Light Express

Page 1 September-October 2018


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Lighting the real World!

Advanced Wireless Control!


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Illumination With A Brain!

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ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING & DESIGN MAGAZINE Founder Editor-in-Chief Late Mr. Kanwar NS Editors Amrita Singh Sarvjit Kanwar China Correspondent & Reporters Ying Wei-Beijing Bao Tian Tian - Shanghai Xing Guang Li - Guangzhou

LED Lighting Markets in China China's demand for LED Lighting has grown at a fast pace in the past decade. In the next decade, both production and demand will continue to grow. The Chinese economy maintains a high speed growth which has been stimulated by the consecutive increases of industrial output, import & export, consumer consumption and capital investment for over two decades. Growth of the global lighting market and global LED lighting market has also been forecasted for the period 2017-2021, taking into consideration the previous growth patterns, the growth drivers and the current and future trends. The market for global LED lighting is facing a tough competition due to price wars and entry of small firms. Further, key players (Cree, Philips and Osram) of the global LED lighting market are also profiled with their financial information and respective business strategies. The major growth drivers for the LED lighting market are increasing shipment and penetration of LED TVs, growing automobile industry, increasing LED penetration, phasing out of incandescent bulbs in many countries, supportive government policies and focus on energy efficiency. Despite the market is governed by various growth drivers, there are certain challenges faced by the market such as temperature dependence, high initial costs of LED, high research and development costs, etc. China LED Lighting Market is Forecast to go Beyond US$ 24 Billion by the end of Year 2024 For promoting high-efficiency LED lighting products, National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and China's Ministry of Finance (MOF) had collaborated to look after interim measures on administration of financial subsidies. The actions like financial subsidies to promote LEDs lighting is working. In the current scenario, Local governments are working more proactively in response than China's central government in implementing LED subsidies. In China, Guangdong Province, consist the largest LED industry size and has relatively higher amount of subsidies. As of 2013, Foshan in Guangdong Province, Dongyuan, Zhongshan and many other cities have launched several subsidy projects to promote LED lighting products in mass level. In the mean time, Power costs saved by LEDs are all used to subsidize construction projects in Zhongshan city.

Assistant Editor/Correspondent Elena Secretary & Legal Advisor Aaron Kumar Circulation Surekha Gogna Production, Design & Degital Media Rakesh Sharma Marketing & Sales Lina Catherine Amy Lan Anna Mi Technical Advisors Alex Van Bienen/Lily - Nederlands Public Relations Director (UK) Mike Steele Advisor Internet Richmond Kanwar International Advisor (Australia) Andrew S. McCourt Germany Representatives Julia Rittershofer Steffen Schnaderbeck India (Head Office) D 182 PR House, Anand Vihar, New Delhi 110 092 INDIA Tel: +91 11 22141542 | 4309 4482 Fax: +91 11 22160635

ISE 2019 to showcase the finest in international AV All the connections you need at the world’s largest systems integration exhibition The 2019 edition of Integrated Systems Europe is set to be the largest in the show’s history, with more exhibitors, more floor space, more visitors and more events than ever before. Another new addition for 2019, the full-day HTNG Insight Summit ISE will discuss current issues and cuttingedge research findings from the world of hotel and hospitality technology. It is organised by ISE and trade association Hospitality Technology Next Generation. And on the Friday morning, AttractionsTECH by blooloop will be dedicated to exploring the latest technologies, solutions and business strategies that are transforming the theme park and attractions business.


SE 2019 takes place at the RAI Amsterdam from Tuesday 5 to Friday 8 February 2019, preceded by conferences and the Opening Address on Monday 4 February. The five days are expected to attract over 80,000 registered attendees and 1,300 exhibitors. In response to the increasing demand for exhibition space, there will once again be 15 halls on the floor plan; in addition, Hall 5 will be extended, increasing its size by a third. To help attendees to locate the products, services and companies of greatest interest to them, there will be six Technology Zones on the show floor: Audio and Live Events, Digital Signage & DooH, Education Technology, Residential Solutions, Smart Building, Unified Communications. The conference and education programme at ISE 2019 is being presented with the tagline ‘Learn,

Discover, Be Inspired’. For the first time, ISE will be extending its reach beyond the RAI throughout the show, with the nearby 5-star Hotel Okura playing host to five conferences over four days. Free shuttle buses will operate between the RAI and the Okura throughout each day. The XR Summit will explore the latest B2B technologies, solutions and business opportunities around Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality. Digital Signage Summit ISE will give unparalleled insights into trends and strategies of the digital signage industry’s brightest, most talked about and controversial minds. The new half-day Digital Cinema Summit, organised in conjunction with Digital Cinema Report, will explore how digital technology is revolutionising how we produce, distribute and experience films.

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At the RAI, the Smart Building Conference, returning for its ninth edition, will take the theme ‘Making Buildings Smart, Making Smart Buildings’ – exploring the twin themes of retrofitting smart technology into existing buildings, and creating the most sophisticated and intelligent new buildings. Taking place on the Monday, it will be followed by the ISE Opening Address. Organised by Italian media brand Connessioni, Audio Forum will once again bring together the pro audio and installation business communities, with a focus on integrated technologies and workflows. ISE co-owner AVIXA will host two half-day ‘What's Next’ conferences, looking at AV integrated experiences in higher education and enterprise environments. The education conference, on the Tuesday afternoon, will explore innovative ideas and best-case examples in the design of learning and collaboration spaces. It is jointly

organised by AVIXA, SCHOMS and EUNIS. AVIXA’s enterprise conference, on the Wednesday afternoon, is once again produced in partnership with the AV User Group. It will explore how focusing on the customer experience can create real value in organisations. The association will also be hosting Flash Tracks throughout ISE 2019 – free 20-minute education sessions, designed for AV professionals of all experience levels, focusing on hot industry topics. CEDIA, ISE’s other owner, will present a full professional development programme across the four days of ISE 2019. Delegates wishing to attend multiple sessions may consider purchasing an All Access Pass, which will enable them to attend as many sessions as they wish. On its stand, the Association will be hosting CEDIA Talks – 20-minute sessions in which some of the

custom installation industry’s best minds will offer insights into emerging trends and new technologies. An innovation for 2019 is the Main Stage, located in Hall 8, which will be a specially designed theatre and presentation space. It will present free sessions produced by ISE, CEDIA, AVIXA and AV Magazine as well as hosting a number of special events. Returning to ISE for 2019 will be the Closing Keynote. Taking place on the Friday morning, it promises to inform, educate and entertain. The identity of the speaker will be revealed in a few weeks’ time. Visitors to the RAI Amsterdam now have an additional choice of transport to and from the venue. The newly opened metro line 52 can convey passengers between the RAI and Centraal station in just eight minutes. Trains run every six minutes for much of the day. stopping at. Europaplein station, which is just a few metres from the front of the RAI. Travel and accommodation booking are now open, with exclusive discounts available from ISE’s partners. RAI Hotelservices is ISE’s official accommodation agent; they can help you find the ideal place to stay to meet your needs – and by booking directly through them you can enjoy the best prices. You can email or go to the ISE portal on the RAI website (https:// Other exciting initiatives will be added to the programme over the coming weeks. Attendees and exhibitors can look forward to updates in ISE’s RISE newsletters, as well as RISE magazine, which will be published in December. Mike Blackman, Managing Director of Integrated Systems Events, said: “We’re delighted to offer such a full programme at ISE 2019. We have a packed schedule, from the Monday before the exhibition opens to when we close our doors on the Friday afternoon. We’re looking forward to opening the doors to the home of systems integration and giving attendees their best ISE experience yet.” Registration for ISE opens on 8 October at

lightexpress | September-October 2018 | 5

HUNT Dimming Announces Simplicity® PhotoSlide™ Lighting Controller photoslideHUNT Dimming, the Fort Collins, CO-based manufacturer of lighting products, has launched the Simplicity ® PhotoSlide™ lighting controller, which combines manual dimming and daylight harvesting control in a single wall-mounted device.


