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MUSEUM AS A CULTURAL HUB: A GATEWAY TO THE HERITAGE IDENTITY OF IPOH

BY

LAM WEN YI

THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES, UNIVERSITY PUTRA MALAYSIA, IN FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE.

JULY 2019


All material contained within the thesis, including without limitation text, logos, icons, photographs and all other artwork, is copyright material of Universiti Putra Malaysia unless otherwise stated. Use may be made of any material contained within the thesis for non-commercial purposes from the copyright holder. Commercial use of material may only be made with the express, prior, written permission of Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Copyright Š Universiti Putra Malaysia.

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Abstract of thesis presented to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia in fulfilment of the requirement for the Master of Architecture MUSEUM AS A CULTURAL HUB: A GATEWAY TO THE HERITAGE IDENTITY OF IPOH By LAM WEN YI July 2019 Coordinator :

Wan Srihani Wan Mohamed, PhD Ida Suriana Ismail, MSc

Faculty

Faculty of Design and Architecture

:

ABSTRACT Currently, “placelessness� is an undeniable global issue that is happening within the global cities all around the world. It happens due to the decaying of urban precincts, especially within the inner part of a city, which is used to be the main economic core. Similarly, in Ipoh, due to modernisation, the main economic activities as well as social activities are gradually moving out from the inner area to the other part of the city. The inner city is then abandoned and left to decay. Besides that, in order for the city to accommodate the increasing population, it is overwhelmed with new developments. Instead of portraying the unique identity and sense of place, Ipoh is exposed to severe pressure of commercialisation, poor design and cultural uniformity. Therefore, in this research, the importance of museum as a potential cultural hub that representing and at the same time preserving the cultural heritage identity of Ipoh is studied. From there, the recommendations on the design of the future museum architecture are being identified. To address the aim of this thesis project, the study combines both qualitative and quantitative research methods to obtain the possible solutions that can be applied into the current situation of the proposed site. The study is carried out through content analysis of planning documents and data obtained from local authority, conducting survey questionnaire among local residents with different age group using online applications, organising structured interviews with the local parties that equipped with knowledge about architecture, urban design and culture. The result of this study revealed the importance of museum to a city and the possible implementation of architectural solutions in future museums and cultural hubs to enhance the cultural heritage identity of Ipoh.

Keywords: placelessness, decaying inner city, future museum, cultural heritage identity.

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APPROVAL This project report attached herein, entitled “MUSEUM AS A CULTURAL HUB: A GATEWAY TO THE HERITAGE IDENTITY OF IPOH” prepared and submitted by “LAM WEN YI” in fulfilment of the requirement for the Master of Architecture is hereby approved.

…………………………………..… Pn. Ida Suriana Ismail

….…………………… Date

Department of Architecture Faculty of Design and Architecture, UPM. (Project Supervisor)

…………………………………..…

….……………………

Dr. Wan Srihani Wan Mohamed

Date

Department of Architecture Faculty of Design and Architecture, UPM. (Internal Examiner)

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DECLARATION BY GRADUATE STUDENT I hereby confirm that: •

this thesis is my original work;

quotations, illustrations and citations have been duly referenced;

this thesis has not been submitted previously or concurrently for any other degree at any other institutions;

intellectual property from the thesis and copyright of thesis are fully owned by Universiti Putra Malaysia, as according to the Universiti Putra Malaysia (Research) Rules 2012;

written permission must be obtained from supervisor and the office of Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research and Innovation) before thesis is published (in the form of written, printed or in electronic form) including books, journals, modules, proceedings, popular writings, seminar papers, manuscripts, posters, reports, lecture notes, learning modules or any other materials as stated in the Universiti Putra Malaysia (Research) Rules 2012;

there is no plagiarism or data falsification/fabrication in the thesis, and scholarly integrity is upheld as according to the Universiti Putra Malaysia (Graduate Studies) Rules 2003 (Revision 2012-2013) and the Universiti Putra Malaysia (Research) Rules 2012. The thesis has undergone plagiarism detection software.

Signature: ________________________

Date: __________________

Name and Matric No.: ________________________________________

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ACKNOWLEGMENT No work, however big or small, has ever been done without the contributions of others. I would like to use this opportunity to express my gratitude towards everyone who supported me throughout the research project. I am thankful for the valuable guidance, friendly advice, and invaluably constructive critics given throughout the research process.

First of all, I would like to thank my research supervisor, Dr Marek Kozlowski for the patient guidance, encouragement and advice provided. I have been extremely lucky to have a supervisor who cared so much about my work, and who responded to my questions and queries so promptly. Secondly, many thanks go to Madam Ida Suriana Ismail for all her precious input in thesis writing and give me suggestions to improve my proposal, for this only I could be able to progress further on. Furthermore, I would like to express my gratitude towards the studio coordinator, Assoc. Prof. Ar Meor Mohammad Fared for guiding me through the design process using his experience as a practising architect in the field. Besides that, I would also like to show my appreciation towards Dr Wan Srihani Wan Mohamed as the dissertation coordinator whose have invested her full effort in providing guidance to the class. Her suggestions have provided me with a clear direction towards the final outcome of this study.

Completing this work would have been all the more difficult were it not for the support and friendship offered by my course mates, especially Lai Shu Chyuen, Tan Xin Lin, Christie Chin, Quin Looi and Chai Cheng Jiun who have been with me throughout the ups and downs, that give me support and advise me throughout these two years of master study. I appreciate all the good memories and I am indebted to them for their help.

Finally, and most importantly, special thanks to my family, especially my parents for their continued support physically, mentally and financially. I am extremely grateful for their love, prayers, caring and sacrifices for education and preparing me for my future. Not forgetting Dennis, my best friend who is like family to me, who will listen and encourage me when I am stressed out, give me advices and suggestions whenever he can and will hang out together in times to help me unwind. Thanks for all the emotional support that gives me strength to continue the journey.

Once again, many thanks go to all the people who have supported me to complete the research project directly or indirectly.

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TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………….………II APPROVAL…………………………………………………………………....…….II DECLARATION BY GRADUATE STUDENT .................................................... IV ACKNOWLEGMENT ............................................................................................... V LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................... VI LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................. VII CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 1 1.1 Research Background ...................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 Urban Decay Within the City .............................................................. 1 1.1.2 Ipoh Inner City ..................................................................................... 9 1.2 Problem Statement ........................................................................................ 10 1.3 Research Aim……………………………………………………………….11 1.4 Research Objectives ...................................................................................... 11 1.5 Research Questions ....................................................................................... 12 1.6 Research Methodology .................................................................................. 12 1.7 Significance of Research ............................................................................... 12 1.8 Scope of Study……………………………………………………………...12 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................. 14 2.1 A Study of Ipoh City ..................................................................................... 14 2.2 Cultural Hub as Catalyst Project Within the Inner City ................................ 18 2.3 The Museum in Malaysia .............................................................................. 20 2.3.1 Importance of Museum in a City ....................................................... 21 2.3.2 Museums as Cultural Hub .................................................................. 23 2.4 The Concept of Place .................................................................................... 24 2.4.1 The Concept of Place Attachment ..................................................... 25 2.4.2 Sense of Place .................................................................................... 30 2.4.3 Place-Identity ..................................................................................... 34 2.5 Design Strategies and Approaches ................................................................ 34 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .................................................... 43 3.1 Purpose of Study............................................................................................ 43 3.2 Sampling and Instrumentation....................................................................... 43 3.2.1 Qualitative Research Method ............................................................. 43 IV | P a g e


3.2.2 Quantitative Research Method ........................................................... 44 3.3 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………..44 3.3.1 Collection of Documented Material / Content Analysis .................... 44 3.3.2 Interview ............................................................................................ 45 3.3.3 Survey Research / Questionnaire ....................................................... 45 3.4 Research Design Framework......................................................................... 46 3.5 Data Analysis Plan ........................................................................................ 49 CHAPTER 4: FINDING & DISCUSSION.............................................................. 50 4.1 Content Analysis …………………………………………………………...50 4.2 Interview Content Analysis ........................................................................... 57 4.3 Questionnaire Content Analysis .................................................................... 59 CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION ............................ 77 5.1 Possible Design Strategies and Recommendations ....................................... 77 5.2 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….77 5.3 Limitations………………………………………………………………….79 5.4 Recommendations for Future Research ........................................................ 79 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. i APPENDICES……………………………………...…………………..……..….....vii Appendix I……………………………………………………………………...viii Appendix II……………………………………………………………………..xiv Appendix III……………………………………………………………………..xv

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LIST OF TABLES Table 2.4.1: The arguments of the concept of “place attachment” by various phenomenologists and environmental psychologists. .................................................. 27 Table 2.4.2: The analysis of the components that bridge the relationship between people and place from the various arguments as listed in Table 2.4.1. ....................... 28 Table 2.4.3: The arguments of the concept of 'sense of place' by various phenomenologists and environmental psychologists. .................................................. 32 Table 2.4.4 : The analysis of the components of “sense of place” from the various arguments as listed in Table 2.4.3. ............................................................................... 33

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1.1: Summary of the process of urban decay within the city. ......................... 1 Figure 1.1.2: Location of survey. ................................................................................... 3 Figure 1.1.3: Year of the buildings built. ....................................................................... 4 Figure 1.1.4: Current uses of the building. .................................................................... 4 Figure 1.1.5: Building Category. ................................................................................... 5 Figure 1.1.6: Current conditions of the building............................................................ 5 Figure 1.1.7: Condition of the conservation. ................................................................. 6 Figure 1.1.8: Sign of defects on the building. ................................................................ 6 Figure 1.1.9: Elements of defect. ................................................................................... 7 Figure 1.1.10: Require for conservation. ....................................................................... 7 Figure 1.1.11: Appropriateness of conservation approach. ........................................... 8 Figure 2.1.1: Geographical location of Ipoh. ............................................................... 14 Figure 2.1.2: Overview of Ipoh city............................................................................. 14 Figure 2.1.3: History timeline of Ipoh. ........................................................................ 15 Figure 2.1.4: Coverage of the Core and Buffer zone within heritage zone. ................ 16 Figure 2.1.5: The collection of news and posts from newspapers, blogs and forums dated from the year 2010. ............................................................................................ 17 Figure 2.2.1: Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao. ............................................................... 19 Figure 2.2.2: Pompidou Centre. ................................................................................... 19 Figure 2.4.1: The components of place. ....................................................................... 24 Figure 2.5.1: The elements constitute to a great place. ................................................ 35 Figure 2.5.2: Illustration of case studies regarding entrance hall layouts. ................... 37 Figure 2.5.3: Spatial landmark. .................................................................................... 38 Figure 2.5.4: Object landmarks. ................................................................................... 38 Figure 2.5.5: Clear roles for maps and signs................................................................ 39 Figure 2.5.6: Locations for maps, signs and landmarks. ............................................. 39 Figure 2.5.7: Various exhibition arrangements ............................................................ 40 VII | P a g e


Figure 2.5.8: Periodic outside views. ........................................................................... 40 Figure 2.5.10; Diversity with interior design. .............................................................. 40 Figure 2.5.9: Diversity through lighting. ..................................................................... 41 Figure 2.5.11: Doorway placement. ............................................................................. 41 Figure 2.5.12: Circulations within the lounges. ........................................................... 42 Figure 3.2.1: Type of qualitative research methods. .................................................... 43 Figure 3.2.2: Type of quantitative research methods. .................................................. 44 Figure 3.4.1: Research design framework. .................................................................. 48 Figure 4.1.1: The distribution of historical buildings in heritage zone. ....................... 50 Figure 4.1.2: Percentage of the historical buildings in the heritage zone. ................... 51 Figure 4.1.3: Distribution of vacant upper floors and unused traditional shophouses. 52 Figure 4.1.4: Current condition of the traditional shophouses..................................... 52 Figure 4.1.5: Distribution of new developments in Ipoh. ............................................ 54 Figure 4.1.6: Characteristic of the row of shophouses along Jalan Bijeh Timah. ....... 55 Figure 4.1.7:The concept of future skyline of Ipoh city. ............................................. 55 Figure 4.1.8: Height limit within the heritage zone. .................................................... 56 Figure 4.1.9: Buildings in heritage zone that exceed height limit, The Octagon Service Apartment (left) and The Maybank Trust Office building (right). .............................. 56 Figure 4.3.1: Age group of the respondents. ................................................................ 60 Figure 4.3.2: Gender of the respondents. ..................................................................... 61 Figure 4.3.3: Percentage of local residents from Ipoh. ................................................ 61 Figure 4.3.4: Usage of dialects. ................................................................................... 62 Figure 4.3.5: Awareness of learning own dialects. ...................................................... 62 Figure 4.3.6: Exposure to traditional arts and crafts. ................................................... 63 Figure 4.3.7: Exposure to various type of traditional arts and trades in Ipoh. ............. 63 Figure 4.3.8: Interest on the traditional arts and crafts. ............................................... 64 Figure 4.3.9: Awareness towards the importance of traditional arts and crafts to be preserved and inherited. ............................................................................................... 64 VIII | P a g e


Figure 4.3.10: Understanding of history of Ipoh. ........................................................ 65 Figure 4.3.11: Source of exposure to the history of Ipoh. ........................................... 65 Figure 4.3.12: Two historical buildings in Ipoh, Majestic Cinema (left) and Yau Tet Shin Market (right). ..................................................................................................... 66 Figure 4.3.13: Exposure to historical buildings. .......................................................... 66 Figure 4.3.14: Awareness on the listed historical buildings in Ipoh. ........................... 67 Figure 4.3.15: Importance of the existence and preservation of historical buildings. . 68 Figure 4.3.16: Public reception on identity of Ipoh. .................................................... 68 Figure 4.3.17: Attitude towards museums in Ipoh. ...................................................... 70 Figure 4.3.18: The favourable museums for revisit and will recommend to others. ... 70 Figure 4.3.19: Cultural facilities with the most unsatisfied experience. ...................... 71 Figure 4.3.20: Percentage of repeated visit for local museums. .................................. 71 Figure 4.3.21: Main reason for visiting a museum. ..................................................... 72 Figure 4.3.22: The important elements that attract respondents to visit a museum. .... 72 Figure 4.3.23: Awareness towards new developments in Ipoh.................................... 74 Figure 4.3.24: Altitude towards new developments. ................................................... 74 Figure 4.3.25: Awareness on the impact of new developments towards the heritage identity of Ipoh. ............................................................................................................ 76

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1

Research Background

1.1.1

Urban Decay Within the City

Figure 1.1.1: Summary of the process of urban decay within the city. (Image source: Author) Urban decay is defined in the dictionary as the decline and deterioration of an urban area due to neglect or age. It involves the process of a previously functioning city, or part of a city that falls into disrepair and dilapidation. A city might show a sign of deindustrialisation, depopulation or changing population, restructuring, abandoned buildings,

high

local

unemployment,

fragmented

families,

political

disenfranchisement, crime, and a desolate, inhospitable city landscape. (Educalingo, 2019; Wikipedia, 2019)

Nowadays, urban decay is a common concern in cities. In order to reconcile the growth and major structural changes in terms of global economies, government public policies, transportation, social, economic and physical changes in cities, the urban form of a city develops and changes with time. It is led by the interaction between social, economic and physical changes in cities. (Andersen, 2003) In most 1|Page


cases, it is associated with the deterioration of an urban area whereby the area has aged or neglected. The prominent aspects can be seen easily in terms of physical, economic and social context of the cities. (Clark, 2014)

In terms of physical context, many cities are exposed to various symptoms of urban deterioration, including building abandonment and high business vacancies. Physical disorder is obvious in many inner-city neighbourhoods through the observation of visual signs of negligence and unchecked decay due to lack of maintenance. There will be unpleasant sight of ill-kept properties, abundance of trash in abandoned buildings, offensive graffiti on walls, vandalism of public property and abandoned vehicles in alleys. (Skogan, 1992)

On the other hand, urban decay also contributes to social problem as these old cities house drug addicts, prostitutes and criminals. (Skogan, 1992) This situation will threaten the safety of the surrounding neighbourhood and further increase the crime rate of the area. Consequently, the local citizens and entrepreneurs will move out from the area and worsen the condition of the city itself. (Alias, Zyed, & Chai, 2016)

As a result of the negative impacts caused by urban deterioration, many cities that were once prosperous are now experiencing economic crisis. The abandoned buildings and commercial sites discouraged owners and investors to carry out new business and cultural projects. This led to high unemployment rate and deindustrialization, which causes the city to lose its urban function. The city will then eventually lose its sense of place and identity. However, ironically, these cities were once the backbone of urban civilization and the main economy centres overflowing with retail, commercial, and government administrative activities. (Alias, Zyed, & Chai, 2016)

a. Current Condition of the Historical Cities in Malaysia Most of the Malaysian cities are very old historical cities. Currently, there is a growing condition of neglect and degradation within the city centre, which is also the inner-city area. (Rosly & Rashid, 2013) Started with the building boom back in 1970s, in the interest of accommodating large scale urban developments, some of the 2|Page


historical buildings in the inner-city area are being demolished. Whereas on the other hand, the remaining ones are simply left to deteriorate due to age, neglect and high cost of maintenance. (Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008)

Thus, in order to determine the current condition of the historical cities in Malaysia, a research paper titled “Pilot Survey on the Conservation of Historical Buildings in Malaysia� by Kamal, Wahab and Ahmad back in 2008 is analysed. The pilot survey is conducted on a total of 209 historical buildings at four significant heritage towns and cities in Malaysia, which are Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, George Town and Bandar Hilir. The buildings selected in this survey are historical buildings listed in Kuala Heritage Trails, Ipoh Heritage Trails, George Town Heritage Trails and Bandar Heritage Trails provided by the experts from The Heritage of Malaysia Trust, Perak State Government, Penang Heritage Trust and Malacca Museum Corporation. (Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008)

Figure 1.1.2: Location of survey. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008)

According to Figure 1.1.2, most of the historical buildings surveyed are located at Kuala Lumpur, which takes up 49% of the total buildings surveyed. Next, 32% of the historical buildings surveyed are located at Ipoh. Following with Georgetown, where the town contributes to 16% of the total historical buildings surveyed. Lastly, the remaining 3% of the historical buildings are situated at Bandar Hilir.

