Asia & Paciﬁc: a region of ‘sub-‐regions’. Includes case studies: Timor Leste, Nepal, Macau & Cambodia
Steve Noakes January 2014
Contents Ø Asia & Paciﬁc as a ‘region’ of ‘sub-‐regions’ Ø Tourism & the Paciﬁc Ø Des;na;on case studies from Asia
This presenta;on aims to: Increase your understanding of:
1. Concepts & processes of des;na;on marke;ng & des;na;on management in Asia & the Paciﬁc 2. Success factors & challenges of des;na;ons in the Asia Paciﬁc region 3. Why & how countries in Asia & the Paciﬁc both cooperate & compete for increased visitor arrivals 4. Methods used in Asia & the Paciﬁc to evaluate strategic planning for developing & managing des;na;ons
Des;na;on Asia Paciﬁc
Source: www.taiwandocuments.org -‐
PATA 60th anniversary video h>p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfLlF6G5plg 3 minutes
21 members = approx 41% of the world's popula;on ( 2.7 b), 55% of world GDP, about half of world trade.
ASEAN – tourism sub-‐groups
Ayeyarwady-‐Chao Phraya-‐Mekong Economic Co-‐opera;on Strategy (ACMECS).
Kingdom of Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democra;c Republic, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, the Kingdom of Thailand and the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.
Regional projects to develop quality tourism products and services, strengthen human resources, and reduce barriers to travel.
APEC Indonesia 2013 h>p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7b5beLuB7c 3+ minutes
APEC Tourism Working Group
South Asian Associa;on for Regional Coopera;on
Tourism & SAARC Tourism had been recognized since early days of SAARC. Second SAARC Summit in Bangalore, 1986: underlined that concrete steps should be taken to facilitate tourism in the region. 1991: Technical Commigee on Tourism created – ﬁrst mee;ng Colombo, October 1991 1997: First mee;ng of SAARC Tourism Ministers, Colombo
Subgroups within SAARC: e.g: 1997: SAARC member countries agreed to the forma;on of a subgroup termed the South Asian Growth Quadrangle (SAGQ) -‐ Bangladesh, Bhutan, India & Nepal.
SASEC: South Asia Regional Economic Coopera;on – Tourism Working Group
A subgroup with SAARC undertaking sustainable tourism planning projects – received project funding support from ADB Foreign Tourist Arrivals in the SASEC Subregion
Bhutan approx 30,000 pa
(Daily fee for non-‐Indian visitors to US$250 per day)
Bangladesh: approx 300,000 Nepal: approx 600,000 India: approx 6.5 million
SASEC: South Asia Subregional Economic Coopera;on SASEC subregion is deﬁned as Bangladesh, Bhutan, 13 of the North, East, and North East states of India (West Bengal, Bihar, U>ar Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunchal Pradesh, and Sikkim), and Nepal. SASEC encompasses the Eastern Himalaya–Bay of Bengal subregion of South Asia
People’s Republic of China, Mongolia, Republic of Korea and Russian FederaPon.
Tourism & GTI Obstacles for GTI tourism development
a) Lack of knowledge/awareness of the Greater Tumen Region
b) The diﬃcul;es in securing visas between countries.
c) Seasonality: most travel to the region is in June through September.
d) Low Level of hospitality services, mul;lingualism and interpre;ve (nature, culture) guide services.
e) Lack of adequate understanding of sustainable tourism & niche markets such as ecotourism.
f) Poor environmental protec;on measures. h>p://www.tumenprogramme.org/UploadFiles/pdf/MDT%20tourism%20project%20report%20english%20full%20text1.pdf
Central Asia: Economic Coopera;on Organisa;on h>p://www.ecosecretariat.org/
An intergovernmental regional organiza;on -‐ established in 1985 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey Purpose of promo;ng economic, technical & cultural coopera;on among the member states 1992: ECO expanded to Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
Bower, E. h>p://cogitasia.com/a-‐new-‐paradigm-‐for-‐apec/
Collabora;on -‐ 13 Asian na;ons Steve Noakes & Jack Carlsen (2013) ‘Ecotourism as a Poten;al Tool for Wild Tiger Conserva;on and Poverty Eradica;on’. In K. Bricker, R. Black and S. Co>rell (Eds.) Sustainable Tourism & the Millennium Development Goals. Jones Bartle> Learning: USA, pp. 73-‐84.
YouTube intro (7 minutes) hgp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=diAvYa92Fm0&feature=c4-‐overview&list=UUJZDAAGXqA6i3ljP4yIghkw
Are tourists good or bad for ;gers?
h>p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4ZEO1oAElI about 2 minutes
Overview of tourism in the Paciﬁc
1944 Color Map Paciﬁc Race Migra;ons Polynesia Melanesia Micronesia Islands
Major cultural groupings in the Paciﬁc & modern era na;ons
Popular western images shaped by entertainment industry
Evolu;on of trans paciﬁc travel (Weaver 2008)
Challenge for Paciﬁc des;na;ons -‐ limited direct air -‐ access, connec;vity & frequencies.
