote about the exhibition. Do they want to continue the exhibition or not? Who’s proud enough of their drawing to have it in an exhibition. Hoe many colours are there in the grass. How do you show them on paper. That a point of practice in the project. How do you make different shades of colours, and what kind of pencils do you use for that. Try to translate the photo to paper. As realistic as possible 2nd year, double class A group of 29 students. They’re really loud and they have a double class. The entire group is a few weeks behind with their assignment. The assignment is to make a stop motion animation. First there is an introduction by Catríona. It’s about 20 minutes. The children aren’t motivated at all and it takes a long time before they start working. They learn about different expressions. Catríona is screaming a lot to the children to get them quiet. Everybody’s screaming, also the teacher. The groups that were made in the beginning of the semester have to be divided in to smaller groups because they’re not working as fast as they should be. It’s a typical class where there’s a few children that hype up the class and “motivates them to do nothing”. They stop the class from doing anything. Catríona is still screaming. Is this really the right way to get them quiet? She doesn’t talk to the students individually although that should be the way to make them stop. She screams to the entire class and ignores the ones that are hyping up the crowd.
They still have about 2 weeks (4 classes) left to finish their stop motion. Most of the students haven’t even finished their storyboards. Despite the clear introduction and all the forms the students received about the assignment, they still don’t know what to do. Ok, they are 12 years old... but still! Also their technical drawings skills aren’t developt at all... they draw like a 6 year old. Catríona is still screaming and the students are screaming back at her. This isn’t the right way! A few minutes later the students start to make trouble again, Catríona ignores them!! She should have separated the girls instead of letting them sit together. Because now they’re starting to throw pencils around! Salesians Secondary School:
24th of April 9.40 – 11.00 We’re in a biology-classroom, because there’s a TV. Kieran wants to show the movie Blade Runner. They already watched the whole film together, but now they’re going to watch certain scenes and describe them. He chose to watch that film beacause there’s some German expressionism in it. And that’s an interesting subject to discuss with the class It’s a transition year. We didn’t knew what ‘transition year’ exactly meant. So we looked it up and found it on the website of Salesian school. Here it is: Transition Year. In Salesian Secondary School we offer an optional Transition Year Programme after 3 rd year, which eases the changeover from Junior to Senior Cycle. Transition Year has two main aims:
The first is to promote the holistic development of the student. Opportunities are provided for social and community development through participation in a variety of sporting and other activities. Awareness of the needs of the community at local and international level is encouraged. Each student can participate in environmental studies, and can experience giving practical assistance to those less fortunate than themselves. The students understanding and recognition of other cultures is promoted through events in Ireland, and organized European trips. The second aim of the programme is to allow each student to experience a variety of subjects from the Leaving Certificate Curriculum, thus enabling her to make informed, mature subject choices on entering 5th year. Core Leaving Certificate subjects are studied on a weekly basis. Transition Year is about the development of the whole person, academic and personal; it is about nurturing and preparing each student for her role as a responsible member of society. We don’t have that in Holland. We have a totally different school system. Ah well, back to the classroom. The students are sitting close to each other and it’s very noisy in the beginning. After Kieran send someone out of the class, they can move on. The describing of the scenes are being used as a warming-up. While they’re describing what they see, they have to think about colour screens lighting, design, set and architectur. They all have difficulties with expanding their description. They find it useless and boring. They have to do the same thing again when the next scene is playing. Kieran has to ask frequently for silence and respect. He has no control over the names and he has to raise his voice many times. The boy who was sent out of the class in the beginning, didn’t seemed so annoying as the girl in the front, who is interrupting him all the time. During the lesson he has to move another person, while the student is moved to another place, he still has the chance to throw with things… It seems that the students can not concentrate themselves, maybe it’s because they get to much time to write (10 minutes). Finally, the girl in the front also has to move to another place. Her friend had to read out loud what she wrote, but because they were giggling Kieran chose someone else. That’s an easy way for her to get away with that. Two boys have been moved to another place in the back of the classroom, still, they have more chance to be annoying now. They don’t get any attention from the teacher anymore (only positive attention), so they can do whatever they want to do. Now Kieran tells them the hardest part of the assignment; they have to describe the contrast of the inside and outsides of what they see in the scene. It occurs to us that Kieran is standing a lot with his back to the class. 11.15 – 11.50 This is a class with 5th years. There were a lot of people missing in the class. With only ten students it was a really small group. They were making stop-motion animations. There were three groups and every group had their own camera. We were helping out some of the students, but they’re working really independent.
