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SAYA - Design for Change

Security Facilities in the Old City’s Special Regime: Jaffa Gate case study

SAYA/ Design for Change- Yehuda Greenfield-Gilat & Karen Lee Bar-Sinai Illustrations, 3D modeling, renderings and graphics: Yehuda Greenfield-Gilat, Karen Lee Bar-Sinai, Nimrod Schenkelbach, Chen Farkas, Kobi Ruthenberg

design for change

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SAYA - Design for Change

Table of Contents

I. General Introduction

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A. The Old City Initiative

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B. The security issue C. Spatial approach to conflict resolution

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D. Location of project

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II. The Old City special regime, gates and access

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A. Urban Setting B. The boundaries of the special regime

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C. Gates and access D. Security and the gates

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E. Movement Options in the special regime F. Security arrangements at the gates

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III. Jaffa Gate Study

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A. Why Jaffa Gate? B. Locating crossing facilities on site

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C. Jaffa Gate vehicle entrance D. Jaffa Gate pedestrians entrance and exit facility

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E. Required adjustments to site F. Operating Security in special events

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Summary

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SAYA - Design for Change

I. General Introduction

A.The Old City Initiative Background: The Old City of Jerusalem is perhaps the most contentious issue in the ArabIsraeli conflict, and will certainly be a corner stone in any future solution of it. Its sovereignty, administration and control are questions of great dispute, and its holy sites resonate powerfully in the hearts and minds of Muslims, Jews and Christians around the world. This study follows the Old City Initiative’s working assumptions, proposing a single governance approach for the Old City for achieving a peaceful and sustainable agreement between Israelis and Palestinians in the city of Jerusalem. The initiative proposes to establish an interim special regime that meets the needs of stakeholders within the framework of a twostate solution for Israel and Palestine, with Yerushalayim and Al-Quds as their capitals. Its core components include the appointment of an administrator with executive powers; formation of a governing council composed of Israelis, Palestinians, and possibly foreign representatives chosen by the two parties; Establishment of an Old City police force composed of internationals, Israelis and Palestinians.

B. The security issue The Old City is a small, densely overcrowded and poor urban area, as well as a home to different religions, nationalities, cultures, and politics. As such, law enforcement and ensuring public order and safety within it are great challenges. In addition, any security mechanism must take into full account Jerusalem’s role as the focal point of individual and group identities, and the sensitivities and mistrust this engenders. Taken together, these physical and symbolic factors make the Old City a vulnerable target for those seeking to disrupt MuslimJewish and Israeli-Palestinian coexistence. Disruptions could range from provocative political action to outright terrorism, which would not only cause death and suffering, but would also threaten existing political agreements and enrage the region’s inhabitants, as well as communities worldwide. It is quite clear that in absence of a fair-minded security mechanism, no agreement relating to the Old City would be sustained. This study investigates the question of movement into and out of the Old City, aiming to propose an efficient yet secure and spatially respectful scheme of operation and design of facilities. Such a plan must be able to naturally blend with the local context, with minimal disruption to the flow of goods and peoples, whether they be Old City residents, Israelis or Palestinians, pilgrims or tourists. To this end, and in order to maintain the current appearance of the gates, this work proposes to locate the required facilities in vacant areas within the

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“green belt” surrounding the Old City, in order to free the gates from entering and exiting security processes. The concept is demonstrated to detail through the case study of Jaffa Gate.

C. Spatial approach to conflict resolution This study utilizes planning and design tools to help envision the concept of the Special Regime. It investigates the challenge of implementing security arrangements around the Old City through the details, in order to demonstrate feasibility and to highlight the challenges decision makers should focus upon. SAYA’s spatial approach to “Resolution Planning” is based on several basic assumptions relating to the resolution of territorial-based disputes: 1. As territorial-dispute resolutions lean towards being spatially implemented, the geographical and physical nature of the solution should be understood during the process of the overall resolution design. The ability to envision a physical solution in advance rather than retrospectively, raises the chances for better resolutions to come about, and may greatly contribute to the harmony between all the solution’s components. 2. The geographical and physical study allows both envisioning a solution and shedding light on its limitations. Since implementation of a special regime security system and facilities will largely restrict the freedom of movement into and out-of the Old City, a process of planning, designing and studying these facilities in advance can reduce the limitations on movement to the necessary minimum. 3. How peace will look like? - Resolution Planning offers planned outcomes at the aid of conflict resolution. These are also useful as tools for influencing public opinion and for communicating and even “marketing” conflict resolution concepts to the wider public. According to these assumptions, the Jaffa Gate case study follows several planning guidelines: • Understanding the uniqueness of each site or gate, its special urban, geopolitical and social characteristics as a basis for a specific planning strategy. • The proposed facilities would be sensitively integrated into the historical landscape. • The flow of people and goods at the Old City’s gates will be as efficient and respectable as possible.