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Figure 1.1.3: Year of the buildings built. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008)

In reference to Figure 1.1.3, the oldest historical buildings built are located at Bandar Hilir, with an average year of 1755. Then, following with Georgetown, Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh with historical buildings built at an average year of 1872, 1911 and 1923 respectively. After further alliance mand analyse of the overall data, it can be concluded that the average age of historical buildings in Malaysia are built in 1903.

Figure 1.1.4: Current uses of the building. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008)

Based on Figure 1.1.4, 90% of the historical buildings surveyed are still occupied while the other 6% are being abandoned and the remaining 4% have been demolished.

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Figure 1.1.5: Building Category. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008) Most of the historical buildings, which constitute of 45% of the historical buildings surveyed are shop houses as shown in Figure 1.1.5. On the other hand, the remaining historical buildings surveyed are identified as various categories including clubhouses, hotels, museums, residential, schools and institutional, commercial, administrative and religious buildings.

Figure 1.1.6: Current conditions of the building. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008)

According to Figure 1.1.6, only 15% of the surveyed buildings are in good condition, whereas 42% still in normal condition and 39% are in bad condition. Besides that, there is a small amount, which consist of 4% of the buildings surveyed are already been demolished.

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Figure 1.1.7: Condition of the conservation. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008) Based on Figure 1.1.7, excluding the 4% of the buildings surveyed that is being demolished, only 22% of the historical buildings are being conserved. Most of the historical buildings, which takes up 74% of the total buildings surveyed are not being properly conserved.

Figure 1.1.8: Sign of defects on the building. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008) In accordance to Figure 1.1.8, only 13% of the historical buildings surveyed are in good condition, whereas 83% of the historical buildings surveyed, which most of them have shown the sign of buildings defects. 4% of the historical buildings are excluded in this study as they are being demolished.

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Figure 1.1.9: Elements of defect. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008) To further understand the defects occurred on the historical buildings, a study of the elements of defect is conducted. Defects on external walls are found at 14% of the historical buildings surveyed as shown in Figure 1.1.9. Next, 13% to12% of the historical building surveyed showed sign of defects on the internal walls, roofs, floors, doors and window fixtures. Besides that, the results revealed that the defects can also occurred on the other elements, which included stairs, ceilings and building services of the historical buildings.

Figure 1.1.10: Require for conservation. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008) According to Figure 1.1.10, 13% of the historical building surveyed do not require for conservation. On the other hand, most of the historical buildings, which constitute of a total of 87% of the building surveyed needs to be conserved.

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Figure 1.1.11: Appropriateness of conservation approach. (Source: Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008) Based on Figure 1.1.11, other than the 22% of the building surveyed are properly conserved, 78% of the historical buildings surveyed acquire further attention where they are not being properly conserved according to the basic principles and conservation guidelines.

Despite the needs of conservation on the historical buildings, the survey actually reveals the worrying state of the historical buildings in Malaysia, where most of them showed sign of defects and in bad conditions. The situation is even worst when the some of the historical buildings are being demolished. Although it only constitutes of a small percentage now, but the number will definitely increase in the future if no further action is taken. Above all, in accordance to the data shown in previous paragraph, it can be concluded that there is a hint of urban deterioration occurs within the inner-city areas of the main historical cities in Malaysia, which later will cause the loss of sense of place and identity within the cities.

b. National Heritage Act 2005 In order to safeguard the historical buildings from being neglected or demolished to give way to the new developments, National Heritage Act 2005 (Act 645) has been established. The act is issued in the Ninth Malaysian Plan to protect and preserve various tangible and intangible cultural heritage and at the same time helped to promote the tourism industry in Malaysia. (Mustafa & Abdullah, 2013) The establishment of this act reflects the government’s growing dedication to preserve the nation’s cultural heritage. (Azmi, Ahmad, & Ali, 2016)

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However, the present legislation on historic buildings as stated in the act is not sufficient to protect buildings from being renovated, refurbished or even demolished. (Kamal, Wahab, & Ahamd, 2008) This is particularly evident in terms of the availability of further actions and laws to protect the historical buildings after they are being listed. First of all, the conservation management plan is indicated in the National Heritage Act 2005, which allows and encourages various authorities to take initiatives to promote, educate the value or at least to inform the existence of cultural heritage among Malaysians. Nonetheless, the law is silent as to the mandatory actions for the relevant authorities to take initiatives to protect and sustain the listed items or objects in the Register. (Mustafa & Abdullah, 2013) Besides that, there is also a flaw regarding the criminal penalties section of the National Heritage Act 2005. Goh elaborates that the amount of fine prescribed in the act seems insignificant for some of the perpetrators, especially for big development projects with gainful profits. In this case, they may simply volunteer to pay the fine and resume with the development project. (Goh, 2015) Consequently, the applicability of the act is still minimum.

Despite the issues mentioned above, the National Heritage Act 2005 is a comprehensive act that impose the conservation and preservation of National Heritage, natural heritage, tangible and intangible cultural heritage, underwater cultural heritage, treasure trove and other related matters. (Goh, 2015; Azmi, Ahmad, & Ali, 2016) Therefore, it is important for the related authority to revise and validate the act in order to achieve the goal of preservation of cultural heritage, which plays an important role in representing the origin, influence and identity of a society.

1.1.2

Ipoh Inner City Used to be a pioneer tin-mining town, which was the meeting point of rivers,

roads, railways and the commercial centre of the Kinta Valley, the largest tinproducing region in the world at that time, Ipoh city started to experience all the symptoms of urban decay mainly due to the deterioration of tin mining business during the late 1970s. (Nasution & Lubis, 1999; Hew, Tong, & Goh, 2014) This caused stagnant within the Old Town, where economic and business activities spread outwards to the new town and suburban areas. The situation is getting worse when residents, especially school leavers migrated to other metropolitan area, such as Kuala 9|Page


Lumpur for further studies or in search of better job opportunities due to the process of urbanization. Eventually, the city has been informally known as a decaying city. (Alias, Zyed, & Chai, 2016; Ling, et al., 2015)

Majority of the shophouses in the Old Town, the inner city of Ipoh is in structural deterioration. With the exception of historic public buildings and buildings occupied by large corporations, most of the buildings that remained in the hands of local association and individual owners are timeworn and left to deterioration. There are also streets that are almost totally neglected, and the buildings are lushes with parasitic plants growing from cracks within the structures. In addition, many of the buildings with timber interior are affected by occasional fire from disintegrating electrical wireworks, which only the façades are remained, ended up being demolished later. (Alias, Zyed, & Chai, 2016)

Despite of the efforts from various parties, Ipoh currently is being identified as one of the famous tourist attractions in Malaysia due to the historical values presented by the city, which is in corresponding to the planning of cultural heritage tourism redevelopment as introduce in the local plan. (Ipoh City Council (MBI), 2010) However, due to rapid development, modern buildings have overpowered the existing historic and cultural elements, especially within the city centre. Consequently, the city is facing the same problem on the declining of place characteristics or “placelessness�. More and more construction bustle, especially high-rise building is added to the urban form of central Ipoh to accommodate rapid growth within the city. (Hamid, 2010; Loh, Ipoh going through a transformation, 2015) These new developments are then replacing historical buildings and making dramatic changes in the urban area. As a result, the lack of character gradually dominates the area and conceals the rich assets of traditional building, at the same time eliminate the sense of identity of the place. (Said, Aksah, & Ismail, 2013) Eventually, this will fade the identity and uniqueness of the city itself in the future.

1.2

Problem Statement As a result of rapid population and economic development growth, Malaysia,

as a historic city in the developing nation is currently facing intensive urban problems. The introduction of new developments at the edge of many historic cities has disclosed 10 | P a g e


them to severe pressure of commercialization, poor design and cultural uniformity. These developments have faded away their place identity and decayed the local characteristics of the city. (Said, Aksah, & Ismail, Heritage Conservation and Regeneration of Historic Areas in Malaysia, 2013) In addition, the constant intrusions of new developments have subsequently change people perceptions and gradually fade the genuine identity and local sense of place. (Said & Harun, 2010; Ujang, 2012) In the not-too-distant future, a city might loss its identity or its significant of a place, which can be described as “placelessness”. (Relph, 1976)

Apparently, Ipoh city is facing the same problem on the declining of place characteristics or “placelessness” where there are dramatic changes in urban area. More and more construction bustle, especially high-rise building is added to the urban form of Ipoh due to rapid growth in economic and commercial activities. (Hamid, 2010; Loh, Ipoh going through a transformation, 2015) These new developments are replacing historical buildings and at the same time fading the meaning of the place. Although a city and its identity are inseparable from changes, there is still obligations to manage and preserve its identity in order to remain competitive and retain its uniqueness. (Murwani & Melati, 2018) Thus, it is essential for these future developments to include the existing cultural elements and values, which later help to retain the continuity of identity of a place.

1.3

Research Aim This study aims to investigate the potential of cultural hubs and museums in

enhancing the sense of place and heritage identity in the decaying inner city of Ipoh.

1.4

Research Objectives In order to provide a better insight of the current urban issue faced by the

Ipoh inner city and at the same time to explore possible design solutions, a few objectives are carried out in accordance with the aim of enhancing the sense of place and heritage identity in the decaying inner city of Ipoh: i.

To determine the existing character of Ipoh inner city

ii.

To identify awareness of the local residents on cultural heritage in Ipoh

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iii.

To establish strategies to design future cultural hubs in order to improve the fading of sense of place and heritage identity in Ipoh

1.5

Research Questions i.

What is the existing character of Ipoh inner city?

ii.

How aware are the local residents on the cultural heritage in Ipoh?

iii.

What are the possible strategies to design future cultural hubs in order to improve the fading heritage of Ipoh?

1.6

Research Methodology The major objective of this study is to investigate the public notion of museum

and cultural hub in terms of its importance and impact in a city and further determine its potential application in improving the fading of sense of place and heritage identity in Ipoh. In order to address the objective, the study used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Other than literature review, the qualitative methods used in this study are content analysis of the data and information obtained from the local authorities and related studies, which is to identify the existing character of Ipoh inner city and structured interview sessions with local parties with knowledge on architecture, urban design and culture, which intended to obtain potential design strategies for future museums and cultural hubs in Ipoh. In addition, the study includes quantitative method, which a pilot survey regarding the understanding of the importance and impact of museum and cultural hub among the public is conducted.

1.7

Significance of Research Currently, the role of museums in society is becoming different, instead of

static institutions, they are regenerate to become more community oriented, interactive, flexible, adaptable and audience focused. (International Council of Museum (ICOM), 2019) Hence, the outcome of the research paper will be a study of potential of museum as cultural hub to adapt to the need of communities that it serves and to keep up with the trend of modern developments.

1.8

Scope of Study The study acknowledges that there is not necessarily a clear distinction

between cultural and commercial entertainment activities. "Cultural facilities" in the 12 | P a g e


context of this study refers to dedicated facilities for the accommodation of arts activities including dance, music, theatrical arts, film and media arts, traditional performing arts, visual arts and literary arts. Commercial and entertainment-oriented venues such as cinemas and discos are excluded from the study.

In this study, museums are focused instead of all the other cultural facilities. This is because museum act as “guardian� of artefacts and a place that stores and collect evidence from past events. It contains a collection of tangible and intangible cultural heritage of a place. Besides that, it is one of the important public space within a community as it encourages engagements and social interactions. Unlike auditorium and art performance centre that only open to visitors for certain events or performances at specific duration of time, museums operate daily. In addition, the operating hours can be extended if it is mixed-use that integrated with commercial.

Only arts, ethnology, history and living history museums and arts libraries are considered as cultural facilities in the context of this study. Other museums and libraries have been excluded from the study. Although it is acknowledged that these are also important cultural facilities, their requirements and level of provision are determined by quite different factors and would have to be the subject of a separate study.

On the other hand, generally, cultural heritage is being categorised into the tangible ones and intangible ones. Based on the definition from UNESCO, tangible cultural heritage represents the physical artefacts produced, maintained and passed down throughout the generations in a society whereas intangible cultural heritage refers to the practices, expressions, knowledge, skills and representations that associated within the communities. (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), 2003) It is without a doubt that both of them are very essential in defining the historical value and identity of a place and nation. However, the tangible cultural heritage, which includes heritage buildings are being focused in this study as they represent the physical urban character and visibility of the heritage zone in Ipoh.

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW The scope of the literature will be reviewed in this research serves two (2) primary purposes, to support the issues statement regarding “placelessness” and losing of characteristic in urban identity as well as looking into the possible solutions to improve the fading of sense of place and heritage identity in Ipoh.

The study is started with discussing the current condition of decay and losing of heritage identity of Ipoh. Next, the study continued through exploration of cultural hub as possible solution to regenerate the inner city and thus prevent further deterioration within the inner city. The idea is further supported through the understanding of the concept of place, which is an important basis for the design of cultural hubs. Subsequently, the study is extended by evaluating the interrelation between architecture, urban design and cultural in order to improve the heritage identity and sense of place in Ipoh.

2.1

A Study of Ipoh City

Figure 2.1.1: Geographical location of Ipoh. (Image source: Author) Ipoh is the capital city of Perak that is located at the northern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. It is located in the middle of Kinta Valley. The cityscape of Ipoh is comprised of “Old Town” which is 6at the West and “New Town” which is at the East of the Kinta River. (Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh (MBI), 2019)

Figure 2.1.2: Overview of Ipoh city. (Image source: Author) 14 | P a g e


Growing from a village, Ipoh is developed into a town through introduction of tin mining. Currently, Ipoh is one of the famous historic cities and tourist destination in Malaysia. The city is known as the Hipster Capital of Malaysia through various tourism rating and official agencies. In the future, it will be one of the main transport corridors in Malaysia and promoting international tourism. (Ipoh City Council (MBI), 2010)

Figure 2.1.3: History timeline of Ipoh. (Image source: Author) Etymologically, Ipoh city got its name under a few influences. It is named after “pohon upas”, commonly known as Ipoh tree, which “orang asli” use poisonous latex found on the tree on their blowpipe darts to hunt. Besides that, Ipoh also has the name of “Paloh”, that means the pools formed by fishing traps set by the villagers. It was a Hakka Slang, which “Ba” means swamp and “Luo” in the past is a kind of wild weed used for making ropes. (Leng, 2011; Felicia, 2011)

In 1820, Ipoh started as early settlements of Malay villages by the banks of Kinta River. Then later in 1880, because of its geographic location in the rich tinbearing valley, the village developed into a town due to settlement of Hakka tin miners from the tin rush. The great fire back in 1892 destroyed half of the town, but at the same time create opportunity to rebuilt “Old Town” into a more organised grid pattern. Ipoh in that time became the main business and social centres when the town experience second wave of tin rush in 1902. Due to rapid population and economy growth, one of the local tin miners, that is also a millionaire, Mr. Yau Tet Shin expanded the town across Kinta River, which is then named “New Town”. Later, the town undergo swift development of tin mining and rubber production and was made the capital of Perak, replacing Taiping. Back in 1941, Ipoh was invaded by Japanese. Ipoh remained as the capital of Perak after the liberation by British forces. After that,

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the decline of tin industry caused stagnate growth in the town. Despite many residents leaves the town for better opportunities in other cities, it is remained as one of the cities with largest population in Malaysia. It is granted “city” status in 1988, with tourism as the main driver of economy. In present, Ipoh city is one of the famous historical cities in Malaysia with constant intrusion of new developments. (Ipoh City Council (MBI), 2010; Hew, Tong, & Goh, 2014; Ling, et al., 2015; World Guides, 2016)

Figure 2.1.4: Coverage of the Core and Buffer zone within heritage zone. (Source: “Rancangan Kawasan Khas (RKK) Pekan Ipoh - Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah 2020”, 2016) According to the study, Ipoh city is contained with its very own rich history of rapid modernisation driven by the tin mining industry. Thus, the local authority then formulates law regarding planning of heritage zone to preserve and conserve the remained historical buildings and sites. The coverage of the heritage zone of the city is shown in Figure 2.1.4. It is divided into core zone, which is previously the city centre and main core for social and business activities in the past and buffer zone as stated in the “Rancangan Kawasan Khas (RKK) Pekan Ipoh – Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah 2020”. (Ipoh City Council (MBI), 2010) 16 | P a g e


However, despite the availability of laws to protect the remained historical buildings, they are not being strictly enforced. Many news and posts regarding the poor condition of the historical buildings, the act of demolishing historical buildings without permission from the local authority, dying of traditional arts and trades and fading of cultural heritage within Ipoh city are being published on newspapers, blogs and forums since the year 2010. Already suffering from urban decay, it can be clearly seen that the city is facing the problem of fading of identity, loss of character and sense of place.