Regional travel & tourism linkages
Gri>on, J. Spennemann (2002)
Op;mised range of the latest Airbus jetliner A380 seats 525 pax -‐ range of up to 8,300 nm/15,400 km .
VISITOR ARRIVALS IN PACIFIC ISLAND COUNTRIES Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Kiriba; Marshall Islands New Caledonia Niue Palau
2010 104,265 631,868 153,919 4,701 4,563 98,562 6,214 85,593
2011 113,114 675,050 162,776 5,264 4,559 111,875 6,094 109,057
2012 121,757 660,590 168,978 4,907 4,590 112,204 5,048 118,754
Papua New Guinea
129500 20,521 47,081 1,657 97,180 1,532,557
127420 22,941 46,005 1,201 93,824 1,642,353
134,700 23,925 49,010 1019 108,161 1,683,618
Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Total
South Paciﬁc Tourism OrganisaPon www.spto.org
Growth 16.8 % 4.5 % 9.8 % 4.4 % 0.6 % 13.8 % -‐18.8 % 38.74% 15.7 % 4 % 16.6 % 4.1 % -‐38.5 % 11.3 % 9.86%
Major Tourism Markets Australia New Zealand Paciﬁc Islands USA Canada Europe Japan Other Asia Other Countries
Summary of Visitor Arrivals * Tourism in the region has performed reasonably well during the three years 2010-‐2012 in spite of challenges posed by the global ﬁnancial crisis. * Visitor arrivals to the region in 2012 were approximately 1.6 million, an increase of 2.5% over 2011. * Top des;na;ons were Fiji, Cook Islands, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Samoa & New Caledonia.
CHALLENGES IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT South Paciﬁc growth of tourism hindered due to the following:
Geographical spread & small popula;on base of Paciﬁc Islands • Limited infrastructure & capaci;es (cruise, avia;on, telecommunica;on, transporta;on, u;li;es) • High domes;c, interna;onal transport costs • Vulnerability to natural disasters • Complex land systems • Lack of skilled personnel in the tourism industry • Weak ins;tu;onal frameworks constraining foreign direct investment •
REGIONAL TOURISM INITIATIVES 2012-‐2013 SPTO has undertaken the following: 1. Cruise Shipping Tourism Launch of Cruise Manual in Miami; Port Preparedness workshops 2. Sector Planning/Policy Development Air and Cruise Surveys; Cruise Market Analysis; Development of Business Plans; Improving data collecMon & staMsMcs analysis 3. Marke;ng Long Haul, Emerging and Short Haul Markets; SME e-‐markeMng support, Niche market studies 4. Human Resources Development Regional HRD Plan; SME training workshops; Short Term AQachments; Hospitality Training
Key points for South Paciﬁc Ø
Tourism as a services sector is also labour-‐intensive, impac;ng other sectors (Agriculture, Fisheries, Transport); sustainable linkages must be supported
Untapped poten;al should be developed & properly managed to signiﬁcantly contribute to sustainable growth
Requires con;nuing support & commitment from key stakeholders, including the private sector, government implementa;on of relevant policies & budgetary provisions for infrastructure development, at na;onal level; regional level through the SPTO Economic beneﬁts of tourism oﬀers the best hope in Paciﬁc Island countries -‐ however have to manage resources through green tourism ini;a;ves to ensure the sustainability & proﬁtability of the sector
Country case studies
Acknowledgement: Mariana da Costa, General Directorate of Tourism Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Industry
Acknowledgement: Balkrishna Ghimire, Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Civil AviaPon, Nepal
Acknowledgement: Thok Sokhom, Director of InternaPonal CooperaPon & ASEAN, Ministry of Tourism
Did we succeed ? To increase your understanding of:
• Concepts & processes of des;na;on marke;ng & des;na;on management in Asia & the Paciﬁc • Success factors & challenges of des;na;ons in the Asia Paciﬁc region • How & why countries in Asia & the Paciﬁc both cooperate & compete for increased visitor arrivals • Methods used in Asia & the Paciﬁc to evaluate strategic planning for developing & managing des;na;ons
Op;onal YouTube links Hiran Cooray, Chairman on PATA, 2011 hgp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9xIxSdJrWA about 3 minutes
Mar;n Craigs, CEO of PATA talking sustainability and the UE ETS policy implica;ons hgp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BdQ2xvruFEE 4+ minutes
Develop or die. Asia’s growing ;gers. 11 minutes h>p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch7THUnLyRA
Contact details Steve Noakes Australia. steve@paciﬁcasiatourism.org www.paciﬁcasiatourism.org