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D. Location of project The old city is not only located at the center of greater East and West Jerusalem. It is also situated in the heart of the seam area between the Jewish and Arab demographic spreads, and may symbolically and functionally be seen as a possible bridge between the sides. The case study chosen and presented in this document- Jaffa Gate and its immediate vicinity delineates a possible implementation of the security and spatial guidelines for an entering/ exiting crossing facility. It aims to cover a variety of aspects, ranging from the security arrangements, through the built facilities and movement flows. This study’s aim is to achieve all the above while maintaining sensitivity toward the the historical urban fabric and preserving the visual qualities and form of the historical wall and entrances. Jaffa gate is of a high Israeli affinity, and hence forms only a partial picture of a comprehensive spatial study, which addresses the two dominant sides of the city as entrance and exit points into the special regime.

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II. The Old City special regime, gates and access A. Urban Setting The suggested working model for this case study assumes two capitals in greater Jerusalem’s area based, at large, on the principals of demographic separation. Situated in-between the two parts of the city, will lay the Old City with its Special Regime. B. The boundaries of the special regime The historical walls surrounding the Old City offer a natural border for the jurisdiction of the Old City’s special regime. Nevertheless, the need to accommodate security means and facilities might require the allocation of additional spaces to the regime. It is suggested here to situate these within the “green belt” surrounding the Old City. This act would require an extension of the special regime beyond the walls in the immediate area outside the gates, though their official status may remain under Israeli or Palestinian jurisdiction. Such an expansion will allow to: 1. Merge the new facilities in the surrounding landscape in the most natural and respectful

manner. 2. Maintain the appearance of the gates as it is today. 3. Prevent clogging the gates and the access through them by relocating the security

measures to more operable spaces.

C. Gates and access There are eight gates in the Old City’s historical walls. Nowadays, seven out of eight gates are opened and used to enter and exit the Old City, as the Golden Gate (on the eastern slope of temple mount/ Haram El Sharif) has been blocked for centuries and is located within a Muslim cemetery. Five of these gates have some access to vehicles and all of them are used widely during the year. Illustration 1 presents the access available through the seven active gates, whether for pedestrians or vehicles. As it shows, vehicle access is mainly restricted to the western and southern parts of the Old City, creating an uneven balance of access between the gates. This issue is key in dealing with the transformation of the Old City, yet was beyond the scope of this work. This study focuses only on the specific arrangements required for Jaffa Gate. A broader transportation plan throughout the Old City and Historic Basin would have to be developed upon implementation of the Special Regime.

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Illustration 1: Current access through the Old City gates

D. Security and the gates The Old City’s border regime’s main concern will be the prevention of hostile attempts from both sides to destabilize the region or affect the status quo. To this end, the Old City is treated as a closed area containing the possibility of monitoring and controlling the entrances and exits through all its gates. This study assumes that the special regime’s policy will be agreed by the Israeli, Palestinian and international parties and apply to all gates equally, and that security operation will be the responsibility of the Old City Special Police (OCSP). On the basis of this, the following general principles are determined: a. Entry points into the Old City will be staffed by the OCSP. Exit points will be staffed by police representatives of the state under whose sovereignty the point falls, perhaps with the presence of OCSP as well.

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b. In order to facilitate movement into the Old City, each Party shall take such measures at the entry points into its territory as to ensure the preservation of security in the Old City. The OCSP shall monitor the operation of the entry and exit points.

E. Movement Options in the special regime Will visitors or tourist be able to use the Old City entrances to cross from Israel to Palestine or vice versa? As illustration 2 shows, there are two options for policy on the movement policy, which will determine if the Old City serves as a crossing terminal or not.