Figure 2.1.5: The collection of news and posts from newspapers, blogs and forums dated from the year 2010. (Data retracted from source: www.ipohecho.com.my, www.ipohworld.org, www.scmp.com, www.malaymail.com, www.nst.com.my) With these issues in mind, culture based urban regeneration is being discussed in the next section as one of the potential approaches to improve the fading of sense of place and heritage identity in Ipoh.

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2.2

Cultural Hub as Catalyst Project Within the Inner City In the past decades, cities are undergoing changes due to urbanisation, urban

sprawl and urban decay. To overcome these challenges, urban regeneration is then being introduced as a tool to revitalise the existing urban structures while making better use of the existing fabric. (Elseragy & Elnokaly, 2018) In recent years, in order to compete with the modernisation process and at the same time highlight the uniqueness of the city, culture is being incorporated in the processes of regeneration. Consequently, many cities then re-strategize themselves to develop and focus on their own inherent cultural assets for value-added comparative advantage and competitive edge. According to the various professional literature, culture is being perceived as a prominent factor for preventing urban decline by both policymakers and planners and cultural sectors are made top priority as part of their urban regeneration policies. Besides that, in the perspective of private investors and public institutions, culture is an important factor that can increase property values and accelerate developments. From this, there is also an increase of awareness on the importance of cultural tourism that can accelerate a city’s economic developments. (Yelinek, 2009; Leng, Badarulzaman, Samat, & Dawood, 2014; Duxbury, Hosagrahar, & Pascual, 2016) Quoted form the Habitat III issue paper by UNESCO, “culture is now firmly recognised by the international community as a key component of strategic urban planning and a key innovation for the definition of a New Urban Agenda”. (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2015)

First of all, without a doubt, one of the successful examples of urban regeneration through cultural projects would be the case of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. Through the opening of museums and cultural institutions in 1997, the museum has become an icon of what architecture can do for a city in decline. (Park, 2014) Based on previous report, the museum has solved the urban decline issues by introducing cultural tourism and at the same time decrease the issue of unemployment within the inner city. According to the Bilbao Guggenheim’s economic report, the visitors have spent €1.6bn in the city, have brought a total of €260m additional tax revenues to the local government and helps to sustain approximately of 4,232 jobs in the city. (Otaolea, 2014) It can be clearly seen that the museum successfully revitalises the decaying inner city, especially in terms of local economy.

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Figure 2.2.1: Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao. (Image source: https://goodurbanpractices.wordpress.com)

On the other hand, the Pompidou Centre located in Paris is also a successful example of urban regeneration through cultural projects. In 1977, the museum is being introduced in Beau Bourg, where the neighbourhood is rapidly affected by the process of decay. (Good Urban Practices, 2016) Through the construction of the museum, it attracted more than 180 million visitors dated in 2006, since the opening back in 1977. (Mediation, 2006) With the significantly increased number of visitors, it further revitalised the area.

Figure 2.2.2: Pompidou Centre. (Image source: https://goodurbanpractices.wordpress.com)

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By acknowledging the role of cultural hub as catalyst project within the inner city, the study directed to investigate the potential of cultural facilities as cultural hubs that could also enhance the heritage identity and sense of place among the local community and Ipoh city. Among various type of cultural facilities, museums are being proposed as the main focus of the study. This is due to the scenario where museum culture has spread to almost every part of the world over the years. No matter how small it may be, it is uncommon to find any country that does not have a museum. This means that the concept of the museum has become a global concept that has survived the 20th century. (Arinze, 1999) Therefore, in the next chapter, the current condition of museums is identified as well as the potential of museums functioning as cultural hubs.

2.3

The Museum in Malaysia In accordance of International Council of Museums (ICOM), a museum is a

non-profit, permanent institution that provide service to the society and its development. It conserves, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage for the purposes of education, study and personal enjoyment. (International Council of Museums (ICOM), 2018) It should be an institution that tell the story of man and how humanity has survived in its environment over the years. In other words, it is the cultural conscience that holds the cultural wealth of the nation in trust for all generations. (Arinze, 1999) Unfortunately, cultural facilities, especially museums are not getting enough appreciation from society in Malaysia. (Roger Tym and Partners, 1999; Unified Development Ordinance, 2013; Mass Cultural Council, 2018) As compare to foreign countries, especially Europe, museum visiting culture within the Malaysia society is not popular. Instead, museum is said to be an uncommon preference as a family visit, compared to vacation destinations and shopping centres. (Ismail, 2011) Moreover, some of them even assumed that museum has an atmosphere of teaching and learning, which is only suitable for school trips. To be frank, sometimes the visitors were only brought into the museums to spend time by just watching displays of objects. (Ahmad, Abbas, Yusof, & Taib, 2013)

The situation is the same in Ipoh city where the museums are losing its attention from the local community. Based on a news from The Star Online, there is a situation where museums are losing its shine due to modernization. The news report further 20 | P a g e


strengthens its stand through interviewing some of the locals in Ipoh, which most of them were bad reviews about experience and perception of museums. Some of them claimed they never been to any museums and even forgetting about their presence in Ipoh. (Leen & Yeap, 2017) If the situation persisted, without a doubt, Ipoh city will lose its competition in the modernisation process and most importantly, fading of identity and losing of sense of place and place attachment between the local community and the city.

Regardless the lack of awareness of museums within the city, the role of museum in the society is still unquestionably significant. In the following section, the importance of museum is examined through the study of impacts, in terms of social and economic towards a city from various literature paper.

2.3.1

Importance of Museum in a City

a. Social Impact Museums play a significant role to communicate and provide the visitors with a sense of local identity as all places have their own unique characteristics. This applies not only to conventional museums but also the relationship of a location with the visitor who is there as part of a recreational or tourism experience. On the other hand, as an example, military and regimental museums that provide a public record of the history and the achievements of the army or command, should at the same time act as a socialising agent to infuse the traditions, value systems and conventions of behaviour into new recruits. (Uzzell, 1996) Consequently, museums should be meaningful, mattered and valued by the local communities. The emotional bonds and knowledge of a place among the visitors will encourage engagements, social interactions, alternative perspectives and new relationships towards a place. Moreover, museums that built on existing historical locations will boost the sense of place, which further increases the sense of belonging among the local communities who already familiar with the distinct qualities of a place. Besides that, these facilities can be meaningful by connecting people and place physically and actively through experience. Buildings, gardens and even ruins carry the sense of a place along with materials, plants, light and stories within. In addition, materials that are locally acquired already establish a museum in its own place. (Vergeront, 2013)

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b. Economic Impact As museums have the potential to contribute to either domestic or even international tourism, which could create employment, generate income and increase the local economy of a city. Firstly, the development of new museum will create employment for staff and contractors for construction and management, which in a bigger picture stimulate investment. Besides that, the presence of a museum in a community results in more spending by tourist in other economic sources, including accommodation, food, transport and supplementary items such as souvenirs. The major exhibition of the museums itself can inject additional funds to the local economy too. Moreover, the development of new museums will further stimulate the development of the local infrastructure and the surrounding neighbourhood. Indirectly, museums can be said to promote a positive image for a town or city. (Scott, 2004) Museums have some long-term economic impacts, for which, it is not possible to place a monetary value. According to Armbrecht, such impacts are on the visitors' self-knowledge, conception of identity and personality as well as attitudes and work motivation. Through this, museums increase creativity and can also support the production of innovations. With their activity, the museums produce wellbeing which also has long-term economic impacts (Armbrecht, 2013). However, the largest regional economic impact can only be seen on such museums which have a large number of visitors. Large and well-known museums attract more visitors than small museums also in relation to their size and employee number. For this reason, they make the most profit because an increase in the visitor number increases the maintenance costs of the museum only in name but can have a considerable impact on the museum income. The special impact of large museums is explained by the fact that the fixed costs of a museum are in any case high. Expenditure on buildings, exhibition items and personnel salaries are in short-term invariable and often quite high. Instead, variable costs do not vary even though the visitor number were to increase significantly, that is, museums can in this sense avail from economies of scale. Thus, increasing the number of museum visitors grows the economy of both the museum and its operational environment without causing considerable additional costs (Frey & Meier, 2006).

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In accordance to the discussion, it can be concluded that museums play a significant role for developments of a city, in both social and economic factors. Considering the importance of museums to a city, they can play an even more pivotal roles in the local society by creating new functions to enrich their future as cultural hubs while embracing the traditions of the past, which will be explore in the following section.

2.3.2

Museums as Cultural Hub Nowadays, the role of museums in society is changing. They are reinventing

themselves to be in the same pace with the modern lifestyle, to be more interactive, community orientated, audience focused, adaptable, flexible and mobile, which is not the static institutions that are used to be. They have become cultural hubs that functioned as platforms where creativity combines with knowledge and where visitors are allowed to co-create, share and interact. From this, museums can tackle contemporary social issues and conflict as well as serve their primary missions of collecting, conservation, communication, research and exhibition. Besides that, they can also initiate and then mitigate global problems in the local regions. They act as the institutions at the heart of the community, play a very important role to establish dialogue between cultures, to build bridges for a peaceful world and to define a sustainable future. (Visser, 2016; International Council of Museums (ICOM), 2019)

As museums are gradually taking the role of cultural hubs, new approaches should be taken to honour the collections, histories and legacies for the generations, as well as creating traditions that introduce new meanings to the future generations. This might increase the diversity of contemporary audience at a global level. Through the transformation of museums as cultural hubs, it will give a deep impact on museum theory and practice, which at the same time forces the museum professionals to rethink the value of museums. In addition, museums could provide a platform for translating the needs and views of local communities into a global context. (Visser, 2016; International Council of Museums (ICOM), 2019)

In order to develop potential of museums to enhance the heritage identity and sense of place of the city as the role of cultural hubs, it can be found that they have transformed their practices to serve and remain close to the communities or public. 23 | P a g e


Next, the study extended to the exploration of the concept of place, which is the fundamental of designing spaces in the next chapter.

2.4

The Concept of Place Physical Form

Place Meaning

Activity

Figure 2.4.1: The components of place. (Image recreated from source: Montgomery, 1998) The concept of place can be both physical and psychological, which as shown in the Figure 2.4.1, a place is constituted of the physical form, activity and meaning. (Montgomery, 1998) First of all, in terms of environmental psychology, place is predefined by a physical environment according to its interrelationship with individual's internal psychological, social processes and activities that been done at the place. (Smaldone, 2005) In relation, places could not be separated from people who make and invest meanings in them as places are interpreted, narrated, perceived, felt, understood, and imagined. (Soja, 1996; Gieryn, 2000) In other words, the assessment in determining the place quality will never be sufficient when there is no psychological connection between people and the place.

Urban regeneration involves the process of remaking places. During the regeneration process, in order to provide better social life within the communities, the physical conditions of places are improved, economic growth and environmental sustainability are increased. (Roberts & Sykes, 2000) When place and its meanings is constructed based on its environment attributes, the physical features and conditions

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plays an important role. He stated that the physical features will affect the symbolic meanings of the landscape. (Steadman, 2003) In consequences, the fading or even loss of place physical character and identity would affect the people's perception and attachment to places. In the basis of regeneration initiatives of a place, one should capture the meaning of a place, which include the setting, the activity within a defined boundary and the sense of place should be considered too. (Gustafson, 2001). Besides that, human experience and behaviour developed through a network of memories and identities attached to the environment should be considered as a source of reference in urban regeneration. (Cheshmehzangi & Heath, 2012)

Next, a place also demonstrates human culture. Culture involves a social process of people creating meaning to give themselves a sense of identity. (Cohen, 1994) Similarly, in order to create a place identity, the way of life and cultural phenomenon are imbued into the cultural spaces. (Lai, 2013) The space will then turn into places where the setting’s physical and cultural characteristics are combined with the individual’s affective perceptions and functional needs. (Bott, 2015) In the regenerations process, other than the physical environment and activities, the place attachment on cultural identity should also take into consideration. Regeneration without considering the cultural aspects will resulted in a place without local identity or a non-place.

Based on above study, the meaning of the place reveals the form of association between people and places, which is different according to personal and socio-cultural context. However, place is dynamic, and it continue to regenerate as people struggle to adapt new meanings that might have detached from their culture and identity. Thus, in the following section, to further understand the concept of place, the study is continued through discussion on “place attachment”.

2.4.1

The Concept of Place Attachment People have the need to form attachment to many things, which not limit to one

another. They also form attachment to the environment and places around them, in this case it is called “place attachment”. According to Hidalgo and Hernandez (2001), “place attachment” refers to “the development of an affective bond or link between people or individuals and specific places”. To deepen the understanding on this 25 | P a g e


concept, the explanations and theories by various phenomenologists and environmental psychologists are listed and analysed in the tables below.

Authors A1

Source

Arguments

Setha M. Low & (1992)

Place

Irwin Altman

emotional connection between

Place Attachment

attachment

as

an

people and their surroundings.

It involves culturally shared affective

meanings

and

activities associated with place that derive from socio-political, historic and cultural sources. A2

Jennifer

(2005)

People-place interactions are

Farnum, Troy

Sense of Place in

often

Hall & Linda E.

Natural Resource

psychological procedures rather

Kruger

Recreation and

than physical contacts.

formed

through

Tourism: An Evaluation and Assessment of Research Findings A3

Maria

(1993)

Place attachment is defined as a

Vittoria Giuliani

Place Attachment in A

state of psychological well-

& R. Feldman

Developmental and

being

Cultural Context

accessibility to a place or a state

resulting

from

of distress upon separation or remoteness from a place. A4

David M.

(1992)

Place

focus

on

the

Hummon

Community

environmental setting, the focal

Attachment: Local

point of attachment is emotion.

Sentiment & Sense of Place A5

Lynne C. Manzo (2005)

Place can be assigned meaning quickly through linking the

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Beyond House and

memory of an important event

Haven: Toward A

occurring in a specific place.

Revisioning of Emotional Relationships with Places A6

A7

Paul Morgan

(2009)

Place

attachment

Towards A

insight on the diversity if

Developmental Theory

meanings

of Place Attachment

with the physical environment.

Richard C.

(2008)

It is an evaluative dimension of

Stedman

What Do We Mean by

place,

Place Meanings?

describes how much place

Implications of Place

means to us.

humans

in

other

present

associate

words,

it

Meanings for Managers and Practitioners A8

Yi-Fu Tuan

(1977)

He discusses about attachment

Space and Place: The

as

Perspective of

memories and experience in

Experience

place.

the

accumulation

of

Table 2.4.1: The arguments of the concept of “place attachment” by various phenomenologists and environmental psychologists. (Data retracted from source: Najafi & Shariff, 2011)

Components that bridge the relationship between people & place Authors Year

1 Emotion / Memory / Meaning

2 Environmental setting

3 Activities

A1

1992

A2

2005

A3

1993

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A4

1992

A5

2005

A6

2009

A7

2008

A8

1977

Table 2.4.2: The analysis of the components that bridge the relationship between people and place from the various arguments as listed in Table 2.4.1. (Data retracted from source: Najafi & Shariff, 2011) In accordance to the above analysis in Table 2.4.2, it can be concluded that the most significant component that contribute to the bridging of people and place is “emotion”. Through adding “emotion” to the physical environmental setting and activities, it will create “meaning” and “memory” to a place, which later create place attachment on a certain place.

In terms of place regeneration, the sense of belonging, degree of attraction, frequency of visits and level of familiarity are indicators of place attachment. From this, place attachment can be considered as one of the criteria in place making. Consequently, the users’ feelings and reactions towards the characteristics of an urban place should be considered with the intention of creating place attachment, which later contribute to the making of place identity. (Ujang & Zakariya, 2015)

2.4.1.1 Factors Influencing Place Attachment Based on the previous study, place attachment describes the emotion and feeling that people have for a place. In this regard, the factors and the degree of influence that affects place attachment is examine.

a. Influence of familiarity An individual will become most attached to the place which they have the highest levels of experience, through long-time habitation in a particular locality, important events and life stages or frequent visits. (Gustafson, 2001) According to

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Hassanuddin (2003), familiarity covers four main dimensions of familiarity, which is as follow: i.

Locational knowledge

ii.

Visual recognition

iii.

Name-recognition

iv.

An interaction with the place

There is a general agreement that a various degree of familiarity can actually affect people perception and attitude and level of attachment. In relation to this, through the changing forms and actions of a place, especially within the local and historical contexts can actually disassociate the attachment of the user to the place if it is not properly implemented. This scenario particularly applies to the places when the urban areas that portrays particular meanings and socio-cultural context needed upgrade and revitalisation.

b. Influence of demographic characteristics Demographic characteristics that include racial, ethnic or class identity can affect the degree of attachment to a particular place. It is crucial to identify place attachment and place identity based on the roles and social, cultural characteristics of the user groups as this affect the degree of attachment and how meanings are layered in similarities and differences. When a place becomes central to the identity of people, strong emotion of place attachment may lead to detrimental practices, such as space claiming that further affect the human well-being and social cohesion within a community. (Rose, 1995) In relation to this, a sense of community attachment should be considered as a collective value of a place that require respect in the place making process.

c. Influence of culture Culture, environment and psychological processes work in an interdependent system, which they linked by mental activities and behavioural activities towards their environment. (Altman and Low, 1992) Besides that, the cultural aspects of a place involve meanings in relation to the environment as place attachment involves culturally shared the emotion, meaning and activities that is derived from sociopolitical, historical and cultural sources within a place. (Gustafson, 2001)

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Through obtaining understanding on “place attachment”, the study is continued by discussing on the “sense of place”, which “place attachment” act as indicator to determine the “sense of place” in the context of urban regeneration.

