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APPROACHES FOR THE PALESTINIAN RE-USE OF EVACUATED ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS Study commissioned by the E.C.F (Economic Cooperation Foundation, Tel Aviv) and held by SAYA (Jerusalem)


CREDITS

Funded by: The foreign office of Switzerland, 2009. Commissioned by: E.C.F (Economic Cooperation Foundation, Tel Aviv) Supervising committee: Boaz Karni, Shaul Arieli and Ron Shatzberg Study by: SAYA (www.sayarch.com, Jerusalem) Architects: Yehuda Greenfield-Gilat, Karen Lee Bar-Sinai, Chen Farkas and Kobi Ruthenberg GIS source materials: Dan Rothem


APPROACHES FOR THE PALESTINIAN RE-USE OF EVACUATED ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS IN THE WEST BANK


CONTENT

P. 05 | INTRODUCTION P. 08 | WHY RE-USE? | Planning Assumptions & Goals P. 13 | WEST BANK ANALYSIS P. 21 | CASE STUDY 01 | PSAGOT | From a Rural Settlement to an Urban Extension P. 37 | CASE STUDY 02 | QEDUMIM | A Satellite Settlement in a Rural Context P. 54 | CASE STUDIES COMPARISON P. 55 | SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

04


INTRODUCTION

The possibility of re-using evacuated Israeli settlements upon a final status agreement is not new. It has been discussed and rejected in prior evacuations (Sinai Peninsula and Gaza strip) in favor of the “evacuate and demolish“ choice. Adapting the Israeli settlements for Palestinian re-use holds great potential, and many political, financial and environmental benefits for both sides. Nevertheless, it is clear to us today that in order for the re-use of settlements to actually happen, a strong argument is required. This document responds to this challenge, and stresses the need, the feasibility and possible re-use strategies for selected West Bank settlements. The West Bank settlements are characterized by their interference with Palestinian contiguity, their strong symbolic role as tools for “civilian occupation”, and their separate network of infrastructure. Their re-use thus requires their dissection from their Israeli context together with their careful integration to the Palestinian fabric. In order to tackle the challenge, this work analyzes the settlements in both their current and future context. Their potential role and re-use is evaluated accordingly, as they are addressed in various scales- national, regional, urban, and building scales. Two disparate case studies - Psagot and Qedumim - are then explored to demonstrate different re-use strategies. The work sets a basic methodology for evaluating and approaching settlements for re-use. With additional elaboration, a comprehensive study aimed at planning the re-use of the West Bank evacuated settlements can be conducted as a whole. Such an in-depth study can serve as a tool for promoting the re-use approach but also provide a manual for approaching the issue for the benefit of all stakeholders. 05


MAIN GOAL>>> Re-using the Evacuated Israeli Settlements in the West Bank as a Leverage for Future Palestinian Development


WHY RE-USE? | PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS & GOALS


WHY RE-USE? Reason 01 | Past Precedents>> The Tendency to Evacuate and Demolish Israeli settlements: 01.01 _ Yamit [Sinai] The Israeli settlement was established in the northern part of the Sinai Peninsula in 1967 after its occupation during the Six Day War. Its 2,005 citizens were evacuated and the city was demolished as the area was handed back to Egypt in 1982 as part of the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.

08 [Source: Israel Insider http://web.israel-insider.com/Static/Binaries/Article/yamit424_0.jpg]

[Source: ynet encyclopedia http://www.ynet.co.il/PicServer2/01082004/534492/D356-010_wa.jpg]


WHY RE-USE?

01.02 _ “Gush Katif” [Gaza Strip] A bloc of 17 Israeli settlements in the southern Gaza strip. In August 2005, the 8,000 residents of Gush Katif were evacuated from the area and their homes were demolished as part of Israel’s unilateral disengagement plan.