Illustration 2: Two movement options in the Special Regime

Option A: the special regime as entrance/exit only The Israeli and Palestinian gates will only allow exit into the same sovereignty the passenger has entered from when entering the special regime. For example, tourists or visitors entering through one of the Israeli gates will not be able to exit the Old City into the Palestinian sovereignty and vice versa. Any person wishing to cross between the sides will do so through an international crossing terminal outside of the Old City. Residents of the Old City or special permit 8


SAYA - Design for Change

holders will be able to enter with special checking regulations. A special procedure for such passengers needs to be defined. The pedestrians and vehicles entrance (authorized only) will be required to present a valid identification document, and will undergo a screening inspection. Citizens of either party may not exit the Old City into the territory of the other Party. This concept limits the movement options of locals and tourists, yet it protects the Old City from becoming a mass-crossing terminal, as it is bound to become a popular crossing point if that would be enabled.

Option B: The special regime as a crossing terminal (entrance/exit/border crossing) An alternative concept for crossing regulation and management can be based on an existence of an international border crossing for the use local citizens and tourists who wish to cross from state to state through the Old City. This Option will allow passengers to fully tour the “Historic Basin� without a major interference- an arrangement that may significantly improve the tourist cooperation between both sides of the city. The crossing procedure will include both security clearance and passport control. The passport procedure will be similar to the one conducted in airport terminals: Passengers present their passport once upon leaving their country (entering an Israeli gate for instance) and once again upon entering the destination country (exiting through a Palestinian gate). Under this alternative the Old City in effect becomes a large crossing terminal. The drawback of this option will be the need to handle significantly larger crowds, as greater numbers of people will seek to cross via the Old City gates.

F. Security arrangements at the gates The proposed security process for entering the Old City includes a combination of procedures as described by the above two options. Illustration 3 demonstrates a diagram of this proposal, combining obligatory checking lanes, free passage lanes with inspectors watching big crowds, and a quick passage lane for residents and workers of the Old City only. All these lanes can lead to passport control booths in case of option B. Thus, the system allows the degrees of freedom required to apply an efficient security regime.

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Illustration 3: The proposed security process

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III. Jaffa Gate Study A. Why Jaffa Gate? Jaffa Gate is the main gate serving the Israeli population due to its proximity to the western side of the city. The gate has been situated centrally since ancient times, and nowadays, along with Damascus gate, serves as the main link between the new city and the old city of Jerusalem. Furthermore, it functions as a link between cultures, religions and nations. The Jaffa Gate is surrounded by various landmarks (The citadel and David’s tower, a market, a mission center and more) creating together an urban center for all people – Israeli, Arabic, Jewish, Muslim and Christians from all over the world.

The many thousands of visitors who enter the city every day create a serious challenge to the security facilities. According to a study conducted by Dr. Yakov Garb (2007), during an ordinary day the gate serves as an entrance for about 6,000 people in each direction, with peak flows of up to 1,000 people per hour. At Jaffa Gate, these amounts would typically be comprised of about 60% tourists, 20% religious Jews and 20% Arabs and relatively few secular Israelis. An ordinary day also generates about 1,000 cars exiting the gate and 4,000 cars (plus 36 buses) entering it. Pedestrian flows at Damascus gate are substantially larger.

B. Locating crossing facilities on site The study proposes to separate the vehicle and pedestrian facilities and locate them as shown in illustration 4. 1. Vehicle crossing and inspection: situated at the only large enough spot for a vehicle crossing facility near the intersection leading to the Gate. 2. Pedestrian crossing: The recommended location for the pedestrian crossing facility is the space under the Jaffa Gate entrance plaza. In case an exit terminal is required, it is suggested to use the space in the Karta compound (exit).

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Illustration 4: Jaffa Gate area and proposed facilities

C. Jaffa Gate vehicle entrance The vehicle entrance security facility near the gate will inevitably require a dramatic reduction of the number of vehicles permitted to enter the Old City. The proposed facility inspects vehicles upon entrance (illustration 8).

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illustration 5: The proposed vehicle crossing facility

This proposed facility will have six screening stations, three of them appointed to permitted vehicles, while the other three will be designated for thorough vehicle-inspection. The facility will be able to deal with approximately 40 vehicles per hour, or about 500 vehicles per day (This will require an approximately 90% reduction to the current flows- amounting to around 4000 vehicles between 7 AM and 9 PM). Illustration 5 describes the facility’s general layout. A fast entrance lane will be available to all permitted vehicles, and possibly to public transportation. All other vehicles would be inspected. Due to the restricted amount of space, it is recommended that the exit from the Old City will be allowed via Zion or Dung Gate, and that permission to exit through Jaffa gate would only be given to OCSP security or emergency vehicles.