2.4.2

Sense of Place “Sense of place” is being defined as one of the most intangible concepts and a

multifaceted study is needed to understand the actual meaning of the concept. (Barker, 1979) Therefore, the explanations and theories regarding the concept “sense of place” by various phenomenologists and environmental psychologists are listed and analysed in the tables below.

Authors A1

Yi-Fu Tuan

Source

Arguments

(1974)

‘Topophilia’, means ‘love of place’ was

Topophilia: A

used to describe sense of place. It was

Study of

used for the first time by Tuan to

Environmental

describe the existing unusual bonds

Perception,

between people and the physical

Attitudes and

environment.

Values

Tuan also defined ‘Topophilia’ as a

(1977)

strong and impressive relationship

Space and Place:

between people and places.

The Perspective of Experience A2

Edward

(1976)

Sense of place is the ability to

Relph

Place and

acknowledge places and identities and

Placelessness

can be created, then developed through long-time connections between users and places. Relph then explained that symbols, traditions, myths and ritual will further reinforce the sense of place.

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A3

Gary G.

(1986)

They also affirmed that local symbols

Peterson,

Local Symbols and indicate and enhance the sense of place.

Thomas F.

Sense of Place

Saarinen A4

Shmuel

(2005)

Datel and Dingemans also defined sense

Shamai,

Measuring Sense

of

Zinaida

of Place:

meanings, symbols and qualities that a

Ilatov

Methodological

person or group consciously and

Aspects

unconsciously

place

as

the

combination

affiliated

with

of

a

particular locality or region. Shamai defined it as a combination of three elements, including location, landscape and personal involvement. He also stated that sameness of buildings and the digital age destroys a sense of place. A5

A6

A7

David

(1977)

The strength of the sense of place is

Victor

The Psychology of

accredited by the people’s willingness

Canter

the Place

to contribute to social activities.

Jennifer E.

(2001)

Cross also mentioned that sense of place

Cross

What is Sense of

is the relationship between place and

Place

social activities.

(1981)

Sense of place plays a significant role in

The Sense of Place

people’s relationship with place by

Fritz Steele

providing the feeling of security and pleasure, which causes attachment to place.

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Steele also mentioned that it is a particular experience of a person in a particular setting. A8

Shmuel

(1991)

Sense of place can be more than

Shamai

Sense of Place: An

personal experience.

Empirical Measurement

A place is not just an object but can be felt through the actual experience of meaningful events and through all the senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch).

A9

Kelvin

(1998)

To create sense of place, a place must be

Lynch

Good City Form

recognisable and should have an identity which later lead to place attachment.

A10

Ruth Rogan, (2005)

Sense of place makes an environment

Moira

Nowhere to Hide:

psychologically comfortable.

O’Connor,

Awareness and

Pierre

Perceptions of

Horwitz

Environmental Change, and Their Influence on Relationships with

Legibility, the perception of and preference for the visual environment and the compatibility of the setting with human purposes as the three elements of sense of place.

Place Table 2.4.3: The arguments of the concept of 'sense of place' by various phenomenologists and environmental psychologists. (Data retracted from source: Najafi & Shariff, 2011)

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Components

Authors Year

1

2

3

4

5

People

Places /

Meanings /

Social

Experience

/ Users

Physical

Identities

Environment

(symbols,

Activities / Emotions

traditions etc) A1

1974

1977 ●

A2

1976

A3

1986

A4

2005

A5

1977

A6

2001

A7

1981

A8

1991

A9

1998

A10

2005

● ●

● ●

● ●

● ●

Table 2.4.4 : The analysis of the components of “sense of place” from the various arguments as listed in Table 2.4.3. (Data retracted from source: Najafi & Shariff, 2011) Based on the above study, there is no exact definition on “sense of place” due to its interdisciplinary nature. Although there is no precise definition of this concept, most scholars agree that the “sense of place” are related to the relationship between people and place. Thus, from Table 2.5.2, one of the key attributes of creating a successful place with “sense of place” is the ability of the place to encourage social interaction among people, which at the same time provide a sense of belonging through

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expression of the meanings, identities and experiences of the place. With this in mind, the relationship of “identity” and “place” is being discuss in the next section.

2.4.3

Place-Identity Since the late 1970s, the term “place-identity” has been in used by some of the

researchers to define the aspects of identity that is connected to place. Place-identity is defined as the individual’s incorporation of place into the larger concept of self. According to Pronshansky, Fabian and Kaminoff (1983), place identity means a mixture of memories, interpretations, ideas, concept and feelings regarding certain physical settings. Place attachment is considered as part of place-identity, but it is more than attachment. It is a substructure of self-identity, which it is comprised of acknowledgement on the environment. The acknowledgement can be directed into two types, which one type composed of memories, thoughts, values and settings and the second type is the relationship among different settings. (Pronshansky, Fabian & Kaminoff, 1983) Identity differentiate an individual from others, while place-identity distinct one from the physical environment.

2.5

Design Strategies and Approaches With all the previous study in mind, “place” making is being focused in this chapter.

Museum Placemaking is the multi-faceted approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces. Placemaking capitalizes on a local community’s assets, inspiration, and potential, with the intention of creating public spaces that promote people’s health, happiness, and well-being. (Walhimer, 2018) It strengthens the connection between people and the places they share. Other than promoting better urban design, it facilitates creative patterns of use, paying particular attention to the physical, cultural and social identities that define a place and support its ongoing evolution. Placemaking is both a process and a philosophy as it involves observing, listening to, and asking questions of the people who live, work, and play in a particular space in order to understand their needs and aspirations for that space and for their community as a whole. In order to provide a strategy for implementation, it is essential to work with the community to create a vision around the places they view as important to community life and to their daily experience. (Project for Public Space (PPS), 2018)

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Figure 2.5.1: The elements constitute to a great place. (Souce: Project for Public Space (PPS), 2018)

The figure above indicates the elements that constitute to a great place, which include: a. Access and linkages A great public space is easy to get to, enter and navigate. It should be arranged in such ways that the public can see of what is going on at that place, both from a distance and up close. Accessible spaces can be easily reached by foot and also public transit and they should have high parking turnover.

b. Comfort and image The place should look inviting, provide a sense of comfort, that includes perception about safety, cleanliness and the availability of places to sit.

c. Uses and activities

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A wide range of activities are the fundamental of a great place, which having something to do gives people a reason to come and return to a place. A well-chosen range of activities will attract a variety of people to a place at different times of the day.

d. Sociability It is the most important and at the same time most difficult quality for a place to achieve. A great place should be a social ground where it can be a favourite spot for people to meet friends and neighbours as well as to comfortably interact with strangers.

Next, in order to provide a more sociable environment, in the following section, the design of public space in museum is being focused. Public Space Design in Museum Back in the 16th and 17th century, museums were merely storehouse for artefacts and monuments. As more research is done to focus and improve the museum environment, design of future museums started to focus on the behaviour of museum visitors. Later, it is being recognise as an institution offering public services. By creating a more usable public space, it will help the museum to attract and communicate with visitors by making the museum experience both pleasant and at the same time interesting. (Robillard, 1982) The study will be focusing on the four major museum public spaces, which are as follow: a. Entrance Halls b. Circulation c. Galleries d. Lounges

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a. Entrance Halls

Figure 2.5.2: Illustration of case studies regarding entrance hall layouts. (Source: Robillard, 1982) First of all, entrance hall is important for museum planning as it provides the first and last impression of the visitors. It contains a variety of zones serving the needs of the visitors, which includes gifts shop that selling souvenirs, information booth that displaying notices and directions to different galleries and lounges with provides seating and communications between the visitors. Therefore, an entrance hall should be spacious and the spaces and circulation within should be well managed to accommodate a large flow of visitors.

Next, for a space to be articulated as being of significant, it should be visibly unique. This can be achieved through the use of exceptional size, a unique shape or a strategic location. Furthermore, placement can make a space being the important element in a composition. Although it is not conclusive, various study show that visitors bring with them a street habit of turning to the right upon entry into a space. Therefore, other things being equal, the location that likely to have the heaviest traffic would be to the right of centre. Besides that, spaces can made visually dominant if the shapes are clearly different from the shapes of other elements in the composition.

b. Circulation Next, circulation within a museum is also crucial as it forms an integral part of any building organisation within. Most of the time, circulation occupies a significant amount of spaces within a museum’s volume. The design of circulation within the 37 | P a g e


museum should be able to lead the visitors to the other spaces easily or naturally without feeling interrupted or lost. Thus, way finding within the museum are equally important. Besides that, in order for the visitor to feel comfortable and stay in the museum, the form and scale of the circulation space should accommodate the movement of people. There is a variety of types of circulation systems that are being used in museums that accommodate various crowd control and surveillance. The most common systems are the straight, linear, open, chain, comb, fan and spiral path. Based on various sources, poorly design circulation systems will create confusion and significant stress within the museum visitors.

Figure 2.5.3: Spatial landmark. (Source: Robillard, 1982)

Figure 2.5.4: Object landmarks. (Source: Robillard, 1982)

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Figure 2.5.5: Clear roles for maps and signs. (Source: Robillard, 1982)

Figure 2.5.6: Locations for maps, signs and landmarks. (Source: Robillard, 1982) c. Galleries The galleries and exhibition spaces present the characteristics and crucial function of the museum. The elements that affects the atmosphere of the spaces including the division, scale and proportions, grouping of rooms, circulation and the interior design of the spaces. Moreover, the flexibility of the exhibition spaces should be considered to accommodate theme of the exhibition and object of a variety sizes.

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Figure 2.5.7: Various exhibition arrangements (Source: Robillard, 1982)

Figure 2.5.8: Periodic outside views. (Source: Robillard, 1982)

Figure 2.5.9; Diversity with interior design. (Source: Robillard, 1982)

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Figure 2.5.10: Diversity through lighting. (Source: Robillard, 1982)

Figure 2.5.11: Doorway placement. (Source: Robillard, 1982)

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d. Lounges Last but not least, lounges assist the visitors in reducing fatigue, bringing on physical exertion and visual overload. These spaces encourage relaxation, provide change of pace within the programs, and even a place for reflection. They are important in the museum planning as transitional spaces where visitors can socially interact, meditate or simply to rest their feet. Thus, properly located lounge areas is important for providing a successful museum visit among the visitors. Visitors who are both physically and psychologically at ease with their environment are more likely to be a receptive audience.

Figure 2.5.12: Circulations within the lounges. (Source: Robillard, 1982)

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1

Purpose of Study The study is conducted to investigate the potential of cultural hubs and

museums in enhancing the sense of place and heritage identity in the decaying inner city of Ipoh. The existing character of Ipoh inner city and the awareness of the local residents on cultural heritage in Ipoh is studied and determined to provide a better insight of the current issue of the city, particularly urban decay. Next, with the study obtained, possible design solutions of designing future cultural hubs in Ipoh is explored in order to improve the fading of sense of place and heritage identity within the city.

3.2

Sampling and Instrumentation In order to obtain data required for the study, both qualitative and quantitative

research method is being applied. 3.2.1

Qualitative Research Method

Interviews

Open Ended Questions in Questionnaires

Focus Groups

Qualitative Research Method Colleciton of Narrative

Observation

Collection of Documented Material

Figure 3.2.1: Type of qualitative research methods. (Image recreated from source: Hancock, Ockleford, & Windridge, 2007; Bhat, 2019) Qualitative research is conducted to develop explanations about social phenomena, that include description of individual experiences and beliefs in the form of descriptive data. The data is collected through open-ended and conversational 43 | P a g e


communication, using semi-structured methods as shown in Figure 3.2.1. (Hancock, Ockleford, & Windridge, 2007; Bhat, 2019) In this study, the data is obtained through collection of documented materials and conducting interviews.

3.2.2

Quantitative Research Method Survey Research

Experimental Research

Quantitative Research Method

Correlational Research

Figure 3.2.2: Type of quantitative research methods. (Image recreated from source: Muijs, 2004; Bhat, 2019) According to Aliaga and Gunderson (2002), quantitative research is defined as a method of explaining a situation through analysing the collected numerical data using mathematically based methods. It involves the gathering of quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. During the process, the information is collected from respondents using sampling methods, including sending out online surveys, online polls and questionnaires, which the results can be depicted in the form of numerical later. (Muijs, 2004; Bhat, 2019) With the various type of research methods as shown in Figure 3.2.2, the method of survey research is used to obtain data for this study.

3.3

Data Collection

3.3.1

Collection of Documented Material / Content Analysis Content analysis is one of qualitative research method, which involves the

studying documents and communication artefacts that might be in the form of texts, pictures, audio or video. (Bryman & Bell, 2011) A wide collection of written materials, such as policy documents, codes of conduct, series of letters, diaries and even photographs contains qualitative information, that can be useful in understanding the philosophy of an organisation as well as in ethnography. (Hancock, Ockleford, & Windridge, 2007) In this study, a content analysis of a collection of secondary data, which includes planning documents, guidelines and data from local authority and 44 | P a g e


related studies is being carried out. This method is used to examine the current condition of decay, especially the existing character of the Ipoh inner city.

3.3.2

Interview Interview is one of the most common qualitative research methods. It is a

conversational method that potentially get in depth details from the interviewee. Interview can either be structured by presenting the prepared questions to each interviewee in an identical way using a strict predetermined order or be completely unstructured, which in a form of free-flowing conversation. (Hancock, Ockleford, & Windridge, 2007; Bhat, 2019) The method of structured interviews was applied in this paper to gain information from three (3) interviewees based on their experiences in their respective field of experts. The results provided detailed information about the opinion of the respondents on the important elements and the potential of museums in enhancing the cultural heritage identity of Ipoh. The set of interview questions and interview transcripts are attached in Appendix II and III respectively.

All the interviewees have a throughout understanding of the city and most of them possess knowledge and experiences in the related industry. They represent the perception of different designations, which are as follows: -

i.

Party equipped with the knowledge on the essential design elements and approaches of museums and cultural hubs in Ipoh, which is the local architect

ii.

Party that have a throughout understanding on the current condition and law of Ipoh city, which is the local authority

iii.

Party that possess knowledge and have the first-hand experience on the design requirements and space planning of a museum or cultural hub in Ipoh, which is the local Non-Governmental Organisation and at the same time the curator of a local museum

3.3.3

Survey Research / Questionnaire Survey research is the most fundamental tool among all the quantitative

research methods. This method used to ask questions to a sample of respondents

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through various platform, such as online polls, online surveys, paper questionnaires. (Bhat, 2019) In this study, a pilot survey is conducted by distributing the questionnaire through online applications. The survey is conducted with a total of one hundred and thirteen (113) respondents of age ranging from all different age group ranging from below eighteen (18) to above thirty-five (35) years old, which are local residents of Ipoh. A set of survey questionnaire is attached in Appendix I.

The questionnaire consists of an array of questions ranging from yes or no questions, agree or disagree, ranking and identification. To allow for further analysis of the data, the total of twenty-six (26) questions are structured into four sections, which are the following: i.

Social background of the respondent

ii.

Awareness of cultural heritage

iii.

Attitude towards local cultural facilities (museums)

iv.

Attitude towards new developments in Ipoh

The questions are structured in such way to identify the rate of understanding and awareness on cultural heritage of Ipoh, the popularity of museum among the locals and the rate of acceptance on the current new developments in Ipoh. Besides that, the questionnaire also involves perception study of the respondents, which allow them to give feedbacks and suggestions through open-ended questions.

3.4

Research Design Framework A research design is the set of work processes and techniques used in collecting

and analysing measures of the variables specifies in the research problem. The framework involves the study type and sub-type, research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design and even data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan if applicable. (Creswell, 2014) Thus, to provide a proper procedure to obtain solutions for the research questions in this study, a research design framework is created as shown in Figure 3.4.1.

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Title: Future Museums and Cultural Hubs Museums and cultural hubs as possible solution to improve the fading of sense of place and heritage identity in Ipoh S a Research Background: Urban m Decay Within Inner Cities The current condition of urban decay within the inner part of the historical cities p in Malaysia, li including Ipoh an g m a Problem pl Statement n in Ipoh is currently facing intensive urbangdproblems where new developments have faded away the identity and decayedaIthe local characteristics, which cause “placelessness� within the city n dst and r In Inst u st ru Research m Aim ru me e and museums in enhancing the sense m ntat To investigate the potential of cultural hubs of place and heritage identity in en the decaying inner city of Ipoh ion t nt aa at m tiObjectives Researchio pl no Objective 1: To determine the existing character of Ipoh inner city in n Objective 2: To identify awareness of theglocal residents on cultural heritage in Ipoh an Objective 3: To establish ways to design dfuture cultural hubs in order to improve the fading of sense of place and In heritage identity in Ipoh st ru m en Review Literature ta Scope 1: A Study of Ipoh Inner City ti Scope 2: Cultural Hub as Catalyst o Project for Urban Regeneration Scope 3: The nMuseum Today Scope 4: The Concept of Place Scope 5: Design Strategies and Approaches

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Methodology 1. Content Analysis (Limitation)

2. Interview (Limitation)

3. Survey Questionnaire (Analytical Technique)

Data Analysis RQ1: To evaluate the condition of urban decay within the inner city RQ2: To identify the awareness and public perception on cultural heritage RQ3: To propose potential elements to design future museums and cultural hubs in Ipoh

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis RQ1

RQ2

RQ3

Method

Literature Review + Content Analysis

Literature Review + Survey Questionnaire

Literature Review + Interview

Data

Qualitative (Content Analysis)

Quantitative (Statistical Analysis)

Qualitative (Content Analysis)

Major Findings / Recommendation

Architectural Strategies

Conclusion & Recommendation Figure 3.4.1: Research design framework. (Image source: Author) 48 | P a g e


3.5

Data Analysis Plan This chapter explain about the overall method of research, which the

methodology applied both qualitative and quantitative research approaches to acquire the important elements and qualities of museums. The methods involved are survey questionnaire, structured interviews and case studies and the data are further analysis to achieve the objectives.