12.30 – 1.10 1st Years. Before this class we had a free hour, so we had the time to set everything up. Newspapers on the tables, cutting boards, drawings and rollers with paint. They’re making linoleums. They have a picture of a church, they traced this picture and cut that out in cardboard. It’s calm and still in the classroom, while it is a quite big class. Everybody is really busy and sometimes they’re whispering to each other. Everybody is working in different stages; drawing, tracing, cutting or painting. One girl cut herself in the hand and showed her bleeding hand to Kieran. Kieran dealed with it very well, he was really calm. There were two other teachers there. One of them got the firstaid box immediately. She took care of the girl’s hand, so that Kieran could pay attention to his other students. There were three children in the class that had problems keeping up, they were mentally challenged. In the Netherlands, they would get another education program than the other students. But here there were two attendants to lead them. So there is a special needs assistant per student.
April 21st We’re a little bit early, so I get the chance to see a third class. They’re making packaging for products they chose themselves. In the mean time I help Meghan with setting things up for the first years. They will be here straight after this class, so there isn’t a lot of time to set things up. 11.35 – 12.45 The first years come in. They collect around the table and listen to Meghan. ‘First things first’, she said. She is reading out all the names, to check if everybody is in. Then she introduces me and I can tell a bit about myself. I get a little applause.
The assignment is to make a drawing with wax. But only 6 people can do that at the same time, the rest just have to wait. The purpose is that the rest of the students can sketch and make concepts during that time, but most students prefer chatting or sleeping.
So there are three groups, one doing nothing, one practicing with wax and a film group. Meghan brought a camera from home, she wants to record the process. They learn from it, but it’s also quite fun. She needs one volunteer behind the camera and she wants two in front of the camera. So one guy is filming it and the girls who we’re volunteering have to do a little presentation. Behind a table they show how the waxing must be done. When the camera is on, everybody has to be really quiet, and they are… Well, it was hard to restrain there laugh. Meghan even has a filmboard. ‘Why is there a filmboard Miss?’ ‘Every film needs a filmboard!’ Megan explains. With the filmboard everyone takes it really serious now. ‘Take one!’ COMPLETE SILENCE…
In the last 10/5 minutes everyone has to clean up, put their chair on the tables and wait for the bell. 12.45 Lunchtime It strikes me that all the students are standing in the corridors, while there is a canteen. Meghan: ‘They just want to be cool.’ Ok… And I find it quite funny that there is a little tap in the hallway, just for students when they get thirsty. The building is really nice. There are large paintings everywhere made by students. They have about 1000 students and 80 people of staff. That’s really a lot staff for a secondary school in compare to Holland I think. 1.55 – 2.30 Now there are fifth years. People are late or don’t show up at all. There is a small group of 12 people. Everyone is really still, they’re listening to Meghan and then they work independent on there work of art. They have to make a poster. The process is rather important. So they have to write down their ideas and explain them. They sketch and there must be a mood board before the product is finished. There are 6 computers in this classroom and free to use all of the time. Only one is taken, in Holland they would be busy all day.