[Source: ynet news http://www.ynetnews.com/PicServer2/01082004/617515/TCX11_wa.jpg010_wa.jpg]

[Source: http://english.people.com.cn/200508/23/images/0822_E34.jpg]

09


Reason 02 | Re-use Will Not Happen By Itself and Without Joint Planning According to the Geneva Accord(*): The number of Israeli settlements in the West Bank are planned to be evacuated when Israel withdraws from the occupied territories – 111(77%) Total Land area to be evacuated – 5628 km2 Total settler population in the settlements proposed for evacuation – 107,616 Based on precedents, the Israeli side, would probably prefer to demolish the houses and accompanying infrastructure. The Palestinian side also favors the demolishment scenario due to several grounds: 01. The monumental nature and symbolic affect of the settlements. 02. A fear that settlers will return to claim their homes from their successors(**).

10 *Source: Foundation of Middle East Peace | www.fmep.org. **Source: Samich El-Abed’s document, page 6.

Reason 03 | Potential Gain for Both Sides Palestine 01. A great amount of additional housing units 02. A broad array of public, educational, commercial and industrial facilities 03. Advanced infrastructure Israel Monetary values of the settlements - As the vast investment in them may be counted as part of a compensation plan/refugee arrangements Environmental and financial value Demolishing and rebuilding will involve a massive waste in environmental, financial and implementation terms


WHY RE-USE?

Tackling the issue of the evacuated Israeli settlements prior to the delineation of a final status agreement (and prior to the evacuation), could promote innovative solutions for the evacuated areas. Rather then destruction of the widely developed facilities and infrastructures (as in the case of the disengagement from the Gaza Strip), thinking and planning in advance holds the opportunity for a sustainable solution: re-using and adapting the evacuated areas for Palestinian use. Past experiences (both in Gaza and Yamit disengagements) have shown the Israeli tendency to follow an evacuate-and-demolish model, and in order to encourage a more ecological and sustainable approach towards the West Bank, a thorough preparation will be required. Palestinians and Israelis can both benefit from this arrangement on many levels, for example: the Israeli evacuated private properties could be bought by the Israeli state and transferred to the Palestinians as part of the compensations pay. A study outlining a concrete plan for the proposed settlements for evacuation can thus prepare the ground for sustaining them for future use as part of a final status agreement.

11


STUDY GOALS AND SCOPE

PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLOGY

This work focuses on the need, potential and feasibility of the future reuse of settlements through three main goals:

The basic assumption of this project is that a permanent status agreement will involve the evacuation of a significant amount of Israeli settlements in the West Bank. These in turn, can be re-used rather than demolished in order to aid Palestinian development.

1. Setting the foundation for a wider plan for the future re-use of the West Bank settlements 2. Developing a method for approaching the re-use of evacuated settlements 3. Demonstrating different strategies for re-use through two disparate case studies

There is no generic way to approach the re-use of evacuated settlements. Each settlement differs in nature, context and in its relation to the surrounding Palestinian fabric. Each settlement should also be seen in light of its potential in the context of a future Palestinian state. Re-use therefore requires understanding of the implications. Therefore, tackling re-use is approached here through the combination of three methodological components: 1. Defining the planning and development trends of the Palestinian state to be (on a national, regional and urban scale) 2. Understanding the unique role each Israeli settlement plays today in the Israeli context, and might play in the future Palestinian context 3. Evaluating the potential and complexity of the settlement’s transition from one system to the other.

12


WEST BANK ANALYSIS


MULTIPLE SCALES OF ANALYSIS AND SOLUTIONS The Importance of the ÂŤgradual scaleÂť approach

Any given solution to the re-use of the evacuated settlements issue should be regarded and analyzed in several scales of context, as the implementation of it will affect all scales of planning and future Palestinian development in the West Bank. National (West Bank in the context of its neighboring countries) Regional (Wider urban cluster) Urban/Local Building scale

14


WEST BANK

NATIONAL CONTEXT >> 01 | Natural and Political Borders

01.01 | Topography The West Bank at large is situated on the mountain ridge and watershed line; located between the valley of Jordan on the east and the Israeli coastal plain on the west.