There are two type of data collection method being applied in this paper to aid the analytical result, which are Qualitative data and Quantitative data. Qualitative data are collected through conducting interviews and content analysis of the secondary data. At the same time, Quantitative data are obtained through structured survey questionnaire. a. Qualitative Data – Content Analysis and Limitation Qualitative Data is a form of data that used to obtain understanding of underlying opinions, motives and reasons. It provides insights to the problem, which can help to develop potential hypotheses or ideas in a research. It is collected in an unstructured or semi-structured technique in small sample population, which the respondents are selected to fulfil a given quota. (DeFranzo, 2011) Thus, in this paper, data is collected through structured interviews, which in a form of verbal conversation about the understanding of the subject and description of the related data and information. However, as the data is heavily dependent on the perception and it’s nonstatistical, it is difficult to define a standard or meaning of the subject, but instead the result is open and is allowed to have different interpretations. b. Quantitative Data – Statistic and Analytical Technique Quantitative Data is a form of data that used to quantify the subject by generating numerical data, which can be transformed into usable statistics later. It is used to quantify defined variables such as opinions and behaviours and the results is being generalise from a larger sample population. The data is collected through a structured manner and it formulate facts and uncover patterns in a research. (DeFranzo, 2011) In this paper, after the data is collected through conducting survey questionnaire, the overall result can be analysis and then summarised in a more mathematical approach through presentation of diagram, chart or graph. 49 | P a g e


CHAPTER 4: FINDING & DISCUSSION 4.1

Content Analysis A content analysis is carried out through collecting and compiling the data

extracted from the planning documents from Ipoh City Council, which is the “Rancangan Kawasan Khas (RKK) Pekan Ipoh - Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah 2020” or the action area plan of Ipoh and the information extracted from “Encounters with Ipoh: Familiar Spaces, Untold Stories”, a site study done by the UM-NUS Joint Studio Program. The data and information obtained is then being further studied and analysed to evaluate: a.

Condition of historical buildings

b.

Current condition of the traditional shophouses

c.

Distribution of new developments

d.

Visibility

of the heritage zone of Ipoh city.

a. Condition of Historical Buildings in Heritage Zone

Figure 4.1.1: The distribution of historical buildings in heritage zone. (Source: “Rancangan Kawasan Khas (RKK) Pekan Ipoh - Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah 2020”, 2016) Historical buildings in the heritage zone are being categorised into four (4) types, which namely “Category I” buildings, “Category II” buildings, “In-fill Site” and “Replacement”. In accordance in the figure above, the distribution of the four (4) building types are identified and marked. As stated in the action area plan, “Category 50 | P a g e


I” historical buildings are buildings or monuments that portray high historical values, that should be preserved and restored to its original state with minimum intervention as approved by the law. Next, “Category II” buildings are buildings portray medium historical values, with interesting architecture that will protect the image and identity of Ipoh. Majority of the buildings are privately-owned and should be conserved, manage and re-instate by the owner in accomplice to law. They can be conserved through adaptive reuse with the condition of the front portion or façade must be preserved and retained. On the other hand, “In-fill Site” are temporary buildings and vacant site which allow for new developments. Lastly, “Replacement” is the type of buildings that does not portrait any historical value and new developments can be done to replace the existing buildings. (Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Perak, Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh, & Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia, 2016)

Figure 4.1.2: Percentage of the historical buildings in the heritage zone. (Image recreate from source: “Rancangan Kawasan Khas (RKK) Pekan Ipoh Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah 2020”, 2016) Based on the chart in Figure 4.1.2, majority of the historical buildings are listed as “Category II”, which takes up a percentage of sixty-four percent (64%), with an amount of seven hundred and eighty-five (785) of them recorded back in the year of 2013. Then, in the heritage zone, thirty-one percent (31%) of the buildings are either in the state of being replaced or future replacement could be done onto the buildings. Besides that, four percent (4%) are vacant sites for future and new developments in the heritage zone. Lastly, only fourteen (14) of the historical buildings are “Category 51 | P a g e


I”, with the record dated back in the year 2013. (Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Perak, Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh, & Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia, 2016)

b. Current Condition of the Traditional Shophouses in the Heritage Zone

Figure 4.1.3: Distribution of vacant upper floors and unused traditional shophouses. (Image recreate from source: “Encounters with Ipoh: Familiar Spaces, Untold Stories”, 2013) Among the “Category II” buildings that indicated in Figure 4.1.3, most of them are traditional shophouses. To extend the study of the current condition of decay within Ipoh inner city, the distribution of the current usage of shophouses are identified. Majority of them are vacant on the upper floor, which are indicated in orange colour as shown the figure above. On the other hand, the ones indicated in grey colour are totally unused and abandoned to decay themselves.

5 Properly Conserved

4 Properly Conserved but Blocked Front Facade

3 Unused Upper Floor

2 Decay and Unused Upper Floor

1 Unused/ Vacant and Abandoned to Decay

Figure 4.1.4: Current condition of the traditional shophouses. (Image source: Author) 52 | P a g e


Next, an on-field observation of the current condition of the shophouses is conducted by recording the conditions through photographs. The condition is being rated at a scale from “5” to “1”, which indicate either the shophouses are being properly conserved, the front façade is being blocked, with unused upper floor, with decaying upper floor or being left vacant and abandoned to decay respectively. A summary of the conditions is shown in Figure 4.1.4. In reference to figure above, majority of the upper floors of the traditional shophouses are vacant, with the rating ranging between “3” to “1”. One of the examples with rating of “3” as shown in the figure above is “Cafe Yoon Wah” along Jalan Bijeh Timah. The cafe is properly maintained although the upper floor is unused. There are also a series of shophouses with unused and decaying upper floors, which with the rating of “2”. One of the examples that portraits sign of decay on the upper floor is “Café Burps and Giggles” along Jalan Sultan Yusof. Next, there is quite a number of unused shophouses that being left to decay, with the rating of “1” in the heritage zone. A few vacant shophouses along Jalan Tun Sambanthan show a sign of decay as shown in the figure above. Fortunately, not all traditional shophouses show sign of decay. There are some of the shophouses are properly conserved, with the rating of “4” to “5”. The ones that get a lower rating of “4” is due to the blocked front façade by the advertisement or signboard. Based on the figure above, “Restaurant Sun Yoon Wah” along Jalan Bijeh Timah is one of the examples. Last but not least, the ones that are properly conserved and protected, with the rating of “5” are shophouses listed as “Category I”. For example, “Chung Thye Phin Building” along Jalan Tun Sambanthan, which is a “Category I” building is being properly conserved and retained as shown in the figure above.

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c. Distribution of New Developments in the Heritage Zone

Figure 4.1.5: Distribution of new developments in Ipoh. (Photo retracted from source: https://www.google.com) As indicated in Figure 4.1.5, five (5) prominent new developments within the heritage zone is identified and stated, which are the Hotel Kinta River Front, Soho Ipoh, the Octagon service apartment, MU Hotel and the Majestic service apartment. In this study, it is identified that some of the new developments are actually built to replace buildings with historical values. For example, the Octagon service apartment is built to replace the first market in town, the Yau Tet Shin Market; MU Hotel is built to replace a whole row of traditional shophouse along Jalan Chung On Siew, which has been used in the shooting of a movie; and lastly one of the oldest cinema built in the town, the Majestic Cinema being replaced with the Majestic service apartment. The situation is worsened when one of the new developments mentioned, Majestic Cinema is being knock down without getting permit from the local authority. (JAG, 2012; Loh, 2012; Ipohgal, 2012) 54 | P a g e


d. Visibility of Heritage Zone

Figure 4.1.6: Characteristic of the row of shophouses along Jalan Bijeh Timah. (Image Source: Author) To determine the visibility of the heritage zone, the characteristic of the row of shophouses along Jalan Bijeh Timah is being observed in this study. Based on the Figure 4.1.6, traditional shophouses with different architectural styles of different era, such as “Transition”, “Modern”, “Eclectic” are identified. However, instead of maintaining the configuration of the façade, one of the shophouses, as highlighted in the figure above is replaced and refurbished with modern elements that does not belong to any of the architectural styles.

Other than the characteristic, the visibility of the heritage zone can be affected by the height of the new developments. The skyline of Ipoh is conceptualised in the Figure 3.7 that the outer core zone, which is the area outside of the heritage zone as a special district with densely populated high-rise compact whereas the heritage zone, the Old Town of Ipoh should be conserved and maintained with low rise.

Figure 4.1.7:The concept of future skyline of Ipoh city. (Source: “Rancangan Kawasan Khas (RKK) Pekan Ipoh - Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah 2020”, 2016)

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On the other hand, the law regarding the historical buildings’ height limit of not exceeding seven (7) stories within the heritage zone is illustrated in Figure 4.1.8.

Figure 4.1.8: Height limit within the heritage zone. (Source: “Rancangan Kawasan Khas (RKK) Pekan Ipoh - Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah 2020”, 2016) However, despite the availability of law regarding height limits, there are a few new developments that is built exceeding the height limit within the heritage zone. For example, the Octagon Service Apartment and the Maybank Trust office building which are eighteen (18) and fifteen (15) stories respectively. Both the figures below show the contrast in building heights and their impact on the skyline of heritage zone.

Figure 4.1.9: Buildings in heritage zone that exceed height limit, The Octagon Service Apartment (left) and The Maybank Trust Office building (right). (Image source: Author) According to the study, it can be concluded that Ipoh is portraying the sign of decay, where there are quite a number of traditional shophouses with vacant upper floors or abandoned to decay as shown in Figure 4.1.3. Other than urban decay, Ipoh is currently suffering with the fading of visibility of heritage zone. The existing urban 56 | P a g e


character is being replaced with new developments that built without appropriate context to the city. This can be proven through Figure 4.1.2, where a high percent of buildings in heritage zone being replaced. The situation worsens where new developments are design without appropriate context to Ipoh city as stated in Figure 4.1.6 that further affect the visibility of heritage zone.

4.2

Interview Content Analysis The interview content involves the opinion from three parties, who are the local

architect (which will be stated as “interviewee A” in the following paragraphs), the assistant director of the town planning department from Ipoh City Council (which will be stated as “interviewee B” in the following paragraphs) and the managing director for both the local NGO and a local museum (which will be stated as “interviewee C” in the following paragraphs), in relation to their own experience in respective field of profession. Consequently, the findings will determine the overview of the current condition of local museums in Ipoh and the possible strategies to improve the cultural heritage identity through cultural facilities. The interview is divided into three sections, which the first part will be focusing on their personal perception on museums and cultural hubs and overview on the existing local museums, the second part will be revolving around their opinion regarding the impact of museums towards the city and the last part will be centring on their suggestion to improve Ipoh’s identity through cultural led-developments. Firstly, all three interviewees establish similar perception in defining museums and cultural hubs. Generally, a museum is an institution that store, collect artefacts and cultural heritage that related to history and past events and then exhibit the info to the visitors. It promotes and at the same time provide educational purpose in terms of culture and history. There is also various type of museums, depending on the theme of the exhibition. On the other hand, cultural hub is a platform to promote local culture and arts. Next, they further elaborate their perception towards museums by giving examples of museums that leaves them with an enjoyable experience. Interviewee A stated Pompidou Centre at Paris as a good example of museum with social cultural function and Smithsonian Museum at Washington DC that provide the visitor with lively displays and revolving exhibition through the efforts from the museum curators. Interviewee B suggested Gazientap Museum at Turkey as an example with a variation 57 | P a g e


of interesting exhibition themes and interactive elements within the museum compound. Next, interviewee C mentioned the Penang State Museum as it provides a journey and a throughout story linking the history and exhibitions of artefacts. Regarding the overview on the existing local government and private museums, all respondents agree that they are not adequate to promote the local cultural identity and the local community do not give enough attention and awareness towards these facilities. Interviewee A adds a point that there is lack of theoretical depth within the museum displays as the exhibitions are just collection of old stuff. There is unlikely of repeat visit as the display is static and limited. Secondly, all the interviewees fully endorse with the contribution of museums and cultural hubs and their importance towards the growth and developments of a city. Interviewee C further elaborates that museums and cultural hubs gives a great help in the local economy. Besides that, interviewee B suggests that it is important for everybody to know our own history as it creates bonding within the local community which is beneficial for the development of a city. Next, all three interviewees also reach a consensus where if there is financial allowance and opportunity to develop, they will without a doubt to go for cultural facilities or cultural led developments in Ipoh. Interviewee B elaborates that museums are essential in a city as they record the important history and past events, which constitute to the identity and culture of a city. In addition, the opinion from interviewee C supported the statement by stated that museums are one of the important institutes to promote culture and it is culture that defines the uniqueness of a city. It triggers the local economy through boosting the tourism industry. With the intention of promoting the city, interviewee A suggested to have mixed-use developments instead of stand-alone cultural facilities, as it enhances the city life with a diversity of activities and facilities. The Ipoh inner city area will be “happening� day and night instead of staying mostly asleep after office hour. Thirdly, all interviewees have the same opinion about the elements proposed in the question, which include space experience, programs, exterior design and technology used within the museums play a significant role in designing museums and cultural hubs. Interviewee B adds a point that a museum should be interactive to compliment with its education purpose, especially among the youngsters. Despite of the static exhibition, museums should evolve and suit to the modern era with the 58 | P a g e


interactive elements. On the other hand, interviewee C pointed out that the involvement of the local is also important. Through the involvement of the proposed cultural programs and activities, attachment and bonding between the local community and museum is established. All of the interviewees realise that Ipoh currently do not have any platforms to promote cultural programs and activities. In order to enhance the urban identity of Ipoh, interviewee A suggested that the urban environment, urban character and urban services should improve beforehand as buildings by themselves do not add value or enhance a city. Interviewee A further strengthen the point of having mixed-use in cultural facilities in Ipoh as currently, Ipoh is lacking in arts and cultural facilities, such as performing centre, museum and art gallery. This at the same time will add diversity in building uses and gives “heart” and thus enhance the value of Ipoh. Besides that, with these developments, Ipoh is attractive for living, working and playing especially for the youngsters. Interviewee B proposed that the Perak State Government should kick start this initiative by having a museum that promote the local history, which currently is not available in Ipoh. The museum can then bring everyone together, create the bonding and at the same time preserve and enhance the existing cultural identity. Moreover, interviewee C also share the same point of view with interviewee B in the consensus that the State Government should take the first step in initiating cultural led development within Ipoh. Interviewee B further elaborates that there should be a cultural centre as a platform to accommodate all the cultural activities and festivals as Malaysia is a multi-racial community and Ipoh might be a starting point for all of these. Although Ipoh is equipped with its own unique cultural heritage identity, interviewee C still refer Ipoh as “cultural desert”, where all of the cultures do not work or matters in the city. In response to this statement, interviewee C point out a serious issue within Ipoh city as there is a lack of appreciation and concern towards cultural related programs and activities among the local community which most of them only care about developments that are profitable with immediate return.

4.3

Questionnaire Content Analysis The survey questionnaire is conducted through online application, Google

Form. A total of twenty-six (26) questions, which are divided into four (4) sections, are prepared to identify the awareness and public perception on cultural heritage in Ipoh among the local residents of Perak. The survey is carried out among one hundred and nine (109) respondents, which all of them are Malaysian and originate from Perak. 59 | P a g e


After that, the sets of data are collected and presented in a statistical manner, which is in the form of charts as shown in the figures below.

a. Social Background The survey is started with identifying the social background of the respondents. The age group is categorised into four (4) categories, which are as follow: i.

The Generation Z, who are below eighteen (18) years old

ii.

The Generation Y, who are between eighteen (18) to thirty-four (34) years old

iii.

The Generation X, who are between thirty-five (35) to fifty (50) years old

iv.

The Baby Boomers, who are above fifty (50) years old

Figure 4.3.1: Age group of the respondents. (Image source: Author) Based on the chart above, about seventy percent (70%), which majority of the respondents are Generation Y, ranging between the age of eight-teen (18) to thirtyfour (34). Next, following with the respondents of Generation X, who is within the age of thirty-five (35) to fifty (50). Then, about thirteen percent (13%) of them are Baby Boomer, who are above fifty (50) years old. Lastly, only a few of the respondents are Generation Z, which contribute to two percent (2%) of the survey.

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Figure 4.3.2: Gender of the respondents. (Image source: Author) According to the chart, majority of the respondents, which takes up sixty-two percent (62%) are female, whereas thirty-eight percent (38%) are male.

Figure 4.3.3: Percentage of local residents from Ipoh. (Image source: Author) In accordance to the chart above, majority of the respondents, which is about ninety-three percent (93%) of them are originated from Ipoh and about seven percent (7%) of them are not local residents at Ipoh.

b. Awareness on Cultural Heritage The survey is continued through identifying the awareness of the respondents towards the local cultural heritage. The cultural heritage that mentioned in this section included both tangible and intangible cultural heritage, including: 61 | P a g e


i.

