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Jaffa Gate Crossing Facilities Spatial Study The Old City Initiative

SAYA

architecture & consultancy


Research: Architects Yehuda Greenfield-Gilat and Karen Lee Bar-Sinai ( www.sayarch.com ) Prepared for: Old City Initiative May 2007 Graphics and Layout Design: Nimrod Schenkelbach


Content

1 2 3

General Introduction

A. Introduction.................................................................6 B. The Security Issue.......................................................7 C. A Spatial approach to conflict resolution..........8 D. Location of Project . ............................................... 10 E. Structure of Study . ................................................. 11

Old City Special Regime

A. Urban setting . ......................................................... 13 B. The Boundaries of the Special Regime............ 15 C. Gate and Numbers.................................................. 16 D. The Special Regime and the Gates.................... 19 E. Security Arrangements in the Gates................. 27 F. What Gate is Chosen for this Study ?................. 31

Jaffa Gate Study

A. Introduction and Location - General................ 34 B. Location of Proposed Facility.............................. 36 C. Jaffa Gate Vehicle Entrance.................................. 39 D. Site Management Options................................... 44 E. Planning the Facilities ........................................... 50 F. Operating the Facilities ......................................... 65 G. Security Management Scenarios ..................... 71

Summary

Summary ........................................................................ 82


General Introduction

A. The Old City Initiative B. The security issue C. A Spatial approach to conflict resolution D. Location of project E. Structure of study


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General Introduction

A. The Old City Initiative

The Old City of Jerusalem is perhaps the most contentious issue in the Arab-Israeli conflict, and will certainly be a corner stone in any future solution of it. Its sovereignty, administration and control are questions of great dispute, and its holy sites resonate powerfully in the hearts and minds of Muslims, Jews and Christians around the world. The Old City cannot be divorced neither from its political, social and economic links to Jerusalem as a whole, nor from its Israeli or Palestinian hinterlands. This includes the issues of security, barriers, settlements and freedom of movement. Leaving these questions unresolved may therefore hinder the achievement of a durable peace between Israelis and Palestinians. This study follows the Old City Initiative’s working assumptions, proposing a single governance approach for the Old City as a concept for achieving a peaceful and sustainable agreement between Israelis and Palestinians in the city of Jerusalem. The initiative therefore proposes to establish an interim special regime that meets the needs of stakeholders within the framework of a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine, with Yerushalayim and AlQuds as their capitals. Its core components include the appointment of an administrator with executive powers; formation of a governing council composed of Israelis, Palestinians, and possibly foreign representatives chosen by the two parties; Establishment of an Old City police force composed of internationals, Israelis and Palestinians.

General Introduction

Old City special regime

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General Introduction

B. The security issue

The Old City is small, densely overcrowded and poor urban area, as well as a home to different religions, nationalities, cultures, and politics. As such, law enforcement and ensuring public order and safety within it are great challenges. In addition, any security mechanism must take into full account Jerusalem’s role as the focal point of individual and group identities, and the sensitivities and mistrust this engenders. Taken together, these physical and symbolic factors make the Old City a vulnerable target for those seeking to disrupt Muslim-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian co-existence. Disruptions could range from provocative political action to outright terrorism, which would not only cause death and suffering, but would also threaten existing political agreements and enrage the region’s inhabitants, as well as communities worldwide. It is quite clear that in absence of a fair-minded security mechanism, no agreement respecting the Old City would be sustained. This study investigates the question of movement into and out of the Old City, aiming to propose an efficient yet secure and spatially respectful scheme of operation and design of facilities. Such a plan is will be able to naturally blend with the local context, with minimal disruption to the flow of goods and peoples, whether they be Old City residents, Israelis or Palestinians, pilgrims or tourists.

General Introduction

Old City special regime

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General Introduction

C. A Spatial approach to conflict resolution This study aims to address the Old City Regime’s conflict resolution challenge through a spatial approach. To this end, it utilizes planning and design tools to envision the political solution’s final outcome, and investigates the spatial challenges it raises. SAYA’s spatial approach to “resolution planning” is based on several basic assumptions relating to resolution of territorial arrangements: 1. As all territorial resolutions are bound to be spatially implemented they demand spatial attention. Providing it in advance rather than retrospectively, raises the chances for better solutions to come about, and may greatly contribute to the harmony between all the solution’s components. 2. The spatial investigation allows both to envision a solution and shed light on its limitations. Implementation of a special regime security system and facilities will largely restrict the freedom of movement into and out-of the Old City. By planning, designing and studying these facilities in advance, various methods for accommodating these limitations are enabled. 3. The spatial approach produces a new, highly relevant (yet hitherto inexistent) form of knowledge and database. This may greatly assist decision makers and future negotiations both in Jerusalem, and in other sites of conflict around the world. 4. Outcomes of“Resolution Planning”are also useful as tools both for influencing public opinion and for communicating and marketing conflict resolution concepts to the wider public.

General Introduction

Old City special regime

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General Introduction

C. A Spatial approach to conflict resolution According to the assumptions listed above, the Jaffa Gate case study will attempt to follow a series of planning guidelines: • Understanding the uniqueness of each site or gate, its special urban, geopolitical and social characteristics leading as a basis for a specific planning strategy. • Propose a location and design for security crossing facilities within the existing urban fabric in a manner which blends into and respects the historical landscape. • Aim that the monitoring and access control of people and goods at the Old City’s gates will be the quickest and most respectable as possible.

General Introduction

Old City special regime

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General Introduction

D. Location of project

The old city is not only located in the center of greater East and West Jerusalem. But is also situated in the heart of the seam area between the Jewish and Arab demographic spreads, and may symbolically and functionally be seen as a possible bridge between them. The case study chosen and presented in this document- Jaffa Gate and its immediate vicinity, delineates a possible implementation of the security and spatial guidelines as they were outlined before through a specific design of an entering/exiting crossing facility. It aims to cover a variety of aspects, and integrate the security arrangements, movement flows, and a design approach sensitive to the historical urban fabric, thereby maintaining the visual qualities and form of the historical wall and entrance. Nevertheless it must be noted that the Jaffa gate is of a high Israeli affinity, and hence forms only a partial picture of a comprehensive spatial study, which addresses the two dominant sides of the city as entrance and exit points into the special regime.

General Introduction

Old city

Old City special regime

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General Introduction

E. Structure of study

The different chapters of this work will be as follows: 1. Introduction- presenting the background and core assumptions of the project, its location and the basic key issues to be addressed. 2. Old City special regime- Interpretation of the Old City Initiative’s special regime into an operational and spatial scheme. The chapter will examine the regulations and control policy of the entrances and exits to the Old City. 3. Jaffa Gate crossing study – Delineation and outline of a specific design for an entering/exiting facility in Jaffa Gate. Proposal includes suggestions for vehicle and pedestrian entrance and exit paths; alternative security operation models; design options of the facilities, their physical location on site; and strategies for their integration into the urban fabric of Jerusalem. 4. Summary- Conclusion of study highlighting challenges which arose through the case-study and general recommendations for the remaining Old City gates.

General Introduction

Old City special regime

Jaffa Gate Study


Old City Special Regime

A. Urban setting B. Gate and access C. The boundaries of the special regime D. The special regime and the gates E. Security arrangements at the gates F. What gate is chosen for this study?