he versatile slide controller allows users to switch (ON/ OFF) or dim (continuous raise/ lower without flicker from full output to five percent) both fluorescent and LED lighting, with a choice of 120V or 277V power supply and single-pole or three-way configuration. Additionally, an onboard light sensor automatically reduces light output and energy consumption in response to available daylight by maintaining a target illumination level, providing ongoing energy cost savings during daylight hours. Ideal for any space receiving ample daylight and requiring manual control, from classrooms to private offices, the PhotoSlide™ offers opportunities for commercial building energy code compliance in new construction and a simple energy-saving retrofit in existing buildings.

to accommodate specifier, contractor and owner needs: stateof-the-art Simplicity® Series digital systems that answer the most demanding of architectural and energy management needs, including sophisticated closed-loop daylighting applications; simple-touse, easy-to-understand analog slides that satisfy clients with more basic dimming needs; small, highpower, modular “mini-systems” that provide great value where singlepoint-of-control is all that is required; our industry leading Simplicity® LED Controllers which provide infinitely variable control for state-of-the-art LED drivers and lamps, and more than 200 specialty and hard-to-find wallbox dimmers that are kept in stock and shipped same day.

HUNT's 12 circuit rack is the industry's smallest, lightest-weight, convection-cooled dimming panel.

As a low-voltage control device, the PhotoSlide™ controller installs quickly and easily, using only lowvoltage wiring. Up to 50 dimmable ballast-driven light fixtures can be connected to a single controller. HUNT Dimming Dimming. It’s all we do. Since 1960. HUNT's 12 circuit rack is the industry's smallest, lightest-weight, convection-cooled dimming panel. HUNT Dimming proudly celebrates its golden anniversary in 2010. This represents 50 years of manufacturing innovative architectural dimming systems, LED controllers and wallbox dimmers! The company manufactures a full-line of dimming solutions that are flexible in design 6 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress

Custom LCD Touchscreens are available in many foreign languages, with international symbols or utilizing your AutoCAD layout drawings. LCD Touchscreens are also I/R compatible.

Simplicity® LED Controller provides infinitely variable control for state-ofthe-art LED drivers and lamps.

Green Proving Ground Program Studies Advanced Wireless Lighting Controls


traditional lighting control design deploys manual switches and simple controls such as load scheduling to control large zones of luminaires. Even when occupancy sensors are installed, these devices are typically assigned to large control zones. Increasingly stringent commercial building energy codes have made control zoning more granular. Emerging control strategies such as

daylight harvesting (daylightresponsive lighting) became recognized based on proven effectiveness, resulting in a layering of strategies. Additionally, smaller control zones generally increase responsiveness, flexibility and energy savings. However, individual luminaire control, with a lighting controller installed in each luminaire, increases equipment costs. The greatest potential to save energy

is with advanced lighting control systems that feature three capabilities. First, all applicable control strategies can be layered in a hierarchy of control zones. Second, zoning can be precisely matched to the application, potentially resulting in a mix of larger zones with zones as small as individual luminaires, which increases responsiveness while allowing personal control of overhead general lighting. Third, these systems provide a central mechanism for calibration, sophisticated programming, measuring and monitoring. Wireless lighting control systems are now available that are designed to simplify installation while potentially reducing material and labor costs associated with control wiring, making highly granular zoning more cost-effective. Radio-frequency (RF) wireless controls originally gained popularity in the residential market. They entered the commercial market after technological improvements and the development of wireless mesh network standards. As such, RF wireless is a relatively young technology in commercial lighting control, albeit one with significant

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potential. The General Services Administration (GSA), the agency responsible for Federal real estate management and products and services procurement support, studied deployment of advanced RF wireless control systems in two Federal buildings. The study, conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the agency’s Green Proving Ground (GPG) program, sought to quantify the performance of wireless lighting systems. Two buildings were selected for installation. One is the 16-story Appraisers Federal Building (San Francisco, CA), the other the 8-story Moss Federal Building (Sacramento, CA). The Appraisers Federal Building consisted mostly of open office spaces with some private offices and other spaces. Occupancy sensors and manual switches were already installed before the study. The GPG study included an LED luminaire retrofit combined with wireless controls, and with one controller per luminaire allowing individual luminaire control.

The Moss Federal Building also consisted mostly of open office spaces with some private offices, corridors and meeting spaces. Each space already had manual switches and/or occupancy sensors, and in some cases, time scheduling systems. The GPG study saw installation of wireless controls with existing fluorescent luminaires in three locations on two floors, with multiple luminaires assigned to luminaire-based controllers. At both locations, control software was used to assign luminaires to control zones that typically included four to six luminaires. Photosensors were installed in control zones configured within perimeter daylight zones. Wireless occupancy sensors were installed, typically one per control zone. In private offices, an occupancy sensor, dimmer-switch and, if the office had a window, a photosensor were installed. The system was then tied to an Internet server enabling facility operators to program and monitor the lighting using a web-based interface. The LBNL researchers studied each site before and after the retrofit, which included site visits, energy measuring, photometric study (light levels and color quality) and occupant satisfaction surveys. A month of performance data was collected for luminaires in three control zones, one in Appraisers and two in Moss, so as to estimate average lighting power density and annual energy consumption. This formed the baseline. Various lighting scenarios were then implemented and monitored to identity energy savings resulting from various control scenarios. The lowest energy savings (9%) were at one site at Moss, with savings mostly produced by reducing after-hours operation of the lighting. Energy savings were dampened by programming that kept the luminaires at a dimmed (20%) level during periods of no occupancy, as opposed to previously being turned OFF by occupancy sensors. The highest energy savings were at the other two Moss sites, 42 and 47%, which

was produced by a combination of after-hours lighting reduction, institutional tuning and daylight dimming. At Appraisers, the LED luminaire retrofit reduced lighting power density by 55%, from 0.97W/sq.ft. to 0.44W/sq.ft. Total energy savings, including the wireless controls, increased savings to about 69%. The LBNL researchers were able to disaggregate the performance of various control scenarios. In one Appraisers location, relative to a basic time-based control strategy, occupancy sensors were found to produce 22% energy savings, with an additional 10% for institutional tuning and 7% for daylight harvesting (noting daylight harvesting was implemented on about a third of the luminaires in this group). In all, advanced wireless controls were estimated to save about 39% lighting energy compared to timescheduling control.

perception of comfort, light levels and control performance. The researchers believe that fluorescent lamp failures resulting from the lamps not being properly seasoned prior to dimming (see NEMA-LSD-23-2010), coupled with commissioning errors and existing wired occupancy sensors applying legacy zoning onto new workstation and controls layouts, may have influenced these results. Use of wireless occupancy sensors could have improved the control performance, as wireless sensors can be relocated easily without rewiring to better align with new workstation layouts. In a retrofit situation, the project must carry the entire installed cost of the control system, though if luminaires are replaced, installation labor can be economized. In a new construction scenario, return on investment is based on the incremental cost of the new controls over an energy code-compliant solution. The LBNL researchers concluded, “With paybacks ranging from 3 to 6 years, adding wireless advanced lighting controls to lighting projects is a compelling opportunity in new construction and major renovation.”