Meghan talks with every student individually about how they’re getting on. Which isn’t so hard if there are only twelve people in the classroom. In the Netherlands, most of the groups in secondary schools cover 30 pupils. But we have profit by our timetables. One lesson takes 50 minutes, here it’s only 35 minute. I think that is way too short! First you have to talk about 10 minutes about the assignment and you need like 10 minutes to clean things up, so there’s only one quarter left… 2.30 – 3.05 Transition class. I keep asking what the definition of a transition class really is, I still don’t know yet… I know they are fourth years and Meghan knows they’re hard to handle. Well, she’s right about that. Some boys are constantly speaking while she's giving instructions. This class is new for her and she only has them for two weeks. This class has to come up with an assignment of there own, “it’s something they’re experimenting with” Meghan said to me. Also they have to work in groups during these two weeks. And so far as I’m concerned, that’s an experiment too. With her previous transition class, she noticed that they didn’t like the ‘group-thing’. So now she has made a basic form with a couple of questions about working together. Like: ‘Do you like working together and why or why not’… I find that a bit weird, because I’m used to working in groups since I was a little kid. We had group work all the time in secondary school. Her last transition class chose to make a film together. Now she wants to explain this class too about how to make a film. She tells a bit about modulation and that it works better when you’re interviewing two peoples instead of one. She wants that everyone makes up a truth and a lie and say that in front of the camera. They can go in pairs. The things they make up, may not be obvious. No sentences like: ‘Hi, I’m … and I’m 13 years old.’ After a lot sentences like that, Meghan tells them that they’re going to use this to edit next week. Only 3 people had used a program like movie maker before, so that’s going to be interesting. She only has 4 lessons with this class and she already knows that they aren’t able to finish this project. That’s a pity, because the project gets really fun in the end, when they can make a film themselves.
Theoretical research • • • •
Arts Council (Art) education in Ireland LCGA Hunt Museum
Arts Council The Arts Council of Ireland is the Irish government agency for developing the arts. We work in partnership with artists, arts organizations, public policy makers and others to build a central place for the arts in Irish life. The Arts Council is the national agency for funding, developing and promoting the arts in Ireland. The Council recognizes that the arts have a central and distinctive contribution to make to our evolving society. Established in 1951, to stimulate public interest in and promote the knowledge, appreciation and practice of the arts, the Council is an autonomous body, which is under the aegis of the Department of Arts, Sport and Tourism. The Arts Council is a voluntary body of 12 members and a chair, appointed by the Minister for Arts, Sport and Tourism for a term of five years. The ongoing work of the Arts Council is delivered by the executive. In addition to the Director, a staff of 48 full-time equivalents carries out the daily functions of the organization. Arts advisers, who provide additional expertise and strategic advice on different aspects of the arts, are retained on a consultancy basis.
The Arts Council’s core functions under the Arts Act 2003 are to:
• • • •
stimulate public interest in the arts; promote knowledge, appreciation and practice of the arts; assist in improving standards in the arts; advise the Minister and other public bodies on the arts.
They do this by: • • • •
providing financial assistance, mainly, but not exclusively, to artists and arts organizations; we also support others who develop and promote the arts; offering advice and information on the arts to Government and to others; publishing research and information as an advocate for the arts and artists; undertaking a range of projects to promote and develop the arts, often in partnership with others.
Financial support As the Irish Government’s development agency for the arts, the Arts Council is the major funder of the arts in Ireland. The Arts Council's grant from the Irish Exchequer in 2009 is €75.7 million. Arts organizations, artists, and groups (i.e. a non-profit organization or community group or those working in the health and education sector) may apply for financial support from the Arts Council.