01.02 | The Green Line (1949-1967)

01.02 | The Geneva Accord (2003) A possible future border

15


02 | Current Development Obstacles 02.01 | Oslo A, B & C Areas Segregation of Palestinian control and development

16

A

B

C

02.02 | The Separation Barrier (2002- current)

02.03 | 144 Israeli Settlements

>>> Result Discontinuity and fragmentation of the Palestinian territory


WEST BANK

Jenin

03 | Potential Future Development 03.01 | Centering development along the mountain ridge

03.02 | Strengthening the main route (Road 60) as a national backbone

03.03 | Linear urban development along the mountain ridge with rural development around it

ANTICIPATED DEVELOPMENT MODEL Nablus

Ramallah+ East Jerusalem+ Bethlehem

Hebron

17


REGIONAL AND LOCAL CONTEXT | "Settlement Profiling"> How to create a catalog and data base?

Three main aspects are to be considered and analyzed in various categories and criteria: 01. The settlement itself/ cluster of settlements in the Israeli built context 02. The local Palestinian built context and its future development 03. Current and proposed future affiliation between the settlement and the Palestinian built context

Palestinian Built context

Palestinian Locality

Current affinity Future affinity

Density

Israeli Settlement Israeli built Context

18

Size Nature Connectivity


WEST BANK

ASPECT 01: The settlement/ cluster of settlements

ASPECT 02: The Palestinian locality and its built context and its future development

Sample of categories of classification:

Sample of categories of classification:

Type: Community (“small town”) / rural / urban periphery / other Location and affiliation to other Israeli settlements: Size: Municipal area +Built up area Density and/ or Capacity: Number of houses/ population vs. size Ownership past+present

Location and affiliation to Palestinian fabric of life: Size: Municipal area +Built up area Density and/ or Capacity: Number of houses/ population vs. size

Building typology Built Assets: Public facilities (public institutions, sport facilities, schools, libraries, shelters, etc’. “Green Assets”: Parks, agricultural land, etc’. Infrastructure Assets Connectivity

Building typology Built Assets: Public facilities (public institutions, sport facilities, schools, libraries, shelters, etc’. “Green Assets”: Parks, agricultural land, etc’. Infrastructure Assets Connectivity Future Development: needs, trends, plans

Symbolic Attributes 19


RAMALLAH Al Bireh

*

1545 citizens

PSAGOT

PSAGOT overlooking RAMALLAH and AL BIREH Picture Source: Decolonizing Architecture> http://www.decolonizing.ps/site/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/psagot_over_ramallah.jpg (* in 2007, retrieved from the Foundation for Middle East Peace web site> http://www.fmep.org/settlement_info/settlement-info-and-tables/stats-data/settlements-in-the-west-bank-1)


PSAGOT | From a rural settlement to an urban extension


CASE STUDY 01 | Why PSAGOT? Psagot is a clear case of an Israeli settlement that can be utilized for Palestinian urban development. It was established in 1981 and was planned to be evacuated according to both Taba and Geneva Accords. Psagot is situated on a hilltop overlooking Al Bireh (part of Ramallah City), with a roughly equal density. Today, it functions as a suburban neighborhood in the metropolitan area of (Israeli) Jerusalem. Nevertheless, it holds a potential of becoming a natural part of Al Bireh’s future urban development.