The researchers concluded, “Overall, this study found that implementing advanced wireless control systems can save significant lighting energy.” They noted that savings are not guaranteed, being dependent on baseline control conditions, such as whether an existing system already has occupancy sensors installed, and baseline site conditions, such as prevalence of daylight. At Appraisers, the LED lighting system with advanced wireless controls reduced average light levels from about 57 to 37 footcandles, which was found to be satisfactory as it was above the 30 footcandles deemed appropriate for the tasks performed in the space. The occupant satisfaction surveys found occupants perceived the new lighting conditions and control performance favorably, with overall comfort increasing. At Moss, average light levels remained fairly consistent before and after the upgrade. Occupant satisfaction, however, was slightly reduced after the retrofit in terms of lightexpress | September-October 2018 | 9

What's with the halogens?


ighting systems that are designed for halogen lamps now will have to be retrofitted with LEDs further down the line. It’s high time we started designing for LEDs from the ground up blogs Iain Ruxton Last week, I stayed in a very cool boutique hotel in a Scandinavian capital city. It was, I must admit, rather lovely and luxurious. All the gadgets – big TV with an Android tablet to control it, great coffee machine, fast internet, I could even easily make sense of the lighting control (see opinion page passim, as Private Eye would say). Cool but timeless décor, fabulous pillowage, rain shower… all the trimmings that come with this kind of place. All shiny and new… it’s only been open a couple of months or so. But what about the lighting? Well, pretty nice design. Looked and felt good. A female colleague noted the bathroom was a bit dim for doing makeup and, with that opinion in

mind, I looked again – I’ll admit a good shave would have been tricky. But hey, I don’t shave much. Maybe I’m officially cool. Or just scruffy. What shocked us was the quantity of filaments in the place. There were LEDs too, but there was a lot of tungsten-halogen MR16. In a hotel in a European capital that opened this year? Does this represent a lack of knowhow on the part of the designers? Or a lack of budget? What’s the long-term plan, if there is one? Has the project been specified with the intention that all the halogen will be re-lamped with retrofit LED when the time comes? Is the assumption that retrofit LED lamps in MR16 and other small form-factors will represent a genuine replacement by then? That they will be able to deliver the same amount of light, the same look and feel, the same controllability in highend, super-cool, luxury hotel rooms, restaurant, bar and lobby spaces? I’m not suggesting LED as a technology can’t deliver the

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required light, but in retrofit form on existing controls? We all know there are credible retrofits around, but we also know they aren’t as good as an LED fixture designed from the ground up, based around a good module system or created as a peak design. In small form-factors, it’s very hard to fit in enough LEDs to generate the required output, enough thermal management to sink the heat and good enough drive electronics to dim smoothly on existing control systems. It’s extra-hard to make all of it of sufficiently high quality to actually deliver the longevity and efficiency that should constitute the big positives of LED. There is no doubt there is a vast market for retrofits – the global installed base of halogen and conventional tungsten is mindbogglingly massive and most users won’t want to immediately rip out and replace entire installations when the lamps get phased out in their

country. It is essential to these users – and hugely profitable to the lamp manufacturers – that good retrofit LED solutions continue to be brought to market. In the long term however, surely retrofits are an intermediate stage? Albeit one that may last a long time, especially in domestic settings. Isn’t it slightly disturbing to see commercial projects being designed and built now that rely on making a retrofit-based compromise later, rather than maximising the benefits of LED by designing for LED from the ground up?

Lighting your way to a more energy-efficient home


ighting your home accounts for roughly 5% of its total energy usage—for the average U.S. family, that equates to around $110 each year. Luckily, switching to energy-efficient lighting is one of the fastest and easiest ways to reduce your energy consumption and keep

more of that money in your pocket.

your lightbulbs.

Efficient lighting is so essential to a sustainable home that it can even count for up to two points in LEED BD+C: Homes if the project team is able to use energy-efficient fixtures and lamps to meet residents' illumination needs while reducing the home's total wattage from set baselines.

Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)

But for those of you looking to up your efficiency game without designing an entirely new home don't worry, you can still make a major difference with a few easy doit-yourself changes, starting with

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You've probably seen those peculiarly spiral-shaped light bulbs on a recent trip to the grocery store. While their contours may have caught your eye, what you should really pay attention to is their energysaving potential. Results vary slightly depending on design, but replacing the old lightbulbs in your house with CFLs dramatically reduces your energy consumption— ENERGYSTAR®-qualified CFLs use approximately 75% less energy than

traditional incandescents! Plus, CFLs can last up to 10 times as long. While the initial cost may be higher, these bulbs pay for themselves in less than nine months, and continue to deliver energy savings long after. The trick to getting the most out of your new CFLs is proper installation and maintenance. These bulbs are sensitive to extreme temperatures, so be sure to use them in open fixtures rather than enclosed or recessed ones, which reflect heat around the bulb and consequently reduce its lifespan. You'll also maximize your energy savings by keeping lights with CFLs on for at

least 15 minutes at a time, something to keep in mind before you flip that switch to the "on" position. Since CFLs do contain small amounts of mercury it is important to properly recycle them after use, and to take special precautions in the event that one breaks. Find tips on cleanup and safe disposal. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) LED bulbs are a more recent development in the world of efficient lighting. These bulbs use only 20-25% of the amount of energy consumed by incandescents, and they last approximately 25 times as long. Due to more durable designs, LEDs can be used both indoors and outside, and are available in a range of colors for anyone looking to add a little extra flare to their space. While incandescents and CFLs emit light in all directions simultaneously, LEDs emit light in one specific

direction. This enables them to be more efficient, but also means a little extra consideration has to go into how they are used or which particular LED bulb you buy. For example, you might not want to use an LED bulb in a table lamp, since the light will be directed straight toward the ceiling, unless you've purchased a bulb specifically designed to mimic the spherical light emission of CFLs. As with CFLs, heat management is the most critical factor in ensuring the life of your LEDs—higher operating temperatures mean faster degradation, so it's important to be sure to purchase bulbs that are compatible with your fixtures. Picking the right bulb Since CFLs and LEDs use so much less energy than traditional incandescents, knowing which bulbs will suit your lighting needs may take a little time to figure out. To match the light intensity of the bulbs

you're replacing check the package of your new bulbs for lumens (an indicator of brightness), rather than watts (a measure of energy use). Use the chart below to get started. CFLs and LEDs also come in a variety of color temperatures, another thing to keep in mind when you're trying to decide which bulb is right for you. Color temperature is measured on the Kelvin scale, ranging between 2700K and 6500K. The lower the K value, the warmer the light (meaning it gives off a more yellow tone); the higher the K value, the cooler the light (giving off a more blue tone). Dimmers and sensors Want to take your lighting efficiency overhaul to the next level? Consider installing some of these features throughout your home to further maximize your energy savings. Dimmers: dimming switches enable greater control over indoor lighting, rather than simply turning a light on or off. Dimming a light reduces its

wattage and output, saving energy and increasing the lifespan of some lightbulbs. Check the packaging to make sure the lightbulbs you're using are compatible with the equipment you install. Occupancy Sensors: these devices automatically turn lights on when someone enters a room, and turn them off again after a short period of inactivity—perfect for those of us who just can't seem to remember to flip the switch once we leave the room. Sensors come in two varieties, ultrasonic (which detect sound) and infrared (which detect heat and motion). Just be sure to place your sensors where they will detect activity in every part of the room.