(Art) education in Ireland There are three distinct levels of education in Ireland: primary, secondary and higher (often known as third-level or tertiary) education. In recent years further education has grown immensely. Growth in the economy since the 1960s has driven much of the change in the education system. Education in Ireland is free at all levels, including college (university), but only for students applying from the EU. All children must receive compulsory education between the ages of six and sixteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the three years of post-primary. The Constitution of Ireland allows this education to be provided in the home; this has caused much legal wrangling for years as to the minimum standards required for home education since the constitution does not explicitly provide for the State to define these minimum standards. In 1973 the requirement to pass the Irish language in order to receive a second-level certificate was dropped although a student attending a school which receives public money must be taught the language. Certain students may get an exemption from learning Irish; these include students who have spent a significant period of time abroad or students with a learning difficulty. English is the primary medium of instruction at all levels, except in Gaelscoileanna: schools in which Irish is the working language and which are increasingly popular. Universities also offer degree programmes in diverse disciplines, taught mostly through English, with a few in Irish. Some universities also offer some courses partly through other languages such as French, German or Spanish. Pre-school Pre-school is optional in Ireland and takes the form of a number of privately-run crèches, play-schools and Montessori schools, which children attend for one year or two, at ages three and/or four. Parents must pay to send their child to these institutions using their own earnings and any child allowance they receive from the government. Parents with children under five currently receive the Early Childcare Allowance for this. Primary School • Junior Infants • Senior Infants • First Class • Second Class • Third Class • Fourth Class • Fifth Class • Sixth Class Secondary School Junior Cycle • • •
First Year Second Year Third Year
Transition Year •
Transition Year (optional in some schools, compulsory in others, and not available in others)
Senior Cycle • •
Fifth Year Sixth Year
Primary education Although children are not obliged to attend school until the age of six, 65% of four year olds and most five year olds are enrolled in the infant classes in primary schools in Ireland. Primary schools operate an eight-year programme, consisting of two kindergarten years (Junior and Senior Infants), followed by classes 1-6. The primary education system emphasises a child-centred approach and is founded on the belief that high quality education enables children to realise their potential as individuals and to live their lives to the fullest capacity appropriate to their particular stages of development. The primary curriculum (recently completely revised) provides for an extensive learning experience and promotes a rich variety of approaches to teaching and learning. The curriculum is divided into the following key areas: •
Social, environmental and scientific education
Arts education (including visual arts, music and drama)
Social, personal and health education The aims of the curriculum are to ensure that all children are provided with learning opportunities that recognise and celebrate their uniqueness, develop their full potential and prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century. The focus is on the child as learner, and the use of a variety of teaching methodologies is an essential feature of the curriculum. The curriculum aims to foster the development of key skills in communication, problemsolving, critical thinking, inquiry, investigation and analysis, and social and personal awareness and interaction. In particular, it places key emphasis on the acquisition of literacy and numeracy skills. The curriculum emphasises the need for greater attention to be paid to students with special educational needs and emphasises the importance of achieving functional literacy and numeracy. It also draws attention to the needs of gifted children. There are no formal examinations at the end of the primary school cycle.
The school year runs from September until the end of June with holidays at Easter and Christmas.
Types of school Primary education is generally completed at a national school, a multidenominational school or a gaelscoil. National schools date back to the introduction of state primary education in the mid19th century. They are usually controlled by a board of management under diocesan patronage and often include a local clergyman. The term national school has of late become partly synonymous with primary school in some parts. Recently, there have been calls from many sides for fresh thinking in the areas of funding and governance for such schools, with many wanting them to be fully secularized. Gaelscoileanna are a very recent movement, started only late in the 20th century. The Irish language is the working language in these schools and they can now be found countrywide. They differ from Irish-language National Schools in that most are under the patronage of a voluntary organization, Foras Pátrúnachta na Scoileanna LánGhaeilge, rather than a diocesan patronage. Nearly 10% of all school children attend Gaelscoils with 368 schools across the country making it the fastest growing education sector. Students who decide to sit their Leaving Certificate exams through Irish, will get an additional 11%. Multidenominational schools are another innovation. They are generally under the patronage of a non-profit limited company without share capital. They are often opened due to parental demand and students from all religions and backgrounds are welcome. Many are under the patronage of a voluntary organization, Educate Together. At least one proposed school has been approved under the patronage of the regional VEC, who generally run vocational secondary schools.
Secondary education Most students attend and complete secondary education, with approximately ninety percent of school-leavers taking the terminal examination, the Leaving Certificate. Secondary education is generally completed at a community school, a comprehensive school, a vocational school or a voluntary secondary school. •
Secondary schools are privately owned and managed. The majority are conducted by religious communities and the remainder by Boards of Governors or by individuals. Over 95 per cent of the cost of teachers' salaries are met by the State. In addition, allowances and capitation grants are paid to 91 per cent of secondary schools, which participate in the free education scheme. Traditionally, these schools provided an academic type of education but in recent years have tended towards the provision also of technical and practical subjects. Over thirty Irish secondary schools provide boarding facilities and many of these have a strong tradition of enrolling students from abroad. In addition, a number of English language
schools and private agencies assist overseas students at second level with application formalities and with finding home-stay or other accommodation. •
Vocational schools and community colleges are administered by vocational education committees which are statutory bodies set up under the Vocational Education Act, 1930, as amended. Vocational schools are funded up to 93 per cent of the total cost of provision. The balance is provided by receipts generated by the committees. Initially, the main thrust of these schools was directed towards the development of manual skills and preparation of young people for trades. Nowadays, however, the full range of second-level courses is available. Vocational schools are also the main providers of adult education and community education courses.