PSAGOT | Analysis, Context and Strategy


Case Study 01

PANORAMIC VIEW FROM PSAGOT Facing north-west: The rapid development of Ramallah and Al Bireh

24


PSAGOT

25


Case Study 01

Israeli settlements context

SETTLEMENT PROFILE

Palestinian context

Density Size Nature Connectivity

Established: 1981 Type: Community settlement Location: Benjamin Regional Council, Metropolitan area of Jerusalem Built up area: 234 Dunums* Municipal area: 300 Dunums* Population: 1,545* Number of houses: 320** Total estimated value of houses*** 52,800,000$-70,400,000$ Public facilities: 12 public institutions, 1 sport facility, 5 parks, 3 shelters, 1 library, 1 school ****

*In 2007, according to Foundation for Middle East Peace www.fmep.org **In 2003, according to Foundation for Middle East Peace www.fmep.org *** According to a value of 1100$ per sqm (as assumed by The Marco center for political economics, 2002), and estimated houses size ranging between 150-200 sqm. ***The Marco center for political economics, 2002 26


PSAGOT

Beit El

REGIONAL CONTEXT (today) | A chain (north-south) of rural and industrial settlements disrupts Palestinian continuity and development

60

old

Al Bireh

RAMALLAH

Psagot

Kohav Yakov

Atarot

Sha’ar Binyamin

Adam 27

to Jerusalem


Case Study 01

REGIONAL CONTEXT (today) | Israeli

Beit El

60

old

Psagot in the Israeli settlements’ context: part of a northsouth chain of suburban settlements

Psagot

Kohav Yakov

Atarot

Sha’ar Binyamin

Adam 28

to Jerusalem


PSAGOT

REGIONAL CONTEXT (today) | Palestinian

60

Psagot in the Palestinian built context: A suburban neighborhood at the edge of the rapidly developing metropolitan area of Ramallah

old

Al Bireh

RAMALLAH

Psagot

29

to Jerusalem


Case Study 01

STRATEGY | Regional scale |

Psagot as part of the development of Ramallah City in its wider metropolitan area

Stage 01: Understanding Current Obstacles to the Development and Growth of Ramallah Obstacle 01: Topography (north-west)

Obstacle 02: Future Border+ West Jerusalem (south)

Obstacle 03: Settlements (north-east) The settlements function as a joint-barrier and thus should be addressed together in the context of Ramallah’s development. Beit El

Al Bireh RAMALLAH

Psagot

Al Bireh RAMALLAH

Psagot

Al Bireh RAMALLAH Psagot Kohav Yakov

Atarot

Sha’ar Binyamin Adam

30

to Jerusalem


PSAGOT

Stage 02: After a Final Status Agreement the Israeli Settlements are evacuated and become Palestinian

(Obstacle 03 is removed and Ramallah gains the opportunity to develop eastward)

Al Bireh

Stage 03: Ramallah’s Expansion Eastward connects with the wider Ramallah- East Jerusalem- Bethlehem metropolitan area | Using the evacuated settlements’ infrastructure and facilities as a catalyst for rapid and dense urban development

Al Bireh

Psagot RAMALLAH

RAMALLAH

Atarot

to Jerusalem

to East Jerusalem

31


Case Study 01

FUTURE USE | Psagot as an urban extension of Al Bireh Program and aim

The recommended re-use strategy for Psagot proposes for it to become part of the urban development of Al Bireh and Ramallah City. In light of the strong suburban nature of the settlement and its landscape qualities, it is proposed to transform it into the combination of: A. Housing for professionals currently residing in Ramallah City B. Recreation homes for tourists Beyond this initial transformation, a plan for the development of the city eastward should be further developed. This plan should include the entire block of settlements located east to Ramallah, and consider their potential as a whole in the context of the city’s development.

