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summarily rounded up and executed while the leftist Social Democrats were forcibly melded into the new Hungarian Worker’s Party. No individual, no matter how highly placed, was safe. In 1949 Rákosi arrested Interior Minister Lázlo Rajik for suspected sympathies for Yugoslavia’s MARSHAL TITO. He then instructed party leader JÁNOS KÁDÁR to coax a false confession out of him on the promise of parole. When the confession was signed, Rajik was immediately hanged. In time Rákosi gained renown—and infamy—throughout the communist world as a slavish devotee of Stalin and his methods. Rákosi reigned as party chief until 1952, when he was promoted to prime minister. His rule was characterized by the worst sort of police terror, torture, and murder. However, after Stalin’s death in 1953, his position was steadily undermined by Russian reformists under NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV and others. He was forced to concede the premiership to reformist IMRE NAGY in July 1953, although he retained the post of general secretary. A bare-knuckled power struggle ensued over the next two years, and in February 1955 Rákosi managed to have Nagy deposed. Hungary by this time was enjoying its first taste of political liberalization in a decade, and the country resisted the reimposition of Stalinization. Moreover, the Russians under Khrushchev feared the kind of mounting dissent that had developed in Poland, so in July 1956 they replaced Rákosi with reformist Ernö Gerö. But Hungary was too far gone to submit to communist rule any longer, and in October 1956 a fullscale rebellion swept the country. Rákosi fled back to Moscow just as Russian tanks rolled in to restore communist rule. Rákosi, an ardent Stalinist, remained in Russia for the remainder of his life. The excesses of his rule were a direct cause for the outbreak of violence in 1956 and, to maintain the peace, he was never allowed back into Hungary. In 1962 Prime Minister Kádár underscored this determination by revoking his party membership. He reputedly ran a paper factory in Gorki until his death there on February 5, 1971. Rákosi remains a despised political figure to the present day. Further Reading Gollner, Andreas. “Foundations of Soviet Domination and Communist Political Power in Hungary: 1945–1956.” Canadian-American Review of Hungarian Studies 3, no. 2 (1976): 73–105.

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Granville, Johanna. “The Soviet-Yugoslav Detente, Belgrade-Budapest Relations, and the Hungarian Revolution (1955–1956).” Hungarian Studies Review 24, nos. 1–2 (1997): 15–63. Haraszti-Taylor, Eva. Britain and Hungary in the Post-war Years, 1945–51: A Parallel History in Narrative and Documents, 2 vols. Nottingham, England: Astra Press, 2000. Molnar, Miklos. From Bela Kun to János Kádár: Seventy Years of Hungarian Communism. New York: Berg, 1990. Rákosi, Mátyás. The Imprisonment and Defense of Mátyás Rákosi. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1959. Werling, Dennis H. “Why Hungary Turned Soviet and Finland Did Not.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Western Illinois University, 2001.

Rakowski, Mieczysl/aw (1926– ) prime minister of Poland Mieczysl/aw Franciszek Rakowski was born in Kowalewko, Poland, on December 1, 1926, the son of peasants. His father was executed by Germans in World War II and in 1945 he joined the communist-controlled Polish army. After three years of service Rakowski also joined the Polska Partia Robotnicza, Polish (communist) Workers Party (PWP), as a propaganda officer. In this capacity he gravitated toward a career in journalism, and in 1956 he received a doctorate from the Warsaw Institute of Social Sciences. Rakowski went on to found and edit the respected paper Polityka in 1957, and contributed weekly columns. In an age of press control and journalistic sycophants, he demonstrated a remarkable degree of honesty and independence from the party line. Within a year he became chairman of the Association of Polish Journalists and trumpeted the reform efforts of WLADYSL AW GOMULKA. But Rakowski never forsook his Communist Party membership and in 1964 he was made a deputy member of the full committee. After 1970 he also championed the reform efforts attempted by the new party boss EDWARD GIEREK, which came to ruin in the wake of bloody food riots. Rakowski nevertheless touted his reformist line in a clever, nonthreatening manner and developed a national following. The party also continued trusting his loyalty and judgment, for in 1972 he joined the Sejm (legislature) as a deputy and three years later he rose to become a full member of the Central Committee. But it was not until he came to /

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the attention of General WOJCIECH JARUZELSKI that Rakowski’s political career flourished. The year 1980 occasioned the rise of the independent trade union Solidarity under Lech Walesa, an electrician in the Lenin shipyard at Gdan´sk. To counter the growing influence of this noncommunist movement, Jaruzelski appointed Rakowski deputy premier and authorized him to negotiate with Walesa to avoid potential problems. He subsequently backed off from his liberal reputation and took a hard-line communist stance about concessions and the rise of democracy. Talks with Solidarity leaders failed, and a spate of worker unrest ensued. Jaruzelski, wishing to forestall a Soviet invasion to restore order, declared martial law in December 1981. Walesa was arrested, while Rakowski was demoted to speaker of the Sejm, a near powerless position. In 1988 he was dispatched to London as ambassador to better explain the machinations of the rapidly disintegrating communist government. Rakowski returned to Poland in September 1988 during a new round of strikes by Solidarity, and he was made prime minister and first secretary of the PZPR in a lastditch attempt to save communist control. “The new government will deem winning the trust of a significant part of society its primary task,” he announced. “I am aware that this can be done not through words, but deeds.” From the onset, Rakowski’s mission proved impossible. The forces of freedom unleashed by Soviet premier MIKHAIL GORBACHEV’s liberalization of Eastern Europe could not be contained any longer. Nonetheless Rakowski embarked on a crusade to introduce “capitalist” innovations such as privatization to invigorate the moribund economy. He also gave grudging acceptance to the Round Table Negotiations held in the spring of 1991 whereby noncommunist parties were legalized for upcoming elections. Through such expedients Rakowski hoped to introduce limited democracy to Poland while still preserving communist supremacy. But elections held that August proved a rout and Solidarity candidate TADEUSZ MAZOWIECKI became Poland’s first noncommunist prime minister in 40 years. Rakowski resigned after failing to win a seat in the Sejm and was reduced to party head. In January 1990 he presided over the last congress of the Polish Worker’s Party, soon to be renamed the Social Democrats. Even then he was passed over for party leadership by the younger Aleksandr Kwasniewski.

Rakowski has since returned to journalism and edits several journals and newspapers. He was Poland’s last communist leader. Further Reading Castle, Marjorie. Triggering Communism’s Collapse: Perceptions and Power in Poland’s Transition. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. Castle, Marjorie, and Ray Taras. Democracy in Poland. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2002. MacEachin, Douglas. U.S. Intelligence and the Confrontation in Poland, 1980–81. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002. Osa, Maryjane. Solidarity and Contention: Networks of Polish Opposition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. Rakowski, Mieczyslaw. Efficiency and Investment in a Socialist Economy. New York: Pergamon Press, 1966. Sharman, J. C. Repression and Resistance in Communist Europe. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Ramgoolam, Seewoosagur (1900–1985) prime minister of Mauritius Seewoosagur Ramgoolam was born in Belle Rive, Mauritius, on September 18, 1900, the son of West Indian immigrants. His homeland, then a British colony, was originally occupied by Africans and had since experienced an influx of English aristocrats and Indian plantation workers. Ramgoolam was raised a Hindu but he was educated at Christian missionary schools and became indelibly Anglicized by choice. He was also an excellent student and easily passed through the prestigious Royal College of Medicine in Curepipe before venturing to England to study at the University of London Medical School. While there Ramgoolam encountered the Indian nationalist Mohandas K. Gandhi and also joined the socialist (non-Marxist) Fabian society. He returned home to practice medicine in 1935 and remained determined to improve the lot of plantation workers. The poverty he encountered prompted him to enter politics in 1940 through election to the Port-Louis municipal council. Thereafter he rose steadily through the local colonial administration and in 1951 he joined the Mauritius Labour Party (MLP). In this capacity Ramgoolam joined the island-wide movement promoting universal suffrage and in 1958 he rose to party head. The following year Ramgoolam led the


REAGAN, RONALD MLP to a sweeping victory in national elections and commenced negotiations with Great Britain for eventual independence. Given the island’s strategic location in the middle of the Indian Ocean, the English proved hesitant to relinquish control but Ramgoolam, a pro-Western, pro-British figure, assuaged their fears. By 1961 he was functioning as the island’s chief minister and in 1965, once independence was granted, he became Mauritius’s first prime minister. Ramgoolam’s domain was not only small, but also poor and ethnically diverse. Still he determined to enact widespread social reform without alienating the former colonial elites. He thus embraced free market economics while laying the foundations for an extensive welfare state. Henceforth all citizens received free education, free medicine, social security, and old age pensions. His deft politics also diffused a potentially explosive situation by calling on all Mauritanians to celebrate their common heritage. He also enacted a nonaligned foreign policy, which balanced Third World nationalism and friendly relations with the West. Ramgoolam’s success in protecting human rights on his island resulted in a 1973 United Nations Prize. In 1976 he was also called upon to serve as chairman of the Organization of African Unity, again with considerable success. All told, Ramgoolam’s political style embraced moderation, toleration, and consensus, and helped steer Mauritius on a relatively peaceful transition from colony to nation. Ramgoolam’s principal failing as a politician was his inability to greatly improve the national economy, which was almost totally dependent upon sugar exports. Whenever the price of that commodity fell, exports declined and unemployment rose precipitously. Ramgoolam therefore sought to initiate economic diversification of Mauritius by establishing the Industrial Export Processing Zone to attract foreign investment. Results proved mixed at best and he faced a rising tide of criticism from the more radical Mauritius Militant Movement (MMM). In 1972 the outbreak of violent strikes induced the prime minister to declare a state of emergency, and he jailed MMM leaders without charges, outlawed labor activity, censored the press, and banned all political opposition. Life on the island did not return to normal until 1976, but Ramgoolam won the ensuing election. But in 1982, still faced with a balky economy and disenchantment over his intention to lease the island of Diego Garcia to the United States,

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Ramgoolam was swept from power. By that time he had been the undisputed dominant figure of national politics for 40 years. He was also the first leader of an African nation to be replaced by free elections. Defeat finally closed his career, but Ramgoolam remained on the sidelines as a respected elder statesman. In 1983 the new government of Anerood Jugnauth further honored him with an appointment to the ceremonial post of governor general. Ramgoolam died while holding office on December 15, 1985, celebrated as the founding father of his country and a symbol of racial and national harmony. For this reason he is fondly recalled as chacha (uncle). Further Reading Alladin, Ibrahim M. Education and Neocolonialism: A Study of Educational Development in Mauritius. New York: P. Lang, 1996. Dabee, Rajen, and David Greenaway. The Mauritian Economy: A Reader. New York: Palgrave, 2000. Dommen, Edward, and Bridget Dommen. Mauritius: An Island of Success: A Retrospective Study, 1960–1993. Oxford, England: James Currey, 1999. Eriksen, Thomas H. Common Denominators: Ethnicity, Nation-building, and Compromise in Mauritius. New York: Berg, 1998. Jackson, Ashley. War and Empire in Mauritius and the Indian Ocean. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Ramgoolam, Seewoosagur. Selected Speeches of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam. London: Macmillan, 1979.

Reagan, Ronald (1911– ) president of the United States Ronald Wilson Reagan was born in Tampico, Illinois, on February 6, 1911, the son of a shoe salesman. Never intellectually inclined, he passed through Eureka College in 1932 and found work as a radio broadcaster. Soon after, he was discovered by a Hollywood agent and commenced a movie career that covered 50 films. During World War II Reagan served in the army and made training films. He was also a Democrat in the mold of FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT and a five-time president of the Screen Actors Guild. However, his encounters with communists and other radicals in Hollywood gradually converted him to conservative causes. During the late 1940s he openly cooperated with the House Un-American Activities Committee


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over supposed communist infiltration of the film industry. His film career had all but faded by the 1950s, so Reagan made an easy transition to the new medium of television. In 1962 he also made a political conversion by joining the Republican Party as a conservative. He supported the ill-fated 1964 presidential campaign of Barry Goldwater and two years later defeated an incumbent Democrat in the governor’s race for California. In office Reagan pursued a basically conservative agenda of cutting taxes, reducing expenditures, and balancing the budget, but he also displayed a pragmatic streak when dealing with opposition Democrats. Consequently he was reelected by a landslide in 1970. By 1976 Reagan felt successful enough to challenge GERALD R. FORD for the Republican presidential nomination. He narrowly lost and tried again in 1980, winning the party primary election over GEORGE H. W. BUSH, his subsequent vice presidential candidate. Together they went on to score a resounding win over incumbent Democrat JIMMY CARTER, whose handling of the economy and international affairs suggested ineptitude. Reagan, by contrast, exuded a confidence, charisma, and optimism that resonated strongly with the American electorate. “Ask yourself,” he chided the voters, “are you better off than you were four years ago?” He also promised a rebirth of American global predominance in the war against communism and a halt to the taxes, bureaucracy, and welfare state at home. In November 1980 the Republicans resoundingly captured both the White House and control of the Senate for the first time in a generation. In March 1981 he survived an assassination attempt and commenced implementing his conservative agenda of tax cuts, domestic spending cuts, and dramatic military expansion. Part of Reagan’s appeal as a politician was his ability to view the world in black and white terms, such as freedom versus communism and, as the “great communicator,” impart his vision to the electorate. The economy suffered a recession in 1982 but quickly rebounded the following year and initiated the longest spell of economic growth in American history. He confronted Soviet leaders over their clandestine efforts to introduce medium-range nuclear weapons in Europe and countered with missiles of his own. This brought on a loud protest from the communist-orchestrated peace movement in Europe, but the missiles were deployed nonetheless. In October 1983 Reagan authorized an American invasion of the island of Grenada to free American student hostages

taken in a failed communist coup. He also established the policy of arming and supplying anticommunist guerrillas to oppose the Soviet regime in Afghanistan and DANIEL ORTEGA’s Sandinista dictatorship in Nicaragua. He then commenced the Strategic Defense Initiative (“Star Wars”), a space-based defense system intent upon defeating Soviet strategic missiles in the event of war. The Soviet Union, saddled by an economy one-third the size of America’s, could not realistically compete with Reagan’s concerted buildup. By attempting to do so, the “evil empire,” as Reagan castigated it, laid the seeds of its own destruction. Domestically Reagan’s presidency signaled the end of the welfare state that had been in effect since the Great Depression. The welfare rolls were purged, requirements tightened, and people obliged to look for work in an age of expanding economic opportunity. As a campaigner, Reagan also promised to appoint the first woman to the Supreme Court and he selected Sandra Day O’Connor. But above all the president mandated that Americans roll up their sleeves, believe in