Comprehensive schools combine academic and vocational subjects in a wide curriculum. They are managed by a board of management representative of the diocesan religious authority, the Vocational Education Committee of the area and the Minister for Education and Science. The schools are financed entirely by the Department of Education and Science.
Community schools are managed by Boards of Management representative of local interests. These schools offer a broad curriculum embracing both practical and academic subjects. They also provide facilities for adult education and community development projects. These schools are entirely funded by the State through the Department of Education and Science. In urban areas, there is great freedom in choosing the type of school the child will attend. The education system emphasis at second level is as much on breadth as on depth; the system attempts to prepare the individual for society and further education or work. This is similar to the education system in Scotland. Most students enter secondary school aged 12-13 and complete their Leaving Certificate Examination aged 17-19.
Types of programmes The document Rules and Programme for Secondary Schools published by the Department of Education and Science sets out the minimum standards of education required at this level. Examinations are overseen by the State Examinations Commission. Additional documents set out the standard in each element, module or subject. • The Junior Cycle builds on the education received at primary level and culminates with the Junior Certificate Examination. Students usually begin this at the age of 12 or 13. The Junior Certificate Examination is taken after three years of study and not before fourteen years of age. It consists of exams in English, Irish, maths (unless the student has an exemption in one of these) and Civil Social and Political Education as well as a number of chosen subjects. These typically consist of one or both of history and geography and a selection from subjects including science, home economics, materials technology (woodwork), metalwork, music, religion, German, French, Spanish, Italian, business studies, environmental and social studies, technology, Latin, classical studies and ancient Greek. Most students take around ten examined subjects altogether. Other non-examined classes at Junior Cycle level include Physical Education, Social Personal and Health Education (SPHE) and religion. •
The Transition Year is a one-year informal course which is taken by an increasing number of students usually ages 15 or 16. The content of this is left to the school to model on the local needs. It is compulsory in some schools, but optional in others and some schools do not have it. Students may attend structured classes, but do not cover material relevant to the Senior Cycle or the Leaving Certificate exams, and therefore students who choose not to do this year are in no way academically disadvantaged when entering the Senior Cycle. The range of activities in Transition Year or Fourth Year differs greatly from school to school, but many include activities such as work experience placements, project work, international trips or exchanges and excursions. Students may participate in courses such as creative writing, sailing, film-making, public speaking and so on, or enter competitions in science, fashion, motor sport and others which would normally be too time-consuming for a full-time student. Proponents of TY believe that it allows students an extra year to mature, engage in self-directed learning, explore career options and to choose subjects for senior cycle (the results of the Junior Certificate examination do not become available until midway through September, by which time students not taking Transition Year will already have chosen their classes and begun attending). Opponents believe that a year away from traditional study and the classroom environment can distract students and cause problems when they return to the Senior Cycle. They also believe that the activities undertaken in TY prevent some students from enrolling in this year, as they can be costly and most schools charge a fee of a few hundred euro to cover these activities.
The Senior Cycle builds on the junior cycle and culminates with the Leaving Certificate Examination. Students normally begin this aged 15-17 the year following the completion of the Junior Cycle or Transition Year. The Leaving Certificate Examination is taken after two years of study usually at the ages of 16-19.
Therefore, a typical secondary school will consist of First to Third Year (with the Junior Certificate at the end of Third), the usually optional Transition Year (though compulsory in some schools), and Fifth and Sixth Year (with the Leaving Cert. at the end of Sixth).