Facilities

The re-use plan is based on minimal intervention with the existing houses or facilities. The existing settlement is home to around 1,500 settlers. It is proposed to use 80% of the existing housing stock for housing purposes (thus providing a solution for about 1,200 Palestinians), and devote the remaining 20% of the houses for tourism and recreation. These could then serve more than 300 people and provide a temporary accommodation for at least 600 people at any given time. The houses allocated for local professionals, could be adapted by their purchasers whilst those allocated for touristic use can be modified accordingly and be managed locally from within existing facilities. The public facilities should be re-evaluated in number and allocated to other uses if found locally redundant. As for parks and recreational areas- these may remain or even be further enhanced for the benefit of the wider public of Ramallah. 32


PSAGOT

Estimation of future potential use based on the data published by The Marco center for political economics, 2002 Building use Units Area (sqm) Value per sqm Current value Potential use Municipal Institutions Public institutions 12 19,599 600$ 11,759,288 + Ritual Baths 1 ? ? ? ? Sport facilities 1 1,289 600$ 773,637 + Parks 5 11,015 ? ? + Shelters 3 221 600$ 132,624 ? Education Schools 1 6907 600$ 4,144,486 + Libraries 1 645 600$ 386,819 + Residential Dwellings & Houses* 320 56,000** 1,100$ 61,600,000 + Caravans 78 ? 4,500$ per unit 351,000 + Commercial Shopping centers 1 2,763 600$ 1,657,794 + Agriculture & Roads Water Tower 1 221 203$ 45,000 + Internal Roads 3,863 meters 1135$ (per meter) 4,384,120 + Total 98,660 85,234,768 *Dwelling and housing units based on more recent data (2003) retrieved from the online data base of the Foundation for Middle East Peace www.fmep.org ** Authors’ estimation according to an average of 175 sqm per house 33


DEMOLITION SCENARIO | If Psagot were to be demolished> HOW MUCH WOULD IT COST?

LOSS OF EXISTING FACILITIES = 85,234,768$ COST OF DEMOLITION AND RUMBLE REMOVAL = 24,665,000$ * COST OF REBUILDING 1,500 HOUSING UNITS = 57,750,000$ **

167,649,768$

***

*Based on a cost estimation of 250$ per sqm, and 98,660 sqm of built facilities ** Based on estimation of 300 houses, 175 sqm per house, with building cost estimated at 1100$ per sqm. ***These costs exclude: The demolition cost of the remaining area of the settlement- as it is currently spread on 234,000 sqm; The building cost of the additional infrastructure, landscape and facilities that the future houses will require 34


PSAGOT

The building scale The evacuated buildings and structures will need to be adapted to their new role and use. Their physical transformation will need to include a functional as well as a symbolic adaptation to the new context and users*. Proposed here are the stages for approaching the adaptation of buildings: 1. 2. 3.

Creating a detailed mapping and inventory of existing houses and facilities Defining the new needs according to the re-use program Developing a specific “adaptation plan” for each building/facility

The adaptation strategies can include: Re-parceling of the land**- Highly suitable for private (or formerly private) lands, especially in parts of the settlement less suitable for re-use, which are likely to even be partly demolished. Connection of several buildings-Suitable for creating a public/large facility from several single buildings. Is highly suitable for a domestic area designated for re-use as public one. Specific adaptations- of private houses as well as public facilities, in order to adapt them for their new role and use. Landscape adaptations- According to the re-use program. In the case of Psagot, the strong recreational orientation of the re-use proposal may involve the creation of a promenade along the settlement’s edges and an enhancement of its green and open areas. *As an example for transforming Psagot post-evacuation, see the “Decolonizing Architecture” project by the London/Bethlehem architectural studio, directed by Sandi Hilal, Alessandro Petto and Eyal Weizman. http://www.decolonizing.ps ** As proposed by “Decolonizing Architecture” – under “De-parceling” http://www.decolonizing.ps/site/?page_id=53

35


NABLUS

*

3382 citizens

QEDUMIM

(* in 2007, retrieved from the Foundation for Middle East Peace web site> http://www.fmep.org/settlement_info/settlement-info-and-tables/stats-data/settlements-in-the-west-bank-1)