Ronald Reagan (Library of Congress)


RENNER, KARL themselves, and set about finishing the tasks at hand. After four years of national malaise under Carter and the Democrats, Reagan’s ebullience proved a catalyst for spiritual renewal. The nation’s economy and morale registered impressive improvements immediately thereafter as the United States reasserted itself on a global scale. On the downside, the tremendous military buildup led to increased deficit spending, which tripled the national debt to $3 trillion. Ironically it fell upon the Democratic administration of Bill Clinton (1993–2001) to finally address this glaring problem. Reagan’s immense popularity carried over into the 1984 election cycle, when he routed the Democrats under Walter Mondale. But shortly after, his administration was clouded over allegations that he traded arms to Iran for the release of American hostages in Lebanon. Moreover, a percentage of the funds allocated illegally went to supply the Nicaragua freedom fighters in contravention of the so-called Boland Amendment outlawing such practices. A lengthy congressional investigation ensued and some convictions resulted, but Reagan, who professed innocence, remained unscathed. The president also broke new ground by entering into significant arms reduction talks with the new Soviet premier, MIKHAIL GORBACHEV, at Geneva and Reykjavik, which signaled the relaxation of tensions between the superpowers. By the time Reagan left office in January 1989 he was among the most popular presidents in American history. A mere two years later, the Soviet Union, Reagan’s ideological adversary, collapsed under the weight of its own incompetence and tyranny. Unfortunately, in 1997 the former executive publicly declared that he was suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, a degenerative brain disease, and withdrew from the public arena he relished. Reagan, a cold war icon and a symbol of American spiritual renewal, now lives at his home in California. His eight-year tenure was rich in symbolism, long on achievements, and a decisive turning point in 20th-century history. Further Reading Conley, Richard S. Reassessing the Reagan Presidency. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2003. Franham, Barbara. “Reagan and the Gorbachev Revolution: Perceiving the End of the Threat.” Political Science Quarterly 116 (summer 2001): 225–252.

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Noonan, Peggy. When Character was King: A Story of Ronald Reagan. New York: Viking, 2001. Reagan, Ronald. An American Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990. Rowland, Robert C., and John M. Jones. “Until Next Week: The Saturday Radio Address of Ronald Reagan.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 32 (March 2002): 84–110. Schlesinger, Arthur M., ed. The Election of 1980 and the Administration of Ronald Reagan. Philadelphia: Mason Crest Publishers, 2002. Strober, Deborah H., and Gerald S. Strober. The Reagan Presidency: An Oral History of the Era. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 2003. Wallison, Peter J. Ronald Reagan: The Power of Conviction and the Success of his Presidency. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2003.

Renner, Karl (1870–1950) chancellor and president of Austria Karl Renner was born in Unter-Tanowitz, Moravia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, on December 14, 1870, the son of a peasant family. The hardship and deprivations he endured throughout childhood indelibly molded his political perceptions of social justice and democracy. After passing through the University of Vienna for a law degree in 1896, Renner joined the left-leaning Social Democrat Party. Officially, he was a Marxist from the non-violent wing of the spectrum but also a German nationalist. In 1907 he successfully ran for a seat in the Reichsrat where he railed against the authoritarianism of the Hapsburg monarchy. In fact, Renner had hoped to preserve the empire by adopting a federal, democratic structure to accommodate its various ethnic nationalities. He had supported Austrian participation in World War I, reasoning that defeat would impose the dramatic changes necessary for reform. Austria was defeated in 1918 and, following the Emperor Charles’s abdication, the National Council declared a new republic with Renner as chancellor. In this capacity he ventured to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 but could not curtail extensive territorial losses to the new states of Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. On September 10, 1919, he was forced to sign the Treaty of St. Germain, which formalized these losses. Renner was now convinced that the only way the small Austrian republic could survive was through Anschluss (union)


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with Germany. He was reelected chancellor of the new First Republic and led several coalition governments until the conservatives swept the elections of 1920. In his brief tenure Renner distinguished himself by joining the new League of Nations and endorsing a strictly neutral foreign policy. Renner resumed his seat in the Reichsrat, and in 1930 he became Speaker of the House. Austria was then embroiled in the Great Depression and the rise of Nazism in neighboring Germany, a fact prompting Chancellor ENGELBERT DOLLFUSS to outlaw political parties in 1934. Renner was briefly arrested and detained. Once released he remained on the political sidelines for several years, although he again supported Anschluss with ADOLF HITLER’s Germany in 1938. He then resigned from the Reichsrat when this was accomplished and resumed his writing career. At heart, Renner was an evolutionary Marxist who supported both a peaceful transition from capitalism and the growth of democracy. This made him appear heretical to orthodox Marxist-Leninists in the Soviet Union, but Renner was by then an international figure of some repute and a leading exponent of the Austro-Marxist school of thought. Renner remained detached from politics throughout World War II and by war’s end he was untainted by the specter of Nazism. Once Austria was occupied by Soviet troops in 1945, he appeared at their headquarters and offered his services as head of state. Soviet dictator JOSEPH STALIN, who was familiar with his writings, allowed Renner’s appointment, and on April 27, 1945, Austria was again declared “sovereign under the Second Republic. The elderly Renner served briefly as chancellor and minister of foreign affairs until November 1945 when the Social DemocraticCommunist coalition was upended by the conservative Austrian Peoples Party (OVP). On December 20, 1945, the Reichsrat unanimously elected Renner as president, a largely ceremonial role but a useful symbol of national unity. His task was greatly complicated by the fact that after the war Austria was divided into American, British, French, and Soviet spheres of influence. He nonetheless worked assiduously to preempt any expansion of Soviet-style communism into Austria, and hence into the heart of Central Europe. He died in office on December 31, 1950, having twice resurrected the Austrian republic from the ashes of war and ruin.

Further Reading Blum, Mark E. The Austro-Marxist, 1890–1918: A Psychological Study. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1985. Carafano, James J. Waltzing into the Cold War: The Struggle for Occupied Austria. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2002. Lowenberg, Peter. “Karl Renner and the Politics of Accommodation: Modernization Versus Revenge.” Austrian History Yearbook 22 (1991): 35–56. Middleworth, David. “The Democratic Influence of Karl Renner in Austria.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Ohio State University, 1973. Pelinka, Anton. “Karl Renner—a Man for All Seasons.” Austrian History Yearbook 23 (1992): 111–119. Piotrowski, Harry. “The Soviet Union and the Renner Government of Austria, April–November, 1945.” Central European History 20, nos. 3–4 (1987): 246–279. Renner, Karl. The Institutions of Private Law and Their Social Functions. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971.

Reza Shah Pahlavi (Reza Khan) (1878–1944) shah of Iran Reza Pahlavi was born in Alasht, Persia (now Iran), on March 16, 1878, the son of an army officer. Orphaned at an early age, he was raised in Tehran by an uncle, another military officer, and adopted his name of Khan. The young man joined the Persian Cossack brigade at the age of 14 and proved himself an intelligent and capable soldier. The Persian army at that time was largely staffed by Russian and other foreign officers, and Reza Khan determined one day to rid the nation of foreigners. In the wake of the Russian revolution of 1917 many officers returned home and Persian military leaders began asserting themselves. Many young officers like Reza Khan were disillusioned by the corrupt and ineffective rule of the Qajar dynasty and on February 21, 1921, they orchestrated a coup that toppled the government. Thereafter noted journalist Sayyid Zia od-Din became prime minister, while Reza Khan functioned as commander in chief. However, when the two men quarreled over what direction to take the country, Reza Khan prevailed, and Sayyid Zia departed. A more pliable prime minister was appointed, and over the next four years the ambitious general enlarged the military and


RHEE, SYNGMAN subdued various warring tribes in the interior. This gave Persia a state of internal peace it had not known for many years, and the populace looked upon Reza Khan as a savior. But his growing strength convinced Ahmad Shah, the last Qajar king, to take an indefinite leave of absence and visit Europe. The new leader initially wanted to have a republic declared, but the public were loath to abandon their long monarchical traditions, so on October 21, 1925, the Majlís (legislature) acclaimed Reza Khan the new shah. After many decades of national weakness Persia had finally found a strong leader and the Pahlavi dynasty was born. Enthroned now as Reza Shah, the new monarch determined to enact a sweeping reform agenda. He looked to his Turkish contemporary, KEMAL ATATÜRK, to provide impetus for modernization. He sought to vanquish the old order of governance and institute a more effective, Western-style leadership. The first object of Reza Shah’s wrath was rooting out the entrenched Islamic clergy: hereafter their powers were curtailed, Islamic instruction banned from public schools, and religious processions outlawed. Moreover he ordered that Iranian males adopt Western-style dress while women were emancipated and abandoned Islamic-inspired veils and shawls. All this had the effect of endearing him with commoners for their new freedoms and he also won the support of the educated elites for the reforms and modernization engendered. Reza Khan enjoyed even more spectacular success in his dealings with foreigners. Persia had long been treated as a colony by business interests in England and Russia and he outlawed unfair business practices. The customs service was strengthened, foreigners were forbidden to issue currency notes, and in 1931 he forced the British to sign the Anglo-Persian Oil Treaty, which granted the nation greater revenues from petroleum profits. The dynamic monarch then set his sights on constructing the first national wire service and also built the impressive Trans-Persian Railway, stretching from the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea, without a loan or assistance from foreigners. But more than anything else, he effectively terminated all special foreign privileges and placed Iran on a more equal footing with its neighbors. Reza Khan ruled Iran with an iron fist for many years, intolerant of dissent while promoting modernity. He became especially adept at playing Russian and British interests off against each other. However, during World War II Great Britain and the Soviet Union found themselves allied against Nazi Germany and it became

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imperative to establish a land corridor to support the Russian war machine. But the king, wary as ever of foreign influence, refused to cooperate, and the Allies invaded Iran in August 1941. Reza Khan decided to save his dynasty by abdicating in favor of his son, MOHAMMAD REZA PAHLAVI. The British exiled him to South Africa for the duration of the war. He died in Johannesburg on July 26, 1944, the architect of modern Iran. Considering his near-total lack of formal education, Reza Khan was an astonishingly effective agent for change in an otherwise medieval society. Further Reading Atabaki, Touraj, and Erik Jan Zurcher. Men of Order: Authoritarian Modernization under Atatürk and Reza Shah. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002. Cronin, Stephanie. The Army and the Creation of the Pahlavi State in Iran, 1910–1926. New York: Tauris Academic Studies, 1997. ———, ed. The Making of Modern Iran: State and Society under Riza Shah, 1921–1941. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. Ghani, Cyrus. Iran and the Rise of Reza Shah: from Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999. Katouzian, Homa. State and Society in Iran: The Eclipse of the Qajars and the Emergence of the Pahlavis. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000. Majd, Mohammed Gholi. Great Britain and Reza Shah: The Plunder of Iran, 1921–1941. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Rhee, Syngman (1875–1965) president of South Korea Syngman Rhee was born in Pyongsan, Korea, on March 26, 1875, the scion of an aristocratic family that traced its lineage back 17 generations. He received a classical Confucian education but subsequently studied at Methodist missionary schools. Even as a young man Rhee was an ardent political activist and he founded a clandestine reformist group called the Independence Club in 1896. He was arrested and tortured for his beliefs by the Choson dynasty, and while imprisoned he wrote a significant political polemic, the Spirit of Independence, in 1906. This tract, which advocated democracy and modernization, was widely read by the Korean community at large. Following his release, Rhee