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Visitor registration opens for biggest-ever ISE show Increased floor space, an additional venue and an expanded conference programme guarantee the most exciting ISE so far esteemed organisations SCHOMS, EUNIS and the AV User Group to arm AV professionals with the insight needed to elevate their performance in the marketplace.” CEDIA will present a full programme of professional development sessions. An All Access Pass will allow attendees to visit as many sessions as they wish. In addition, the association will host a series of CEDIA Talks at its stand, covering key issues in the residential installation market.


ntegrated Systems Europe has announced that visitor registration for ISE 2019 is now open. The show, which takes place at the RAI Amsterdam on 5-8 February 2019, features more exhibition space and a bigger conference programme than ever before. It is expected to draw numbers in excess of 2018’s totals of 80,923 registered attendees and 1,296 exhibitors. In response to the growing demand for exhibition space at the RAI Amsterdam, ISE 2019 will feature an extended Hall 5, approximately onethird larger than previously. In addition, ISE is spreading beyond the RAI by hosting a range of new and established conferences at the nearby five-star Hotel Okura. ISE attendees will also be able to utilise the newly opened Metro line 52, which carries passengers from Amsterdam Centraal to a new Europaplein station, just in front of the RAI, in only eight minutes. Mike Blackman, Integrated Systems Events Managing Director, com-

mented: “The extension of Hall 5 and the opening of the new Metro station adjacent to the RAI Amsterdam will all contribute to the delivery of a great ISE experience to increased numbers of attendees and exhibitors.” Leading trade associations and ISE co-owners AVIXA and CEDIA are building on the success of previous ISE shows by offering informative and thought-provoking content aimed at members and nonmembers alike. AVIXA will host half-day ‘What’s Next’ conferences on the Tuesday and Wednesday afternoons. These will explore AV integrated experiences in higher education and enterprise environments respectively. AVIXA will also be hosting free 20-minute FlashTrack education sessions at its stand. “AVIXA’s education programme for ISE will explore the trends at the forefront of contemporary AV design,” said AVIXA CEO David Labuskes. “We’ve partnered with

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Tabatha O’Connor, CEDIA Global President and CEO, commented: “With a substantial education programme from CEDIA, complete with a brand-new Home Cinema Design Workshop, core training sessions and our popular CEDIA Talks, there will be something for everyone at the show. We’re so proud to be co-owners and look forward to returning to Amsterdam for ISE 2019.” These offerings from AVIXA and CEDIA will form part of a wide range of professional development, education and thought leadership opportunities, promoted under the tagline ‘Learn, Discover, Be Inspired’. The biggest-ever ISE conference programme reflects the show’s increasing segmentation into vertical markets and a desire to meet the information needs of increasing numbers of end-user visitors. Five of these conferences will be held at the Okura. New for ISE 2019 will be the Digital Cinema Summit ISE and AttractionsTECH by blooloop. Plus, there will be the debut of HTNG Insight Summit ISE which will focus on hotel and hospitality

technology. Making their return will be XR Summit ISE and Digital Signage Summit ISE. Conferences will also take place at the RAI. Monday 4 February will see the Smart Building Conference, which for 2019 takes as its theme ‘Making Smart Buildings, Making Buildings Smart’. Also on this day will be Audio Forum, organised by Italian media brand Connessioni. New for 2019 will be AGORA, presented by MONDO | STADIA - a conference focussing on stadium and sporting venue technology, with expert panels, case studies and keynote speakers from the industry. A further innovation for ISE 2019 will be the Main Stage. Located in Hall 8 and designed and managed by ISE partner improve, this will feature thought-leadership content presented by ISE, AVIXA, CEDIA and AV Magazine, as well as hosting networking events. The popular InAVate Awards, powered by ISE, will once again take place on the evening of the first day of the show. Companies can still enter into the competition. In addition to visitor registration, the updated show website allows attendees to book their flights and hotel accommodation through ISE’s travel partners.

The New House: A Model of Energy Efficiency USING LESS ENERGY


ll around the world, homes are one of the biggest sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. But as concerns about the environment and global warming have intersected with rising energy prices, more and more people want homes that use less energy. How can we build houses that are energy efficient? There are many ways to make a new building energy efficient. Insulation can be added to exterior walls,

ceilings and attics, basements, around heating and cooling ducts, and in framed floors. Covers and dampers on vents to the outside or unheated or cooled areas (such as exhaust fans and attic entries) also help save energy. Energy-efficient windows, doors and appliances add to the energy savings. Energy efficiency occurs in two ways. First, the house must be able to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature for the climate, using the least amount of energy possible. And a building that loses less energy is a building that uses less energy. Second, the appliances that run the house—the heating and cooling systems, lights, kitchen and other appliances—must be energy efficient. When both of these overall

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approaches are maximized, the house will use less fossil fuels and electricity, thus reducing CO2 emissions.

systems to use for heating and cooling, insulation, windows, lighting, appliances and electronics, water, and waste disposal.

The simplest route to energy efficiency: start from scratch, by building a new house. A new house can easily incorporate some of the techniques from passive heating and cooling, along with building materials—old and new—and appliances that help minimize the use of electricity or fossil fuel. The construction of an energy-efficient home requires careful and detailed planning using what is called a “whole-house systems approach.” The approach looks at the interaction between the home, the environment, and the people who live there, to determine the best

Building Standards to Save Energy Santa Monica Civic Center Parking Structure The Santa Monica Civic Center Parking Structure, in Santa Monica, California, was built to LEED standards. It runs on solar power, uses fluorescent lighting and reclaimed water for landscaping and toilets, and is built partly from recycled materials. Some countries have created programs to indicate energy-efficient

appliances. In the United States, the Energy Star symbol can be found on a wide range of products, including building materials and appliances. Around the world, countries, states, and cities have developed voluntary “green” building standards. In the United States there is a certification program called LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), which has been created by the nonprofit U.S. Green Building Council. It rates all aspects of design, construction, and operation, mostly for large-scale construction, such as government buildings, schools, and commercial spaces. The LEED system has been adopted in several countries, including India, Israel, and Canada. The Standards

and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia has recommended green building standards for that country. In the United States, the city of Boulder, Colorado, has developed its own elaborate point system for energy-efficient building. Architectural designs will not be approved unless they earn a certain number of points, for such elements as insulation, precast concrete foundations, planting of shade trees, and energy-efficient windows. The Boulder program also requires that houses be disassembled rather than torn down and that at least 65% of those materials be recycled.

energy efficient. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency created the “Energy Star” program in 1992 for this purpose. More recently, the agency has designated Energy Star buildings as well. There are other nonprofit agencies that promote different aspects of energy efficiency around the world. One example is the Alliance to Save Energy, which is based in the United States but supports programs to increase energy efficiency around the world, in places such as China and Eastern Europe.

There are also programs to label appliances and products that are lightexpress | September-October 2018 | 19

Integrated Systems Europe (ISE) 2019 Show Facts:


ntegrated Systems Europe (ISE) is the world’s largest professional AV and systems integration show. The annual event, which is held at the RAI Amsterdam every February, provides a unique showcase of technologies and solutions for commercial and residential applications. The extensive show floor is complemented by a five-day professional development programme curated by the show’s co-owners, AVIXA (formerly InfoComm International) and CEDIA. ISE also showcases a range of conferences, keynotes and events that take place before and during the show at the RAI and nearby locations. Whatever you require for your business, whether it’s specific information on new products and technologies, specialist workshops and conferences, or you simply want to develop new and existing business relationships, Integrated Systems Europe is the ultimate destination for anyone working in the professional AV and systems integration business. ISE 2019 takes place in Amsterdam from 5-8 February 2019 Location: RAI Amsterdam Europaplein 2-22 1078 GZ Amsterdam The Netherlands Admission pricing: Pre-Registration: €100+VAT Standard: €150+VAT Show opening hours: Monday, 4 February 2019 Tuesday, 5 February 2019 Wednesday, 6 February 2019 Thursday, 7 February 2019 Friday, 8 February 2019