Dialects

ii.

Traditional arts and crafts

iii.

History of Ipoh

iv.

Historical buildings

in order to determine the understanding and awareness among the respondents of the cultural heritage identity of Ipoh.

Figure 4.3.4: Usage of dialects. (Image Source: Author) As indicated in the chart above, most of the respondents, which consist of about ninety-five percent (95%) of them know and speak their own dialects, whereas only five percent (5%) of them do not expose to it.

Figure 4.3.5: Awareness of learning own dialects. (Image source: Author)

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In relation to the chart in Figure 4.3.5, about ninety-five percent (95%), which is almost all of the respondents think that learning own dialects are important, but it’s the opposite for five percent (5%) of them.

3. Do you expose to any traditional arts & crafts in Ipoh? 109 responses

Figure 4.3.6: Exposure to traditional arts and crafts. (Image source: Author) More than half, which is fifty-six percent (56%) of the respondent do not expose to any traditional arts and crafts as shown in the chart above, only forty-four percent (44%) of them have the chance to get to know these arts and crafts personally.

4. Have you heard of these arts & trades in Ipoh? (can be more than one) 109 responses

Figure 4.3.7: Exposure to various type of traditional arts and trades in Ipoh. (Image source: Author) In accordance to the bar chart above, majority of the respondents, which eightthree (83) of them get the most exposure on traditional heong peah making. Then, it goes to cane furniture making, which fifty-nine (59) respondents know about it. Next, 63 | P a g e


forty-one (41) of them know about traditional lion head making. Other than the top three (3) traditional arts and crafts that received most exposure, the respondents also know about Chinese opera, tin smiting, wooden signboard making and wooden clogs making, which each of them with a number of thirty-five (35), thirty-two (32), twentyfive (25) and twenty-one (21) respondents respectively. There are eight (8) respondents who know all of the arts and crafts mentioned in the questionnaire, but in contrast there are also eight (8) of them who do not know any of the arts and crafts.

5. If you are given a chance, will you interested to learn about these arts & crafts? 109 responses

Figure 4.3.8: Interest on the traditional arts and crafts. (Image source: Author) After that, the interest on the traditional arts and crafts as mentioned in the previous paragraph is studied. As show in the chart above, seventy-eight percent (78%) of the respondents portray a great interest in learning whereas twenty-two percent (22%) of them are not interested at all.

6. Do you think this arts & crafts are important to be preserved & inherited? 109 responses

Figure 4.3.9: Awareness towards the importance of traditional arts and crafts to be preserved and inherited. (Image source: Author) 64 | P a g e


Almost all, which ninety-eight percent (98%) of the respondents realise that traditional arts and crafts is important that it should be preserved and inherited. Only two percent (2%) of them are unaware of the importance of traditional arts and crafts.

Figure 4.3.10: Understanding of history of Ipoh. (Image source: Author) Based on the bar chart above, a rating from the scale of “1” to “5”, ranging from “don’t know”, “minimum”, “basic understanding”. “familiar” and “very familiar” respectively, is rated by the respondents themselves regarding their understanding of the local history. Fifty-six percent (56%) of the respondents think that they portray a basic understanding of the local history, with a rating of “3”, whereas twenty-five percent (25%) of them thinks that they only show a minimum understanding, with a rating of “2”. On the other hand, seventeen percent (17%) of the respondents rate themselves a rating of “4”, which they are familiar with the local history. Besides that, there is a two percent (2%) of the respondents are confident that they are very familiar with the history themselves, which lead them to a rating of “5” in the scale.

Figure 4.3.11: Source of exposure to the history of Ipoh. (Image source: Author) 65 | P a g e


Majority of the respondents, which sixty-four (64) and sixty-one (61) of them learn about the local history through relatives and friends and internet respectively. Next, forty-nine (49) of them expose to the local history in school, forty-six (46) of them learn that from books and only nineteen (19) of them get to know their history in museums. Besides that, only twenty-two (22) of them expose to the local history through all of the sources mentioned in Figure 4.3.11.

Figure 4.3.12: Two historical buildings in Ipoh, Majestic Cinema (left) and Yau Tet Shin Market (right). (Photo source: https://188hughlowstreet. wordpress.com, http://www.ipohecho.com.my)

Figure 4.3.13: Exposure to historical buildings. (Image source: Author) The study is continued by showing the respondents two photos of the historical buildings of Majestic Cinema and Yau Tet Shin Market as shown in Figure 4.3.12, which both the buildings are being demolished during the year of 2012 and 2002 respectively and currently replaced with new developments of service apartment. In accordance to Figure 4.3.13, sixty-one percent (61%) of the respondents recognise

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both of the buildings, twenty-six percent (26%) only know one of them and fourteen percent (14%) of them do not know anything about these buildings.

Restaurant Nam Heong

Figure 4.3.14: Awareness on the listed historical buildings in Ipoh. (Image source: Author) In this study, other than Petit Mary Patisserie, SJK (C) Sam Tet and WEIL Hotel that are located outside of the heritage zone, all of the buildings as stated in the Figure 4.3.14 are listed “category I” and “category II” historical buildings in the action area plan of Ipoh (RKK Ipoh). Majority of the respondents picked Ipoh railway station, St. Michael’s institution, Concubine Lane, Sultan Idris Shah roundabout, Jubilee Park, Han Chin Pet Soo, Restaurant Nam Heong and OCBC Bank as the popular choice of listed historical buildings in Ipoh. As one of the listed historical buildings, CaféLim Kopi that is situated at the Old Town get a relatively less vote, which only eleven (11) respondents voted for this building. Quite a number of respondents, which twenty-six (26) of them vote SJK(C) Sam Tet as historical building. On the other hand, a few of them three (3) and one (1) of them voted for Petit Mary Patisserie and WEIL Hotel respectively. Besides that, there is also a small portion of respondents, three (3) of them thinks that all of the buildings mentioned above are listed historical buildings and one (1) of them thinks that none of the above are listed.

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11. Whether or not you have visited or planned to visit any of these historical buildings, do you feel it is important that they exist & should be preserved? 109 responses

Figure 4.3.15: Importance of the existence and preservation of historical buildings. (Image source: Author) Ninety-nine percent (99%) which is almost all of the respondents realise the importance of the historical buildings and think that it is important to preserve and protect them, only one percent (1%) assume that it is not important as shown in the pie chart above.

12. In your opinion, what do you think best represent Ipoh as its identity? 109 responses

Lifestyle & culture

7

Atmosphere

5

History (tin mining)

6

Nature (hills, caves & river)

26

Historical buildings & sites

26

Food

28

0

10

20

30

Figure 4.3.16: Public reception on identity of Ipoh. (Image source: Author) Next in this section, question regarding the public perception of element(s) that could represent Ipoh as its identity is surveyed. The responses are summarised into six 68 | P a g e


(6) category, which are food, historical buildings and sites, history related to tin mining industry, surrounding atmosphere of Ipoh, lifestyle and culture. Most of the respondents mentioned that Ipoh can be represented by its food, historical buildings and sites and its nature attractions, such as hills, caves and Kinta River. Next, seven (7) respondents point out that the lifestyle and culture of local residents best representing identity of Ipoh. Then, six (6) of them consider that the local history, especially related to tin mining best represent Ipoh as an identity. Last but not least, five (5) respondents stated that the surrounding atmosphere portray by the city can be one of the prominent identities of Ipoh too.

c. Attitude towards Local Cultural Facilities The attitude of the respondents towards the local facilities is identify through a series of questions of voting on the cultural facilities that previously visited, most favourable and the ones with the most unsatisfied experience. Besides that, the main reason and element that attract their attentions towards these facilities are determined throughout this section. The cultural facilities that included in this section are the existing local museums and galleries, which stated as follow: -

i.

Ho Yan Hor Museum

ii.

Han Chin Pet Soo

iii.

Geological Museum

iv.

Yasmin at Kong Heng Museum

v.

Darul Ridzuan Museum

vi.

Dream Big World Museum

vii.

Miniature Wonders Art Gallery

viii.

Wisma Chye Hin

ix.

22 Hale Street Art Gallery

x.

Palong Tin Museum

xi.

Time Tunnel Ipoh

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Figure 4.3.17: Attitude towards museums in Ipoh. (Image source: Author) Based on the bar chart above, forty-three (43) of the respondents do not visit to any of the local museums. The museums that are more popular among the respondents are Darul Ridzuan Museum, Ho Yan Hor Museum, Time Tunnel Ipoh, Palong Tin Museum, Han Chin Pet Soo, Yasmin at Kong Heng Museum, Geological Museum and 22 Hale Street Art Gallery, ranging from votes between thirty-six (36) to ten (10) respondents. Only three (3) of them visited Dream Big World Museum and Wisma Chye Hin, whereas one (1) of them visited Miniature Wonders Art Gallery. There is one (1) of the respondents who have the initiative to visit all of the museums in Ipoh.

Figure 4.3.18: The favourable museums for revisit and will recommend to others. (Image source: Author) 70 | P a g e


Most of the respondents, which thirty-eight (38) of them voted that there are not any museums that listed in the figure above are satisfied enough for a revisit and recommendation to their family and friends based on the above bar chart. On the other hand, the favourable ones are Ho Yan Hor Museum, Han Chin Pet Soo, Palong Tin Museum, Time Tunnel Ipoh, Darul Ridzuan Museum, Geological Museum and Yasmin at Kong Heng Museum, with votes ranging from thirty-two (32) to ten (10) respondents. On the other hand, the ones getting least votes are Miniature Wonders Art Gallery, with six (6) votes; Dream Big World Museum, with six (6) votes; 22 Hale Street Art Gallery, with five (5) votes and Wisma Chye Hin, with two (2) votes.

3. Which provide you with the most unsatisfied experience and you definitely won’t visit or recommend to family and friends? (maximum 3 choices) 109 responses

Figure 4.3.19: Cultural facilities with the most unsatisfied experience. (Image source: Author) Majority of the respondents, which eight-one (81) of them thinks that all of the cultural facilities mentioned in survey do not provide them with unsatisfied experience. However, there are still a few votes, ranging from eight (8) to two (2) votes given to most of the cultural facilities in the list, except 22 Hale Street Art Gallery.

Figure 4.3.20: Percentage of repeated visit for local museums. (Image source: Author) 71 | P a g e


As shown in Figure 4.3.20, a bigger portion, which sixty-nine percent (69%) of the respondents do not visit a local museum more than once. On the other hand, thirty-one percent (31%) of them have paid repeated visits to the local museums.

Figure 4.3.21: Main reason for visiting a museum. (Image source: Author) Regardless of the various of other reasons stated by seven percent (7%) the respondents, which mainly responded that they never visited any museums before, the result of this question will only focus on the five (5) reasons proposed in the question, which include “a famous tourist spot”, “educational purpose”, “your own interest”, “part of the tour itinerary” and “free admission”. Based on the chart above, twenty-six percent (26%) of the respondents went to a museum for their own interest, twenty-five percent (25%) went for educational purpose or through school trips, eighteen percent (18%) went there because it is a famous tourist spot, thirteen percent (13%) went there as it is free admission and eleven percent (11%) went visit a museum as it is part of the tour itinerary prepare by travel agencies.

Figure 4.3.22: The important elements that attract respondents to visit a museum. (Image source: Author) 72 | P a g e


As the other reasons stated by three percent (3%) of the respondents in the question that they never visit to any museum before, it is not included in the result of this survey. Instead, the survey will focus on the four design elements of museum proposed in the question, which are “theme of exhibition”, “technology”, “attractiveness of exterior” and “experience provided”. Most of the respondents, which forty-five percent (45%) of them voted that the experience provided during the visit is the main reason that attract them to visit a museum. Next, thirty-one percent (31%) of them voted that the theme of the exhibition is the main element that attract them. Thirteen percent (13%) of them voted for the attractiveness of the exterior design of museum and seven percent (7%) voted the technology that is being used throughout the exhibition as the reason that attract them to visit a museum. Lastly, there is also one (1) respondent mentioned that all of the elements proposed in the question are equally important and should be considered when designing a museum.

d. Attitude towards New Development in Ipoh The last section of the survey will be focusing on the attitude of the respondents towards the current new developments in Ipoh. This section is conducted to identify the awareness and acceptance of the respondents towards these developments. Examples of the new developments that listed in this question are commercial buildings, such as service apartment, shopping mall, office building, hotel and commercial centre, which are as follow: -

i.

The Majestic Service Apartment

ii.

Time Square Ipoh

iii.

Ipoh Parade Shopping Mall

iv.

Soho Ipoh

v.

MU Hotel

vi.

The Octagon Service Apartment

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Figure 4.3.23: Awareness towards new developments in Ipoh. (Image source: Author) This section started showing the respondents photos of the new developments, the Majestic Service Apartment, Times Square Ipoh, Ipoh Parade Shopping Mall, Soho Ipoh, MU Hotel and The Octagon Service Apartment that currently added to the skyline of Ipoh. Majority of the respondent, which fifty-six percent (56%) of them did not recognise all the buildings, whereas thirty-nine percent (39%) of them recognise and know all the buildings. There are five percent (5%) of them did not realise and get to know about these buildings.

Figure 4.3.24: Altitude towards new developments. (Image source: Author) Next, the attitude of accepting these developments are determined through the scale of rating proposed in this question. The rating is ranging from “1”, which the respondent does not welcome and hope for any of the new developments in Ipoh, rating of “2” for welcoming minimum new developments around, rating of “3” of being 74 | P a g e


neutral with the situation, rating of “4” for welcoming more of these developments around and rating of “5” for showing great interest and anticipating more of these developments to be built in Ipoh. Thirty-eight percent (38%) of the respondents pick a rating of “4” and are positive about welcoming new developments in Ipoh. Then, thirty percent (30%) of them are neutral about the situation. There is also quite a number of respondents show great interest and hope for more new development in the city by rating “5” for this question. In contrast, eleven percent (11%) of the respondents show minimum interest on new developments and there is one (1) respondent that does not welcome any of these in Ipoh. After that, the reasons of the respective rating given by the respondents are identified. There are both supporting and opposing voices regarding the new developments. The respondents are being supportive with the new developments by giving a rating of “4” or “5”. They believe that these developments bring growth to Ipoh city, trigger developments, boost the local economy, further promote the tourism industry, increase job opportunity, improve the living standard and thus attract the youngster to stay in Ipoh. One of the respondents is anticipating new development by pointing out that over relying on historical sites will drawback the state economy. Besides that, one respondent also stated that these new developments do not actually affect the identity of Ipoh. A few of them thinks that this will bring in new cultures and architectural trends, which will promote a new image to Ipoh. On the other hand, by giving a rating of “2” or “1”, the respondents are opposing with new developments in Ipoh mainly because they fade away the culture, the origin, the uniqueness of the place and this affect the image of Ipoh as a historical city. In contrast to promoting a new image to Ipoh, some of the respondents oppose to this idea thinking that the new developments seriously affect the historical image and they are built without an appropriate context. A few of the respondents also pointed out that new developments will causes pollution and destroy the environment of Ipoh. Moreover, there is one respondent who thinks that Ipoh is currently overdeveloped. One of the respondents also realise that there are some developments that do not contribute to the Ipoh’s development. Furthermore, some of respondents also oppose with these developments as they will increase the cost of living and the properties price within the city. Besides that, through giving a rating of “3”, the respondents face with a dilemma of whether to welcome new developments to improve the standard of living and boost economy 75 | P a g e


growth at Ipoh or to oppose with new developments in order to preserve the cultural heritage and identity of Ipoh. Some of them are unsure with the situation as these developments are essential for a city but at the same time, they eliminate the cultural aspects of Ipoh. Lastly, a few of the respondents propose to carry out appropriate developments with inheritance of culture and identity within the city. The historical buildings should be preserved, but not being demolished to build a new one as it represents the identity and at the same time the main attraction. Ipoh can be a potential tourist spot the brings million and even billions of revenues to Perak and that both government and private sector should work together towards this direction.

Figure 4.3.25: Awareness on the impact of new developments towards the heritage identity of Ipoh. (Image source: Author) Based on the chart, slightly more than half, which fifty-five percent (55%) of the respondents realised that new developments will bring detrimental impact to the image and identity of Ipoh as a heritage city. On the other hand, forty-five percent (45%) of them think that these developments will not affect the heritage identity of Ipoh.

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CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5.1

Possible Design Strategies and Recommendations In my opinion, apart from architectural designs of cultural facilities that already

mentioned in this study, both the urban environment and urban services play an equally important role in enhancing the local identity, sense of place and at the same time making the city a better place to live in.

a. Improvement on Urban Environment Ipoh city centre should be more pedestrian and disabled-friendly. First of all, wide shady well-maintained sidewalks with proper street-level pedestrian crossings should be provided at regular intervals. Bus stops should be provided with proper seating and shelter with well-illustrated display of bus routes and estimated arrival times. The sense of security of the pedestrian could be improve by increasing friendly police street patrols. Besides that, in order for the city to be congestion-free, the urban transportation system should be upgraded, especially increasing the routes, destinations and frequency served by public buses.

b. Improvement on Urban Services In accordance to the slogan of the city, “Ipoh clean, green and progressive”, the city’s key services to meet public and business needs should be improved as well. For instances, public streets and drains should be regularly cleaned and maintained, public buses should be well-maintained and operated according to time schedule, efficient and courteous counter services, good public healthcare and strict but fair enforcement services.