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visited the United States to attend George Washington University, Harvard, and finally Princeton, where he became the first Korean to receive a Ph.D. But by the time he came home in 1910 Korea had been annexed to the Japanese Empire and most cruelly administered. Rhee then commenced his lifelong quest for Korean unification and independence, and in 1912 he was exiled to Hawaii as head of an expatriate community. There he lent his expertise and reputation to a new organization, the Korean Commission, which functioned as a government in exile. In 1919 Rhee was appointed president and he lobbied the United States government ceaselessly to promote independence from Japan, but to no avail. He alternated his residence between Hawaii and Washington, D.C., over the next two decades, becoming the only well-known Korean nationalist leader. But the tempo of events accelerated following America’s entry into World War II in December 1941, and four years later the Japanese Empire was defeated. The Korean peninsula was then jointly occupied by Soviet and American forces while both sides looked for indigenous leaders to support them in the new cold war. Rhee came home in 1948 with his 30-year goal of independence and national unity seemingly steps away. He badgered the American military government into letting him run for president in 1948, which was successfully accomplished under United Nations–sponsored elections. Rhee’s main claim to office was his international stature and sterling anticommunist credentials. Meanwhile, the Soviets, who controlled Korea north of the 38th parallel, installed a puppet figure of their own, Kim Il Sung. The leaders of both North and South Korea were implacably hostile toward each other, yet grimly determined to unite the peninsula by force. In June 1950, North Korean forces suddenly burst over the border, initiating the first armed conflict of the cold war. After three years of savage fighting United Nations forces under the United States had fought the combined might of the Communist world, including China and the Soviet Union, to a draw, and cease-fire negotiations ensued. Rhee, angered that the Americans were not going to reunite the two Koreas, did everything in his power to sabotage the peace talks, including his June 1953 release of 28,000 prisoners of war slated for repatriation. A truce was concluded on July 27, 1953, over his strident objections. Unification proved beyond Rhee’s capacity to achieve, so he settled into the role of an authoritarian

leader. Nominally an elected figure, he ruled the country with near dictatorial powers. The press was censored, political opposition outlawed, and several opposition leaders murdered. The regime was notoriously corrupt, while the aging Rhee grew more and more detached from political realities. Anxious to retain power, he had the constitution amended in 1956 so that he could run for a third consecutive term. In 1960 he was reelected a fourth time by 90 percent of votes cast in rigged elections. His longevity spurred on such massive student demonstrations and civil disorder that the stability of the nation was threatened. Upon American urging, he finally stepped down from office in April 1960 and entered voluntary exile in Hawaii. He died there on July 19, 1965, a strident champion of Korean independence but also the first in a long line of dictators. Further Reading Chay, Jongsuk, Unequal Partners in Peace and War: The Republic of Korea and the United States, 1948–1953. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002. Foley, James A. Korea’s Divided Families: Fifty Years of Separation. New York: Routledge, 2003. Hong, Yong-pyo. State Security and Regime Security: President Syngman Rhee and the Insecurity Dilemma in South Korea, 1953–60. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999. Kim, Quee-Young. “From Protest to Change of Regime: The 4-19 Revolt and the Fall of the Rhee Regime in South Korea.” Social Forces 74, no. 4 (1996): 1179–1208. Kim, Stephen. “The Carrot and the Leash: Eisenhower, Syngman Rhee, and the Dual Containment of Korea.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1999. Oh, Bonnie B. C., ed. Korea under the American Military Government, 1945–1948. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002. Rhee, Syngman. The Spirit of Independence: A Primer of Korean Modernization and Reform. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Ríos Montt, Efraín (1926– ) president of Guatemala José Efraín Ríos Montt was born in Huehuetenango, Guatemala, on June 16, 1926, into a peasant family. Like the majority of Guatemalans he was a Ladino of


RÍOS MONTT, EFRAÍN mixed Indian and Spanish background. Ríos Montt joined the army at an early age and proved himself a capable soldier. In 1950 he received advanced military training in the United States and by 1970 he had risen to general. That year Ríos Montt was appointed army chief of staff under President Carlos Arana Osorio. Despite his military background, Ríos Montt was something of a liberal by Guatemalan standards, and he joined the small Christian Democratic Party. In 1974 he resigned his commission and ran for the presidency under the center-left National Opposition Front but lost to General Kjell Laugerud in a blatantly rigged election. Ríos Montt then rejoined the army and was effectively exiled from the country by being appointed military attaché to Madrid, Spain, until 1978. Around that time he also encountered missionaries from the Protestant Evangelical Church of the Complete Word, and he underwent religious conversion. This put him completely at odds with the rest of Guatemalan society, which is predominantly Roman Catholic. Ríos Montt then resigned from the military again to become a lay Protestant preacher for several years. Throughout the late 1970s and into the 1980s, Guatemala was a nation besieged by a poor economy, gross disparities in wealth, and an armed leftist insurgency, primarily among western highland Indians. A series of military dictators failed to sufficiently address the problem, so on March 23, 1982, President Fernando Romero Lucas García was overthrown by disgruntled military officers. A three-man junta was then installed, which included Ríos Montt, serving as minister of defense. By June 1982 he had consolidated his position better than other contenders and became president. His first priority was restoration of stability by ending civil strife. Therefore, he offered the guerrillas amnesty for a brief period before declaring, “It is time to do God’s work.” Ríos Montt then declared a state of siege and ordered a campaign of extermination against all leftists. He promulgated a unique strategy called “beans and guns” whereby cooperative villagers were forcibly relocated to population centers. However, those refusing to cooperate were assumed to be in league with the insurgents and massacred. This stark choice produced 100,000 refugees in short order and led to the deaths of thousands of Indians, but the insurgency was finally crushed. “The guerrilla in the civil population is like a fish in water,” Ríos Montt declared philosophically. “You take the water from the fish and

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the fish dies.” Peace in the countryside was once more restored, but at a frightful toll in abuse and human rights violations. Even apart from his success at battling guerrillas, Ríos Montt’s administration proved extremely authoritarian by nature. Union and political activity were outlawed, the press was heavily censored, and civil rights were suspended. Moreover, special tribunals were established that guaranteed guerrillas and other troublemakers a quick trial—then a firing squad. He also replaced town rulers with his own followers. But Ríos Montt finally alienated his major source of power, the military, through an overreliance upon his Protestant religious advisers. The majority of Catholic officers resented the religious bent of his political conduct, and on August 8, 1983, Ríos Montt was overthrown by Defense Minister Oscar Humberto Mejía Victores after 17 months of bloody rule. In 1991 Ríos Montt formed the Frente Republicana Guatemalteco (FRG), Guatemalan Republican Front, to run for the presidency but was forbidden from winning by constitutional provisions excluding former coup leaders. He then endorsed his protégé, Jorge Serrano Elías, who went on to win. In 1994 Ríos Montt won a seat in the legislature as an FRG representative, eventually rising to president of congress. He was still serving in that capacity in 2000 when the Spanish National Court announced genocidal charges against him for a suspicious fire in the Spanish embassy in 1982. Further Reading Anfuso, Joseph. Efrain Ríos Montt, Servant or Dictator? The Real Story of Guatemala’s Born-Again President. Ventura, Calif.: Vision House, 1984. Armendariz, Anthony C. “The Regime of Religious Dictator José Efrain Ríos Montt, 1982–1983: A Phenomenon of Expediency.” UCLA History Journal 7 (1986): 28–59. Falla, Ricardo. Massacres in the Jungle: Ixcan, Guatemala, 1975–1982. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994. Holiday, David. “Guatemala: Precarious Peace.” Current History 99, no. 634 (2000): 78–85. Wadge, Gyl C. “The Rios Montt Regime: Change and Continuity in Guatemalan Politics.” Unpublished bachelor’s thesis, Tulane University, 1987. Wilkinson, Daniel. Silence on the Mountain: Stories of Terror, Betrayal and Forgetting in Guatemala. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.


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Rojas Pinilla, Gustavo (1900–1975) president of Colombia Gustavo Rojas Pinilla was born in Tunja, Colombia, on March 12, 1900, and he was educated at the local Normal School. He then enrolled at the Colombian Military Academy in 1917 and was commissioned three years later in the engineers. In 1927 he attended Tri-State College, Indiana, in the United States, for advanced engineering studies and returned as an authority on civil aeronautics. As a military officer he first gained national attention in his brutal suppression of riots in Bogotá following the assassination of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán in April 1948. He was then promoted to commander in chief by Conservative president LAUREANO GÓMEZ CASTRO in 1950, and two years later he arrived in Korea to inspect the Colombian detachment fighting there. Colombia at that time was in the grip of a violent civil war, called La Violencia, between supporters of the Liberal and Conservative Parties. When Gómez proved unable or unwilling to restore order, Rojas led a bloodless coup against him in June 1953. The change of government sparked immediate relief throughout the nation, for Rojas, now president, promised to restore Colombia to peace and prosperity. In practice, Rojas proved no better at promoting democracy and economic growth than his predecessor and in many respects was even worse. He moved quickly to offer an amnesty to communist and liberal insurgents, but otherwise squandered his reservoir of goodwill by his repressive rule. All political activity was halted, union activity banned, and the press heavily censored. The government itself, besides being inept, was also incipiently corrupt and run by cronies for their own enrichment. Rojas also further escalated violence in the countryside by forcibly rounding up peasants—suspected leftists—and relocating them to the cities. Those who resisted were executed in large numbers, so that by 1957 an estimated 300,000 people had died. Rojas’s misrule proved so pervasive that it actually forced Liberal and Conservative leaders in exile to create a National Front to depose him. His final mistake was in altering the constitution to enable him to run for a second consecutive term—then suspending the election process. On May 9, 1957, the military overturned Rojas in a bloodless coup and he exiled himself to the United States. Thereafter Liberals and Conservatives agreed under the National Front to alternate rule every four years and thus preserve national harmony. Rojas remained abroad until October 1958 when he returned, was impeached by the senate, and

stripped of all civil rights. He nonetheless reentered politics by creating the Alianza Nacional Popular (ANAPO), National Popular Alliance, which—taking a leaf from Argentine dictator JUAN PERÓN—catered to the lower classes. Rojas then ran for president in 1962, receiving only 2.5 percent of the vote. However, by 1967 the courts ruled that the former executive could not be denied his civil rights and they were restored. Rojas cleverly used the next few years to build up his popular base with a far-ranging party apparatus that reached into virtually every district in the nation. He then campaigned for the presidency again with a renewed sense of legitimacy in April 1970. That year he came within 60,000 vote of winning, but lost to Conservative candidate Misael Pastrana Borrero. Rojas claimed fraud and his supporters rioted, but martial law was declared and the verdict was allowed to stand. In 1974 his daughter, Senator María Eugenia Rojas de Moreno, also ran for the presidency and lost badly. Rojas himself died in Bogotá on January 17, 1975, one of the most repressive and ineffectual dictators of Colombian history. His once influential ANAPO has also declined into insignificance. Further Reading Dix, Robert H. “The Varieties of Populism: The Case of Colombia.” Western Political Quarterly 31, no. 3 (1978): 334–351. Hartlyn, J. “Military Governments and the Transition to Civilian Rule: The Colombian Experience of 1957–58.” Journal of International American Studies 26 (March 1984): 245–281. Roldan, Mary. Blood and Fire: La Violencia in Antioquia, Colombia, 1946–1953. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002. Safford, Frank. Colombia: Fragmented Land, Divided Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Torres, Javier A. “Military Government, Political Crisis, and Exceptional State: The Armed Forces in Colombia and the National Front, 1954–1974.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., State University of New York–Buffalo, 1986.

Roosevelt, Franklin D. (1882–1945) president of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, on January 30, 1882, the son of wealthy,


ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN D. upper-class parents. His patrician origins afforded him an excellent education, and he graduated from both Harvard and Columbia University Law School. However, he had his heart set upon pursuing politics and in 1911 he successfully ran as a Democrat for a state senate seat. In this capacity Roosevelt gained renown for his willingness to fight corruption and the Tammany political machine that had dominated state politics for a generation. In 1912 he campaigned for the presidency of WOODROW WILSON and was rewarded with an appointment as assistant secretary of the navy. Roosevelt threw himself into his work with characteristic energy and helped prepare the navy for its successful role in World War I. Now a national figure, Roosevelt ran for the vice presidency with Democratic candidate James M. Cox in 1920, but was defeated by Republican WARREN G. HARDING. Worse, in 1921 he contracted polio, which deprived him of the use of his legs for the remainder of his life. Fortunately, in 1905 Roosevelt

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had married a remarkable woman, Eleanor Roosevelt, a distant cousin and niece of former president THEODORE ROOSEVELT. She proved herself every bit as astute politically as her husband, supported him fitfully through his long rehabilitation, and became an important conduit for his liberal brand of politics. After an eight-year hiatus, Roosevelt resumed his political career in 1928 by capturing the New York governor’s mansion. However, the following year witnessed the onset of the Great Depression and a dramatic increase in unemployment, an economic downturn, and personal hardships. Roosevelt, despite his aristocratic upbringing—or perhaps because of it— was always beholden to noblesse oblige, a sense of commitment to those less fortunate than himself. He therefore enacted sweeping state programs to help alleviate unemployment, put people back to work, and give them hope. His programs served as a blueprint for what would follow at the federal level, and in 1930 he was reelected by wide margins. Roosevelt’s success in New York, combined with his personal warmth and charisma, made him an attractive candidate for the presidency in 1932. The extent of social dislocation at the time, and the perception that Republican president HERBERT HOOVER was doing little about it, led to Roosevelt’s landslide election. More than a political victory, it proved a turning point in the way that most Americans perceived the role of government. Now in control, Roosevelt attacked the problem with resolve and energy. He was never a profound thinker or a committed ideologue, but his overwhelming motivation was to do something to help the public. He therefore summoned a special session of Congress and passed landmark legislation promoting government intervention in economic matters. New banking and monetary agencies arose, as did numerous “make work” projects to put federal money into people’s pockets. In fact this congressional session, called the “Hundred Days,” passed legislation that laid the groundwork for the “New Deal,” an American welfare state. Foremost among these was the Social Security Act, which guaranteed elderly citizens an income regardless of their circumstances. The effect of Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation was mixed overall, but it gave people a sense that the government was taking an active role in their lives. Furthermore, Roosevelt was the first president to take to the airwaves on a regular basis, and offered the public confidence and assurances through his famous