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Old City special regime

A. Urban Setting

This illustration presents the four quarters of the Old City which differ in their religious affiliation (see index for color coding). The language spoken in the Jewish quarter is mainly Hebrew while the other three quarters inhabit mainly Arabic speakers who hold the status of “East Jerusalemites” (the legal status of most of Old City Arab residents is “Permanent residents”).

Muslim Quarter

The suggested working model for this case study assumes two capitals in greater Jerusalem’s area based generally on the principals of “demographic separation”. The presence of the green line in the illustration emphasizes the crucial role of the Old City will have for both Israeli and Palestinian sovereignties in its gates as well as in various other relevant issues: Entrance and exit control, the holy shrines, security and order maintenance and more.

Christian Quarter

Dome of the Rock

Old City Armenian Quarter

Jewish Quarter

Muslim Quarter 1967 line Christian Quarter General Introduction

Dome of the Rock

Old Old City City special regime Armenian

Jewish

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A. Urban Setting

There are eight gates in the Old City’s historical walls. Nowadays, seven out of eight gates are opened and used to enter end exit the Old City, as the Golden Gate (on the eastern slope of temple mount) has been blocked for centuries and is located within a Muslim cemetery. Five of these gates have some access to vehicles and all of them are used widely during the year.

Herod's Gate Damascus Gate

St. Stephan Gate

New Gate Golden Gate

Old City Jaffa Gate

Dung Gate Zion Gate

General Introduction

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Old City Special Regime

B. Gate and access

The illustration presents the usage of each gate, whether by pedestrians or vehicles. It can be seen that vehicle access is mainly restricted to the western and southern parts of the Old City, creating an uneven balance between the gates in that aspect. This issue will be highly relevant when a final border regime arrangement is discussed.

Damascus Herod's Gate Gate

Damascus Gate New Gate

Flower gate Lion's Gate

New Gate

Muslim Quarter Muslim Quarter

Christian Quarter

Jaffa Gate Quarter Christian Jaffa Gate

Dome of the Rock

Old City Jewish Quarter Armenian Quarter

Armenian Quarter

Dung Gate Zion Gate

Padestrian Passage

assage

Dome of the Rock

Old City Jewish Quarter

Index

Passage

Herod's Gate Flower gate

Dung Gate

Zion Gate Vehicle Passage Green Strip

p

paration line

Future separation line General Introduction 1967 line (Green line)

Old City special regime

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Old City Special Regime

C. The boundaries of the special regime The historical walls surrounding the Old City offer a natural border for the jurisdiction of the Old City’s special regime. Nevertheless, the need to accommodate security means and facilities will probably require the allocation of additional spaces surrounding it, thus forcing the expansion of the jurisdiction area beyond the walls. Moreover, even if the walls are defined as the official borders of the special regime, as any border they may require special territories of different status on both sides of it. In light of this, the study will address the question of the special regime’s spatial setting with the wall as its boundaries, yet provide expanding options beyond them where seen spatially necessary.

Herod's Gate Flower gate Damascus Gate Lion's Gate New Gate Golden Gate

Old City Jaffa Gate

Dung Gate

This illustration describes the basic spatial assumptions guiding the project: the boundaries of the Old City’s special regime end at its walls, whilst the outer side is under Israeli or Palestinain jurisdiction.

General Introduction

Zion Gate

Old City special regime

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Old City Special Regime

C. The boundaries of the special regime The illustration presents the location of the proposed security management facilities as suggested by this study. A main goal was to propose a design approach that will allow the new security crossing facilities to merge in the surrounding landscape in the most natural manner possible. Another important aim was to maintain the appearance of the gates and avoid blocking them with the future security measures. To this end, vacant spaces adjacent to the gates are proposed to serve as locations for crossing facilities. This would require local expansions of the special regime beyond the walls in the immediate area surrounding the gates, though their official status may remain under Israeli or Palestinian jurisdiction.

Herod's Gate

Damascus Gate St. Stephan Gate New Gate Golden Gate

Old City Jaffa Gate

Dung Gate

Zion Gate

General Introduction

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Old City Special Regime

C. The boundaries of the special regime This illustration presents an alternative concept for the jurisdiction policy of the Old City special regime, which will enable the security maintenance of all parties in the areas around the Old City. The Old City is currently surrounded by a circular ring road. The area between the historic walls and the road is suggested as sort of “buffer zone” in which all parties can cooperate in security means. This would not involve any expansion of the special regime’s jurisdiction beyond the walls, but rather may be done through preservation of the area as a national park consisting of urban leisure spaces similar to those provided by the green belt today. This will enable the special regime’s security forces and local security forces to respond and cooperate in any case of threat and maintain security from within as well as from outside the walls. In addition, it will provide a valuable open space for the benefit of the local citizens, visitors and tourists of the Old City.

Old City

This illustration describes the road network around the Old City as two optional systems. The first one (orange) is based on the ring road surrounding the Old City. The brown system shows the transportation system around the Old City area. The blue circles mark the intersections between the two systems where one can switch from the public system to the Old City’s one.

General Introduction

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Old City Special Regime

D. The special regime and the gates 1. The OC border regime: the gates The Old City’s border regime’s main concern is to prevent hostile attempts from both sides to destabilize the region or affect the status quo. To this end, the Old City is treated as a closed area containing the possibility of monitoring and controlling the entrance and exit to all its gates. This study assumes that the special regime’s policy, will be agreed by the Israeli, Palestinian and international parties and apply to all gates equally. On the basis of this, the following general principles have been made: a. Entry and exit points into and from the Old City will be staffed by the OCSP (Old City Special Police), with the presence authorities of the state under whose sovereignty the point falls. b. In order to facilitate movement into the Old City, each Party shall take such measures at the entry points in its territory as to ensure the preservation of security in the Old City. The OCSP (Old City Special Police) shall monitor the operation of the entry and exit points. c. Citizens of either party may not exit the Old City into the territory of the other party. Tourists may only exit the Old City into the territory of the party to which they posses valid authorization to enter. d. Residents of the Old City or special permit holders will be able to enter with special checking regulations. A special procedure for such passengers will be defined in an independent protocol.

General Introduction

Old City special regime

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Old City Special Regime

D. The special regime and the gates Entrance and exit: option A This illustration summarizes the entrance and exit general security regulations of the gates. The Israeli and Palestinian gates will only allow passage of Israeli or Palestinian passengers respectively. Tourists entering through one of the Israeli gates will not be able to exit the Old City into the Palestinian sovereignty and vice versa. Any person wishing to cross between the sides will do so through an international crossing Jaffa Gate terminal in the north of Jerusalem. The pedestrians and vehicles entrance (authorized only) will be required to present a valid identification document or passport, and will undergo a screening inspection. As mentioned above, citizens of either party may not exit the Old City into the territory of the other Party. Tourists may only exit the Old City into the territory of the party to which they posses a valid authorization to enter.

St. Stephan's Gate

St. Stephan's Gate

Jaffa Gate

Index

Index

Index Palestinian entrance/exit

Palestinian entrance/exit

Israeli entrance/exit

Israeli entrance/exit

Special regime boundaries

Special regime boundaries

Old City special regime

Israeli ent

Special re

Crossing p

Crossing point

General Introduction

Palestinia

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Old City Special Regime

D. The special regime and the gates This illustration summarizes this option’s entrance and exit security regulations: This is the “classic” entrance and exit option mentioned above, to serve those who wish to leave the Old City through the same sovereignty they entered: The entrance of pedestrians and vehicles (authorized only) will be monitored by a screening process and any entrance or exit will be require a presentation of a valid identification document or passport. Residents of the Old City or special permit holders will not need to undergo these security procedures.