5.2

Conclusion Based on various studies and evaluation, the condition of the heritage zone is

summarised as follow: i.

Most of the historical buildings are listed in “Category II” but are gradually moving towards the trend of being replaced with new developments.

ii.

Shophouses is the most abundant building typo in the inner city, which currently most of them are vacant on the upper floor. 77 | P a g e


iii.

There are increasing numbers of new developments being built, and some of them are replacing buildings with historical values.

iv.

The visibility of heritage zone is faded with the construction of new developments that exceeding building height limits and replaced or refurbished with modern elements that does not portrait any of the existing architectural styles.

Thus, it can be concluded that Ipoh inner city is experiencing a hint of urban decay and fading of heritage identity.

Next, according to the principle of majority rule, it is assumed that the findings are representing the perception of local residents, that is summarised as follow: i.

They are well aware of the importance of cultural heritage in Ipoh, which include traditional arts and crafts and heritage buildings.

ii.

They have the interest to learn and know more about traditional arts and crafts in Ipoh.

iii.

They have low chances of exposing to traditional arts and crafts in Ipoh.

iv.

They portray a basic understanding on the history of Ipoh.

v.

They are well aware with the existence of most of the heritage buildings around Ipoh city.

vi.

Set aside of food, they think that identity of Ipoh can be represented by its physical urban character, which is the historical buildings and its nature aspects, which include hills, caves and Kinta River.

vii.

They show low awareness and attention towards the existing cultural facilities in Ipoh.

viii.

The main reason they visit a museum is either because of their own interest or because of school trips.

ix.

They portray interest in welcoming new developments to Ipoh city.

x.

The awareness on the detrimental effect of new developments towards the cultural heritage identity of Ipoh city is not adequate.

Therefore, the appreciation on the cultural heritage among the local residents of Ipoh is low and unaware with effect of new developments that are gradually fading the heritage identity of Ipoh.

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Last but not least, other than space experience, programs, exterior design and technology used, there are a few possible design strategies proposed by the three professional parties, who are the local architect, the local authority and the local NGO, are summarised as follow: i.

Museums as cultural hubs should evolve and suit the modern era with implication of interactive elements.

ii.

Museums as cultural hubs should increase the involvement, attachments and bonding of the visitor, especially the local community through proposed cultural programs, activities and festivals.

iii.

The cultural hub should be mixed-used and offer a diversity of activities and facilities.

5.3

Limitations Based on definition of UNESCO, cultural heritage can be categorised into

tangible and intangible cultural heritage. There is no denial in the importance of both types of cultural heritage in contributing to the sense of place and heritage identity of a city. However, due to time constraint of this study, this paper will mainly be focusing on the physical aspect, which is the tangible heritage of Ipoh city.

5.4

Recommendations for Future Research In line with the outcome of this study, currently there are not any cultural hubs

that available in Ipoh that portraying role of promoting local heritage identity. Other than museums that already mentioned in this study, cultural facilities that could potentially enhance the sense of place, place attachment and heritage identity could be discussed in future research. In addition, other than the tangible heritage of the city, intangible cultural heritage, such as oral traditions, performing arts and rituals can be included in future research of enhancing sense of place and heritage identity of a city. Intangible cultural heritage shall not to be overlook in terms of representing identity of a place as it is an important factor in maintaining cultural diversity in the face of growing globalisation. Not only the cultural manifestation, it also portraying the wealth of knowledge and skills that is transmitted from one generation to the next. The collaboration of cultural and architecture could possibly proceed the future research even further. 79 | P a g e


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http://imd.icom.museum/international-museum-day-2019/museums-ascultural-hubs-the-future-of-tradition/ 31. Ipoh City Council (MBI), P. D. (2010). Rancangan Kawasan Khas Pekan IpohBandar Warisan Bijih Timah 2020. Ipoh: Ipoh City Council (MBI). 32. Ipohgal. (22 June , 2012). Majestic no more. Retrieved from 188 Hugh Low Street, Ipoh: https://188hughlowstreet.wordpress.com/2012/06/22/majesticno-more/ 33. Ismail. (2011). The National Museum of Malaysia Kuala Lumpur: A Guide to the Gallery. The National Museum of Malaysia: Department of Museum and Antiquities Malaysia. 34. Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Perak, Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh, & Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia. (2016). Rancangan Kawasan Khas (RKK) Pekan Ipoh - Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah. Ipoh: Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Perak, Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh, Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia. 35. JAG. (20 June, 2012). Majestic Theatre Goes Under The Hammer. Retrieved from Ipoh Echo: http://www.ipohecho.com.my/v2/2012/06/20/majestictheatre-goes-under-the-hammer/ 36. Kamal, K. S., Wahab, L. A., & Ahamd, A. P. (2008). Pilot Survey on the Conservation of Historical Buildings in Malaysia. 2nd International Conference on Built Environment in Developing Countries (ICBEDC), 104115. 37. Leen, C. L., & Yeap, A. (22 May, 2017). Museums should evolve with the times. Retrieved from The Star Online: https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/community/2017/05/22/museums-shouldevolve-with-the-times-interactive-exhibits-and-engaging-methods-must-beintroduced-to/ 38. Leng, F. T. (24 May, 2011). Ipoh got its name from several influences. Retrieved from The Star Online: https://www.thestar.com.my/news/community/2011/05/24/ipoh-got-its-namefrom-several-influences/ 39. Leng, K. S., Badarulzaman, N., Samat, N., & Dawood, S. R. (2014). Capitalising on urban cultural resources for creative city development: A conceptual review and the way forward for Malaysia’s George Town. GEOGRAFIA Online Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 20-29. 40. Ling, L. Z., Ismail, S., Yusoff, S. Y., Utaberta, N., Yunos, M. Y., & Ismail, N. A. (2015). Theater of Ipoh Cuisine: Regeneration in Ipoh Town. Advances in Environmental Biology, 491-497. 41. Loh, I. (5 July, 2012). No Heritage City Status. Retrieved from starproperty.my: http://www.starproperty.my/index.php/articles/propertynews/no-heritage-city-status/ iii | P a g e


42. Loh, I. (26 Aug, 2015). Ipoh going through a transformation. Retrieved from The Star Online: https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/community/2015/08/26/ipoh-goingthrough-a-transformation-the-number-of-tall-buildings-in-the-city-on-therise/ 43. Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh (MBI). (2019). Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh (MBI),. Retrieved from History of Ipoh: http://ipohheritage.mbi.gov.my/index.php/history-of-ipoh/ 44. Mass Cultural Council. (2018). Cultural Districts - Glossary of Terms. Retrieved from Mass Cultural Council: http://www.massculturalcouncil.org/services/cultural_districts_glossary.asp 45. Mediation. (2006). La frĂŠquentation du Centre Pompidou (Global attendance of Pompidou Centre). Retrieved from mediation.centrepompidou.fr: http://mediation.centrepompidou.fr/education/ressources/ENS-architectureCentre-Pompidou/comment_ca_vit/p1_sp_1.htm 46. Muijs, D. (2004). Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS. London: SAGE Publications. 47. Murwani, I. A., & Melati, A. (2018). Adaptation of Corporate Identity Model (AC2ID Test) to Measure a City Identity - Case of Bandung, Indonesia. Pertanika Journals, 281-296. 48. Mustafa, N. A., & Abdullah, N. C. (2013). Preservation of Cultural Heritage in Malaysia: An Insight of the National Heritage Act 2005. Proceedings of International Conference on Tourism Development, 407-415. 49. Najafi, M., & Shariff, M. K. (2011). The Concept of Place and Sense of Place in Architectural Studies. International Journal fo Humanities and Social Sciences, 1054-1060. 50. Nasution, K. S., & Lubis, A.-R. (1999). The City that Tin Built, A Guide to the Heritage Sites and Buildings of Perak's State Capital. Retrieved from Ipoh World: http://db.ipohworld.org/view/id/3874 51. Otaolea, I. B. (2014). Culture as the Engine of Bilbao's Economic and Social Transformation. Mexico City: UCLG International Award- Mexico CityCulture 21. 52. Oxford English Dictionary. (2018). Oxford English Dictionary.com. Retrieved from Heritage: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/heritage 53. Park, G. (2014). The role of cultural development in urban strategy : the Hub City of Asian Culture in Gwangju, Korea. School of Museum Studies, 6-10. 54. Project for Public Space (PPS). (2018). Placemaking. Project for Public Space (PPS), (pp. 1-24). Retrieved from Museum Placemaking: https://museumplanner.org/museum-placemaking/

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55. Project for Public Space (PPS). (2018). Placemaking: What if we built our cities around places? Project for Public Space, 1-24. 56. Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness. London: Pion. 57. Robillard, D. A. (1982). Public Space Design in Museum. Milwaukee: Center for Architecture and Urban Planning. 58. Roger Tym and Partners. (1999). Cultural Facilities: A study on Their Requirements and the Formulation of New Planning Standards and Guidelines. Hong Kong: Planning Department, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Adminstrative Region. 59. Rosly, D., & Rashid, A. A. (2013). Revitalizing Urban Development in Malaysia Through the Implementation of Urban Regeneration Programme. Urban Affairs Association 43rd Annual Conference, 1-20. 60. Said, I., & Harun, N. Z. (2010). The Morphological Transformation of Public Place in Historic Town of Melaka. Southeast Asia Technical Universities Consortium Symposium 2010 and Workshop, 1-5. 61. Said, S. Y., Aksah, H., & Ismail, E. D. (2013). Heritage Conservation and Regeneration of Historic Areas in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 418-428. 62. Said, S. Y., Aksah, H., & Ismail, E. D. (2013). Heritage Conservation and Regeneration of Historic Areas in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 418-428. 63. Scott, C. (2004). Museums and Impact. How Do We Measure the Impact of Museums?, 1-14. 64. Skogan, W. (1992). Disorder and Decline: Crime and the Spiral of Decay in American Neighborhoods. University of California Press. 65. Ujang, N. (2012). Place Attachment and Continuity of Urban Place Identity. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 156-167. 66. Ujang, N., & Zakariya, K. (2015). The Notion of Place, Place Meaning and Identity in Urban Regeneration. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 709-717. 67. Unified Development Ordinance. (2013). Cultural facility. Retrieved from Defined Term: https://definedterm.com/cultural_facility 68. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). (2003). The Convention for the safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The 2003 Convention, 1-12. 69. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2011). Intangible Cultural Heritage. Retrieved from UNESCO: https://ich.unesco.org/doc/src/01851-EN.pdf

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70. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2015). Urban Culture and Heritage. The United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (pp. 1-9). New York: Habitat III. 71. Uzzell, D. (1996). Creating place identity through heritage interpretation. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 1-13. 72. Vergeront, J. (2013). Place Matters. Retrieved from Museum Notes: https://museumnotes.blogspot.com/2013/07/place-matters.html 73. Visser, J. (2016). Museums in the city of the future. Retrieved from Themuseumofthefuture.com: https://themuseumofthefuture.com/2016/01/28/museums-in-the-city-of-thefuture/ 74. Walhimer, M. (2018). Museum Planner. Retrieved from Museum Placemaking: https://museumplanner.org/museum-placemaking/ 75. Wikipedia. (2019). Urban Decay. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_decay

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76. Wolf, D. H. (2016). Identity in Malaysia - Public Reception and Communal Practice. 1-18. 77. World Guides. (7 June, 2016). World-guides.com. Retrieved from Ipoh History Facts and Timeline: Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia: http://www.worldguides.com/asia/malaysia/perak/ipoh/ipoh_history.html 78. Yelinek, A. (2009). Culture as a Tool for Urban Regeneration. The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, 1-33.

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APPENDICES

Appendix I

Survey Questionnaire

Appendix II

Interview Questions

Appendix III Interview Transcript

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Appendix I University Putra Malaysia Faculty of Design and Architecture 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan

Dear Sir / Madam, Greetings! I am Lam Wen Yi, currently enroll as final year students in the Master of Architecture programme at Faculty of Design and Architecture, University Putra Malaysia. I am currently taking the ARC5911 Architecture Dissertation 1 course. The following questionnaire will be containing a series of questions regarding the subject of my architecture research paper: “Museum as A Cultural Hub: A Gateway to the Heritage Identity of Ipoh�. The questionnaire consists of an array of questions ranging from yes or no questions, agree or disagree, ranking and identification, and will take no longer than 20 minutes to complete. I understand that some of the information being asked, you might find personal or intrusive. I assure you that any information acquired from this questionnaire will be utilized with strict anonymity and confidentiality and will be used only for the purposes of the research. In addition, I would like to clarify that there are no right or wrong answers, and that they will all be thoughtfully considered for the results of the research. I am hoping for your full participation. Thank you and good day!

Yours Sincerely, Wen Yi

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Write your answers on the space provided or check the box that corresponds to your answer. A. Social Background 1.

Age Group: ⃣ Below 18

2.

⃣ Indian

⃣ Others

⃣ Female

⃣ Chinese

Nationality: ⃣ Malaysian

5.

⃣ Above 50

Ethnic Group: ⃣ Malay

4.

⃣ 35-50

Gender: ⃣ Male

3.

⃣ 18-34

⃣ Non-Malaysian

Place of origin (State): _______________________

5a. If you are from Perak, are you from Ipoh? ⃣ Yes

⃣ No B. Awareness of Cultural Heritage

1.

Do you know your own dialects (e.g Hakka, Cantonese, Hokkien)? ⃣ Yes

2.

Do you think learning your own dialects is important? ⃣ Yes

3.

⃣ No

Do you expose to any traditional arts & crafts in Ipoh? ⃣ Yes

4.

⃣ No

⃣ No

Have you heard of these trades & arts of Ipoh? (can be more than one) ⃣ Lion Head Maker

⃣ Cane Furniture Making

⃣ Chinese Opera

⃣ Traditional Heong Peah Making

⃣ Wooden Clogs

⃣ Wooden Sign Board Making

⃣ Tin Smiting

⃣ All of the above

⃣ None of the above ix | P a g e


5.

If you are given a chance, will you interested to learn about this arts & crafts? ⃣ Yes

6.

Do you think this arts & crafts is important to be preserved & inherited? ⃣ Yes

7.

8.

⃣ No

⃣ No

How do you rate your understanding of history of Ipoh? ⃣ 5- Very familiar

⃣ 4- Familiar

⃣ 3- Basic Understanding

⃣ 2- Minimum

⃣ 1- Don’t Know

Where do you hear or learn about it? ⃣ Books

⃣ School

⃣ Relatives & friends

⃣ Internet

⃣ Museums

⃣ All of the above

⃣ Others: ________________________ 9.

Do you recognize these buildings in Ipoh?

⃣ Yes, both of them

⃣ Only one of them

⃣ Not at all

10. In your opinion, which of the following are listed as historical buildings in Ipoh? (Can be more than one) ⃣ Ipoh Railway Station

⃣ St. Michael’s Institution

⃣ Petit Mary Patisserie

⃣ Concubine Lane

⃣ Restaurant Nam Heong

⃣ SJK(C) Sam Tet

⃣ Cafe Lim Ko Pi

⃣ Han Chin Pet Soo

⃣ Jubilee Park

⃣ WEIL Hotel

⃣ OCBC Bank

⃣ Sultan Idris Shah Roundabout

⃣ All of the above

⃣ None of the above x|Page


11. Whether or not you have visited or plan to visit any of these historical buildings, do you feel it is important they exists & should be preserved? ⃣ Yes

⃣ No

12. In your opinion, what do you think best represent Ipoh as its identity? _________________________________________________________________ C. Attitude towards Cultural Facilities 1.

Have you visited the following museums (cultural facilities) in Ipoh? (Can be more than one) ⃣ Ho Yan Hor Museum

⃣ Han Chin Pet Soo

⃣ Geological Museum

⃣ Yasmin at Kong Heng Museum

⃣ Darul Ridzuan Museum

⃣ Dream Big World Museum

⃣ Miniature Wonders Art Gallery

⃣ Wisma Chye Hin

⃣ 22 Hale Street

⃣ Palong Tin Museum

⃣ Time Tunnel Ipoh

⃣ All of the Above

⃣ None of the above

2.

Which is the most favourable and you most likely will visit again or recommend to family and friends? (maximum 3 choices) ⃣ Ho Yan Hor Museum

⃣ Han Chin Pet Soo

⃣ Geological Museum

⃣ Yasmin at Kong Heng Museum

⃣ Darul Ridzuan Museum

⃣ Dream Big World Museum

⃣ Miniature Wonders Art Gallery

⃣ Wisma Chye Hin

⃣ 22 Hale Street

⃣ Palong Tin Museum

⃣ Time Tunnel Ipoh

⃣ All of the Above

⃣ None of the above

3.

Which provide you with the most unsatisfied experience and you definitely won't visit or recommend to family and friends? (maximum 3 choices) ⃣ Ho Yan Hor Museum

⃣ Han Chin Pet Soo

⃣ Geological Museum

⃣ Yasmin at Kong Heng Museum

⃣ Darul Ridzuan Museum

⃣ Dream Big World Museum

⃣ Miniature Wonders Art Gallery

⃣ Wisma Chye Hin

⃣ 22 Hale Street

⃣ Palong Tin Museum

⃣ Time Tunnel Ipoh

⃣ All of the Above

⃣ None of the above xi | P a g e


4.