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“fireside chats.” Consequently, Roosevelt was reelected by another landslide in 1936. However, some of his efforts were strongly rebuffed by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional. In 1937 the president countered by proffering an ill-conceived plan to “pack” the Supreme Court with seven new justices more favorably disposed toward his programs. The public reacted strongly against the move and Republican gains in Congress effectively throttled future New Deal legislation. But Roosevelt had irrevocably altered the American political landscape and rendered government a powerful influence in individual lives. In 1940 he also became the first American executive elected to three terms. The bulk of Roosevelt’s third term in office was dominated by foreign affairs. The rise of fascist governments in Germany under ADOLF HITLER, Italy under BENITO MUSSOLINI, and Japan under TOJO HIDEKI placed the world on an irrevocable slide toward war. The president confronted rising isolationist sentiment at home and the challenge to ship arms abroad to struggling allies. In 1940 his efforts to reactivate the military draft succeeded by a single vote, but America finally began rearming. He subsequently formed a close and abiding relationship with English prime minister WINSTON CHURCHILL, then fighting Nazi Germany alone, and provided him with ships and aircraft under the new Lend-Lease Program. After the United States was attacked by Japanese forces at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Roosevelt assumed his most challenging role: commander in chief. He surrounded himself with the nation’s best and brightest minds from the military and business communities, and converted America into the “arsenal of democracy.” And, having tendered the Soviet Union diplomatic recognition in 1933, Roosevelt also sought close relations with dictator JOSEPH STALIN. Over the course of the war, Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill met repeatedly at various locations to hammer out the details of a concerted, war-winning strategy. He was reelected to an unprecedented fourth term in 1944. But by then his health was failing and may have seriously impaired his judgment. Roosevelt has since been criticized for allowing Stalin to control Eastern Europe after 1945, but defenders maintain that since the Red Army was already there in force there was little either he or Churchill could do about it. For all his contributions to handling the war effort, Roosevelt did not live to see its successful conclusion. He died while on vacation at Warm Springs, Georgia,

on April 11, 1945, and was succeeded by HARRY S. TRUMAN. Roosevelt bequeathed a legacy of decisive leadership that helped America weather its two most traumatic interludes of the 20th century: the Great Depression and World War II. His inspirational success renders him one of the most effective and beloved presidents of all time. Ironically his greatest legacy, the American welfare state, endured a half-century before being dismantled by another Democratic executive, Bill Clinton, in 1996. Further Reading Asbell, Bernard. The F. D. R. Memoirs. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1973. Axelrod, Alan. Nothing to Fear: Lessons in Leadership from FDR, President of the Greatest Generation. New York: Portfolio, 2003. Beschloss, Michael. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman, and the Destruction of Nazi Germany. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. Casey, Steven. Cautious Crusade: Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion, and the War against Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Howard, Thomas C., and William D. Pederson. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Formation of the Modern World. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2003. Larrabee, Eric. Commander in Chief: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, His Lieutenants, and Their War. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2004. Meacham, John. Franklin & Winston: An Intimate Portrait of an Epic Friendship. New York: Random House, 2003. Persico, Joseph E. Roosevelt’s Secret War: FDR and World War II Espionage. New York: Random House International, 2003. Robinson, Greg. By Order of the President: FDR and the Internment of Japanese Americans. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Roosevelt, Theodore (1858–1919) president of the United States Theodore Roosevelt was born in New York City, New York, on October 27, 1858, into a wealthy, aristocratic family. Sickly as a child he subjected himself to a rigorous routine of exercise and developed a passion for outdoor living. He graduated from Harvard University in 1880 and also penned The Naval War of 1812, the


ROOSEVELT, THEODORE first of 30 historical tomes. Roosevelt subsequently obtained a law degree from Columbia University but forsook legal practice in favor of politics. He was elected to the state legislature as a Republican in 1881, becoming closely identified with the “progressive” or reform element. When his wife died in 1884, Roosevelt temporarily relocated to his ranch in North Dakota to continue writing. He returned to New York in 1884 and five years later joined the Civil Service Commission to end corruption and fraud. In 1895 Roosevelt capitalized on his success by becoming police commissioner of New York City and his reforms antagonized vested interests in Democratic and Republican Parties alike. But Roosevelt first captured national attention in 1897 when President William McKinley made him assistant secretary of the navy. In this capacity he worked diligently preparing the navy for war with Spain in 1898 and then quit his post to command a volunteer cavalry regiment in Cuba. Roosevelt won fame while leading his “Rough Riders” in the Battle of San Juan Hill, and he returned home a national hero. Consequently, in November 1898 he was elected governor of New York and embarked on his usual reform efforts. When vested interests in the business community complained, the Republican leadership sought to remove Roosevelt from power by making him the vice presidential nominee to run with McKinley in 1900. The ticket won easily, but when McKinley was assassinated in September 1901, Roosevelt became the youngest president of the United States. As an individual, Roosevelt combined an exuberance for living with a hands-on, no-nonsense approach to governance. Despite his affluence, he was determined to strike a “Square Deal” for the average American and would not hesitate to antagonize wealthy business interests. He was not necessarily anti-business but, as an upright moralist, Roosevelt determined to control what he deemed the unprincipled greed of the “robber barons.” In 1902 he successfully sued the Northern Securities Company for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act, dissolved this large railroad conglomerate, and gained a reputation as a “trust buster.” He then oversaw creation of the Bureau of Corporation to oversee and investigate fraudulent business practices. Again, Roosevelt insisted on honesty and accountability from the wealthy. In another major departure from previous administrations, Roosevelt was decidedly friendly toward legitimate union activity. When a major strike

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closed the coal mines, he refused to send troops in, and instead served as a personal mediator and resolved the dispute peacefully. This represented the first time that the federal government involved itself in labor issues. Roosevelt also distinguished himself in the field of nature conservation. A devotee of outdoor living, he determined to preserve the pristine American wilderness for future generations and he established many bird sanctuaries and national parks. Today he would be considered an environmental activist. For his forceful prudence and foresight—all with the public’s wellbeing in mind—Roosevelt was elected by a landslide in 1904. On the world stage, TR, as he came to be known, worked actively to promote America’s image as a world power. In 1903, when the region of Panama revolted against Colombia, he extended immediate diplomatic recognition—and negotiated construction of the strategic Panama Canal. The president then enunciated the Roosevelt Corollary to the now famous Monroe Doctrine, which stipulated that the United States dominated the Western Hemisphere and European interference would not be tolerated. In 1906 he took his mediation skills to a new level by negotiating a peace treaty between Russia and Japan, thereby ending the Russo-Japanese War in Asia. For this he became the first United States executive to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. Finally and most symbolically, in 1907 he dispatched a squadron of warships, the “Great White Fleet,” on a global diplomatic mission to underscore America’s arrival as a world power. In 1909 Roosevelt stepped down from power in favor of his successor, WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT. He then embarked on a famous series of safaris and exploring expeditions in Africa and South America. However, by 1912 he had grown dissatisfied with the resurgence of conservatism in the Republican Party under Taft, so he formed his own Bull Moose Party from disaffected progressives like himself. Presidential elections that year were won by Democrat WOODROW WILSON, but Roosevelt’s party finished second, garnering more votes than any third party in American history. Over the next few years he vigorously championed American entry into World War I and castigated Wilson’s reluctance to commit forces. When war was finally declared in 1917, Roosevelt pleaded to be made a commander, but Wilson, smarting from his earlier remarks, refused. Roosevelt was preparing to run again for the presidency when he died at Oyster Bay, New York, on January 6,


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1919. The cause of death was malaria contracted from one of his forays into the Brazilian jungles. But more than any individual, TR modernized the American presidency and prepared the nation for the global roles it would assume for the remainder of the 20th century. Roosevelt is also immortalized by the “Teddy Bear,” so christened after he refused to shoot a bear cub while on a hunting trip. Further Reading Corry, John A. A Rough Ride to Albany: Teddy Runs for Governor. New York: J. A. Corry, 2000. Dalton, Kathleen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Kingseed, Wyatt. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Frontier Justice.” American History 36, no. 6 (2002): 22–28. Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Random House, 2001. Rauchway, Eric. Murdering McKinley: The Making of Theodore Roosevelt’s America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2003. Roosevelt, Theodore. The Man in the Arena: The Selected Writings of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Forge, 2003. Watts, Sarah L. Rough Rider in the White House: Theodore Roosevelt and the Politics of Desire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Zimmerman, Warren. First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2002.

Roxas, Manuel (1892–1948) president of the Philippines Manuel Roxas y Acuña was born in Capiz, Panay, the Philippines, on January 1, 1892, and in 1911 he graduated from the University of the Philippines with a law degree. After serving as a law professor in Hong Kong, he came home and was elected governor of his native province of Capiz in 1919. Two years later he successfully ran for a seat in the House of Representatives as a member of the Nationalist Party. There he struck up cordial relations with MANUEL QUEZON, president of the Senate, who assisted him in his efforts to become house speaker. Politics were then dominated by the issue of obtaining independence from the United States. Roxas attended several conferences in Washington, D.C., to facilitate this goal, but he clashed

with Quezon over the exact treaty provisions. By 1934 both governments agreed to the establishment of a Filipino commonwealth to be followed by independence in 1946. Roxas then attended the constitutional conventional to draft a governing document and again differed with Quezon over details. However, when Quezon was elected the first president of the commonwealth in 1936, the two men apparently settled their differences and Roxas was appointed to the National Economic Council. In 1938 he joined the president’s cabinet as secretary of finance. Roxas was elected to the Senate just as World War II erupted in the Pacific in December 1941. He promptly resigned from office, took up arms, and fought in the Philippine Army Reserve as an aide to American general Douglas MacArthur. Unlike Quezon, Roxas stayed behind during the Japanese occupation and fought as a guerrilla. Captured in 1942, he was coerced into serving under a puppet government as chairman of the Economic Planning Board. This led to charges of collaboration with the enemy, but in reality Roxas was a high-ranking Allied spy. Following Japan’s defeat in 1945, he was arrested as a traitor but subsequently released on the orders of the newly returned general MacArthur. Having cleared his reputation, Roxas next served as president of the Senate. He then announced his candidacy for the national presidency and established the new Liberal Party. Roxas defeated Sergio Osmena of the Nationalist Party, who succeeded to high office following the death of President Quezon in 1944. Roxas assumed office in April 1946, becoming the last president of the Philippine commonwealth. Following the full transfer of sovereignty the following July, he became the first president of the Philippine republic. Roxas faced the unenviable task of running a nation and an economy ruined by war. Worse, a group of communist guerrillas, the Hukbalahap, having fought the Japanese, now refused to lay down their arms and resisted the new government. There was little Roxas could do in either instance but accept large amounts of aid in exchange for political compliance with the Americans. In fact, his government was basically an extension of General MacArthur’s headquarters, and he proved slavishly obedient to the latter’s dictates. Through his cooperation, the United States acquired 99-year leases on 23 sites, including Subic Naval Base and Clark Air Force Base. He also generally sided with the landed elite against the


RUIZ CORTINES, ADOLFO wishes and interests of the majority poor. Roxas continued working closely with the Americans until his sudden death at Clark Air Force Base on April 14, 1948, while delivering a speech. His successor was ELPIDIO QUIRINO. Further Reading Gleeck, Lewis E. Dissolving the Colonial Bond: American Ambassadors to the Philippines, 1946–1984. Denver, Colo.: iAcademic Books, 2001. Go, Julian, and Anne L. Foster. The American Colonial State in the Philippines: Global Perspectives. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2003. Martinez, Carlos M. “Filipino Collaboration and Resistance Movement Against the Japanese during World War II.” Unpublished master’s thesis, San Diego State University, 2001. McFerson, Hazel M., ed. Mixed Blessing: The Impact of the American Colonial Experience on Politics and Society in the Philippines. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. Roxas, Manuel. The Philippines. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1930. Salamanca, Bonafacio S. “Quezon, Osmena, Roxas, and the American Military Presence in the Philippines.” Philippines Studies 37, no. 3 (1989): 301–316.