Entrance to Old City

Index Israel

A

Entrance to Old City

Palestine A

Pedestrian A

Vehicle International Passport OCPF check point

Exit from Old City A Entrance to Old City

Exit from Old City A

Entrance to Old City

A

Special Protocol checking

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A

Pedestrian

A

Special permits

Exit from Old City A

Exit from Old City

Pedestrian Vehicle International Vehicle Passport International OCPF check Passport point OCPF Specialcheck ProtocolIntroduction General point checking

Old City special regime

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Old City Special Regime

D. The special regime and the gates St. Stephan's Gate

Crossing terminal: option B An alternative concept for crossing regulation and management can be based on an existence of an international border crossing for the use local citizens and tourists who wish to cross from state to state through the Old City. This Option will allow passengers to fully tour the holy basin, Al-Kuds and Yerushalayim without major Jaffa aGate interference- an arrangement that may significantly improve the tourist industry in both sides of the city. The crossing procedure will be similar to the one outlined above: security clearance and passport control. The passport procedure will be similar to the one conducted in airport terminals: The passengers present their passport once upon leaving their country (entering an Israeli gate for instance) and once again upon entering the destination country (exiting a Palestinian gate for instance). Therefore, under this alternative the Old City becomes a large terminal in concept.

St. Stephan's Gate

Jaffa Gate

Index

Ind Index

Palestinian entrance/exit Israeli entrance/exit

Palestinian

Special regime boundaries

Israeli entra

Crossing point

Special reg

Border cros

General Introduction

Old City special regime

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y

y

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Entrance to Old City

D. The special regime and the gates A

This illustration summarizes option B entrance and exit security regulations: the facility functions as presented in option A with an additional option which will serve mainly tourists, but also anyone who wishes to cross the Old City from side to side, i.e. to enter through a Palestinian or Israeli gate and to exit to the other sovereignty. In this option the facility will act as a border crossing terminal and will apply also to Old City Israeli residents who wish to cross the Palestine and vice versa. The illustration demonstrates the crossing procedures of this phase through both an Israeli and a Palestinian gate.

A

Exit from Old City Entrance to Old City

Index Israel

Palestine

A

Pedestrian

Vehicle A

International Passport

Exit from Old City Entrance to Old City

Entrance to Old City

OCPF check point

A

A

Special Protocol checking

A

A

Exit from Old City

General Introduction

Special permits

Exit from Old City

Old City special regime

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Old City Special Regime

D. The special regime and the gates Herod's Gate Damascus Gate

2. The OC border regime: The vehicle policy Although this study recommends applying strict restrictions on vehicle entering and exiting the Old City, there still remains a need for a coherent vehicle security policy regarding security maintenance of permitted vehicles within the Old City. The illustration describes the current vehicle movement system between Jaffa Gate and Dung Gate. Both gates have a two-way entrance to a roundabout. From that point the roads narrow dramatically and become a one-way roads. Nowadays, traffic enters the Old City through Jaffa Gate and exits either through the narrow Zion Gate or through Dung gate. There are a few options for future organizing traffic movement within the Old City. These options largely depend upon the security procedure for entering or exiting vehicles. The study therefore focuses on identifying a proper space near the gate. In the current traffic scheme there is a possibility for inspecting vehicles once they enter through Jaffa Gate, but no vacant space for such a facility in the Dung Gate exit.

St. Stephan Gate

Muslim Quarter

New Gate Golden Gate

Christian Quarter Dome of the Rock

Old City Armenian Quarter

Jaffa Gate

P

Jewish Quarter

P

Dung Gate

Zion Gate

Index

Index One way road

One way road

Two way road

Two way road

Vehicle crossing point General Introduction

Old City special regime

Index

Jaffa Gate Study

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Old City Special Regime

D. The special regime and the gates Herod's Gate

This illustration examines the possibility of reversing the traffic order, allowing vehicles to enter from Dung Gate and Exit from Jaffa Gate. Although this arrangement makes it possible to check vehicles only upon exiting, it requires many modifications in the existing traffic system and does not solve the issue of checking entering vehicles.

Damascus Gate

St. Stephan Gate

Muslim Quarter

New Gate Golden Gate

Christian Quarter Dome of the Rock

Old City Armenian Quarter

Jaffa Gate

P

Jewish Quarter

P

Zion Gate

Dung Gate

Index One way road Two way road Vehicle crossing point

General Introduction

Old City special regime

Index

Jaffa Gate Study

Two way raod


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D. The special regime and the gates Herod's Gate

The recommended traffic scheme attempts to achieve a security-satisfying entering and exiting checking option as well as a reasonable arrangement for the Old City residents. The chosen scheme suggests that entrance of private vehicles should be done through Jaffa Gate with inspection upon need (in case of no permit). These vehicles will be able to park in the inner Jewish quarter and Armenian quarter parking lots (marked with a “P� in the illustration) and will only be able to exit through Zion Gate, where they will be checked upon need. The Dung gate will be used for entrance and exit of public transportation only. These vehicles will be able to drive only to the roundabout. The road between Dung Gate and Jaffa Gate will be used in special or emergency cases only.

Damascus Gate

St. Stephan Gate

Muslim Quarter

New Gate Golden Gate

Christian Quarter Dome of the Rock

Old City Armenian Quarter

Jaffa Gate

P

Jewish Quarter

P

Zion Gate

Dung Gate

Index One way road Two way road Vehicle crossing point

General Introduction

Old City special regime

Index

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Old City Special Regime

E. Security arrangements at the gates Damascus Gate

1. Current security methods The current security mechanisms operated in the Old City, along with existing taboos and status quo, have succeeded in the maintenance of relative peace and quiet in the Old City during the past decades. Yet, a permanent status arrangements and the implementation of a different regime in the Old City might dramatically affect this condition. Hence, there is great importance in tracing and identifying the patterns in which the security is maintained in the Old City nowadays. Two major factors of the current situation are the surveillance cameras and the policing units spread out in the Old City area. Operating together, they allow any location within the Old City to be reached relatively quickly upon need, whilst maintaining almost invisible security mechanisms. The illustration describes the existing spread of police posts within the Old City. It is estimated, that the same method of small security units dispersed in the entire area will be a crucial component of security maintenance in the future.

Herod's Gate New Gate Damascus Gate Christian Quarter

Muslim Quarter

St. Stephan Gate

New Gate

Golden

Christian Quarter

Dome of Jaffa Gate Gate the Rock

Old Cit Armenian Quarter

Old City Jaffa Gate

Armenian Quarter

Jewish Quarter

Zion Gate

Dung Gate

Zion Gate

Index Police station

General Introduction

Index

Old City special regime Police station

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Index

Old City Special Regime

Entering Vehicles

E. Security arrangements at the gates

Authorized Vehicles

Index Option A: The “Traditional” security mechanism. Each passenger must be checked by an screening device or at least by presenting a valid crossing permit. The Passport control icon is optional in all alternatives according to the regime’s policy. Option B: Two crossing lanes. In one lane, the passenger must be checked; the other lane is a free passage for residents and workers of the Old City only. Those who are eligible to cross are provided with a magnetic biocard.