QEDUMIM | A Satellite Settlement in a Rural Context


CASE STUDY 02 | Why QEDUMIM? Qedumim (founded in 1975) is an important case study as its initial potential for re-use seems very limited at a first glance. It is situated in the heart of a rural Palestinian context, with quite a significant distance from the city of Nablus. Nevertheless, it is important to explore its potential re-use for three main reasons: A. Qedumim was planned to be evacuated according to the Taba, Camp David and Geneva Accords B. Qedumim has an unclear potential for future Palestinian development which might serve as a ground for not considering it for re-use C. This case study can encourage applying a similar approach towards other settlements with seemingly limited potential for re-use


QEDUMIM | Analysis, Context and Strategy


Case Study 02

PANORAMIC VIEW FROM QEDUMIM Facing north (below), and south: natural and rural context

40


QEDUMIM

Israeli settlements context

SETTLEMENT PROFILE

Palestinian context

Density Size Nature Connectivity

Established: 1975 Type: Community Settlement Location: Qedumim local council, Qalqiliya Governorate Built up area: 1,003 Dunums* Municipal area: 2,039 Dunums* Population: 3,382** Number of houses: 734 *** Total estimated value of houses****= 121,110,000$ - 161,480,000$

Immediate rural –urban context (current)

Qusin

Public facilities: 6 public institutions, 3 synagogues, 3 sports facilities, 4 parks, 6 schools, 1 gas station, 3 shopping centers, 1 industrial building, 4 farms, 1 water tower*****

Nablus

Kafr Qaddum

Qedumim

Jit

Sarra

Haja * In 2003, according to Foundation for Middle East Peace www.fmep.org **In 2007, according to Foundation for Middle East Peace www.fmep.org ***In 2003, according to Foundation for Middle East Peace www.fmep.org **** According to a value of 1100$ per sqm (as assumed by The Marco center for political economics, 2002), and estimated houses size ranging between 150-200 sqm. *****The Marco center for political economics, 2002

Immatin

Far’ata

41


Case Study 02

Shavey Shomeron

REGIONAL CONTEXT (today) | Israeli Qedumim in the Israeli settlements’ context: One amongst several scattered satellite settlements

Qedumim

60

old

42


QEDUMIM

REGIONAL CONTEXT (today) | Palestinian Qedumim in the Palestinian built context: A satellite settlement with a suburban nature amongst rural villages

Nablus

Qedumim

60

old

43


Case Study 02

STRATEGY 01 | Qedumim as a Satellite Neighborhood of Nablus Transforming the suburban Israeli settlement into a satellite neighborhood of Nablus. It could then become part of the emergent phenomenon amongst Palestinian professionals- exclusive neighborhoods housing engineers, doctors, lawyers etc. This is a relatively recent trend, replacing the former , familybased housing nature and development.

Proposed strategy: linking Qedumim to Nablus

Qusin

> Implications: Encouraging suburban sprawl towards the West in contrast to the proposed growth model for Nablus through compacted and contained urban enhancement.

Kafr Qaddum

Kafr Qaddum

Qedumim Haja

Jit

Sarra

Qedumim Haja

Immatin 44

Qusin

Nablus

Far’ata

Immatin

Far’ata

Jit

Sarra

Nablus


QEDUMIM

STRATEGY 02 | Heart of a rural cluster Reusing Qedumim as a rural settlement. It is proposed for it to function as the heart of the rural cluster of villages in which it is situated, assisting the preservation and enhancement of the area’s agricultural nature and heritage.

Proposed strategy: Qedumim as the administrative and operative Heart of the rural cluster.

Qusin Kafr Qaddum

Strengthening Nablus as an urban center whilst strengthening and organizing the rural localities.

Nablus “Qaddum

Qedumim

Jit

Sarra

Nablus

rural cluster”

Haja

Immatin

Far’ata 45


Case Study 02

STRATEGY 03 |

Decomposing Qedumim Reusing different elements from Qedumim while decomposing it as a settlement. Elements which may be reused include: “Caravillas” (caravan houses), sewage and electricity elements, industrial facilities, buildings and factories (including wineries and quarries in the wider area).