Ruiz Cortines, Adolfo (1891–1973) president of Mexico Adolfo Ruiz Cortines was born in Veracruz, Mexico, on December 30, 1891, the son of a poor civil servant. His father died while he was still young and he quit school support his family. When the Mexican Revolution recommenced in 1914, Ruiz Cortines joined the army under VENUSTIANO CARRANZA in the fight against VICTORIANO HUERTA. He subsequently served as an aide to Alfredo Robles Domínguez, governor of the Federal District (Mexico City). Despite his lack of formal education, Ruiz Cortines was an accomplished administrator known for his honesty. By 1937 he was serving in the administration of MANUEL ÁVILA CAMACHO within the government secretariat and in 1944 he won election as governor of Veracruz. In 1948 he resumed working for the secretariat, only this time under President MIGUEL ALEMÁN VALDÉS, a friend and mentor. After serving capably for three years, Alemán nominated Ruiz Cortines as the presidential candidate for

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the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), Institutional Revolutionary Party. Mexico being a oneparty state, this nomination virtually ensured election, and in December 1952 Ruiz Cortines became president with 74 percent of votes cast. He was the last man of the revolutionary generation to hold high office in Mexico. Ruiz Cortines inherited from his predecessor a demoralized government rife with corruption and nearly bankrupt from extravagant expenditures. Therefore he quickly embarked on a course to combat institutionalized corruption and implemented a program of national austerity. Ruiz Cortines pursued basic conservative economic and social policies, but he continued emphasizing Alemán’s plans for the infrastructure, including greater efforts to modernize the railways, enlarge the electrical industry, and accelerate oil exploration. Furthermore, he increased the amount of acreage under cultivation and spurred on efforts to improve irrigation. That he was able to accomplish all these measures in an atmosphere of fiscal retrenchment is stirring tribute to his skills as an administrator. The government was thus able to reduce corruption and balance the budget. Economic growth, while slower than previously, remained constant throughout his presidency. On the downside, Ruiz Cortines was forced to devalue the peso twice to curb inflation, engendering labor unrest because it reduced spending power. All told, his administration exerted a moderating effect on the usually unpredictable Mexican economy and ushered in a badly needed period of stability. In addition to his fine handling of the economy, Ruiz Cortines scored positive progress in social matters as well. He insisted that women be enfranchised in 1953 and he also sought to enlarge the Mexican social security agency. This entailed extending the program to workers in the countryside for the first time, as well as hikes in the rates for those living in and around Mexico City. On the international scene, his administration maintained cordial relations with American president DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, and the two men met to inaugurate the newly constructed Falcon Dam on the border. To display a measure of political independence from the United States, Ruiz Cortines also allowed Guatemalan president JACOBO ARBENZ GUZMÁN and Cuban revolutionary lawyer Fidel Castro political asylum in Mexico. By the time he turned the government


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over to ADOLFO LÓPEZ MATEOS in December 1958, the Mexican economy was sound and the society tranquil. As the country’s leader, Ruiz Cortines was noted for his extreme humility and personal honesty. He sought to impose his high moral standards on government officials by requiring them annually to publish their monetary assets. Moreover, throughout six years in office he declined the government limousine and drove himself to work. Ruiz Cortines continued living modestly until his death in Veracruz on December 3, 1973. He remains highly regarded as a leader of personal integrity. Further Reading Glade, William P. Politics, Policies, and Economic Development in Latin America. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1984. Memmott, Kip R. “Enduring Friendship: An Analysis of United States-Mexican Foreign Relations, 1950–1970.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Arizona State University, 1995. Moreno, Julio. Yankee Don’t Go Home!: Mexican Nationalism, American Business Culture, and the Shaping of Modern Mexico. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. Parsons, Patricia. “The First Two Years of the Ruiz Cortines Administration.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Stanford University, 1955. Preston, Julia. Opening Mexico: A Country’s Tumultuous Passage to Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004.

Rwagasore, Louis (1932–1961) prime minister of Burundi Prince Louis Rwagasore was born in Gitega, Burundi, a son of Mwami (king) Mwambutsa. His homeland had been ruled by Belgium as a League of Nations mandate since 1916. It was beset by intense ethnic rivalries between competing clans of Tutsis and Hutus, which occasionally flared up into massacres of genocidal proportions. Rwagasore passed through Catholic missionary schools before attending the Groupe Scolaire D’Astrida, a school for tribal elites, in 1945. He subsequently ventured to Antwerp, Belgium, for additional training at college, but performed poorly. Rwagasore came home in 1956 determined to challenge Belgian authority. He entered politics by organizing farming cooperatives without European interference—

or permission—which colonial authorities declared illegal. The following year Rwagasore took measures a step further by founding the Union pour le Progrès National (UPRONA), Union for National Progress, as an agent for political change. At the onset he supported the continuation of Burundi’s traditional kingship within the framework of greater colonial autonomy. However, he failed to mesh his progressive viewpoints with his father’s inherent conservatism and began questioning the throne’s relevance to national politics. And, despite his affiliation with the Crown, colonial authorities had branded him a communist for his political agitation. “The Belgians accuse us of being communists,” he later quipped. “At the same time they accuse us of being monarchists and feudal. They must make up their minds what we really are.” By 1960 the pace of decolonizing quickened when Belgium announced that the neighboring Congo was about to receive its independence. This caused political ripples throughout Burundi and renewed calls for nationhood. Ironically, Rwagasore’s biggest opponent was his father, the king, who feared a loss of traditional power and began siding with the Belgians. He also met opposition at the hands of the Parti Démocrate Chrétien (PDC), Christian Democratic Party, which sought to maintain the political status quo. When legislative elections were finally granted in 1960, UPRONA, formally opposed by Mwambutsa and the Europeans, “lost” handily. But Rwagasore, angered by rigged elections, went before the United Nations to declare that Belgium mishandled its civic responsibilities toward the mandate and demanded new elections. He was supported by his friend and ally JULIUS NYERERE of Tanganyika, and the UN agreed to sponsor a new round of elections. These took place in September 1961, and UPRONA was completely victorious. Rwagasore then became Burundi’s first prime minister. The movement toward eventual independence was still perilous owing to uneasy relationships between the Tutsi minority and the Hutu majority. Therefore, when assembling his cabinet, Rwagasore was careful to balance off four Hutus against four Tutsis. He also pledged that members of opposition parties would eventually be merged into the government. Furthermore, in light of Burundi’s small size, extreme poverty, and total dependence upon Belgium for financial and technical assistance, Rwagasore favored entering a federation arrangement with neigh-


RWAGASORE, LOUIS boring Tanganyika and Rwanda. However, on October 13, 1961, the youthful 29-year-old prime minister was assassinated at a restaurant by a hired gunman. Subsequent investigations pointed to Belgian complicity, although several leaders of the PDC were eventually arrested and executed. Burundi went on to acquire its independence on July 1, 1962. Rwagasore has since been mourned as the father of his country and a voice of moderation and restraint. With his passing came the introduction of radicalized politics, the abolishment of the kingship, and years of bloody repression under the genocidal dictator MICHEL MICOMBERO. Most political observers feel that Burundi might have evolved more peacefully had Rwagasore lived.

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Further Reading Chretien, Jean-Pierre. The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History. New York: Zone Books, 2003. ———. “Burundi: The Obsession with Genocide.” Current History 95 (May 1996): 206–211. Forster, Peter G. Race and Ethnicity in East Africa. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Scherrer, Christian P. Genocide and Crisis in Central Africa: Conflict Roots, Mass Violence, and Regional War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002. Weinstein, Warren. “A Sea of Troubles: Decolonization in Burundi, 1958–1962.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Columbia University, 1973.


S Sadat, Anwar al- (1918–1981) president of Egypt

Sadat’s ascension marked a sea change in the political landscape of the Middle East. Since losing the ArabIsraeli War in 1967, he wanted to fight again to improve Egypt’s bargaining position. Nasser had previously established close relations with the Soviet Union, which provided arms and military advisers but also an unwelcome political presence. On May 27, 1971, Sadat also willingly signed a 15-year treaty of friendship with the Soviets to acquire aid and modern arms. But, intent upon demonstrating his independence, he suddenly and unceremoniously expelled the Russians from Egypt in 1972. He then made the first friendly overtures to the United States in 20 years, with set Egypt on a proWestern course. But the turning point in Sadat’s career occurred in October 1973, when Egyptian and Syrian forces launched the surprise Yom Kippur War against the Jewish state. Israeli forces, heretofore considered invincible, were caught flat-footed and driven far into the Sinai Peninsula. Both sides suffered heavy losses before a truce was arranged, but Sadat had proved his point: henceforth it would be better to bargain than fight. At that juncture he began secret negotiations with the United States and Israel for possible peace talks—an unthinkable prospect only months before. On November 20, 1977, Sadat made a bold and triumphal appearance in the Israeli Knesset (parliament) to plead for peace and normalized diplomatic relations—the

Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat was born in Mit AbdulKum, Egypt, on December 25, 1918, the son of a lower-middle-class civil servant. He matured at a time when the country was under British domination, which stirred his sense of Arab nationalism. In 1936 Sadat became one of the first persons of modest background to attend the Royal Military Academy, where he met and befriended another nationalist, GAMAL ABDEL NASSER. After graduating in 1938 he and Nasser founded the Free Officers Organization, a secret revolutionary society intent upon expelling the British and overthrowing the Egyptian royal family. During World War II he was implicated in several attempts to aid Nazi intelligence, was imprisoned, and escaped. After the war Sadat continued with his revolutionary activities and bore a direct role in the assassination of Egypt’s pro-British finance minister. Egypt’s economy began deteriorating through the corrupt misrule of King FAROUK, so in July 1952 the Free Officers ousted him in a bloodless coup. A republic was declared with Nasser as president, while Sadat became vice president in 1964. He served his cause loyally, if in a low-keyed manner, and when Nasser died suddenly in September 28, 1970, Sadat succeeded him as interim president. The following month he was formally elected to office.

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ST. LAURENT, LOUIS first-ever appearance by an Arab head of state. Two years of fruitless and highly charged talks ensued before American president JIMMY CARTER invited Sadat and Israeli prime minister MENACHEM BEGIN to Camp David, Maryland. After fits and starts, a peace accord was signed on March 29, 1979, through which Israel abandoned captured land in the Sinai Peninsula while Egypt established diplomatic relations with Israel. This was the first formal recognition of the Jewish state by an Arab power and Sadat and Begin received the Nobel Peace Prize for their heroic breakthrough efforts. Sadat was hailed in the West for his personal courage, but utterly castigated at home and throughout the Arab world as a pariah. Egypt was summarily kicked out of the Arab League, while Muslim fundamentalists at home called for his assassination. Despite Western aid, Egypt’s burgeoning population prevented economic growth, and resistance to Sadat’s rule increased. He responded with escalating repression, and at one point even exiled the Coptic Christian pope to the desert. Sadat and his free-wheeling, half-British wife Jihan also lived a life of conspicuous wealth, which further alienated people in this conservative Muslim society. On October 6, 1981, Sadat was assassinated by religious zealots while reviewing a military parade. His state funeral was attended by many Western dignitaries, including three former American presidents—but only one Arabic head of state. Sadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak, has continued his pro-Western policies and diplomacy. Further Reading Ayubi, Shaheen. Nasser and Sadat: Decision Making and Foreign Policy (1970–1972). Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1994. Beattie, Kirk J. Egypt during the Sadat Years. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001. Israeli, Raphael. “Egypt’s Nationalism under Sadat.” Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 21, no. 4 (1998): 1–23. Ronen, Y. “Personalized Politics: Qadhafi, Nasser, Sadat, and Mubarak.” North African Studies 6 (autumn 2001): 1–10. Sadat, Anwar. Those I Have Known. New York: Continuum, 1984. Stein, Kenneth W. Heroic Diplomacy: Sadat, Kissinger, Carter, Begin, and the Quest for Arab-Israeli Peace. New York: Routledge, 1999.

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St. Laurent, Louis (1882–1973) prime minister of Canada Louis Stephen St. Laurent was born in Compton, Quebec, Canada, on February 1, 1882, the son of a small store owner. His father and mother being French and Irish respectively, he was raised in a bilingual environment and gained fluency in both languages. St. Laurent passed through Laval University Law School in 1905 and established a brilliant legal career. He taught as a law professor at Laval, served as head of the Quebec Bar Association, and then president of the Canadian Bar Association. In 1937 St. Laurent was appointed to the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations, where he remained until 1940. That year Prime Minister WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE KING tapped him to serve as Canada’s new minister of justice. St. Laurent, who had taken no interest in politics and lacked any party affiliation, hesitated initially but finally accepted out of a sense of duty. Throughout World War II he effectively represented French Canadian interests in the cabinet. This proved a delicate proposition, for heavy manpower losses required Mackenzie King to impose conscription on all of Canada—including Quebec—to maintain the war effort. The French-speaking community was traditionally averse to a draft, and unwilling to shed blood for the British Empire, and when it came in 1944, St. Laurent promoted national unity among his fellow Quebecers. In 1945 he was persuaded to remain in office another term. He then assumed the portfolio of external affairs minister and represented Canada during the drafting conference of the United Nations in San Francisco. To further raise Canada’s international profile, he also advocated membership in the new North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to contain Soviet communism in Europe. In November 1948, following Mackenzie King’s retirement, St. Laurent was persuaded to succeed him in office. More out of a sense of duty than desire, he became head of the Liberal Party and prime minister of Canada. He was only the second French Canadian head of state since WILFRID LAURIER. St. Laurent’s period in office happily coincided with a booming national economy and full governmental coffers. St. Laurent set about spending the money wisely and invested in the country’s infrastructure. Among his most significant accomplishments were construction of the Trans-Canada national highway, commencement of the St. Lawrence Seaway with the United States, and the admission of Newfoundland into the


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dominion as a province. He also tackled the touchy issue of equalization payments whereby wealthy provinces like Ontario contributed money to assist poorer regions so that all offered the same quality of social programs. St. Laurent also oversaw enlargement of the welfare state with enhanced benefits. Under his persuasive leadership, the Liberals easily won elections in 1949 and 1953. Considering his reluctance to lead, his time in office was highly productive. On the diplomatic front, St. Laurent took deliberate measures to ensure Canada’s standing as an international player. The Korean War commenced in June 1950, and he authorized the deployment of Canadian forces under United Nations supervision for the next three years. Stridently anticommunist, St. Laurent closely coordinated his defense and diplomatic efforts with American president DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER in confronting Soviet threats to peace. But after a round-theworld trip in 1956, the prime minister seemed tired and disinterested in politics. His sharp criticism of Great Britain’s handling of the Suez Crisis alienated segments of the English-speaking community, who were quick to rally to Britain’s side. Ironically, St. Laurent’s downfall came through one of his pet projects: the Trans-Canada Pipeline. When it became known that this ambitious project was to be constructed by an American company, the opposition threw Parliament in turmoil and the Liberals deliberately closed down debate. This angered the public at large, and in 1957 the Conservatives under JOHN G. DIEFENBAKER were swept back into office after 22 years in the opposition. St. Laurent remained as head of the Liberals for another year, but subsequently stepped down in favor of LESTER B. PEARSON in 1958. He died in Quebec City on July 25, 1973. He had been regarded from the onset as a colorless technocrat, but his grandfatherly demeanor earned him the sobriquet Uncle Louis. Further Reading Bercuson, David J. Blood on the Hills: The Canadian Army in the Korean War. Buffalo, N.Y.: University of Toronto Press, 1999. Glazov, Jamie. Canadian Policy toward Khrushchev’s Soviet Union. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002. Pickersgill, J. W. My Years with Louis St. Laurent: A Political Memoir. Buffalo, N.Y.: University of Toronto Press, 1975.