X-ray screening device option, strict security measures.

Index X-ray screening device option, strict security measures.

Security selector, aiming to identify suspiciose figures and direct them to the strict checking lane.

P

Passport control point. Optional according to the regime’s policy. free passage for residents and workers of the Old City using a magnetic bio-card.

Option C: Chosen scheme: Combination of all options creates a model of a three lane crossing. A lane of obligatory checking, a lane of free passage with a human selector and a third lane for free passage for residents and workers of the Old City only. The crossing facility will contain a special stand that will issue temporary ID documents for those who arrived to the facility without them.

In

Exiting people Authorized passengers

In

Security selector, aiming to identify suspicious figures and direct them to the strict checking lane.

P

Passport control point. Optional according to the regime’s policy. free passage for residents and workers of the Old City using a magnetic bio-card. Exiting people

In

Authorized passengers

Checked passengers

Checked passengers

Free passage

Free passage

P General Introduction

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Old City Special Regime

E. Security arrangements at the gates The major importance of the Old City in religious, historical, cultural and national terms together with the thousands of visitors entering it every day create a serious challenge to the security facilities. On one hand, the stability of the Old City’s security level should be kept at almost any price, especially as it will be a keystone to the Israeli-Palestinian entire agreement. On the other hand, implementation of “traditional” security methods in the entrance–exit facilities will severally damage the traditional access to the Old City. The next chapter of this study will suggest the planning principles of such a facility and attempt to address these challenges. The planned facilities will aim to serve the largest amount of passengers in the minimum amount of time, to react flexibly to changing security scenarios in terms of checking procedures and to be assimilated respectfully in the surrounding landscape and the historical urban fabric. The illustration presents the facility’s “security scheme” containing different layers of security. The illustration is to be considered in a larger frame of flexible respond to different scenarios which will be addressed in the following chapter. It shows the concept of the security procedure: The waiting platform can lead either to a clear passage through the facility (left) or in case of implementation of security regulations to passage through passport control and security screening stands (center and left respectively). One who has been “cleared” could then move on to the passport control and out of the station. In a situation that requires a manual search, the passenger is asked to move to one of four searching booths to proceed with the clearing process.

General Introduction

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Index

Old City Special Regime

Authorized Vehicles

Index X-ray screening device option, strict security measures.

P

P

In

Entering Vehicles

E. Security arrangements at the gates

P

Index

X-ray screening device option,Index strict security In measures. X-ray screening device

Security selector, aiming to identify suspiciose figures and direct them to the strict checking lane. Passport control point. Optional according to the regime’s policy. free passage for residents and workers of the Old City using a magnetic bio-card. Exiting people Authorized passengers

option, strict security

Security selector, measures. aiming to identify Security selector, suspicious figures aimingand to identify direct them tosuspiciose the figures and direct them to the strict checking lane. strict checking lane.

P

Passport control point. control point. P Passport Optional according to Optional according to the regime’s policy. the regime’s policy. free passage for

free passage for residents and workers the Old City , using residents andofworkers a magnetic bio-card. of the Old City using a magnetic bio-card.Exiting people Authorized

Passangers Exiting people

In

Checked

Authorized Passangers passengers

Free Passage

Checked passengers

Checked passengers

Free passage

Free passage

P General Introduction

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Old City Special Regime

F. What gate is chosen for this study? Herod's Gate

In the frame of this research, one gate was chosen as a case study to further understand the implementation of security facilities around the gates. Among the four western gates, which all have access to pedestrians and some access to vehicles, the most “populated” (in means of passengers per hour) gates are Dung Gate and Jaffa Gate *. Moreover, today’s vehicle’s route through the Old City starts from Jaffa Gate and ends in Dung Gate, creating a wellknown path which is used by thousands of people every day. The proximity of Jaffa Gate to the Israeli city center, the walking distance from Jaffa gate to all of the quarters, and its special features and unique cosmopolitan nature and activity makes it a natural candidate for study. The Jaffa Gate study is proposed to be the trigger for a comprehensive, all-inclusive study of the Old City entire gate system which will shed light on the unique behavior of each end every gate. This study’s approach is that each and every gate has its unique context, role and condition and hence poses a different challenge. Therefore it is stressed that this study should be considered incomplete until a parallel Palestinian Gate study has joined this project. Only a full demonstration of the relationship between the special entity and the two sovereignties surrounding it can provide an accurate image of the upcoming requirements from a general plan to establish a special regime in the Old City.

Damascus Gate St. Stephan's Gate

Muslim Quarter

New Gate Christian Quarter

Dome of the Rock

Golden Gate

Jewish Quarter

Jaffa Gate

* Pedestrian and traffic flows through the Old City Gates: an Initial Survey

Armenian Quarter

Dung Gate

Zion Gate

Index 1000- 2000 passengers p/h 500-1000 passengers p/h 100-500 passengers p/h Entrance/exit route

Dr.Yaakov Garb, report to the ECF, April 20, 2007 General Introduction

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Old City Special Regime

F. What are the challenges in Jaffa gate? The many thousands of visitors who enter the city every day create a serious challenge to the security facilities. Even on a regular day, the gate serves as an entrance for about 6,000 people in each direction, with peak flows of up to 1,000 people an hour. At Jaffa Gate, this would typically be comprised of 60% tourists with the remaining almost 20% religious Jews and 20% Arabs (very few secular Israelis). This is apart from 1,000 cars going out and 4,000 cars (plus 36 buses) going in for the same period. Pedestrian flows at Damascus gate are substantially larger.

General Introduction

Ka

rta

pa

rk

ing

lot

Jaffa Gate Bridge Citadel

Old City special regime

Jaffa Gate Study


Jaffa Gate Study

A. Introduction and location-General B. location of proposed facilities C. Jaffa Gate vehicle entrance D. Site management options E. Planning the facilities F. Operating the facilities G. Security management scenarios


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A. Introduction and location-General Jaffa Gate is the main gate serving the Israeli population, due to its proximity to the western side of the city. The gate was named after the road that leads west – to the ancient city- Jaffa (today a part of the city of Tel-Aviv), which was the main harbor to Palestine until the beginning of the 20th century. Jaffa road is the main street in west Jerusalem, and along it are located: the municipal offices of Jerusalem, the Jewish commercial center, the main postal service of Jerusalem, the main bus station and many more important sites. The Arabic name of the gate is Bab al-Khalil, named after The biblical Abraham who is berried in southern city of Khalil (Hebron), whereto this gate leads as standing at the tip of the road heading south. The Gate was built at the year 1538 with the old city walls, by the Ottoman Empire. An original ancient stone board, which is placed at the wall, contains an announcement, in Arabic discussing the completion of the gate at the year of 945 AH (anon Hijra). According to a local folk tale the two anonymous tombstones that are placed near the gate are the graves of the two architects of the wall. The area in which the Jaffe gate is located has been a central point in the city since ancient times. The history of the gate starts at the 1st century B.C, when the Judean king Herod built his palace and gated citadel in the walls of the city. This complex was used as the main entrance to the upper city of Jerusalem, and as a main military base, as the area was the highest point of the city (780 meters above the sea level). The foundations of Herod’s citadel were later used by the Roman Empire’s 10th legion for building a new fort at the 1st A.C. Although the biblical site was far from the area of Jaffa gate, the citadel got its name, in which it is well known till these days- “The Tower of David”. The current citadel is dated from the 14th century, and was built on the remains of the Roman-Herodian fort. The muezzin tower, which was built at the Arabic period, became one of the main landmarks of Jerusalem, and especially of Jaffa gate. The citadel was used by the Ottoman army until 1917, when Great Britain conquered Jerusalem. At this period, the British government cleared the citadel, and turned it to a museum for art and local culture. At 1948, the citadel became again a military position of the Jordanian Arab Legion - Jaffa gate was blocked and became a part of the border between the state of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. For 19 years, until 1967, the Jaffa road was blocked at the Jaffa gate area, and was covered with ruins and mines. More than any other place in Jerusalem, it became the symbol of the divided city.