Qusin Kafr Qaddum

Qedumim Haja

Immatin

46

Far’ata

Jit

Sarra

Nablus


QEDUMIM

Components for Re-Use

159 “Caravilla� houses

Electricity Elements

Industrial facilities (including wineries), community centers, etc 47


Case Study 02

> STRATEGY COMPARISON STRATEGY 01 | Linking Qedumim to Nablus

STRATEGY 02 | Heart of a rural cluster

STRATEGY 03 | Decomposing Qedumim

+Requires minimal transformation of the settlement’s housing, public buildings, and infrastructure +Minimal transformation costs

+ Re-integrates the land of Qedumim into its original agricultural context +Provides advanced facilities (public parks, buildings, infrastructure) for the benefit of the surrounding villages. +In line with future development plan on the regional scale- strong urbanization along the mountain ridges, and rural development along its sides.

+Provides a solution for reusing components of a settlement rather than giving a solutions for the settlement as a whole +Applicable to other settlements as well +Can be combined with other strategies

-Slightly too distant from Nablus -Will encourage an “urban sprawl” of Nablus rather than its strengthening as an urban center -Will imply a further interruption with the strong agricultural nature of the area

Qusin Kafr Qaddum

Qedumim

Jit

Sarra

Nablus

-Will require a great coordination effort

-Will require additional adaptation of the housing units (estimated by Abid Samih (*) to amount to 923)

“Qaddum

Qusin

Nablus Kafr Qaddum

rural cluster”

Haja

Qedumim Haja

Immatin

Far’ata

48 *Abid Samih, Planning for the Palestinian Re-use of the Evacuated Israeli Settlements, Cases of Psagot & Qedumim, 2009, p. 32

Immatin

Far’ata

Jit

Sarra

Nablus


QEDUMIM

RECOMMENDATION | Strategy 2+3 In the case of Qedumim, it is recommended to combine strategies 2 & 3. This will allow to develop the settlement as a rural center after evacuation, and yet re-use and recycle its unneeded elements.

Heart of a rural cluster + Decomposing Qedumim

“Qaddum

Qusin

Nablus

Nablus

Kafr Qaddum

rural cluster”

Qedumim

Jit

Sarra

Haja

Immatin

Far’ata

49


Case Study 02

FUTURE USE | Qedumim as an agricultural center The recommended re-use strategy for Qedumim proposes to turn parts of it into a center for agriculture and water management, and decompose the unneeded parts for re-use in the surrounding villages.

The agricultural/ Water training and management center Program and aim As Qedumim has the nature of a suburban neighborhood more than an agricultural village, it will be more suitable to re-use it as a training center than to transform it into a living village. This is also in line with similar recommendations given for the area*, proposing its development as a rural and agricultural center for similar grounds. The training center can focus on local agriculture and water management. As Qedumim is situated in a highly strategic water area, this aspect can be developed and a regional or national center for the matter can also be established within it. Facilities The existing public facilities and a certain part of the housing units in Qedumim can be allocated to the center and its operation. An additional number of houses can also be used by the local staff and employees, or for housing guests and trainees visiting the center. These could be allocated around the center of the built fabric.

Decomposing and Recycling The remaining and unneeded facilities can be decomposed and recycled as proposed (to include Caravan homes, industrial buildings, electricity poles, etc.). These can be distributed around the surrounding villages and used for installing and upgrading their infrastructure. 50 *Abid Samich, Planning for the Palestinian Re-use of the Evacuated Israeli Settlements, Cases of Psagot & Qedumim, 2009, p. 32