St. Laurent, Louis. The Foundations of Canadian Policy in World Affairs. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1947. Thomson, Dale C. Louis St. Laurent, Canadian. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1968. Whitaker, Reginald. Cold War Canada: The Making of a National Insecurity State, 1945–1957. Buffalo, N.Y.: University of Toronto Press, 1994.

Saionji Kimmochi (1849–1940) prime minister of Japan Saionji Kimmochi was born in Kyoto, Japan, on December 7, 1849, into a prestigious aristocratic family with close links to the emperor. At the age of three he was adopted by a higher-ranking family, which brought him closer to the center of national power. Saionji matured during a time of great national ferment, when the Tokugawa shogunate, or military regimen, was about to be overthrown by the imperial household. This event, known as the Meiji restoration of 1868, concluded nearly three centuries of isolation and reintroduced Japan to world politics. Saionji was a promising scholar, and in 1871 he ventured to France and enrolled at the Sorbonne. He remained in France for a decade, studying Western philosophy and democracy before returning home in 1880. At that time he established a law school and also initiated a radical newspaper, the East Asian Free Press, which advocated both democracy and modernization. He refused strong pressure to resign, until personally ordered by the emperor to relent. In 1882 he returned to Europe for additional study and served as minister to Austria and Germany. Saionji then came home to serve as minister of education, acting prime minister in 1900, and founder of the Rikken Seiyukai (Friends of Constitutional Government) Party. In all these capacities Saionji wielded great influence on the course of political affairs in Japan and in 1903 he was elected party head. The nation at that time was still attempting to adjust to the nuances of democracy and in 1906 he was elevated to prime minister. Saionji served in high office until 1908 and his most notable accomplishment was nationalizing the railway system. After more internal wrangling, he again assumed high office in 1911 but resigned the following year after refusing to expand the army. At that time the Taisho emperor elevated him to the position of genro,


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power was the only method of securing Japan’s future. For nearly a decade Saionji waged a lonely and futile battle to keep the army and navy in check. In May 1932 militarists assassinated the civilian prime minister, at which point party cabinets ceased to be formed. Thereafter Saionji recommended the selection of military figures for high office, as they were less likely to be marked for assassination. As the decade of the 1930s unfolded, the Japanese military embarked on several episodes of imperialistic aggression against China, which Saionji and other civilians proved powerless to stop. “Military men advocate national unity, but their national unity is no unity at all,” he warned, “it just means submission to them.” Still, he sought peaceful relations with Great Britain and the United States to avert what he viewed as a potentially disastrous war. In February 1936 he narrowly survived an assassination attempt caused by his peaceful inclination. Just before resigning in 1937 Saionji selected Prince FUMIMARO KONOE to serve as prime minister in the mistaken belief that he could curtail the military. He died in Tokyo on November 24, 1940, the longest living survivor of Meiji generation leadership, whose career spanned seven decades.

Kimmochi Saionji (Library of Congress)

or elder statesman, which marks the most important phase of his long political career. Several other former samurai of his generation had also been accorded that rank, but Saionji became the only court aristocrat so honored. In this capacity he represented Japan during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference and presided over Japan’s entry into the League of Nations. Thereafter he served as a senior political adviser to the new emperor HIROHITO, working behind the scenes and dispensing useful advice, concerning, among other affairs of government, the selection of prime ministers. His power was greatly consolidated after 1924 when he became the last surviving genro and a persuasive force in governmental affairs. Unfortunately for Japan, its tenuous experiment with democracy began fading in the wake of the Great Depression of 1929. The hardships encountered convinced militarists and nationalists that overt military

Further Reading Banno, Junji. Democracy in Pre-war Japan: Concepts of Government, 1871–1937: Collected Essays. New York: Routledge, 2000. Connors, Lesley. The Emperor’s Advisor: Saionji Kimmochi and Pre-war Japanese Politics. London: Croom Helm, 1987. Harada, Kumao. Fragile Victory: Prince Saionji and the 1930 London Treaty Issue. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1968. Jansen, Marius B. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000. Nish, Ian H. Japanese Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2002. Ohara, Masayo. Democratization and Expansionism: Historical Lessons, Contemporary Challenges. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001. Oka, Yoshitake. Five Political Leaders of Modern Japan. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1986. Saionji, Kimmochi. The Saionji-Harada Memoirs. Washington, D.C.: University Publications of America, 1978.


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Salazar, António (1889–1970) prime minister of Portugal António de Oliveira Salazar was born in Vimiero, Portugal, on April 28, 1889, the son of poor shopkeepers. Studious and pious as a youth, he studied several years at a seminary before leaving the clergy to study economics at Coimbra University. After receiving his doctorate in 1918 he taught several years and became politically active in 1921 when he was elected to the Cortes (legislature) with the Catholic Center Party. However, Salazar served only for a day before concluding that the legislature was useless and he resumed teaching. He also resented the First Republic for its leftist tendencies and pronounced anticlericalism. When a military junta overthrew the republic in 1926, he was cordially invited to serve as minister of finance but declined because of his inability to control the economy. Two years later the government agreed to his terms, and he assumed public office for the first time. Salazar, a fiscal conservative, adopted tight-fisted spending cuts and high-tax policies to balance the budget and end deficit spending. The economy rebounded remarkably within two years and Salazar was rewarded with the portfolio of minister of colonies in 1931. When the military finally authorized civilian rule in July 1932, Salazar became prime minister with near dictatorial powers. He would remain head of state for the next 32 years. In office Salazar adopted what can best be described as a quasi-fascist, authoritarian style of governance, the so-called New State. This was a corporate, conservative regime with striking similarities to BENITO MUSSOLINI’s Italy. Unions and political parties were outlawed, strikes forbidden, and order enforced by secret police. The nation was divided up into white- and bluecollar blocs, with the government acting as intermediary between them. The Catholic Church was given free rein to operate schools and run charities as an adjunct of the state and, consequently, became a pillar of Salazar’s support. Henceforth, “Nothing against the nation, everything for the nation” became the political mantra. For over a decade the government enjoyed considerable popularity and contributed much to the economic wellbeing of the nation, which Salazar considered far more important than individual liberties. A plethora of important social reforms, including social security, workmen’s compensation, and public works, were enacted with impressive results.

After 1936 Salazar proved himself a stalwart ally of Spanish dictator FRANCISCO FRANCO and dispatched men and supplies to him throughout the Spanish civil war. After 1939 the Iberian peninsula could tout two right-wing authoritarian regimes with sterling anticommunist credentials. In terms of foreign policy, Salazar adhered to a closely regulated policy of neutrality. Despite his admiration for ADOLF HITLER’s Nazi Germany, he declined to become an ally. He judged the war lost by 1944 and secretly allowed the Allies basing rights in the Azores off the Portuguese coast, to combat the U-boat menace. Given Portugal’s strategic position in the cold war, Salazar’s government was openly courted by the United States and Great Britain, and in 1948 he was coaxed out of neutrality to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). By this time, however, Salazar had begun assuming more and more power for himself and ruling in a dictatorial fashion. His mounting repression led to a steady exodus of middle-class bureaucrats with detrimental effects upon the economy. He refused to acknowledge the trend toward decolonization around the world and tenaciously maintained the facade of empire. In 1961 he lost the Portuguese colony at Goa to an Indian invasion, while the Soviet Union began arming liberation movements in Angola and Mozambique. With ever-shrinking resources, Salazar committed heavily to the defense of African possessions. The declining economy and mass immigration contributed to growing discontent and cries for increased democracy. Salazar remained oblivious to change, but in 1968 he had a stroke that effectively removed him from power. He died in Lisbon on July 27, 1970, one of the longest-serving heads of state in the 20th century. Unfortunately, his legacy was largely one of oppression. Further Reading Costa Pinto, Antonio. The Blue Shirts: Portuguese Fascists and the New State. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs; New York: dist. by Columbia University Press, 2000. ———. Salazar’s Dictatorship and European Fascism: Problems of Interpretation. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs, 1995. Lewis, Paul H. Latin Fascist Regimes: The Mussolini, Franco, and Salazar Regimes. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.


SARKIS, ELIAS Machado, Diamantino P. The Structure of Portuguese Society: The Failure of Fascism. New York: Praeger, 1991. Raby, Dawn L. Fascism and Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals, and Military Dissidents in the Opposition to Salazar, 1941–1974. New York: Manchester University Press, 1988. Salazar, António. Doctrine and Action: Internal and Foreign Policy of the New Portugal, 1928–1939. London: Faber and Faber, 1939.

Sarkis, Elias (1924–1985) president of Lebanon Elias Sarkis was born in Shibaniyah, Lebanon, on July 20, 1924, the son of a small shopkeeper and a Maronite Christian. Despite humble origins he proved adept as a student and passed through St. Joseph University with a law degree. In 1953 he came to the attention of President CAMILLE CHAMOUN, who appointed him a judge with the Court of Audits. In this capacity he demonstrated ability and integrity, so in 1958 he transferred to the administration of President Fuad Chehab as a legal adviser. There he figured prominently in strengthening the powers of the presidency and subsequently rose to chief of staff. Sarkis then organized the Deuxième Bureau, a clandestine security agency aimed at keeping various armed factions under control. When President Charles Helou took office, he successively appointed Sarkis chairman of the Banking Control Commission in 1963 and governor of the Central Bank in 1968. Sarkis, who had no interest in politics, was encouraged by friends to run for the presidency in 1970. Through a unique power-sharing arrangement, the Lebanese presidency was reserved for a Christian, the prime minister’s office for a Sunni Muslim, and the Speaker of the House a Shiite Muslim. Tight-lipped and reticent, Sarkis was known jocularly as “The Sphinx” and respected for his honesty, but he lost to Suleiman Franjiyeh by a single vote. However, the fractious Lebanese polity grew increasingly tense in the face of religious fundamentalism, and in 1975 a three-way civil war erupted among Christians, Sunnis, and Shiites. Complicating this picture was the presence of thousands of armed refugees under the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and a looming Syrian military presence. Heavy fighting ensued before peace could be restored and new elections held.

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It now fell upon Syrian president Hafiz al-Assad to play kingmaker in Lebanon. Finding he could not manipulate the PLO or the Muslim militias to his liking, he next courted the Maronites under Sarkis, who appeared more pliable. Syrian pressure was applied accordingly, and in May 1976 Sarkis was elected president by the national assembly. He was the first person of common background to hold high office, but he inherited a rapidly deteriorating situation. The various armed militias began fighting among themselves, while the PLO launched guerrilla attacks into northern Israel. This prompted sharp military responses from the Jewish state, and in 1978 Israel briefly occupied southern Lebanon to establish a buffer zone defended by Christian militia. By that time the country was a battleground of bickering factions and rapidly changing alliances. Sarkis initially looked to his Syrian sponsors for help in disarming the PLO fighters by force. But because Israel would not allow the Syrians into southern Lebanon, Assad declined to risk a military confrontation, and the Palestinians remained a force to reckon with. In time the Maronites and Syrians also turned against one another, forcing Sarkis to rely on Israel for support. In June 1982 Israel launched a full-scale invasion of Lebanon and occupied Beirut, further destabilizing the situation. Sarkis did everything in his limited powers to reconcile the warring factions and hold the nation together, but he proved powerless to influence events. On August 23, 1982, the new president-elect, Maronite Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated days before taking office. Previously Sarkis had tried moving him away from dependence upon Israel and closer to the United States. Bashir Gemayel was succeeded by his younger brother AMIN GEMAYEL, and Sarkis resigned. The former Lebanese president was completely disillusioned by his lack of control over events in Lebanon, and he withdrew from public life. The fighting between factions increased over time, prompting him to leave the country and settle in Paris. He died there on June 27, 1985, a capable man in an impossible position. Further Reading Baqraduni, Karim. Stillborn Peace: The Mandate of Elias Sarkis, 1976–1982. Beirut, Lebanon: Editions FMA, 1985. Deeb, Marius. Syria’s Terrorist War on Lebanon and the Peace Process. New York: Palgrave, 2003.


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Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Khalaf, Samir. Cultural Resistance: Global and Local Encounters in the Middle East. London: Saqi, 2001. Phares, Walid. Lebanese Christian Nationalism: The Rise and Fall of an Ethnic Resistance. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995. Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, Lebanon. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003.

Sarney, José (1930– ) president of Brazil José Ribamar Ferreira Araujo was born in Pinheiro, Maranhão, Brazil, on April 24, 1930, one of 14 children from a poor peasant family. In 1968 he legally adopted his childhood nickname of José Sarney. He studied law in nearby São Luis, worked briefly as a journalist, and wound up on the governor’s staff in Maranhão state by 1950. In 1954 Sarney won a seat in the federal legislature as a member of the National Democratic Union and was twice reelected in 1958 and 1962. He lost his seat after the 1964 military coup that outlawed political activity, but the following year was elected governor of Maranhão under the Alliança per la Renovaçõ Nacional (ARENA), Alliance for National Renewal. In this capacity he subsequently founded the Partido Democrata Social (PDS), Social Democratic Party, and twice served as president. Following the gradual relaxation of military rule and a resumption of the political process, Sarney captured a senate seat in 1970 and won it again six years later. By this time he was clearly identified with conservative interests but, when asked by the government to support the hard-line conservative candidacy of Paulo Maluf, he refused and denounced the party apparatus. After the first free elections were scheduled for 1985, Sarney switched alliances by joining the leftist Democratic Alliance ticket under presidential candidate Tancredo de Almeida Neves. That year the two men were successfully elected to high office, but Neves was taken ill before he could be sworn in, and Sarney functioned as interim president. When the president-elect died soon after, Sarney was sworn in as Brazil’s first civilian executive in 21 years in March 1985. Outgoing conservative president JOÃO BAPTISTA FIGUEIREDO was so outraged by his defection to the left that he boycotted the swearing-in ceremony.