Have you visited any local museums for more than once? ⃣ Yes

5.

6.

⃣ No

What is the main reason you visited a museum? ⃣ a famous tourist spot

⃣ educational purpose

⃣ your own interest

⃣ part of the tour itinerary (by travel agencies)

⃣ free admission

⃣ Others: __________________________

In your opinion, what attracts you the most to visit these local museums? ⃣ Theme of exhibition

⃣ Technology

⃣ Attractiveness of exterior

⃣ Experience provided

⃣ Others: ___________________ D. Attitude towards New Developments in Ipoh 1.

Do you recognize these buildings in Ipoh?

⃣ Yes, both of them

⃣ Only one of them

⃣ Not at all

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2.

Do you welcome these developments & hope for more of them in Ipoh? ⃣ 5- Very Likely

⃣ 4- Likely

⃣ 2- Minimum

⃣ 1- Not at All

⃣ 3- Neutral

2a. Why? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

3.

Do you think these developments will have detrimental impact on the image and identity of Ipoh as a heritage city? ⃣ Yes ⃣ No

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Appendix II Interviewee Details Name Position Years of Practice Place of Origin (State)

Interview Questions SECTION A: PERCEPTION ON MUSEUMS AND CULTURAL HUBS 1.

What is your perception on museums and cultural hubs?

2.

Which museums or cultural hubs in Ipoh that you previously went provide you with: i) the most satisfied experience ii) an unsatisfied experience And can you briefly share the experience?

3.

Based on your own experience, is there any museum(s) that you previously went leaves you with an enjoyable experience, which you will definitely pay a second visit or even more? (It could be a museum in Malaysia or overseas)

SECTION B: IMPACT OF MUSEUMS AND CULTURAL HUBS TO A CITY 1.

Do you think museums and cultural hubs are important for the development of a city? Do you think it contributes to the growth of a city?

2.

If you own a land in the Ipoh city centre, will you consider in investing on cultural hubs or cultural facilities over other types of commercial building, such as condominiums and offices? May I know why?

SECTION C: POTENTIAL APPROACHES IN DESIGNING FUTURE CULTURAL HUBS 1.

If you have a chance to involve in the design of museums and cultural hubs, what do you think is the most important element(s) or in other words, element(s) that attract you the most to be included? (It could be space experience, programs/ activities / events, facade design / exterior, technology)

2.

In your opinion, what cultural facility is lacking in Ipoh or any other facilities that you think could help to enhance the urban identity of Ipoh?


Appendix III The structured interviews are conducted face to face with three (3) respondents based on their experiences in their respective field of experts, which include: a) the local architect b) representative from the local authority c) representative from the local non-profit organisation The questions are categorised into three (3) sections, which are as follow: •

Section A on the perception on museums and cultural hubs

Section B on the impact of museums and cultural hubs to a city

Section C on the potential approaches in designing future cultural hubs

a. Interview with Local Architect Details Interviewer

: Lam Wen Yi

Interviewee

: Local Architect

Position

: Principal Architect

Dates

: 1/4/2019

Questions Section A: Perception on Museums and Cultural Hubs Q1: What is your perception on museums and cultural hubs? A:

There are many types of museums, which includes art, cultural, anthropological and specialist museums depends on the theme and the artefacts displayed and store inside the museum. Generally, museums are institutions that collect artefacts and objects with artistic, cultural and historical or even scientific importance depends on the type of museums. It could also be an interpretative centre that promote local traditional art and crafts.

Q2: Which museums or cultural hubs in Ipoh that you previously went provide you with: i)

the most satisfied experience

ii)

an unsatisfied experience

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And can you briefly share the experience? A:

Local museums or cultural hubs tend to be collections of artefacts and all the old stuffs collected from the past to involve nostalgia among the community. The events and facts that displayed in the museums are anecdotal and they are being passed down generations by generations through oral history. Personally, I think Han Chin Pet Soo, the Hakka museum leaves me with a deep impression. The exhibition is quite interesting and nice with the intention of recreating the scene where the Tin Mining club was still in used. The antique furniture that being displayed inside are the ones you can find in the past. However, similar to the other museums in Ipoh, it is lack of theoretical depth. There is also unlikely of repeat visit as it is all static and limited displays.

Q3: Based on your own experience, is there any museum(s) that you previously went leaves you with an enjoyable experience, which you will definitely pay a second visit or even more? (It could be a museum in Malaysia or overseas) A:

The first one that came into my mind is the Pompidou Centre in Paris. It is very much part of the city and it is fully contributing to city life. It is a good example of museum with social cultural function. The next one would be Smithsonian Museum at Washington DC. It is a museum of natural history with lively displays. The museum has big storages in the basement which allow for revolving exhibition. Each of the sections are in charged by curators, which they will discuss and work together to make sure the exhibition runs smoothly. It even provides the visitors with bronchus and useful info that can easily get from the booths around.

Section B: Impact of Museums and Cultural Hubs to A City Q1: Do you think museums and cultural hubs are important for the development of a city? Do you think it contributes to the growth of a city? A:

Very much so. It adds needed dimension to what makes a good city.

Q2: If you own a land in the Ipoh city centre, will you consider in investing on cultural hubs or cultural facilities over other types of commercial building, such as condominiums and offices? May I know why?

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A:

I would prefer to have mixed-use for more diversity, vibrancy and viability. The city could be happening in the day and night instead of being mostly asleep after office hour. It should offer a diversity of activities and facilities so that it is attractive to living, working and playing. To promote the city, instead of standalone tourist information centres, it might be better to incorporate tourist info counters in major public buildings, such as shopping centres, railway station and government centres.

Section C: Potential Approaches in Designing Future Cultural Hubs Q1: If you have a chance to involve in the design of museums and cultural hubs, what do you think is the most important element(s) or in other words, element(s) that attract you the most to be included? (It could be space experience, programs/ activities / events, facade design / exterior, technology) A:

The elements that you mention here is equally important in the design of museums and cultural hubs. These elements are interrelated and compliment to each other in terms of the design and sustainability of the museum itself. Besides that, it definitely should be mixed-use.

Q2: In your opinion, what cultural facility is lacking in Ipoh or any other facilities that you think could help to enhance the urban identity of Ipoh? A:

First of all, we should learn from the three (3) major urban centres, which are Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Johor Bahru by not repeating the mistakes and problems. Currently, these cities face urban issues of urban congestion, high cost of living, high crime rate and low quality of life. In my point of view, the greatness of a city is not just measured by mega projects but by how little things are done consistently well, including clean streets and drains, adequate street lighting, efficient and well-maintained public buses and proper enforcement of the rules. It is also about celebrating our multi-racial diversity in arts, culture, festivities and other public activities in a peaceful and meaningful manner. Frankly speaking, buildings by themselves do not add value or enhance a city. For the betterment of Ipoh city, we should improve our urban environment, urban character, its services and make Ipoh a happening place for leisure, entertainment and recreation. I believe that any great city needs diversity, xvii | P a g e


especially in its building uses. It is obvious that Ipoh lacks arts and cultural facilities, such as performing centre, museum and art gallery, that gives heart to a city and enhance its value. Let me give you an example, the present Town Hall can be complemented with a new Civic Centre, an Art Gallery and a Theatre for Performing Arts, which can be located at the surrounding of the Birch Memorial Clock, which is one of the important historical building in Ipoh. From this, not only the urban character can be improved, but the diversity of activities and facilities will make it attractive and at the same time “happening”.

b. Interview with Local Authority Details Interviewer

: Lam Wen Yi

Interviewee

: Ipoh City Council – Town Planning Department

Position

: Ketua Penolong Pengarah Perancang Bandar

Dates

: 2/4/2019

Questions Section A: Perception on Museums and Cultural Hubs Q1: What is your perception on museums and cultural hubs? A:

In my point of view, I think museum plays an important role in promoting the local history, collect, store and then exhibit the artefacts and objects from the past to the public. It should be able to educate and let the visitor understand the local history. Whereas, cultural hubs are platforms that promoting the local cultural activities of a place.

Q2: Which museums or cultural hubs in Ipoh that you previously went provide you with: iii)

the most satisfied experience

iv)

an unsatisfied experience

And can you briefly share the experience? A:

Personally, I think that Darul Ridzuan Museum is uncompetitive as compared to ones in other state. For example, the national museum in KL, it exhibits the whole timeline of how KL development from the past. But the museum in Ipoh, xviii | P a g e


they don’t really do that. You just go there and see the murals, artefacts and at the end of the day you don’t get to learn anything. The spaces are adequately big, but the display is so little. I have the urge to bring my children there but doubt that if they can learn anything there. I think that even Taiping in museum do a better job than the ones in Ipoh. They have a story to tell, which is the origin of how Taiping came to place. But sadly, it is not the case in Ipoh. And because of that, nobody familiar with the Ipoh history, even myself don’t really know all the local history. In my opinion, it’s not the city council, but the Perak State Government should play their role by start to take note this issue, perhaps create a museum about the history of Ipoh. But nobody willing to take the initiative. The work that you are doing here is good which it reminds people about this. If we didn’t pass the history down, the value behind the history of Malaysia and in Ipoh will not be known and understand by the younger generations. In Ipoh itself, I think Han Chin Pet Soo is pretty ok. I went there twice to introduce it to my friends. Ho Yan Hor Museum also quite ok where they talk about how the Ho Yan Hor tea come to the market. But still, I can’t think of any museum that can representing Ipoh which I can recommend and bring my friends to when they come here. Q3: Based on your own experience, is there any museum(s) that you previously went leaves you with an enjoyable experience, which you will definitely pay a second visit or even more? (It could be a museum in Malaysia or overseas) A:

I would say Gazientap Museum in Turkey. There are a series of museums with different themes within the plaza. What is interesting is that the site itself is a historical site. Me and my family only able to visit some of the museums as the whole area is huge and there are way too many museums. But we do have so much fun there and wish to visit again in the future.

Section B: Impact of Museums and Cultural Hubs to A City Q1: Do you think museums and cultural hubs are important for the development of a city? Do you think it contributes to the growth of a city? A:

Yes, definitely. Museums record the important history and past events, which would be a guideline in life and future events. I think it is very important for xix | P a g e


each of us to know history as it will repeat itself. This history might be in handy when similar situation happens, and you will know what to do. Q2: If you own a land in the Ipoh city centre, will you consider in investing on cultural hubs or cultural facilities over other types of commercial building, such as condominiums and offices? May I know why? A:

I will choose to have a museum because I always fascinated with history since I was little. Besides, there should also be research centres within the museum compound to allow for further exploration and study on the history. In my opinion, museum should be educational.

Section C: Potential Approaches in Designing Future Cultural Hubs Q1: If you have a chance to involve in the design of museums and cultural hubs, what do you think is the most important element(s) or in other words, element(s) that attract you the most to be included? (It could be space experience, programs/ activities / events, facade design / exterior, technology) A:

Instead of just display of static objects, museums should be able to promote history. The info and displays should be able to give people a throughout understanding of Ipoh. Instead of just displaying the objects, it should let others to learn something from it. It should tell a story. Besides, it should be able to attract the children and the younger generations. Nowadays, they are so taken away by the screens and handphones. So, a museum should contain more interactive elements, such as large touchscreens to attract their attention, even it’s in their handphones. Petrosains might be a good example although it is not about history and culture, but it provides the children with a fun way to learn science and natural history. Although the exhibition mainly targets children, but we as parents are happy to join them throughout the process.

Q2: In your opinion, what cultural facility is lacking in Ipoh or any other facilities that you think could help to enhance the urban identity of Ipoh? A:

I think that the Perak State Government is the suitable authority to start first by building a museum to improve the cultural identity in Ipoh. Instead of getting all the info and history from non-official website, they should be the one releasing xx | P a g e


the official info, which I mean the version that is acceptable by local. Perhaps they should build a cultural hub, probably at Kampung Kuchai whereby currently is a slum area and nobody wanted to go there. The hub right there could be a focus spot for all the cultural activities in Ipoh to be held in that place and at the same time promote the local cultural among ourselves or even to the tourists. This could be a platform for all the cultural and festival activities in Ipoh to be held. Malaysia is unique that we are compose of different races, including Chinese, Malay and Indian. It is also a normal scenario to have mixed race marriage. Therefore, this uniqueness should be appreciated and promote to remain the identity. But currently in here I don’t think we have any facilities that are promoting culture.

c. Interview with Local Non-profit Organisation Details Interviewer

: Lam Wen Yi

Interviewee

: Local NGO

Position

: Managing Director

Dates

: 3/4/2019

Questions Section A: Perception on Museums and Cultural Hubs Q1: What is your perception on museums and cultural hubs? A:

From my point of view, museum should be educational. Generally, museum is for exhibition and educational purpose whereas cultural hubs are to promote local cultures.

Q2: Which museums or cultural hubs in Ipoh that you previously went provide you with: v)

the most satisfied experience

vi)

an unsatisfied experience

And can you briefly share the experience? A:

The Government Museum. Almost nobody goes there. Nothing happens there. If you do go there, there is no guides, nothing there, basically useless, which is

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why they are located at the below of the list. Few schools will go there, that’s about all. I suppose I should like Han Chin Pet Soo and Ho Yan Hor Museum because I built it. To me, it’s not what I want to do. It is too little things and only some photographs. I like to see real things, small details so that you could see the whole thing. The answer is probably Time Tunnel Museum because they do have a very good collection of things. It still quite a small building. But nonetheless, the basic story is there. There is one more I forget to mention earlier, it’s the 22 Hale Street. It’s quite nicely done, it doesn’t not any life, just photographs. It does have some lovely photographs, good description, but it just doesn’t give you any feeling of life. It’s just a story of local Ipoh. It’s about culture of the Lee’s family, Baba Nyonya and Ipoh culture. It’s all did by Penang architect, contractors and artist. Q3: Based on your own experience, is there any museum(s) that you previously went leaves you with an enjoyable experience, which you will definitely pay a second visit or even more? (It could be a museum in Malaysia or overseas) A:

I suppose the best museum I see in Malaysia is the Penang State Museum. In my opinion, it’s the best, better than the National Museum in KL. It’s a lot smaller but I think the story that they tell, you can get more cultural history from there. I believe if we have this museum at Penang, we definitely earn more, and many people will still come if we charged higher admission fees.

Section B: Impact of Museums and Cultural Hubs to A City Q1: Do you think museums and cultural hubs are important for the development of a city? Do you think it contributes to the growth of a city? A:

Yes, definitely. It will enhance the development and contributes to the growth of city, especially financially. I’m sure cultural centre will work.

Q2: If you own a land in the Ipoh city centre, will you consider in investing on cultural hubs or cultural facilities over other types of commercial building, such as condominiums and offices? May I know why? A:

If I have the money, I will invest in cultural. It’s obvious. But most of the people in Ipoh, if they invest money, they want immediate return in big bunk. If I have

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the money, I definitely choose culture, without a doubt. We don’t need more buildings, high rise, more traffic here. Section C: Potential Approaches in Designing Future Cultural Hubs Q1: If you have a chance to involve in the design of museums and cultural hubs, what do you think is the most important element(s) or in other words, element(s) that attract you the most to be included? (It could be space experience, programs/ activities / events, facade design / exterior, technology) A:

It’s got to be local culture. It’s got to reflect people as it was. It’s got to be Ipoh. If it is done the way I’m talking about, it can be a rotating exhibition, each one featuring something special. I believe it will work, attracting locals and tourist. Maybe even go one step further, from the cultural centre, organise a lantern walk. Organise various things that you can. Go to the Vesak organisation and offer our help. So, let’s advertise it here. Let’s take booking here. Be part of it. Trying to get the people here and take part of it.

Q2: In your opinion, what cultural facility is lacking in Ipoh or any other facilities that you think could help to enhance the urban identity of Ipoh? A:

I would say Ipoh is a “cultural desert”. Culture don’t exist very much here. The culture here is money. Money culture. It’s all about money. It’s the attitude. It’s all above money. So, I called this place Ipoh “Cheapo”. Everything have to be cheap. If it’s cheap it’s good. Very much because of the money culture, everything has to be free and cheap. There is also the worrying state among the youngster. All they want in Ipoh in the future is high rise. They are hoping to get more entertainment centre and even theme park in the middle of the city. It’s horrifying. Personally, I like theatre and I like music. If one of the theatre company in KL put on a show, almost nobody turns up. They are not interest in drama and musical. When it is a school thing, only the parents will turn up to see their kids. I always go. I go to everything. I personally believe if somebody prepare to put on something, I am prepared to see it. Because this will break up the move of not having any culture here. It’s sad. We do have all the basics here, what we need. But there is not anyway coordinate and brought everything together. My xxiii | P a g e


belief is that the State Government, better still the town hall, Datuk Bandar, should make an effort to bring old town together. All the moment is about food. There are 2 aspect of government, which one will be the management of the cultural entity, stop all the new developments, make and improve what we got here. They should control the permits for hawkers, parking and everything. In my belief, we should have a cultural centre which it can suit all the cultural activities that is going on. It could be a platform for cultural activities, festivals that bring everybody here.

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MUSEUM AS A CULTURAL HUB: A GATEWAY TO THE HERITAGE IDENTITY OF IPOH  

placelessness, decaying inner city, future museum, cultural heritage identity

MUSEUM AS A CULTURAL HUB: A GATEWAY TO THE HERITAGE IDENTITY OF IPOH  

placelessness, decaying inner city, future museum, cultural heritage identity

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