Pre-Show Events and Conferences 10:00 – 18:00 hrs 09:30 – 18:00 hrs 09:30 – 18:00 hrs 09:30 – 16:00 hrs

Contact: Integrated Systems Events, BV Barbara Strozzilaan 201 1083 HN Amsterdam The Netherlands T: +31 20 240 2424 F: +31 20 240 2425 E: ISE 2018 – Facts and Figures: Number of registered attendees: 80,923 Number of exhibitors: 1,296 (Number of co-exhibitors: 220) Number of press: 586 Floor space (net square metres): 53.313 Floor space (gross square metres): 99.586 (all halls, balcony and bridges) 20 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress

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Osram Debuts Yellow Version of New Oslon Compact


sram has introduced a new, yellow Oslon Compact LED. The new yellow Oslon Compact LED comes in a package measures just 1.5mm x 1.9mm x 0.7mm. Applications for the LED include its use in light guides, in turn signals, and daytime running lights. This high-power LED, based on indium gallium nitride (InGaN) has an output of more than 120 lumens even at high currents and application temperatures of 100° C (Tj in the chip). The yellow Oslon Compact adds to the company's two white versions. Osram points out that new yellow Oslon Compact can be used in particular to create light guide solutions because of its small size. Light guides themselves measure less than 10 mm in diameter. For this reason, the LEDs have to be packed very close together. “For turn indicators or daytime running lights, the new Oslon Compact is suitable especially for light guide solutions, just like the other members of the product family,” said Andreas Geistreiter, Marketing LED Automotive at Osram Opto Semiconductors. “Thanks in particular to its high luminous efficacy and compact size it represents a further step in the direction of miniaturization and greater freedom of design, opening up such possibilities as quasi-3D effects. This special design element is of huge interest in the premium automotive segment, and thanks to the new Oslon Compact it is now easier for set makers to achieve.” The yellow light from the new LED is not generated directly but by ceramic conversion from a blue chip, known as C² light converter technology. This technology, in combination with UX:3 chip technology, are the basis for the exceptionally high output and thermal stability of the Oslon Compact especially at high currents. At room temperature and 700 mA, the LED achieves a typical brightness of 140 lm. At application temperatures of 100° C (Tj in the chip) the Oslon Compact still achieves the 120 lm. 32 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress

New Cree CXA High-Density LED Arrays Have Unprecedented Lumen Density


urham North Carolina-based Cree Inc., has launched three new LED arrays with double the light output of existing CXA LED arrays without increasing the size. According to Cree, the XLamp® CXA2590, CXA1850 and CXA1310 High-Density LED Arrays have an unprecedented increase in lumen density. Cree asserts that this new level of lumen density creates new levels of light intensity, enables the complete replacement of ceramic metal halide (CMH) light sources, expands the abilities of LED spotlights, and makes possible applications that could not be addressed by previous LED technologies. “The beauty of these new highdensity LED arrays from Cree is that they are helping us bring products to the market that currently don’t exist,” said Mike Wang, vice president, lighting engineering, Edison Price Lighting, Inc. “Never before have we been able to harness such a large amount of light in such a small package, which can help us improve our lighting designs and address a number of applications that we previously could not.” Cree says that the CXA2590 Array's emission of more than 15,500 lumens from a 19 mm light source, makes possible luminaires with the same center beam candlepower (CBCP) and light quality of a 150-

watt CMH light source at lower power, with longer lifetime and better control. Delivering more than 9,000 lumens from a 12 mm light source, the CXA1850 LED Array provides the same CBCP and light quality as 70-watt CMH while using half the power. Cree notes that the CXA1310 LED Array delivers more than 2,000 lumens in a 6 mm light source. According to Cree, this gives lighting manufacturers the opportunity to design smaller, more efficient track lights, reduce the size of halogen replacements by half and deliver twice the CBCP of CMH at 30 percent less power. “Having access to such intense light sources without having to account for lots of variation in size is a tremendous benefit to our product design process,” said Seok-Ki Park, CEO, Hwang-Duck Engineering Co., LTD. “We have the flexibility to increase our design options while protecting our investment in ongoing product development.” Like all CXA LED Arrays, the new arrays are characterized and binned at 85°C, available in ANSI White and EasyWhite® color temperatures (2700K – 6500K), and with CRI options of 70, 80 and 95. Samples of all three new high-density LED arrays are available now and production quantities are available with standard lead times.

34 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress

3M Invests in Lighting Company 3

M has invested in MSi Lighting of Boca Raton, Florida, a company that 3M has been working with for the past year on a line of LED lights for multiple applications. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed. LED lighting is one of the hottest industries in America. “3M’s Light Management platform enables the company to manipulate light in different ways, and we are committed to developing high-quality LED lights,” said Gabi Sabongi, Vice President, 3M Corporate Ventures. “Solid-state lighting technology has the potential to reduce U.S. lighting energy usage by nearly one half and contribute significantly to the nation's climate change solutions. MSI’s technology is a great fit with 3M and takes our business relationship to the next level in a way that complements both companies.” MSi provides quality lighting, top product performance and a large product offering to serve customers. “The relationship between MSi and 3M is already strong,” added MSi President John Burke. “This investment allows us to further share ideas and innovations in LED. With 3M’s range of technologies and expertise in optical science, we are very excited about the future and new ways to serve customers.” It is estimated that switching to LED lighting over the next two decades could save the country $250 billion in energy costs over that period, reduce the electricity consumption for lighting by nearly one half, and avoid 1,800 million metric tons of carbon emissions. “We are excited about MSI’s energy efficient LED lighting technology. Our investment will enable us to provide better LED lighting options to our customers,” said Stefan Gabriel, President, 3M New Ventures. About MSi MSi has always been focused on creating a solution to the highenergy consumption of hot, costly halogen lights in a myriad of applications – particularly in Retail, Hospitality, Museums and Furniture. Today, MSiXPAR’s are getting rave reviews across the nation, including the coveted INC500 award Top 500 fastest growing companies in America. For more information on MSi, visit their web site at About 3M 3M captures the spark of new ideas and transforms them into thousands of ingenious products. Our culture of creative collaboration inspires a never-ending stream of powerful technologies that make life better. 3M is the innovation company that never stops inventing. With $31 billion in sales, 3M employs 89,000 people worldwide and has operations in more than 70 countries. lightexpress | September-October 2018 | 35

Eneref Institute Launches Initiative To Let In More Natural Interior Daylight


neref Institute (, a leading advocate for sustainable development since 2001, announces the launch of their Natural Interior Daylight (NID) initiative. The campaign is tailored to advance the specification of daylighting as a significant light source in commercial and residential facilities. Multiple lighting studies have demonstrated increased health and human productivity benefits for students and employees in spaces with properly designed natural interior daylight. And daylight harvesting, including windows, skylights and tubular daylighting devices, in place of or in conjunction with traditional electric lighting, can significantly reduce a building’s energy load. To launch the NID initiative, Eneref Institute just authored a daylighting market report entitled, “Seven Market Obstacles to Daylighting,” which is scheduled for publication in the February, 2014 issue of the Journal of the Illuminating Engineer-

ing Society, LD+A Magazine. The report is also available on

asserts Eneref Institute’s report, “Seven Market Obstacles to Daylighting.”

Going forward, Eneref Institute’s Natural Interior Daylight initiative will spotlight a multi-economic sector of the daylighting industry by publishing a series of case studies featuring facilities that benefited from the installation of natural interior daylighting. Eneref’s daylighting case study reports will highlight specific solutions and validate the health, productivity and energy benefits within various vertical markets. Eneref Institute is the industry standard in the built environment for 3rd-party case studies validating solutions. Eneref’s case studies are drawn from interviews representing a broad range of sales channel stakeholders, from solution providers to end-users.