D. Jaffa Gate pedestrians entrance and exit facility The location of the pedestrian entrance-exit facility of Jaffa Gate aims to make the best use and least interference with the existing urban fabric. The proposed site is situated below the Jaffa Gate entrance plaza, and above a construction covering archeological remains. It is proposed here to use the space where the archeological ruins lay. This vacant space is nowadays a neglected area, and could be preserved as part of a development of the crossing 13


SAYA - Design for Change

facility. The outcome can be beneficial to all parties: the crossing facility will be of minimum interference with the urban landscape as it will be almost fully situated under the existing plaza; the archeological remains will be preserved and presented to the public; and the dilapidated space will become part of the Old City, as well as an accessible site in and of itself. Thus, the crossing facility can gain additional cultural and historical significance besides its actual practical role of maintaining security and contribute to the site’s development- which will remain relevant even if security regulations are altered or no longer found required. Design: Illustration 6 shows a view of the proposed entrance facility, showing the appearance of the site before and after its construction.

Illustration 6: The proposed Jaffa Gate pedestrian entrance terminal

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The entrance terminal, located under the main entrance plaza will be entered from both North and South. The northern entrance will mainly serve pedestrians who reach the Old City from the Jerusalem City center, and walk down Jaffa road towards the gate. The southern entrance will serve those who arrive from the surrounding neighborhoods of Mamila, Yemin Moshe, Mishknot Sha’ananim and Talbieh. The southern entrance will also be used by those who parked their vehicle in Karta parking lot and proceed by foot. Since the existing Mamila arcade leading directly to the entrance plaza will not be open due to security considerations, These users will exit the parking lot, cross the road and enter the facility from south. When entering the facility, passengers will undertake the crossing procedure, and use the lift or staircase to reach the entrance plaza which will be a “cleared area”. It is highly recommended that the facility’s interior design will create a welcoming and respectful atmosphere, treated more like an airport terminal rather than a security inspection station. The interior arrangement should allow for the efficient flow of security. However, as the political condition and security requirements might change in time, the design should offer a degree of flexibility to allow the readjustment of the facility to various future needs. As for the archeological remains, it is proposed to be display them within the facility. To enable this, the floor could be made of glass, as very common in archeological sites. The transparent surface will protect and cover the archeological layer, yet allow it to be observed by the visitors.

Illustration 7: Interior view, Jaffa Gate pedestrian entrance terminal

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Operation Layout The proposed layout-plan for the crossing facility has several objectives: to serve the largest amount of passengers in the minimum amount of time; to allow flexibly in changing security needs in terms of checking procedures; and to be assimilated respectfully in the surrounding landscape and the historical urban fabric (see illustration 8).

Illustration 8: Jaffa Gate pedestrian entrance facility (model view from above)

In order to allow full or partial use of the security facilities, the hall is divided into different “layers�- security, passport control and cleared area as the plan indicates (Illustration 9) . If a security examination is required, the passengers will enter through one of the facility entrances and approach the monitoring area passing by the information counter and restrooms. After being checked, the passengers proceed to the passport control counters and out to the stairs and elevators. In a future case the security examination is not required, the space will be used as a passport control, combined with information counters and a display area of the excavated archeology.

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Illustration 9: Jaffa Gate pedestrian entrance facility operation plan

Exit terminal This study suggests using the southern end of the Mamila shopping arcade for the special regime’s exit facility (see illustration 10). Movement out of the Old City will be channeled through the upper plaza to the major staircase that leads into the arcade. The exit terminal will provide access to three different directions: Back to Jaffa road through the commercial arcade, down to Emek Street via stairs and elevators and a direct access to the parking lot.

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Illustration 10: Entrance and exit pedestrian terminals (model view from above, roof removed)

Similarly to the entrance facility, the exit facility is designed to address a variety of security scenarios, ranging from free passage (through the free passage lane) to tight security operation (involving both screening and passport control processes). The exit terminal operation plan (illustration 11) demonstrates the security layout and movement on site.

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Illustration 11: Pedestrian exit terminal operation plan

E. Required adjustments to site Implementation of the facilities will require a number of adjustments on site. a. Pavement of a pedestrian ramp leading from the main trail along the walls down to the northern side of the pedestrian entrance facility. Likewise, a pedestrian trail is required from the roadside to the terminal’s entrance. b. Internal design of the entrance and exit facilities, i.e. placing the different infrastructures, the glass floor, service facilities, passport stands and more. Stairs and elevators will be located in the north-eastern corner of the Jaffa Gate plaza. c. Cancellation of the existing southern staircase and opening of the southern entrance to the terminal in place of these stairs. This act will allow the security isolation of the upper level in 19


SAYA - Design for Change

order to assure it can be reached from only three points: the northern pedestrian trail (Jaffa road), the Mamila arcade (which will serve as the exit route) and the vehicle ramp coming from the south.