Sarney inherited a nation verging on economic collapse. Previous administrations had saddled Brazil with the largest national debt of any developing country, and inflation rates approaching 1,700 percent a year. Unemployment was also high and hunger was growing. The picture was further complicated by the notion that Sarney, a likable but noncharismatic pragmatist, lacked the skills and drive to lead the country back to solvency. Fortunately he was determined to surprise his critics. “I had to rise to the occasion and try to be larger than I am,” he confided. He then unveiled his Crusader plan, which entailed tax increases, a temporary moratorium on income tax, and high interest rates. But despite his best efforts the Brazilian economy continued faltering, and by 1990 the national debt ballooned to $115 billion. Sarney was then forced to suspend interest payments on the debt and invoke other austerity measures to keep the economy moving. However, he ignored calls for greater cuts in social spending. “With this I cannot agree because I am responsible for the welfare of human beings and not for abstract numbers,” Sarney insisted. Faced with mounting labor unrest, the president also faced down charges that his government tolerated corruption. His only positive contribution was the new 1988 constitution that weakened the powers of the executive while commensurately strengthening those of the legislature and judiciary. By the time Sarney stepped down on March 15, 1990, and was succeeded by Fernando Collor de Mello, Brazil’s economy was still in flux but national democracy had been strengthened decisively. He then founded the new Partido de Movimento Democratico Brasileiro (PMDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, and returned to the senate under its banner. In 1994 he failed to gain the party’s presidential nomination, but his daughter was elected to the senate. Sarney remains a force in national politics and has gained considerable renown as a writer and a poet. Further Reading Ames, Barry. The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. Cleary, David. Local Boy Makes Good: José Sarney, Maranhão, and the Presidency of Brazil. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Glasgow, 1987. Flynn, Peter. “Brazil: The Politics of the Cruzado Plan.” Third World Quarterly 8 (October 1986): 1151–94.


SATO EISAKU Pang, Eul-Soo. “The Darker Side of Brazilian Democracy.” Current History 87 (January 1988): 21–24, 40–41. Sarney, José. “Brazil: A President’s Story.” Foreign Affairs 65, no. 1 (1986): 101–117. Valencia, M. M. “The Closure of the Brazilian Housing Bank and Beyond.” Urban Studies 36 (September 1999): 1747–68.

Sato Eisaku (1901–1975) prime minister of Japan Sato Eisaku was born in Tabuse, Japan, on March 27, 1901, the son of a prosperous brewer. His parents impressed on him a sense of duty to the nation, and in 1924 he graduated from Tokyo Imperial University with a law degree. Having entered the Ministry of Railways, Sato ventured abroad to the United States and Europe, and during World War II he served as the railways’ chief of the bureau of control. He was not tainted as a militarist during the U.S. occupation of Japan and in 1948 was allowed to become vice minister of transportation. In this capacity Sato drew nearer to Prime Minister YOSHIDA SHIGERU, who made him chief cabinet secretary. Shortly after, he abandoned the bureaucracy altogether for politics and won a seat in the Diet (legislature). As Sato’s protégé he held down a number of important government assignments, and in 1954 Yoshida used his influence to save Sato from accusations of bribery and corruption. Once the Liberal Democratic Party was formed, Sato threw his weight behind his brother, Nobusuke Kiski, to become prime minister in 1957, and functioned as his finance minister. He gained valuable experience as minister of international trade and industry and also coordinated the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo. That year Sato challenged IKEDA HAYATO to be party head but lost. However, when illness forced Ikeda out shortly after, Sato succeeded him as prime minister. Sato assumed power at a significant crossroads in Japanese history. The economy was booming, and the nation was ripe for asserting its strategic and economic priorities in the Pacific. In 1965 he negotiated a treaty with South Korea that finally normalized diplomatic relations between the old adversaries. Sato then tackled the touchy issue of American military occupation of Okinawa, the largest of the Ryukyu Islands south of Japan. The United States military had maintained a visible military presence there since 1945, but residents chafed under its governance. In 1969 Sato ventured to

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Washington, D.C., conferred with President RICHARD and signed a new treaty that peacefully returned the Ryukyu and Bonin Islands to Japan. In exchange, Sato voiced his support for the American war in Vietnam and also pledged continuing close relations with the Nationalist regime on Taiwan under CHIANG KAI-SHEK. He also confronted serious domestic disturbances at home. Japan’s college campuses, like those around the world, were beset by political and social unrest, but Sato quickly cracked down and reimposed order. His firmness and success at dealing with the Americans made him extremely popular, and he easily won reelection by wide margins in December 1969. Sato enjoyed great success at expanding Japan’s technological base, making it the world’s second-largest economy after America. Throughout his tenure Japanese consumer and electronic products flourished around the globe and contributed to an embarrassing trade imbalance with the United States and other nations. However, like many Japanese politicians, he was shocked by President Nixon’s surprise decision to visit China in 1972, and his government quickly initiated moves to normalize relations with its former adversary. In 1971 Sato managed to revise the existing Okinawa treaty with the United States, which allowed the Americans to maintain bases on the island under a pledge never to introduce nuclear weapons either there or on the mainland. His decision to allow the Americans to remain incurred political difficulties at home, as did his decision to pursue relations with China while still supporting Taiwan. In the face of interparty squabbling he resigned as prime minister in July 1972 and was replaced by TANAKA KAKUEI. Sato had led Japan for eight years, becoming the longest-serving Japanese prime minister of the 20th century. He died in Tokyo on June 2, 1975, one year after receiving the 1974 Nobel Peace Prize for his work in nuclear disarmament. His tenure in office also coincided with Japan’s reemergence as a major international player. M. NIXON,

Further Reading Dixon, Carl V. “A Transitional Analysis of Political Leadership and Policies in Japan, 1970 to 1973, and Their Effect on the Political Future of Japan.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Texas– Arlington, 1978. Ijiri, Hidenori. “The Politics of Japan’s Decision to Normalize Relations with China, 1969–72.”


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Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of California– Berkeley, 1988. Ikeo, Aiko, ed. Japanese Economics and Economists since 1945. New York: Routledge, 2000. Ito, Go. Alliance in Anxiety: Detente and the SinoAmerican-Japanese Triangle. New York: Routledge, 2003. Luther, Catherine A. Press Images, National Identity, and Foreign Relations: A Case Study of U.S.-Japan Relations from 1955–1995. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Saud, Abd al-Aziz ibn (ca. 1881–1953) king of Saudi Arabia Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud was born in Riyadh around 1881, the son of an influential religious figure, Abd alRahman. The house of Saud had dominated the Arabian peninsula since the 1750s but their control fluctuated and proved tenuous. Intermittent difficulties with the rival house of Rashid resulted in exile to Kuwait in 1891, where Saud was raised in a conservative religious atmosphere. His sect in particular, Wahhabism, stressed purity of Islam and frowned upon corrupting outside influences. Saud matured into an intelligent and courageous young warrior, steeped in the nuances of Arabian tribal politics. Judging the moment right, he raised a small army in 1902, captured Riyadh from the Turks, and extended his control throughout the Qasim region. By 1913 he had captured al-Hasa on the Persian Gulf, which brought him into direct contact with British influence. Two years later Saud signed his first treaty with Great Britain, which promised not to interfere in tribal affairs provided he did not attack British interests. Saud also steered a neutral course during World War I out of his antipathy for the rival Hashemite leaders ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN and FAISAL I, but he was nonetheless rewarded by the British with money and weapons. Thus armed, he renewed his conquest of the peninsula, capturing the holy cities of Mecca and Medina in 1925. Further annexations followed, and in September 1932, Saud declared himself king of Saudi Arabia. He rejected modernism in favor of traditionalism and ruled as a desert sheik with several wives and 43 children. Furthermore he forbade modern representative political institutions and based his rule on strict accordance with traditional Islamic law. However, Saud recognized the use of modern technology, and he

tempered his religious zeal to allow the importation and use of telephones, telegraphs, and highways. Arabia had been a poverty-stricken region dominated by warring clans and religious feuds. Saud imposed order and discipline on his subjects through threats, entreaties, and intermarriage. He also eliminated brigandage by force and ensured that pilgrims could complete their annual trek to Mecca without interference. But the turning point in the history of the peninsula followed the discovery of vast reserves of oil in 1938. He immediately contracted with American companies to form the Arabian American Oil Company and received a steady influx of money from the profits. By 1953 these revenues tallied $2.5 million per week. Within a decade the house of Saud was among the richest families in the world. Cautious and conservative, Saud remained neutral throughout World War II, while still favoring Britain and the United States. In 1945 he gained international stature as a world leader for meeting with President FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT. That same

Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud (Library of Congress)


SCHMIDT, HELMUT year, in light of the coming postcolonial era, he helped to found the Arab League to promote unity among the otherwise fractious Arab polity. Saud reaffirmed his position as a staunch American ally throughout the cold war and received their military protection in return. By the time Saud died on November 9, 1953, Saudi Arabia had been transformed into a region of global and strategic significance. His judicious rule upheld traditional Islamic values and forestalled the onset of political corruption brought about by incredible wealth. He was succeeded by his sons Saud bin Abdul Aziz and, after 1964, FAISAL bin Abd al-Aziz. Still another son, Fahd ibn Abdul Aziz, continues to occupy the throne to the present time. Further Reading Armstrong, Harold C. Lords of Arabia: Ibn Saud. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1998. McLoughlin, Leslie. Ibn Saud: Founder of a Kingdom. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. Peterson, John. Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2003. Rasheed, Madawi al-. A History of Saudi Arabia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Sander, Nestor. Ibn Saud: King by Conquest. Tucson, Ariz.: Hats Off Press, 2001. Schwartz, Stephen. The Two Faces of Islam: The House of Sa’ud from Tradition to Terror. New York: Doubleday, 2002. Teitelbaum, Joshua. The Rise and Fall of the Hashemite Kingdom of Arabia. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Schmidt, Helmut (1918– ) chancellor of Germany Helmut Schmidt was born in Hamburg, Germany, on December 23, 1918, the son of schoolteachers. He was drafted into the German army in 1937 and was highly decorated during World War II. During his captivity with Allied forces he became politically active by joining the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD), Social Democratic Party. Once out of detention Schmidt passed through the University of Hamburg with an economics degree and held various positions within the town government. He was elected to the Bundestag (legislature) as an SPD member in 1953 and quickly gained notice for his effective speaking style.

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Schmidt proved himself an outspoken critic of just about everything—including his own party. In 1959 he helped to draft the Godesberg Program, which forced the party to abandon its traditional far-left positions and move to more mainstream approaches. Schmidt himself published and lectured widely on the subject of national defense, becoming a noted authority—much to the annoyance of SPD radicals. Disillusioned by his opposition role, he left the federal government in 1961 and returned to city politics back in Hamburg. He particularly distinguished himself for organizational skills during the great flood of February 1962 and resumed a career in national politics three years later. Again, Schmidt proved pivotal in helping to arrange a grand coalition between the nominally hostile SPD and the Christian Democrats. In 1969 new elections allowed the SPD to form a coalition government with the liberal Free Democratic Party under WILLY BRANDT, the first Social Democratic government since the 1920s. Schmidt was successively awarded the portfolios of defense and finance, distinguishing himself in both capacities. When Brandt resigned on account of a spy scandal in May 1974, Schmidt was the overwhelming choice to succeed him as chancellor. Unlike the visionary Brandt, Schmidt was a pragmatic centrist in both economics and foreign affairs. He determined to continue his predecessor’s policy of pursuing Ostpolitik with ERICH HONECKER’s East Germany, and he became the first West German chancellor to visit. Schmidt also sought diffusion of cold war tensions through good relations with Poland and the Soviet Union. But he was also fully committed to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) as a bulwark against communist aggression, and he strongly supported the Western alliance. Given the traditional animosity between France and Germany in the 20th century, he sought out especially close ties with French prime minister VALÉRY GISCARD D’ESTAING for coordinating economic policies. Their talks culminated in preliminary steps toward establishing the European monetary union, whose common currency is known today as the euro. Schmidt’s clear-eyed policies clearly resonated with the German electorate, and they reelected him twice in 1976 and 1980. Despite Schmidt’s reputation as a consensus builder, relations with his own party were buffeted by a return to cold war tensions following the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. He worked closely with American president


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JIMMY CARTER to promulgate a “dual track” policy of negotiating arms reductions with the Soviet Union—but threatening to upgrade NATO defenses if reductions were not achieved. When progress proved fleeting, he ignored protests from dissenting elements of the SPD and authorized deployment of new Pershing II and cruise missiles. In 1977 Germany was besieged by a wave of terrorism aimed at destabilizing the government, including kidnappings and airplane hijackings; Schmidt also authorized the first use of military force outside Germany since 1945. His willingness to use force and allow new missiles on German soil severely tested his relations with more leftist members of the SPD, but he otherwise remained true to traditional socialist values. In October 1982, when Schmidt refused to scale back the benefits of the generous welfare state to balance the budget, the Free Democrats bolted from the coalition and he lost a vote of confidence. New elections then placed Helmut Kohl in the chancellor’s office and a new era of conservative dominance commenced. Schmidt retained his seat in the Bundestag until 1987, then retired to become editor of the noted German periodical Die Zeit. Even in retirement, Schmidt remains as outspoken on controversial issues as ever. In March 2002 he took part in the highly emotional national debate over increasing immigration into the country. Again, taking issue with his own party, he insisted that, “Due to idealistic convictions which were formed on the experiences of the Third Reich, we allowed in far too many foreigners. That was something we did not have to do.” Schmidt also contends that Germans are too xenophobic by nature to assimilate the new arrivals.