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A. Introduction and location-General Jaffa gate is not only one of the gates to the Old City, but it is the head of the main markets too. Nowadays, the Muslim market usually serves tourists, but till 1948, it served the citizens of the city and external traders. Moreover, since the period of Herod, until today, the market leads to the Temple mount – the holy religious center of Jerusalem. The square adjacent to the gate is named after Omar Ibn El-Khattab, the caliph who conquered the city in the year 638. The Square contains shops, restaurants, hotels. The main museum dedicated to the history of Jerusalem, is located at the ancient citadel since 1988. During the Ottomans time governmental and post offices were settled around the square, making it by that a cosmopolitan center in the middle east for its times. Executions, local and religious formal parades took place at ElKhattab square too. El-Khattab square became a successful city center due to its proximity to all the quarters of the city.This advantage made it a meeting and business dealing place for people from all squares and all religions. The breach of the wall, near the gate was executed in 1898 in the honor of William II, the German Emperor, who entered the Old City with his entourage. After the 1967 war the Jaffa gate came back to life, and its status as the central area of Jerusalem was renewed. Nowadays, the gate (along with Damascus gate), is the main link between the new city and the old city of Jerusalem. Furthermore, it functions as a link between cultures, religions and nations. The elements which compose this area include the main police station, the museum of Jerusalem history, market, a main taxi station, hotels and more. These elements around the Jaffa gate create an urban center for all people – Israeli, Arabic, Christians and tourists from all over the world. Its historic, economic, social and urban values - make the Jaffa gate a significant center in Jerusalem for all people.

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B. Location of proposed facilities The Jaffa Gate area, especially its external side, is the main focus of this study. In the recent few years the site has been intensively developed and nowadays holds a few constructions that may be suitable for location of a crossing facility. The main landmarks on site are: the walls and Jaffa Gate itself [1], Karta parking lot [2], the citadel and David’s tower [3], the entrance plaza [4] (which is positioned partly over the road and partly over a vacant space), and the Omar Ibn El-Khattab road [5] based on a dike leading to the gate. This study will present a few alternative locations for the various security facilities in this urban setting.

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Mission

3 Citadel Museum

Central local bus station

Missio Cente

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It is important to stress that although this study believes the following security arrangements might not be temporary, it Index is highly important to create a welcoming Location of permanent facility atmosphere towards every passenger or resident of the Old City. Location of temporary facility Simultaneously one of the maininto aims Movement OCof this study is to propose onsite facilities that may be “activated” upon wish Movement out of OC and needs, rather than planning facilities that 120 Maximum passengers per hour are hard facts on the ground.

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Pertra Hotel

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B. Location of proposed facilities

Karta Parking Lot

Entrance Plaza

Jaffa Gate

David’s Tower Citadel

Dome of the Rock

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B. Location of proposed facilities Location of crossing facilities: This study suggests locating the different crossing facilities in the following spots:

Pedestrian station location Option 1: under the plaza

Option 2: The citadel’s outer porch

1. Vehicle crossing stand: The only large enough spot for a vehicle crossing facility is near the intersection leading to the Gate. 2. Pedestrian crossing stand: The recommended location for the pedestrian crossing facility is the space under the Jaffa Gate entrance platform (entrance) and another space in the Karta parking lot (exit).

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C. Jaffa Gate vehicle entrance The vehicle entrance security facility suggested hereby must be considered rather carefully for it will be clearly noticed, although its position is much lower then the Old City’s elevation in that point. Moreover, implementation of such a facility near the gate means a dramatic (although necessary) reduction of the amount of vehicles permitted to enter the Old City. As this study aims to propose security solutions that do not clearly interfere with the existing urban fabric, it is rather difficult to locate a vehicle screening facility without doing so.

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Central local bus station

Mission Center

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The proposed facility holds six screening stations, three of them appointed to permitted vehicles, whilst the other three are designed for a thorough screening of Index requierd vehicles. The presented facility will be able to deal with approximately 40 Location of permanent vehicles per hour,facility or about 500 vehicles per Location of temporary facility amount of entering day. Since the average vehiclesinto nowadays is about 4000 between Movement OC 7 AM and Movement out9ofPM OC *, the reduction of vehicles permitted to enter the OC will be around 120 Maximum passengers per hour 90% in a regular day.

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* Pedestrian and traffic flows through the Old City Gates: an Initial Survey

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Dr.Yaakov Garb, report to the ECF, April 20, 2007 General Introduction

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Jaffa Gate

C. Jaffa Gate vehicle entrance This illustration describes the facility’s general layout. Entrance (scarlet arrow) will be available to all permitted vehicles. The exit, however, will be restricted to OCSP ( Old City Soecial Police ) and public transportation only (orange arrow). The permitted vehicles exit will take place at Zion Gate or Dung Gate, depending on the final transportation scheme. Index

Index Entering Vehicles Authorized Vehicles

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Citadel

Clearance Exiting people

Inspection Point

Secured area Authorized passengers

Regulation

Check Point

Passport checking

Jaffa Gate

Information

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Regulation Toilets

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Biometric passage

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int. to

Regulation

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Isolation area

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Passport control Biometric passage

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Security check

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Information

Security Check Regulation Regulation

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Toilets

Passport checking

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C. Jaffa Gate vehicle entrance

Jaffa Gate Crossing Facilities

free passage for residents and workers of the Old City using a magnetic bio-card.

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Information

Passport control point. Optional according to / The Old City Initiative the regime’s policy.

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Exiting people Authorized passengers

Regulation Toilets

free passage for residents and workers of the Old City using a magnetic bio-card. Exiting people

P Index Entering Vehicles

Authorized passengers

Checked passengers

Checked passengers

Free passage

Free passage

Authorized Vehicles Security Check Regulation

P

Passport checking

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C. Jaffa Gate vehicle entrance

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D. Jaffa Gate pedestrians entrance and exit The location of the pedestrian entrance-exit facility of Jaffa gate aims to make the best use, and least interference with the existing urban fabric. The proposed site is situated below. The Jaffa Gate entrance plaza, and above a construction covering archeological remains (see pictures pages 45,46). Shading over the archeological ruins, the space is nowadays a neglected area, which could be preserved as part of a development of the crossing facility. The outcome can be beneficial to all parties: the crossing facility is almost fully disguised within the existing development; the archeological remains are preserved and presented; and the deserted and dilapidated space becomes a visiting site open to tourists. Thus, facility can gain additional cultural and historical significance besides its actual practical role in maintaining security, and contribute to the site’s development, which will remain relevant even if security regulations are altered or not Index required any longer.