F. Operating Security in special events The estimated capacity of the facility is approximately 1000-1200 passengers per hour, which is estimated to provide an adequate solution to the everyday routine of the Jaffa gate (which, as mentioned earlier, reaches a maximum of 1000 passengers per hour, with an average amount of 400-600 passengers per hour). Special events or holidays might generate higher volumes of traffic through the gate. In order to manage such cases, two methods are proposed: a temporal alteration of the security regulations within the facilities, and temporarily expanding the security facilities. 1. Temporal alteration of the security regulations within the facilities

High volumes of passengers in peak events can be handled by allowing relatively free entrance, accompanied with an extensive prevention activity that relies more on surveillance and intelligence, rather than on personal inspection and restriction of movement. In the current fragile political and security situation, the security enforcement entities (i.e. the Israeli police and military) have developed methods suitable for situation: applying security while allowing thousands of passengers to exit and enter the Old City. This option bares little physical implications and thus will not be further elaborated in this study. 2. Temporarily expanding the security facilities

Illustration 12 describes a temporal expansion of the crossing facility in order to increase the passage capacity during special events. The map presents the location of an additional temporal crossing facility, located on the outer balcony of the Jaffa Gate citadel, serving nowadays as the museum’s “back yard”. The additional crossing facility will enable entering and exiting from the same level. In order to enter the facility, passengers will cross the access road to Jaffa Gate, and reach the southern end of the balcony via a staircase or elevators. Passengers leaving the Old City through this facility will use the same elevators and stairs. Spatial adjustments to the existing site will include a construction of a elevator, staircase and entrance platform on the southern slope of the citadel’s side. (The elevators, which require a larger investment and are located relatively near the walls, might be considered permanent).

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The security pavilion placed in the balcony’s area will be minimalistic both in size and design in order to minimize its visual presence. The facility will contain 9-11 additional crossing units serving a maximum of 1000 -1200 additional passengers per hour. Together with the permanent crossing station under the plaza, the two facilities will be able to serve over 2000 passengers per hour, given that they are staffed with an adequate amount of trained personnel.

Illustration 12: A temporal expansion solution for the crossing facility

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SAYA - Design for Change

Summary This study addresses the physical and geographical challenges which the Old City Initiative’s proposal raises in regards to the special regime’s gates and security operation. The approach of Resolution Planning is applied here in order to highlight the required modifications that work well with the urban fabric surroundings and needs. In the case of the Old City this approach is particularly important, given the area’s unique cultural landscape that will inevitably be affected by any territorial arrangement. The sensitivity of the site requires efficient tools to mediate between the security objectives of the special regime and their architectural outcomes. This study chose to explore the delicate relationship between those factors through a proposal for a crossing facility in Jaffa Gate. The current condition of the gate and its surrounding was explained in light of the proposed adjustments for implementing security facilities. To address the specific challenges facing Jaffa gate, the study has provided a plan, design and operational layout, both for entering and exit terminals, addressing pedestrian and limited vehicle crossing through them. It also has referred to dealing with special events, and proposed a site for a temporal expansion of the facilities. However, it is highly probable that in case of a peace agreement of any form, millions of tourists and pilgrims will wish to visit Jerusalem every year, and hence the volume of traffic will require re-evaluation of the proposed design. Finally, in the frame of this research, one gate only has been chosen as a case study for investigation. The proximity of Jaffa Gate to the west city center, the walking distance from Jaffa gate to all of the quarters, and its special features and unique cosmopolitan activity made it a natural candidate. Nevertheless, this case study should be part of a more comprehensive study of the Old City entire gate system, referring to the challenge each end every gate poses. As every gate is uniquely situated and carries a different role both in the Old City and in the wider urban context, it is important to devote special attention to each. In case it is decided to focus only on selected case studies among the gates, this study is still seen as incomplete until a parallel Palestinian gate has been equally studied. Only a full demonstration of the relationship between the special regime and the two sovereignties and cites surrounding it can provide a proper outline for a future solution, and a true basis for envisioning and establishing a peaceful new era in Jerusalem, Al-Quds and the Old City.

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Security Facilities in the Old City’s Special Regime: Jaffa Gate case study