“You don't need a degree in illuminating engineering to know that a room with a view—one with windows that lets in natural light—is what we desire. Inherently we just know,” says Seth Warren Rose, Founding Director of Eneref Institute. “Yet, while few technologies combine as many health and environmental benefits, the daylighting market remains only a sliver of what it could be.”

Because of daylighting’s enormous benefits, the use of natural interior daylight in homes and buildings should be much more common,

36 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress

Eneref Institute already leads an industry-wide initiative, “Solar Thermal Advantage,” designed to increase adoption of solar heating and cooling in residential and commercial facilities by working closely with government agencies, including the US Department of Defense, Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency.

A subsequent report will encapsulate Eneref’s daylighting case studies, and include contributions from lighting designers, building owners and finance organizations as well as from manufacturers of daylighting controls, components and complete systems. Those invited to participate in Eneref’s NID initiative will provide expertise across all sectors of the daylighting industry and represent a wealth of diverse perspectives. About Eneref Institute: Eneref Institute ( is a research and advocacy organization focused on environmental and social responsibility opportunities as a catalyst for change. The mission of Eneref Institute is to launch initiatives that raise awareness for clear, specific solutions that put forward an efficient use of natural resources, demonstrate social responsibility and foster a peaceful, earth-friendly economy.

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Illumination With A Brain: Intelligent lighting control 38 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress


hile the light-emitting diode (LED) has gotten a lot of attention in recent years, another revolution has quietly developed in the background: intelligent (digital) lighting control. The future of lighting is solid-state, and it will be highly controlled.? Fully realized, intelligent control allows zoning as granular as individual luminaires, detailed functional programming, zoning and rezoning independent of wiring, layering of control strategies, and two-way communication. This means highly flexible and responsive lighting can be controlled in layers of strategies that can be changed as needed, and the system provides energy and maintenance information.? Anatomies? An intelligent lighting control system comprises dimmable ballasts or drivers; accessory devices, such as switches and sensors; power controllers, which may be the ballast or driver; and supporting hardware used for communication and data storage.? The lighting controller—where the processor (or intelligence) resides—may be distributed (within the control devices) or centralized (within a central server). The power controllers are connected using dedicated control wiring or radio signals to build a network in which each controller has a unique identifier address. These controllers can be programmed and operated individually or in groups. Manufacturers use a variety of configurations, so it pays to get to know each system.? The solution may be luminaire-, room- or building-/campus-based. For years, standalone controls have been available as an onboard option. The latest generation of luminaire-based controls pairs onboard sensors and a controllable driver with LED luminaires that communicate with each other using low-voltage wiring or radio waves, and they can be preconfigured to simplify commissioning.? The majority of today’s intelligent lighting control systems are room-based. Each lighting control across the room or within each luminaire act as an independent control system. A typical solution includes plug-and-play sensors, switches and relay-based power controllers to switch and dim loads. Some systems are based on two-output controllers for two-zone control. Some feature wiring that allows rooms to be linked within a scalable building network. The systems typically offer preconfigured operation sequences that optimize energy savings and ensure energy code compliance. Simplicity is this type of system’s advantage.? The next step up is building-/campus-based solutions, which are typically centralized, meaning all devices communicate with a central server that authorized operators can access. This setup provides a single control point for a building or campus, facilitates ongoing lighting management, permits complex control-strategy programming, and can collect energy information and conduct monitoring for maintenance and recommissioning. Offering the best opportunity for energy savings and information, this option is the ultimate in lighting control, though it typically poses greater cost and complexity. For that reason, current commercial building penetration is estimated at 2 percent, though it is expected to grow.? Centralized intelligent systems represent the ultimate in lighting control, but they are sophisticated and require good design, installation and commissioning. Furthermore, manufacturers use distinct approaches to differentiate their systems. Designers and installers should familiarize themselves with the features and architecture of the various systems to ensure smooth projects.? Since centralized intelligent control systems are more challenging but have good growth potential, the remainder of this article focuses on them.?

lightexpress | September-October 2018 | 39

Lighting the real world I

love gas-guzzling classic sports cars. That doesn’t mean we should use a 1968 Shelby to go to the grocery store, blogs James Bedell You can call me a heretic or a shill for the LED industry, but in a world where the polar ice caps are melting, it’s time for us to stop dithering about switching to a source with a rated 90 CRI [LED] instead of one with a rated 100 CRI [tungsten halogen]. Especially when we know how flawed the CRI scale actually is. Until sustainability is baked into our process as lighting designers our craft will always be wasteful. I would say that the perfect can no longer be the enemy of the good when it comes to lighting design, but that would imply that tungsten is a perfect technology, which we all know it isn’t. I’m not just talking about how incredibly wasteful it is (90 per cent of the energy delivered to an incandescent lamp becomes heat, not light). I’m talking about all of the other problems tungsten halogen presents that traditionalist lighting designers tend to forget about when arguing for their source of choice. They will tell you that colour quality is better with halogen, as is consistency. Here’s how that argument plays out in the real world: Imagine a stone lobby built for a financial institution. The day the space is finished, the lighting designer installs sixteen top-of-line constant colour MR16 lamps. As you enter, the texture of the far wall is improved by the festoon lamps installed in the wall pockets above. The room looks beautiful. The richness of the stone is illuminated

by the warmth of the halogen. You could be forgiven for forgetting the hundreds of watts being burned in the room to create this ambiance. Even as we suffer through a growing energy crisis, a room of this kind of beauty could be forgiven for using some extra wattage. Three months go by and the mortality curve of halogen has started to take over. Half of the MR16s are performing more or less as they did the first day of the installation. The other half is 20 per cent dimmer and 300 degrees warmer in terms of colour temperature than they were at installation so much for colour and brightness consistency. The floor is subject to odd bright spots. What was a warm glow in the stone is now a yellowish tinge. Some of the festoon lamps have died, but no one notices yet. Three more months go by and the MR16s are starting to die. The ones that are still operating are performing OK, but the colour is much warmer than when they were installed and they’ve lost 30 per cent of their lumen output. The facilities manager just knows that the lamps need to be replaced with a 50W MR16 so he orders some 50W MR16 floods, the cheapest one available. They are replaced as they die. So every lamp in the ceiling is at a different point in its curve. Some are brighter than others, some are warmer than others. More of the festoon lamps have died but it’s hard to change those lamps, so the building staff lives with some dull spots in the stone wall. Fast forward another three months and the last of the constant colour lamps is about to die, the room has bright spots and darker spots and the reflectors on the cheap MR16s are already burning through leaving

40 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress

green halos of light. Half of the festoons have died and the richness and texture of the wall grazer is lost. When lamps get replaced, its every other lamp, because it’s just too much work to get into that wall pocket. The lighting designer left the scene a long time ago. He has photographs in his portfolio of a beautifully lit lobby, but back in the real world, their beautiful all-halogen installation looks lousy. Now try to imagine the same installation done with LEDs. Not only would thousands of watts of electricity be saved over the life of the installation, but because of the longer and flatter mortality curve of the LEDs the colour you approve on day one is actually the colour you will find six months, 12 months or 18 months into the future. Not only is LED a better option for the planet, but in the real world, where lighting maintenance is a real problem, LED ensures the integrity of the lighting design, long after the designer has left the scene. So, let’s stop using the most beautiful applications of tungsten as justification for being wasteful everywhere. I don’t want to see tungsten outlawed. I love beautiful crystal chandeliers as much as the next light lover. I also love gasguzzling classic sports cars. That doesn’t mean we should use a 1968 Shelby to make a run to the grocery store. Most of the spaces we design must balance utility and aesthetic beauty. As beautiful as an incandescent chandelier is, perhaps its time to consider some beautiful energy efficient alternatives. It’s time to get away from this false choice that we can only have beautiful light or sustainable light. The real world demands that we create both.