The vast majority of students continue from lower level to senior level, with only 12.3% leaving after the Junior Certificate. This is lower than the EU average of 15.2%. Ireland's secondary students rank above average in terms of academic performance in both the OECD and EU; having reading literacy, mathematic literacy and scientific literacy test scores better than average. Ireland has the second best reading literacy for teenagers in the EU, after Finland.
Higher education Higher (or third-level) education awards in Ireland are conferred by University of Dublin (Trinity College), Dublin City University, Dublin Institute of Technology, Higher Education and Training Awards Council, National University of Ireland, Waterford Institute of Technology and University of Limerick Mary Immaculate College, Limerick. These are the degree-awarding authorities approved by the Irish Government and can grant awards at all academic levels. The King's Inns of Dublin has a limited role in education specialising in the preparation of candidates for the degree of barrister-at-law to practice as barristers. Some colleges are constituent or linked colleges of universities, whilst others are designated institutions of the Higher Education and Training Awards Council. The latter include the Institutes of Technology, Colleges of Education, and other independent colleges. Some colleges have delegated authority from the Higher Education and Training Awards Council, this allows them to confer and validate awards in their own name. Some institutions such as the University of Limerick and Dublin City University have completed a process of modularizing their courses (others are still in a transition phase), mostly using the ECTS. The Bologna process and applied research are the current concerns of national educational policy, additional concerns include the structures of the National University of Ireland and Trinity College, Dublin. The Marks & Standards document, offered by most institutions, can be consulted for information on the range and criteria set down for awards, while programme specifications offer additional information. In contrast to practice in the rest of the education system, entry tends to be highly competitive for school leavers; the so called "Points Race". In 2001 the percentage of school leavers transferring to third level exceeded 50% for the first time, as of 2005 it is in excess of 55% and expected to grow at approximately 1% per annum for the next decade. Under the "Free Fees Initiative" the Exchequer will pay the tuition fees of students who meet relevant course, nationality and residence requirements as set down under the initiative. A "registration fee" of approximately â‚Ź1500, at the start of the academic year, is payable on most courses; this fee is intended to cover student examinations, registration and services. All but two of the seven universities in the Republic of Ireland offer "open" (omnibus entry) Bachelor of Arts degrees through the CAO where the student can choose their specialization after their first year of study. The two universities that do not offer "open" (omnibus entry) arts degrees, (Trinity College, Dublin and Dublin City University) do still offer Bachelor of Arts degrees in specific areas of study such as Drama Studies, Journalism, Latin, History, Japanese and International Relations. In one, Trinity College, Dublin, the student wishing to 39
do an arts degree must apply to the college naming a viable combination of two "arts" subjects, such as French and Philosophy, and in the final year the student must choose one of the two to focus solely on. Dublin City University's de facto omnibus entry arts degree is offered by St. Patrick's College of Education (a college of DCU) and is titled "BA in Humanities". Ireland also has 0.747 of the World's top 500 Universities per capita, which ranks the country in 8th place in the world. There are seven establishments of higher education in the Republic of Ireland which are ranked amongst the top 500 universities worldwide by the Times Higher Education Supplement. For medical education, please see under the article medical education. Entry into Universities is normally done through the CAO or Central Applications Office. In this way, students wishing to enter university apply to the CAO rather than the individual university. Places in courses are usually awarded based on results in the Leaving Certificate Examination or any international equivalent. Each university has a minimum entry requirement, usually requiring a pass grade in either English or Irish, as well as math. Some also require a pass grade in a modern continental European language (French, German, Spanish or Italian). Each individual course has further entry requirements, for example, science courses usually require a certain grade in one or two sciences. The student must also achieve the number of points required for the course under the points system. However, universities also have systems in place for accepting mature students, and students who have successfully completed a Post Leaving Certificate course. Entry into third-level is generally very high in Ireland, and among young adults (those aged 25 to 34), 41.6% of them have attained third-level degrees - the second highest level in the EU after Cyprus, and substantially ahead of the average of 29.1%. There has recently been talk of reintroducing third-level fees with calls from DCU President, Ferdinand von Prondzynski, to do so in order to protect university funding. Minister for Education Batt O'Keeffe confessed that there is a possibility of the reintroduction of fees in some form.