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Mission

Citadel Museum

Central local bus station

It is proposed that the facility’s floor will be made of glass, as very common in such sites. The Movement into OC transparent surface will cover the archeological Movement of allow OC layer, yetout will it to be observed through the Maximum floor. passengers per hour

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The Wall's Garden

Location of temporary facility

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Location of permanent facility

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D. Jaffa Gate Pedestrians entrance and Exit

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D. Jaffa Gate Pedestrians entrance and Exit

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D. Jaffa Gate Pedestrians entrance and Exit Since the proposed crossing station is adjusted to an existing building, its functions are designed acccordingly. The upper section of Karta Parking lot is a long arcade with shops on both sides. This study suggests of using the southern part of the arcade for the exit crossing facility. The given building creates the following arrangement: the entrance to the Old City will take place through the archeological vacant space. Entering passengers will make their way from north (Jaffa road) and south into the facility, go through the crossing procedure, and proceed into the entrance plaza which will be a “cleared area�. Movement out of the Old City will be channeled through the upper plaza to the major staircase that leads into the arcade. The southern wing of the arcade will be converted into the exit terminal. Passengers who wish to leave the Old City will be able to proceed from that point to the

General Introduction

Exit

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Entrance

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To Old City

D. Jaffa Gate Pedestrians entrance and Exit To Greater Jerusalem

The entrance terminal, located under the main entrance plaza To Emek Street will be entered from two directions: North and South. The northern entrance will mainly serve pedestrians who reach the Old City from the Jerusalem City center, and walk down Jaffa road towards the gate. The southern entrance will serve those who arrive from the surrounding neighborhoods of Mamila, Yemin Moshe, Mishknot Sha’ananim and Talbieh. The southern entrance will also be used by those who parked their vehicle in Karta parking lot and proceed by foot. These users exit the parking lot, cross the road and enter the facility from south. The exit terminal, which will be naturally entered through one spot, will provide access to three different exits: Back to Jaffa road through the commercial arcade, Down to Emek Street via stairs and elevators and direct access to the parking lot.

General Introduction

To Jaffa Road

To Old City To Greater Jerusalem

To Emek Street

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D. Jaffa Gate Pedestrians entrance and Exit This illustration presents the exit and entrance facilities as they lay under the urban landscape surface. As presented, there is almost no indication for the security facilities on the existing fabric. Removing the upper surface of the facility exposes the entrance terminal’s inner space and reveals the massive construction used to support the main Jaffa gate plaza.

Jaffa Gate Karta Parking Lot

EntrancePlaza

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E. Planning the Facility

Exit

1.1 Plans: entrance terminal Index As mentioned, the entrance terminal, located under the main Clearance entrance plaza will be entered from the North and the South. Exiting people The main hall is designed to address a variety of security Authorized scenarios, ranging from free passage passengers through the corridors on both sides of the facility (1) to a maximum security scenario Secured area which requires the activation of all security protocols. In order to Isolation area into four different zones address this scenario, the hall is divided that can operated separately if necessary. The proposed zones P Passport control are: Entrance zone (2), the security checking platform (3) the passport control zone (4) and the cleared Biometric passage area (5). If a security examination is operated, the passenger enters Security check through one of the facility gates and is provided with assisting facilities such as the information counter (6) and toilets (7). From Information there the passenger moves on to the security checking platform and undergoes a screeningRegulation inspection. After being checked the passenger proceeds to the passport control counters and out to Toilets the stairs and elevators. As mentioned before, the advantage of such a scheme is its flexibility to adjust itself to different security Index scenarios, rather only be planned to perform one only. Entering Vehicles in case a security examination is not activated, passengers Authorized will enter the facility and proceed to the cleared area, where Vehicles Indexwill be able to use the elevators and staircases to access they Jaffa Gate. The assisting facilities such (toilets and information) X-ray screening device can be still used, and the remaining space may be converted Index option, strict security into a display area of the excavated archeology, or to a wider measures. information center. X-ray screening device Security selector, aiming to identify General Introduction suspiciose figures and direct them to the

Entrance

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Entrance

Index

Checked passengers Exiting people Authorized passengers

option, strict security Index measures. Checked Old City special regime passengers Security selector, Exiting people aiming to identify Authorized

P

Secured area

Regulation

Isolation area

Security check

Passport control

Information

Biometric passage

Toilets

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Entering Vehicles

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Authorized Vehicles

E. Planning the Facility Index X-ray screening device 1.2 Plans: exit terminal option, strict security measures.

The exit from the Old City selector, through Jaffa gateSecurity will be, aiming to if required due to securityidentify and regulations, at thesuspiciose far end figures of direct them to the the main plaza. strict checking lane. The facility is designed to address a variety of security control point. scenarios,PrangingPassport from free Optional according to passage through the main the regime’s policy. corridor (1) to a maximum security scenario which free passage for requires the activation of all residents and workers security facilities. In such a of the Old City using a case passengers will enter magnetic bio-card. the eastern wing (2) to cross through the screening belt Exiting people and the passport control. As designed in the entrance Authorized facility, the exit terminalpassengers areas are planned in different Checked zones that can be isolated passengers separately. Free passage

Index

Authorized passengers X-ray screening device option, strict security measures.

P

Checked passengers Exiting people Authorized passengers

2

Exiting people

Security check

Passport control

Information

Biometric passage

Toilets

Index

Regulation

Isolation area

P

Passport control Biometric passage

Index Entering Vehicles Authorized Vehicles

Checked passengers

Checked passengers Exiting people Authorized passengers Secured area

Offices Toilets

Authorized passengers

Security check Information

Security Check Regulation

Free passage

Old City special regime

Isolation area

Information

Regulation

P General Introduction

Regulation

Security check

Passport control point. Free Lane Optional according to the regime’s policy. free passage for residents and workers of the Old City using a magnetic bio-card.

P

Secured area

Index

Security selector, aiming to identify suspicious figures and direct them to the 1 strict checking lane.

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Index

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E. Planning the Facility

Entrance Plaza

2. Spatial adjustments to existing site: The existing sites, especially the entrance terminal site, require a number of spatial adjustments in order to facilitate a crossing station. This section names the main outer adjustments required from the site. Karta Parking Lot

(1). Pavement of a pedestrian ramp leading from the main trail along the walls down to the northern entrance area. Likewise, a pedestrian trail is required from the roadside to the terminal’s entrance. One security regulation option suggests, that permitted passengers will not use the ramp but continue strait forward towards the historical entrance, where they can be check in special conditions (biometric systems and so).

Jaffa Gate Entrance Plaza

(2). Adding the inner content of the stations (both entrance and exit) i.e. placing the different infrastructures, the glass floor, service facilities, passport stands and more. Besides that, there is a need for a connecting system between the two levels. This connection will be carried out through both stairs and elevators which will be located in the north-eastern corner of the plaza.

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E. Planning the Facility 2. Spatial adjustments to existing site:

Jaffa Gate

(3). Cancellation of existing southern staircase and opening of the southern entrance to the terminal in place of these stairs. This act will complete the security isolation of the upper level in order to assure it can be reached from only three points: the northern pedestrian trail, the parking lot (which will serve as the exit route) and the vehicle ramp coming from the south. Security isolation of the plaza will require some kind of monitoring on the rims of the plaza, near the parking building and near the gate.

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Entrance Plaza

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E. Planning the Facility 3. Illustrations of border crossing entrance terminal The following series of illustrations demonstrate the different angles of the hidden facility, starting with the main entrance plaza that serves as the station’s roof.