QEDUMIM

Estimation of potential future use based on the data published by The Marco center for political economics, 2002 Building use Units Area (sqm) Value per sqm Current value Potential use Municipal Institutions Public institutions 6 7,313 600$ 4,387,627 + Synagogues 3 1,584 600$ 950,469 Ritual Baths 3 258 600$ 154,727 Sport facilities 3 9,026 600$ 5,415,462 + Parks 4 29,472 ? ? + Education Schools 6 5,526 600$ 3,315,589 + Residential Dwellings & Houses* 734 128,450** 1,100$ 141,295,00 Partial use Caravans 159 4,500$ per unit 715,500 + Industry & Commercial Gas Station 1 230,000 + Shopping centers 1 600$ + Industries 1 13,447 400$ 5,378,622 + Agriculture & Roads Water Tower 1 1,068 42$ 45,000 + Farms 4 14,349 ? ? + Internal Roads 12,897 meters 1135$ (per meter) 14,638,090 + Total 210,493 176,526,088

*Dwelling and housing units based on more recent data (2003) retrieved from the online data base of the Foundation for Middle East Peace www.fmep.org ** Authors’ estimation according to an average of 175 sqm per house 51


DEMOLITION SCENARIO | If Qedumim were to be demolished> HOW MUCH WOULD IT COST?

LOSS OF EXISTING FACILITIES = 176,526,088$ COST OF DEMOLITION AND RUMBLE REMOVAL = 52,623,250$ * COST OF REBUILDING 1,500 HOUSING UNITS = 20,000,000$ **

249,149,338$

***

*Based on a cost estimation of 250$ per sqm, and 210,493 sqm of built facilities ** Based on a cost estimation of 400$ per sqm. ***These costs exclude: The demolition cost of the remaining area of the settlement- as it is currently spread on 1,003,315 sqm; The building cost of the additional infrastructure, landscape and facilities that the future construction will require` 52


SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS


CASE STUDIES COMPARISON *Qedumim The two case studies present different challenges in the context of their re-use for future Palestinian development. Case Study 01 | Psagot

Case Study 02 | Qedumim

The Israeli built context

A suburban community-settlement in the Jerusalem metropolitan area

A suburban community-settlement

The Palestinian built context

Adjacent to Al Bireh (Ramallah City)

Situated amongst several Palestinian agricultural villages in the wider Nablus area

Re-use potential

Clear potential for integration Ramallah’s urban development

in

Limited potential for integration with the surrounding fabric

Re-use recommendation

Together with the string of settlements located east to Ramallah –The settlement and its wider area are highly suitable platforms for Ramallah’s urban development eastward

To be partly transformed into the heart of its rural context- as a center for agricultural development; Unneeded components and infrastructure to be reused in the surrounding villages

Re-use program

Combined program: -Housing for professionals currently residing in Ramallah City -Recreation homes for tourists

Turning Qedumim into a center for Agriculture and water training and management

54

*Psagot


SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

Persuading policy makers to choose re-use of settlements over their demolishment is a challenging task. It requires a convincing argument in favor of adopting re-use both as a general and a specific approach. To this end, this work has explored the need, potential, and possible strategies for Palestinian re-use of evacuated Israeli settlements in the West Bank. It aimed to find strategies for transforming the Israeli built homes, facilities and infrastructure as leverage and aid for Palestinian development. The basic “tool-kit� proposed here was composed of various parts: 1. Examining each settlement individually- in its unique context 2. Analyzing each settlement through multiple factors- concerning the settlement, its Israeli built context, its Palestinian built context and their potential relations. 3. Considering various scales- In the current and future context of the settlement, ranging from the national, through the regional, urban and building scales. Two disparate case studies were chosen for demonstration- Psagot and Qedumim, and a strategy for addressing each was developed. Each case posed a different challenge in terms of the potential the settlement holds in its immediate and wider Palestinian context. The discrepancy between the two cases stresses the need for examining each settlement individually, in its unique context, and developing a specific strategy towards it. This work provides a starting point for approaching settlement re-use in the West Bank context. Nevertheless it also raises the need for extending the study further to the entire West Bank, to include all potential settlements for evacuation. This can promote the role of sustainable thinking and solutions in implementing a permanent status agreement. 55



settelment re-use