lightexpress | September-October 2018 | 41

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The Next LED Revolution is Control


ith efficacy and service life steadily increasing and costs declining by about 18 percent each year (Memoori, 2014), the LED revolution continues to develop at a rapid pace. LED’s inherent compatibility with digital control, aided by other trends, is setting the stage for the next LED revolution: smart lighting control. Many LED products are sold with dimming capability regardless of how the owner plans to control them. Drivers and controls are easily integrated. With smart lighting control, luminaires themselves can become addressable nodes in a network, transforming lighting from dumb, fixed-output systems into intelligent, highly flexible systems. That, and a networking platform incorporating other building functions. The primary driver is energy consumption with a bonus that dimming LEDs can extend service life by reducing lumen depreciation and delaying color shift. As more states adopt a commercial building energy code based on the ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2010 energy standard, demand will continue to increase for controllable lighting. Besides these requirements, there is evidence owners and specifiers want more controllability. The Sylvania 2010 Commercial Lighting Survey found that 42% of its facility manager, lighting designer and other decision-maker respondents considered easier dimming and control of LEDs a major benefit. The smart lighting trend started with conventional lighting. Digital hardwired lighting control provides the benefits of individual luminaire addressability, control zoning and rezoning using software, instant setup and remote calibration, and two-way communication providing performance analytics. The advent of

digital wireless control simplifies design and installation, facilitates penetration of sophisticated lighting control options in existing construction, and extends control to plug loads. The miniaturization of control devices enables integration of sensors and controllers within each luminaire. Finally, easier color control of LED lighting provides a new dimension of lighting control, which is white light color tuning; the applications for this capability, currently limited, may explode based on developing research into lighting’s relationship to health. These trends, coupled with inherent compatibility with digital LED devices, laid the groundwork for greater adoption of intelligent lighting control as demand for LED lighting continues to accelerate. They are being tied together into complete solutions featuring luminaires and controls as well as standalone control solutions. Let’s look at some recently introduced solutions as examples, starting with Cree’s SmartCast Technology, available with select Cree luminaires or other luminaires with dimmable drivers, and Philips Lighting’s SpaceWise Technology, currently available as an option for the company’s DuaLED luminaires targeting open office applications. Both feature luminaire-integrated occupancy and daylight sensing, two-way wireless mesh communication, and push-button setup with a handheld remote. These solutions offer a potentially simple, costeffective path to energy code compliance and energy savings of 50-70 percent compared to conventional uncontrolled T8 luminaires. Acuity Controls’ XPoint and xCella wireless control solutions offer options as a standalone system or ability to work with other controls to

44 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress

enable implementation of a wireless or hybrid/wireless system offering integration with building management systems and monitoring and analytics software. While XPoint was developed lighting management and building applications, xCella targets room-based lighting, HVAC and plug loads, with the potential for networking between rooms. Cooper Lighting’s LumaWatt solution, designed as a control platform for roadway, parking and outdoor area LED luminaires, features integral and/or remote sensors, scheduling, power metering and maintenance diagnostics. Control solutions such as these bring the best of lighting control and LED illumination together in a way that maximizes energy savings, facilitates asset management, and simplifies implementation. But the best may be yet to come.

LED lighting has been called the “Trojan Horse” of the Internet of Things, and we’re at the frontier of this extraordinary revolution. The Internet of Things consists of uniquely identifiable objects represented within a network similar to the Internet. Digital lighting control networks already satisfy this definition but reflect only a fraction of the true potential to add value. What makes the LED luminaire a Trojan Horse is it offers the ability to serve as infrastructure for additional onboard equipment and sensors that can collect and share temperature, occupancy and other data, opening a wide range of new applications. The real potential is to expand lighting’s value proposition from energy savings and longevity toward data and the business value that data can unlock. What might this look like? In a commercial building, occupancy sensing (which could be video) embedded in LED luminaires could enhance security and building and resource management by monitoring internal traffic and spatial occupancy. In retail stores, sensors could track everything happening on store floors. In parking lots, sensors could guide visitors to open parking stalls and enhance security. Roadway and street lighting could collect traffic, temperature and pollution information. The list goes on. The

result is lighting that collects local data useful for strategic management and accumulates big data that fuels strategic ideas. Besides collecting information, LED lighting can also be designed to enable communication with users. This could be as simple as incorporating public address capability in public spaces and as sophisticated as using visible light to talk to user mobile phones and camera-enabled tablets using downloaded apps. Acuity, GE and Philips are all demonstrating visible light communication solutions, which will allow owners such as big box retail stores to communicate with shoppers for wayfinding and targeted messaging. Smart LED lighting takes the conversation about light from providing desired light levels for the lowest cost toward the benefits of total control. Lighting that generates big data, expands capabilities and adds business value in new ways. Lighting control is ready to play; the next stage in the game is integration—LED lighting as infrastructure, a platform. We’re in the most exciting period in the history of the lighting industry, and the revolution is just getting started.

lightexpress | September-October 2018 | 45

Monument to Thomas Edison switches to LEDs


monument to Thomas Edison, one of the inventors of the incandes cent lamp, is to be lit with LEDs when it reopens after two years of renovations this summer.

Retailers ramp up energy saving commitments

The 14-foot-tall glass replica incandescent lamp which sits atop the 118-foot tower on the site of Edison’s ‘invention factory’ in Menlo Park, New Jersey, used to burn with an array of incandescent lamps, but the lamps were unreliable and maintenance proved awkward for the museum because workers would have to navigate a narrow ladder to access the tower. The new project will feature retrofit LED lamps in their place. Thomas Edison Tower “I know there are other people wondering why we’re doing that,” Christa Gaffigan of project architects Mills and Schnoering told “But it’s definitely for the energy efficiency. It’s on the forefront of lighting.” The Tower is one of only two Art Deco monuments in New Jersey. It was constructed using precast architectural concrete panels with exposed aggregate - the work of John J. Earley, a concrete pioneer. Earley utilized 13 different aggregate colour mixes to give the Tower a graduated “dark to light” appearance that focused attention on the lamp at the top. “I think he would see [the switch] as a good thing,” Paul Israel, a Rutgers professor and a Thomas Edison expert, said at a recent meeting of the Edison Tower Corporation. “He was very aware of the inefficiencies of the electric light system…He’d have been even more pleased if [the LED technology] came out of his lab. If it came out of someone else’s, maybe not so much.”

Members of the British Retail Consortium have set themselves an ambitious target of reducing energy-related building emissions by 50 per cent by 2020. The cut, compared to a 2005 baseline, follows BRC members beating their previous target of a 25 per cent cut by 2013 – achieving 30 per cent so far. This 50 per cent goal, in parallel with the introduction of the government’s Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme – requiring compulsory energy audits for large businesses - is expected to drive retailers to consider more efficient lighting systems. Neil Sachdev, property director at Sainsbury’s said: “Sainsbury’s aims to reduce operational carbon emissions by 30 per cent absolute by 2020. We’re doing this because it makes commercial sense, supports job creation in the low-carbon energy sector, and is better for the environment.” Talking about how members have driven energy efficiency, it cites the example of Tesco’s LED buying club, which uses the collective purchasing power of the 700 business that are members of its Knowledge Hub to negotiate discounts on energy efficient lighting. The BRC document also identified WH Smith for having retrofitted LED lighting across its high street stores. The project is expected to deliver more than 15 million kWh in annual electrical energy savings. The BRC has also suggested that businesses could be taxed on energy usage as part of a four suggestions put to the government as part of a debate on reforming the business rates system. It argues such a tax could also drive the adoption of energy efficiency measures by retailers.