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E. Planning the Facility 3. Illustrations of border crossing entrance terminal Through the construction system that supports the platform.

Entrance Plaza Jaffa Gate

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E. Planning the Facility 3. Illustrations of border crossing entrance terminal To the interior of the facility.

Entrance Plaza Jaffa Gate

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E. Planning the Facility 3. Illustrations of border crossing entrance terminal

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Entrance Plaza

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E. Planning the Facility 3. Illustrations of border crossing entrance terminal The following illustrations describe the activity from a user’s perspective.

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E. Planning the Facility 3. Illustrations of border crossing entrance terminal The following illustrations describe the activity from a user’s perspective.

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E. Planning the Facility 3. Illustrations of border crossing entrance terminal The final two illustrations show the “before” and “after” condition of the gate area and demonstrate the manner in which the facility naturally blends into the existing urban fabric and contributes to the improvement of its more neglected parts. Illustration 1 - Before

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E. Planning the Facility 3. Illustrations of border crossing entrance terminal Illustration 2 - After

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E. Planning the Facility 4. Illustrations of border crossing exit terminal Since most of the exit terminal is located under the Karta parking lot’s roof, the modifications in the surrounding landscape will be relatively minor. Nevertheless, the inner setting of waiting platforms and security screening machines is crucial for a swift and easy exit from the special regime, especially on dense-population days.

Illustration of the exit terminal out side

Karta Parking Lot

Entrance Plaza

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E. Planning the Facility 4. Illustrations of border crossing exit terminal

To Old City

Index

Index Clearance

Clearance

Exiting people

Exiting people Authorized passengers

Authorized passengers

To Greater Jerusalem

Secured Area

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F. Running security

1. Technical instruments The plans of the security layout in the terminal, especially in the screening areas, are recommended to be based on existing products. This section suggests a few security products that may address both the need for cutting edge technologies and suitability in size and capacity to the security tasks as they were defined before. The presented security devices are merely a recommendation, and were chosen for their visual qualities and ability to take as little space as possible (thus allowing usage of a larger number of machines within the given space to serve a greater number of passengers).

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F. Running security

Metor 300

Walk-Through Metal Detector

1. Technical instruments

An OSI Systems Company

PEOPLE SCREENING

Innovative User-Interface An OSI Systems Company

This control unit, unique only to Metor brand products, makes programming several detectors fast and easy. The menu structure of Metor 300 resembles mobile phones’ user interface and is therefore familiar to many users. Help texts in the menu further facilitate the operations. The user interface has three user levels: OPERATOR, USER and SUPERUSER. The Metor 300 has a memory bank, which enables storing customer specific parameter settings.

Appealing Design

VERSATILE DETECTION PROGRAMS

Enhanced Multi-Zone Principle Excellent Detection and Immunity

The Metor 300 walk-through metal detector includes preset weapon specific detection programs to meet the requirements set by internationally recognized authorities. When developing new detection programs we use electromagnetic responses from real guns and knives, and thereby the programs reflect real-life threats.

The Metor 300 is a second generation true multi-zone metal detector. It offers superior performance for demanding high security applications.

SUPERIOR DETECTION AND DISCRIMINATION Utilizing an intelligent 8Z8F architecture, the Metor 300 offers top-class performance in metal detection and unbeatable detection uniformity for metal threat objects regardless of their shape and orientation. This is achieved with an overlapping new multi-zone coil system, which combines the unique true multi-zone features with frequency distribution technology. The operating frequency distribution eliminates electromagnetic interference present at installation environments today. Together with effective digital signal processing it offers excellent interference immunity. The Metor 300 can detect multiple threat objects independently in different zones. Due to eight independent detection zones, signals from distributed harmless objects do not combine to produce unnecessary alarms. In addition, independent detection zones enable free sensitivity adjustment of each zone.

MAXIMIZE THROUGHPUT

The Metor 300 is equipped with two integrated zone displays. These identify the level(s)

The Metor 300 also incorporates an advanced Random Alarm function, which enables discreet search of non-alarming passengers.

ENHANCED SECURITY

at which detected object(s) are carried. The zone displays enable security personnel to immediately target metal objects and ensure that maximum throughput can be maintained. In addition, the Metor 300 is equipped with traffic lights (green and red) indicating when the passenger can pass through the gate.

EASY TO INSTALL, SIMPLE TO OPERATE

The Metor 300 display unit can be mounted on all four sides of the detector. This improves flexibility in installation and when operating the unit. The display unit has a 2x20 character alphanumerical display. It gives information on how to operate the unit, and also functions as a signal level indicator. In addition, the display unit has LED bars showing the zone display indication. This increases the visibility of the zone display information. All parameters are set through a bi-directional remote control unit that enables the copying of the parameters from one unit to other units.

To guarantee tamperproof and continuous operation, the switches, cables and connectors in the Metor 300 are built-in, and the remote control unit can be locked inside the crosspiece. The remote control unit operation is secured with passwords and a code hopping encryption algorithm to prevent unauthorized access. The ON/ OFF switches can be accessed with or without a key.

STATISTICS Intelligent traffic and alarms counters calculate the traffic flow and resultant alarms. The counters both increment and decrement, thereby giving a true traffic count.

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES BATTERY BACKUP SYSTEM: For 2-hour runtime when no power is available. METORNET 3 PRO: Remote Security Management System collects the statistics on traffic flows and alarm data of up to 255 Metor walk-through metal detectors and generates easy-to-read reports. It allows detector security levels to be changed from a central PC. TEST PIECES: To assist in calibration and testing. ADA COMPLIANT CROSSPIECE: 32 in. crosspieces are available to meet ADA compliance for wheelchair accessibility.

ONE COMPANY - TOTAL SECURITY

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F. Running security

2. Location and capacity of machines The facility will hold around 8-10 small screening devices for hand luggage and two big screening machines for larger equipment and luggage. Hence, all and all the facility will hold 10 crossing posts. The average crossing time will be 60 seconds, thus allowing crossing of 600 passengers per hour. In times of large crossing demands, the crossing procedure can be reduced to 30 seconds per person through additional skilled personnel (with proper training) and increase the hourly capacity to 1200 passengers.

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F. Running security

These illustrations demonstrate the average size of the suggested machines as they are proposed to be located in planned facilities. Whilst the technological profile of the devices should be defined and confirmed by security experts, the illustration aims to demonstrate the amount of space average machines, as well as “heavy duty� ones may require.

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F. Running security

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Between every two screening machines there is a handsearch stand with an extra screen will be located. This setting will enable a quick hand checking process on the spot, accompanied with the screened information. The illustration describes a highly occupied moment in such a spot. The waiting line channels the passengers through the metal detector toward the passport control. Passengers with hand luggage will be required to pass through the xray screening machine. Passengers with unique problems or large luggage will be directed and handled in the personal checking booths and in the large luggage screeners at the edge of the hall.

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G. Operating the facility in massive population events As presented earlier, the maximum capacity of such a facility in the given conditions can be 1000-1200 passengers per hour. These figures adequately address an everyday routine of Jaffa gate, which according to studies reaches a maximum of 1000 passengers per hour, with an average amount of 400-600 passengers per hour * The main focus of this section is to examine the security possibilities on special events/holidays with highly populated activity in the Old City. As mentioned above, these events are characterized by massive activity around the gates, as well as a large crowd of passengers, and hence require a different approach to the crossing. The proposed adjustment approach in such cases is based on two methods: 1. Temporal expansion of the security systems. 2. Temporal alteration of existing security regulations.