Source : http://www.educatioireland.ie
Limerick City Gallery of Art (LCGA) Children & Family
Limerick City Gallery of Art places education and learning at the heart of its programming agenda and seeks to cultivate an atmosphere that encourages exploration and enquiry and supports creativity. Groups of all ages are welcome and tours of both the contemporary exhibitions and the Permanent Collection are available on booking. Children are very welcome in the gallery at all times, with adult supervision. Limerick City Gallery of Art programmes Free Family-Days monthly which complement the contemporary exhibition programme. These events are coordinated by Gallery staff and facilitated by local artists. Schools
Limerick City Gallery of Art places education and learning at the heart of its programming agenda and seeks to cultivate an atmosphere that encourages exploration and enquiry and 42
supports creativity. Groups of all ages are welcome and tours of both the contemporary exhibitions and the Permanent Collection are available on booking. LCGA offers free tours of both the Collection and contemporary exhibitions to schools groups and teachers Primary Schools The Gallery is a unique learning environment, in which children experience both traditional and contemporary art. The Gallery’s ethos encourages each child to develop their own individual response to the artwork they view. Each term a programme of free tours and workshops with artists are offered to Primary Schools, these events are devised around the Gallery's exhibitions. Class groups are invited to visit LCGA to avail of the tours and workshops, with a focus on the children connecting with the works in contemporary exhibitions and the historic collection. Secondary Schools LCGA programmes a diverse range of contemporary exhibitions which challenge students to decipher artists' meanings and can instigate exciting debates. Traditional Irish art is well represented in the Gallery's historically important collection, including works by William Orpen, Sean Keating, Paul and Grace Henry, Evie Hone and Camille Souter. Each term a programme of tours, workshops and 'Meet the Artists' events are programmed specifically for Second Level students and take advantage of the unique learning environment provided by the gallery. Engaging with art, we experience the joy of the aesthetic and are challenged to make sense of the visual language. The Gallery’s educational focus is to encourage students to connect with a range of artworks in contemporary exhibitions and the collection. Shinnors Fellowship In co-operation with Limerick Institute of Technology, Limerick School of Art and Design, Limerick City Gallery of Art supports the Shinnors Fellowship by providing invaluable practical curatorial experience in parallel with the student’s academic studies. The funding for the project is provided by a scholarship donated for this purpose by Limerick City Gallery of Art. This MA by Research (Mode A) is over a two-year period, with an option to advance to Phd by Research (Mode B). The fellowship candidate takes on a range of tasks and responsibilities including gallery administration, exhibition installation, education programme delivery and collections management. The candidate enjoys the benefits of working alongside professional colleagues and opportunities to meet with exhibiting artists, visiting curators and academics. Internships Limerick City Gallery of Art offers a limited number of voluntary internships each year. Internships take the form of Gallery Volunteers, Administrative Internships and Transition Year work experience. Applicants may apply from both Ireland and abroad. Preference is given to students studying at third level who require experience as a part of their studies. Internships are usually part time and last several months and are offered on a Voluntary basis. Gallery Volunteers LCGA annually works with of group third level students attending Colleges in Limerick, 43
including Limerick School of Art and Design, University Limerick, Mary Immaculate and Limerick Senior College . The volunteer programme aims to provide training and experience in a gallery environment, developing skills such as tour guiding and facilitating workshops. The primary focus is to support the educational programme through tour guiding, assisting on events and Family Days, with additional opportunities of assisting artists during Excursions Festival and e v+ a. Volunteer positions at LCGA provide valuable experience in the area of art education and facilitation. Administrative Internships LCGA has in recent years initiated a small number Administrative Internships. Candidates work on a number of administration tasks while on Internship including, database population, collection research and text translation. These Internships are most useful for studentâ€™s studying in the areas of Arts Administration and Curatorial Studies. Transition Year Work Experience The Gallery takes on two to three Transition Year students for work experience annually. Studentâ€™s activities vary, depending on exhibition schedules. Activities include answering telephones, invigilation and basic administration.