46 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress




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Bilevel Occupancy Sensors output. In one study by ADM Associates, the latter option was demonstrated to produce 22% energy savings in private offices. At least one-half of the energy codes in the United States are based on the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), which requires light level reduction controls such as multilevel switching or dimming in enclosed spaces such as private offices.


hile the basic ON/OFF switch is not considered an energy-saving lighting control, it can be if at least two switches are used to control lighting in a space that is configured on two lighting circuits, giving the user a choice of two levels of light output. Alternate rows, fixtures or lamps can be switched, offering a choice of 50% and 100% light output. Or the center lamps can be switched separately from the outer lamps in three-lamp fixtures, offering a choice of 33%, 66% and 100% light

Occupancy sensors are just as simple—a switch married with a sensor to enable automatic switching based on whether the sensor detects the presence or absence of people. Occupancy sensing is a reliable method for generating energy savings: According to the Advanced Lighting Guidelines, occupancy sensors in private offices can produce up to 45% energy savings. All energy codes require that general lighting be automatically turned OFF when it’s not used. Further, IECC says that if an occupancy sensor is used in an enclosed space such as a private office, light level reduction controls are not needed, suggesting an either/or choice.

52 | September-October 2018 | lightexpress

What if bilevel switching was combined with occupancy sensor functionality? Would this produce higher energy savings in a private office than bilevel switching or occupancy sensing alone. And: What combination of manual initiative and automation would produce the highest energy savings while also satisfying workers? The California Lighting Technology Center (CLTC) organized a study in

eight private offices at the University of California – Davis in 2008 to attempt to generate useful data related to these questions. Each office, between 90 and 140 sq.ft. with a ceiling height of 9 ft., is lighted by a combination of indirect/ direct pendant fixtures and daylight entering through a window with manually adjustable vertical blinds. The study was sponsored by Watt Stopper/Legrand. “The baseline comparison,”

at 0.7 to 0.9W/sq.ft., says Pistochini, development engineer for CLTC. “Giving individuals control of their lighting is important for achieving both user satisfaction and efficient use of energy.” “The results showed that if we look beyond technology and include human factors and common sense, we can still find simple solutions that can be easily applied to save more than 50% lighting energy in existing commercial buildings,” says Pete Horton, VP market development for Watt Stopper/Legrand. An advantage of bilevel switching is that users have a choice of light levels, enabling them to adjust light levels based on preference for different tasks or lighting conditions, such as the variable availability of daylight.

researchers Theresa Pistochini, Judy Xu and Rahul Shira wrote in a report on the study, “is made to a theoretical case where the occupant has no control over their lighting and it is switched ON and OFF by an occupancy sensor.” In the test offices, the pendants are configured with dual circuiting, with a ballast driving two lamps (48W) placed on each circuit. This enabled the researchers to set up three test conditions and record data on occupancy. Office at 50% light level. • Auto-ON to 100%: When the office became occupied, an occupancy sensor signaled both relays to automatically turn the lights ON to 100% light level. If the occupant wanted a lower light level, they can flick a switch to 50% or manual-OFF. When the occupant left the office, the sensor then automatically swept the lights OFF. • Auto-ON to 50%: When the office became occupied, the sensor signaled one relay to automatically turn one-half of the lamps ON to achieve 50% light level. The user could flick a switch to increase light level to 100% or turn the lights OFF. When the occupant left the office, the sensor then automatically swept the lights OFF.

not told that the purpose of the study was to measure the impact of their behavior on energy consumption.” All three scenarios saved energy compared to the baseline scenario, suggesting that combining bilevel switching and occupancy sensing saves more energy than using an occupancy sensor alone. Specifically: • The auto-ON to 100% bilevel occupancy sensor saved 34% compared to the baseline. • The auto-ON to 50% bilevel occupancy sensor saved 52% compared to the baseline.

• Manual-ON to 50% or 100%: When the office became occupied, the sensor did not turn the lights ON. Instead, the user could turn the lights ON to 50% or 100% light level, or leave them OFF. When the occupant left the office, the sensor then automatically swept the lights OFF.

• The manual-ON bilevel occupancy sensor saved 46% compared to the baseline.

“Occupants were informed about the manner in which the electric lights would behave and also that they were participating in a lighting controls study,” the study’s authors write. “However, the occupants were specifically

“This is quite impressive given that the designed lighting power density in the offices was already quite low

Pistochini says about half the study participants preferred the auto-ON to 50% scenario, while the other half preferred complete control and therefore preferred to the manual ON scenario. “The hypothesis with automatic-ON to 50% is that the occupant, when presented with manual-ON switches, will not give much thought to the amount of light needed and turn ON both of them. With the automatic-ON to 50%, the occupancy often enters the office, finds the light level acceptable, and continues working. Occasionally, they desire more light and turn ON the other switch.” “This study indicates that there is still a lot of room for lighting energy savings in new and existing buildings,” says Horton. “If you are looking for energy savings and a good return on investment, combining bilevel switching and occupancy sensing appears to offer one of the highest values a building owner can achieve.” He believes this research will be influential, pointing out that because 46-52% energy savings higher energy savings can be demonstrated with bilevel occupancy sensing compared to standard occupancy sensing, energy codes are likely to address this approach in the future.

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The Challenges of LED Upkeep anything else, maintenance is where the rubber meets the road. Lighting maintenance may involve relamping luminaires, cleaning luminaires and room surfaces, troubleshooting and replacing defective parts, and re-aiming directional lamps and luminaires. It may also include periodically inspecting and reprogramming or recalibrating controls.


ll light sources must be maintained; as lighting controls become more sophisticated, they also must be maintained. Responsible lighting design should include maintenance to preserve design integrity. In terms of sustainability, whether the lighting goal is visual comfort, highlighting merchandise, energy savings or

In the solid-state lighting (SSL) era, is this still necessary? Some early lightemitting diode (LED) sales claims promised “install and forget” lighting. For building owners whose main concern is whether the lights are on, a 20-year light source that doesn’t require spot relamping may certainly seem that way. The truth is that LED lighting should be maintained, though maintenance best practices must be adapted to accommodate this light source’s unique characteristics.

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Reliability issues LEDs are a long-life light source, which is a major benefit. Manufacturers have come a long way in their understanding of how drive current, temperature and other factors affect performance. As a result, today’s well-designed and properly operated LED products are generally reliable and long-lasting. In review, LED life is often evaluated based on lumen maintenance—an L value expressing the average number of hours the product is projected to operate before light output declines to some percentage of initial lumens. For example, an L80 value of 50,000 hours means a population of luminaires, on average, will produce 80 percent of their initial output at 50,000 hours of operation. LED products have an estimated life based on a combination of standardized testing and manufacturer-specific methodologies and

experience. LED modules, arrays and packages are tested up to 10,000 hours under conditions defined by the IES-LM-80 standard. The light source is then placed in a luminaire and expected to operate longer than that. Using the IES-TM-21 standard, these results are extrapolated to produce life projections, based on manufacturers’ methods, data and on certain operating conditions, notably temperature. According to the Department of Energy, within five years, the technological development of LED sources will result in service life reaching a theoretical limit of about 50,000 hours for LED lamps and 100,000 hours for LED luminaires. In the average building, 100,000 hours of life translates to 35 years of service. What’s more, aside from infancy failures, well-designed luminaires typically provide light with a very long mean time between failures. While fluorescent and high?intensity discharge (HID) lamps are available with very long life.

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