* Pedestrian and traffic flows through the Old City Gates: an Initial Survey Dr.Yaakov Garb, report to the ECF, April 20, 2007

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G. Operating the facility in massive population events 1. Temporal expansion of security systems This illustration describes the option for temporarily expanding the crossing facility in order to increase the passage capacity during special events. The map presents the location of an additional temporal crossing facility, located on the outer balcony of the Jaffa Gate citadel, serving nowadays as the museum’s “back yard”. This crossing facility requires a significant intervention in the urban landscape. Nevertheless, considering its temporal nature, this intervention might be considered tolerable.

Christian Quarter Imperial Hotel Tousit Info

Pertra Hotel

Omar Ibn El-Kahattab Square

Muslim Marke Moat

Jaffa Gate P

Mission

Citadel Museum

Central local bus station

dex

Mission Center

Armenian Quatrer

The Wall's Garden

Location of permanent facility

"Kishleh" Police Station

Location of temporary facility Movement into OC Movement out of OC

20 Maximum passengers per hour

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G. Operating the facility in massive population events The additional crossing facility which will be based on the citadel’s outer balcony will enable entering and exiting from the same level. In order to enter the facility passengers will cross the access road to Jaffa Gate, and reach the southern rim of the balcony via a staircase or elevators. A long corridor will serve both comers and goers who will be directed by signs. Passengers leaving the Old City through this facility will use the same elevators and stairs.

Entrance

Exit

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G. Operating the facility in massive population events In case a temporal crossing facility is implemented in the mentioned area, spatial adjustments to the existing site will be required. The first adjustment is a construction of a temporal staircase and entrance platform on the southern slope of the citadel’s side. (The elevators, which require a larger investment and are located relatively near the walls, might be considered permanent). Although this intervention will be very noticeable, the temporality of its use may help in constructing it. Also, the elevators and balcony could alternatively be used for special groups visiting the site (Pope, VIPs, Special delegations and so forth), and perhaps the balcony could allow a space for special receptions held for them.

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G. Operating the facility in massive population events The second major change in the site will be the security pavilion placed in the balcony’s area. This stand is recommended to be as minimal as possible both in size and design. A combination of glass panels and steel construction, may allow the intervention in the in the landscape around the walls to be sensitive in form albeit its permanent presence.

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Christ Quart

G. Operating the facility in massive population events The additional facility will contain 9-11 additional crossing units, which will serve a maximum of 1000 1200 additional passengers per hour. Together with the permanent crossing station under the plaza, the two facilities will be able to serve over 2000 passengers per hour, given that they are staffed with an adequate amount of trained personnel.

Imperial Hotel

1,000-1,200 P/H

P

1,000-1,200 P/H

1,000-1,200 P/H

Tousit Info

1,000-1,200 Jaffa Gate P/H

Pertra Hotel

Omar Ibn El-KahattabImperial Hotel Square Tousit Info

Muslim

Pertra

Omar Ibn Moat El-Kahattab Square

Mission Moat

Jaffa Gate P Central local bus station Central local bus station

1,000-1,200 P/H

Citadel Museum

1,000-1,200 P/H

Citadel Museum

Arm Qua

120-250

Index

The he Wall's h P/H Garden arden

Location of permanent facility

120-250

Index of temporary facility Location

The he Wall's h P/H Garden arden

Movement into OC Location of permanent facility

"Kishleh" Police Station "Kishleh" Police Station

Movement out ofof OCtemporary facility Location passengers per 120 Maximum Movement into OChour Movement out of OC 120 Maximum passengers per hour

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G. Operating the facility in massive population events

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G. Operating the facility in massive population events

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G. Operating the facility in massive population events 2. Temporal alteration of security regulations The other strategy of handling massive amounts of passengers is temporarily altering the security procedures for crossings. The alternative methods would rely more on surveillance and intelligence, rather than on personal inspection and restriction of movement. In the current fragile political and security situation, the security enforcement bodies (i.e. the Israeli police and military) have developed methods that address this exact situation: handling the security policies while thousands of people are trying to enter an extremely sensitive site, while avoiding major delays at entrance or exit. In general, these methods rely on three major components: 1. Maintaining a vast network of intelligence and information, used to prevent optional violent attempts or terror attacks. 2. Preparing a wide and thorough surveillance network that allows an online tracking of at all times. 3. A security force based on small units that can access any spot in the perimeter quickly and remain unnoticed. These components combined together form a security mechanism that can handle unique security situations without violating the status-quo or harming the political situation. This study suggests considering the application of such an approach in parallel to the orthodox security methods in general, and in special events in particular. This alternative thus recommends that in case of special events or holidays, when thousands of passengers enter the Old City every hour, a relatively free entrance will be permitted, accompanied with an extensive surveillance and prevention activity. Having said that, such an approach should be subject to the approval of security experts, which should determine whether it is appropriate, and to which extent it should be implemented.

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Summary

This study attempted to address conflict resolution challenge posed by the Old City Initiative using a spatial approach. Through Resolution planning the proposal has aimed to envision the political resolution as it may be placed and designed in the urban context. In the case of the Old City this is particularly important, given its unique importance and cultural landscape that will inevitably be affected by any territorial arrangement. Thus, requiring tools that may mediate between the security objectives of the sovereignty and their architectural outcomes. This study chose to explore the delicate relationship between those factors through a proposal for a crossing facility in Jaffa Gate. Although this study focuses on a detailed entrance-exit facility, it simultaneously aims to provide a set of planning alternatives and ideas for future implementation, rather than propose one fixed solution. It is believed, that a variety of possibilities of theoretical guidelines and physical plans may lay better foundations for future planning and development of complex territorial-based agreements. It is important to emphasize, that the proposed layouts presented in this document are based on security guidelines and policies provided by the Old City Initiative consultants, and that the spatial recommendations may need to be re-evaluated in case if these guidelines should change. In addition, it is important to state that the study is based on current assessments regarding the Old City. It is highly probable that in case of a peace agreement of any form, millions of tourists and pilgrims will wish to visit Jerusalem every year, and hence the volume of traffic, as well as its inner codes and principles may be significantly altered, and will require re-evaluation. Finally, in the frame of this research, one gate only has been chosen as a case study for investigation. The proximity of Jaffa Gate to the west city center, the walking distance from Jaffa gate to all of the quarters, and its special features and unique cosmopolitan activity made it a natural candidate. Nevertheless, this case study is seen as a trigger for a more comprehensive, all-inclusive study of the Old City entire gate system which may explore the challenge each end every gate poses. As every gate is uniquely situated and carries a different role both in the Old City and in the wider urban context, it is important to devote special attention to each. In case it is decided to focus only on selected case studies among the gates, this study is still seen as incomplete until a parallel Palestinian gate has been equally studied. Only a full demonstration of the relationship between the special regime and the two sovereignties surrounding it can provide a proper outline for a future solution, and a true basis for envisioning and establishing a peaceful new era in Jerusalem, Al-Quds and the Old City. General Introduction

Old City special regime

Jaffa Gate Study


The Old City Initiative

SAYA

architecture & consultancy

Guidelines for Adapting the Old City to a Special Regime  

The case study chosen and presented in this document- Jaffa Gate and its immediate vicinity, delineates a possible implementation of the sec...

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