Digital Phenotyping in Modern Plant Breeding
Martijn van Stee (Tomato) Rootstock Breeder ENZA zaden R&D B.V.
Outline 1. ENZA ZADEN Profile
2. Digital phenotyping | Why we need it
3. Digital phenotyping | How we use it
4. Questions / Remarks
ENZA ZADEN profile Enza Zaden was established in 1938 by Jacob Mazereeuw
Today, Enza Zaden is a worldwide leading breeding company of vegetable varieties. The head office of our still independent company is situated in Enkhuizen. We belong among the international top in supplying the ultimate source for vegetables.
ENZA ZADEN profile
Nowadays ENZA ZADEN is active (R&D and/or Sales) in over more than 23 countries all over the world.
Digital Phenotyping | Why we need it As a plant breeding company, we sell “genotypes” For a grower, we sell phenotypes Our breeding/selection is both genotypic and phenotypic. To be able to select on genotypes, a good Quantitative phenotype is necessary.
Digital Phenotyping | Why we need it Breeders are very able to do a proper phenotyping, However…….. •
Humans (so also breeders) do make mistakes
Although we have good phenotyping protocols, variation in phenotyping is observed between breeders, seasons and countries.
Phenotyping is time consuming (and therefore expensive).
Some traits are to complex for breeders to phenotype, or very difficult to observe
Digital phenotyping | How we use it
Digital phenotyping | How we use it Selection for: Early predictors (indirect selection)
Phenofab High throughput phenotyping for direct selection
Marvin, Keybox Phenotyping for marker development of (complex) traits Phenofab, Keybox
Digital phenotyping | How we use it Early predictors (indirect selection) • Yield
• Vigor High throughput phenotyping for direct selection • Fruit quality traits • Truss performance
Digital phenotyping | How we use it Phenotyping for marker development • (complex) diseases
• Diverse fruits traits • Plant characteristics
Digital phenotyping | Output ďƒœ Breeders have to get used to the output of digital imaging. ďƒœ Output is not a color, shape, breeders index, class but a quantitative figure.
There is no direct recognition to the trait.
Digital phenotyping | Pros & Cons
• Non destructive
• Availability of (good) algorithms
• Precise • Digitalized & Stored directly
Digital phenotyping | Future? ďƒœ Whole plant phenotyping (SPICY?) and selection in the commercial greenhouse? ďƒœ Massive phenotypic pre-selection on plant raising level?