Further Reading Berry, P. “The Organization and Influence of the Chancellory during the Schmidt and Kohl Chancellorships.” Governance 2 (July 1989): 339–355. Bluth, Christopher. The Two Germanies and Military Security in Europe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Carr, Jonathan. Helmut Schmidt: Helmsman of Germany. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985. Dyson, Kenneth. “The German Model Revisited: From Schmidt to Schroeder.” German Politics 10 (August 2001): 135–154. Miller, Leroy. “Schmidt, Carter, Reagan, and Double Dependency.” War and Society 5, no. 2 (1987): 89–105.

Muller, Stefanie E. “Helmut Schmidt and the NATO Double Track Decision.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Arizona State University, 1994. Schmidt, Helmut. Men and Powers: A Political Memoir. New York: Random House, 1990.

Scullin, James Henry (1876–1953) prime minister of Australia James Henry Scullin was born on September 18, 1876, in Trawalla, Australia, the son of Irish immigrants. He attended only primary school and completed his education through correspondence. Scullin joined the Labor Party in 1903 and three years later unsuccessfully contested Prime Minister ALFRED DEAKIN for his seat in Parliament. He was finally elected in 1910 and gained a reputation as a skilled debater. Defeated in 1913, he edited a labor newspaper for many years and garnered further national attention for himself. In 1916 he represented Victoria state in a federal convention summoned to discuss the volatile issue of conscription. Like many Laborites, Scullin strongly opposed the notion of forced service during World War I. He was also a staunch Irish nationalist who opposed England’s policies in Ireland and embraced what was then a radical socialist agenda. He concluded his eight-year hiatus from office by regaining his seat in the House of Representatives in 1922 and slowly moderated his political views. In 1928 Scullin was elected leader of the Labor Party largely on the basis of his renowned speaking ability and impressive familiarity with finance and tax issues. In October 1929 he defeated STANLEY BRUCE and became the new prime minister of Australia. Labor also won its largest majority in the House since 1901 but the Senate, still in conservative hands, proved intractable and uncooperative. Another contentious point was the fact that Scullin’s cabinet, when it was appointed, contained only two members with any appreciable experience in office. No sooner had Scullin assumed power that he was confronted by the onset of the Great Depression, an event that subsequently shaped and defined his administration. The economy withered, unemployment rose alarmingly, and as loans failed the government was faced with responsibilities toward foreign bond owners. Worse, the conservative Senate refused to pass most of his reform packages, while he faced additional resistance from the Commonwealth Bank of Australia.


SENGHOR, LÉOPOLD SÉDAR Scullin quickly adopted a draconian program to fight the depression: wage decreases, rationing, balancing the budget, and fiscal austerity in general. He sought economic recovery, but in such a manner as to promote, in his own words, “equality of sacrifice.” Initially Scullin was assisted by Secretary of the Treasury Edward Granville Theodore, but Theodore subsequently resigned from office on account of a mining scandal in 1930. This threw administration economic policy into disarray because cabinet members split off into three different factions—a reflection of Labor’s larger malaise. To combat political fallout Scullin convinced Theodore to rejoin the cabinet and assist in drafting a credit expansion plan. But this moderate stance only further divided the already fractious Labor Party and in December 1931 elections Scullin went down to defeat. Scullin remained as head of the party and the opposition in Parliament until 1935 when he was replaced by JOHN CURTIN. Curtin graciously offered him numerous government posts during World War II, but he declined to accept. He remained an influential force within Parliament until his resignation in 1949. Scullin died in Melbourne on January 28, 1953. He was regarded as an upright and scrupulously honest public figure, but overwhelmed by events he could not control—and a party divided against itself. Further Reading Colegrove, John W. “J. H. Scullin, Prime Minister in Adversity.” Unpublished bachelor’s thesis, University of Queensland, 1968. Crisp, L. F., and B. C. Atkinson. “Ramsay Macdonald, James Scullin, and Alfred Deakin at Ballart Imperials Standards, 1906.” Australian Journal of Politics and History 17 (April 1971): 73–81. Denning, Warren, and Frank Moorehouse. James Scullin. Melbourne, Victoria: Black, Inc., 2001. Gregory, R. G., and N. G. Butlin, eds. Recovery from the Depression: Australia and the World Economy in the 1930s. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Robertson, John. J. H. Scullin: A Political Biography. Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press, 1974. Spenceley, Geoffrey F. R. A Bad Smash: Australia in the Depression of the 1930s. New York: McPhee Gribble, 1990.

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Senghor, Léopold Sédar (1906–2002) prime minister of Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor was born in Joal, French West Africa, on October 9, 1906, the son of a wealthy merchant. In addition to belonging to the minority Serer tribe, he was also raised Catholic in a predominantly Muslim land. Senghor attended local missionary schools, where his brilliance earned him a scholarship to study in France. He subsequently passed through the Sorbonne, majoring in the French language, and proved so adept that in 1935 he became the first African to earn a teaching certificate. One of his closest friends was future French president GEORGES POMPIDOU and they maintained a lifelong relationship. While in Paris Senghor also sought out various black intellectuals, and together they helped establish a literary and cultural movement called Negritude, a celebration of “Africanness” in all its forms. And, in spite of his profound attachment to everything French, he sought to liberate native cultures from colonial domination. In time he became the leading exponent and poet of the Negritude movement. Senghor taught in France until World War II, when he was drafted and captured by the Germans. Released in 1942, he joined the French underground resistance until war’s end. After 1946 France began granting its African colonies greater internal autonomy, and that year Senghor was elected to the French National Assembly with the African Bloc, a party affiliated with the Socialists. In this capacity he advocated independence for Africa, but only in the guise of a large French-speaking federation. To do otherwise, Senghor felt, was to promulgate a series of small, politically unstable states. In 1958 President CHARLES DE GAULLE offered the colonies independence at the risk of losing all French financial and technical support. This was the scenario Senghor feared most and in 1959 he spent several months crafting a federation between French West Africa, Dahomey, Upper Volta, and French Sudan as the new Mali Federation. When this entity finally collapsed a year later, the new nation of Senegal arose on August 20, 1960, with Senghor as president. He was also head of the Union de Progressif de Senegalese (UPS), Senegalese Progressive Union, the nation’s only legal party. Senghor may have possessed the appearance of a mild-mannered intellectual and poet, but he proved himself to be an astute politician. Officially, he embraced a moderate form of socialism within the confines of a


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one-party state. He also made deliberate efforts to mitigate the effects of independence by maintaining close political and economic ties to France. However, in December 1962 his prime minister, Mamadou Dia, who wanted to organize Senegal along strict socialist lines, attempted an unsuccessful coup against him. Senghor countered by formalizing UPS rule under a new constitution in February 1963 that granted him greater powers. Otherwise he proved himself a wise and benevolent leader, and highly successful in spite of the fact he was a Christian leading an Islamic nation. To that end he struck close alliances with traditional Muslim leaders in the countryside and also founded economic cooperatives dependent upon his regime. By 1976 Senghor felt his nation was ready for pluralistic politics, and he authorized the legalization of four dissident parties. On December 31, 1980, he suddenly resigned from office midway through his fifth term in favor of Prime Minister Abdou Diouf. His two decades of power marked the rise of Senegal as one of Africa’s freest and most stable nations. Senghor was also the first African head of state to voluntarily relinquish power. In addition to politics, Senghor gained international renown as one of the foremost African poets and essayists of his day. He published several books on prose and poetry that were translated into many languages and sold around the world. In 1984 the prestigious French Academy recognized his efforts by making him their first African member. Senghor died in Dakar on December 20, 2002, a capable leader and a talented writer. He remains highly admired as the father of Senegal’s independence and the architect of its present stability and prosperity. Further Reading Coats, Geoffrey C. “Pre-independence Conceptions of the State in French West Africa: The Political Philosophy of Ahmed Sékou Touré and Léopold Sédar Senghor.” Unpublished master’s thesis, James Madison University, 1994. Johnson, Nancy K. “Senegalese ‘into Frenchmen’?: The Politics of Language, Culture, and Assimilation (1891–1960).” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 2001. Kluback, William. Léopold Sédar Senghor: From Politics to Poetry. New York: P. Lang, 1997. Senghor, Léopold S. On African Socialism. New York: Praeger, 1964.

Léopold Sédar Senghor (Library of Congress)

Spleth, Janice S., ed. Critical Perspectives on Léopold Sédar Senghor. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Three Continents Press, 1993. Vaillant, Janet G. “Homage to Léopold Sédar Senghor, 1906–2001.” Research in African Literatures 33, no. 4 (2002): 17–24. ———. Black, French, and African: A Life of Léopold Sédar Senghor. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Siad Barre, Mohamed (1919–1995) president of Somalia Mohamed Siad Barre was born in Shiilaabo, Italian Somaliland, in 1919, the son of a traditional Marehan shepherd. Orphaned at the age of 10, he showed great


SIAD BARRE, MOHAMED initiative in improving himself and joined the local police while the region was occupied by the British in World War II. Once the Italians returned to the region Siad Barre was selected to receive military training in Italy, and he subsequently transferred to the nascent Somalian army after independence in 1960. He was successively promoted and by July 1965 was functioning as commander of the armed forces. Like many young officers, Siad Barre had grown disillusioned by the corruption associated with civilian rule and, after the assassination of President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke in October 1969, he resolved to strike quickly. Siad Barre and a small clique of officers assumed control of the government, dissolved the national assembly, and established a Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) to run the country. The new regime subsequently embarked on a broad implementation of Marxist-Leninist policies designed to eliminate “tribalism, corruption, nepotism, and misrule,” in their own words. Ironically, while a staunch communist, Siad Barre was also a practicing Muslim and had no difficulty mixing “scientific socialism” with elements of traditional Islam. He also struck up a close and abiding relationship with the Soviet Union in exchange for an influx of modern weapons and thousands of technical advisers. Somalia, one of the world’s poorest countries, was further hindered developmentally by the lack of a written national language. In virtually his only positive contribution to the nation, Siad Barre oversaw adoption of written Somali using a modified Roman alphabet. Great emphasis was also placed on improving literacy and health services for his impoverished countrymen. But as time passed Siad Barre revealed an authoritarian streak in his governance. By 1976 he had adopted a new constitution that made the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP) the nation’s only legal political entity. Siad Barre himself ruled by decree through a rubber-stamp national assembly that he closely controlled. All executive functions, including defense and foreign affairs, were likewise concentrated in his hands. To further grant a facade of legitimacy, the assembly “reelected” him president by unanimous votes in 1980 and 1986. Siad Barre’s only major foreign policy accomplishment was in joining the Arab League in 1974—and soliciting funds from rich Arab states. Siad Barre initially toed the Soviet line in foreign policy and seriously considered their suggestion for entering a confederation with communist-controlled

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Ethiopia. However, in 1974 the Somali-dominated Ogaden region of neighboring Ethiopia rose in revolt against President MENGISTU HAILE MARIAM. Intent upon helping his kinsmen, Siad Barre then launched a full-scale invasion of the barren Ogaden desert, intent upon annexing it to Somalia proper. The Soviets, unable to control their ally, summarily cut off arms shipments and withdrew their advisers to Ethiopia. They inserted large numbers of Cuban mercenaries into the region, who slowly drove the attackers back. Eventually Siad Barre patched up his differences with Ethiopia in 1977 and concentrated instead on squelching the Somali National Movement, a guerrilla group based in the borderlands. After protracted fighting and great cruelty toward suspected sympathizers, the government failed to crush the insurrection and it grew. Worse yet, a new faction, the United Somali Congress, also began concerted guerrilla activity in the south. Over the next three years Siad Barre waged a fierce but losing battle to retain control of the countryside, as popular support for his regime ebbed. When the victorious rebels began a concerted advance on the capital of Mogadishu in January 1991, Siad Barre finally fled the country and was replaced by the warlord Mohammed Farah Aidid. He initially found refuge in nearby Kenya but the government of President Daniel arap Moi found his presence in the country embarrassing and ordered him out. He subsequently resettled in Lagos, Nigeria, and died there on January 2, 1995. Siad Barre’s regime had been among the most brutal and corrupt in all of Africa. In consequence of his 22 years of misrule, Somalia lapsed into a bitter civil war that flares up occasionally to the present day. Further Reading Fitzgerald, Nina J. Somalia: Issues, History, and Bibliography. Huntington, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, 2002. Gebru, Tareke. “The Ethiopia-Somalia War of 1977 Revisited.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 33, no. 3 (2000): 635–667. Lewis, Ioan M. A Modern History of the Somali: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. Oxford: James Currey, 2002. Little, Peter D. Economy without State: Accumulation and Survival in Somalia. Oxford: James Currey, 2003. Samaatar, Ahmed I. Socialist Somalia: Rhetoric and Reality. Highlands, N.J.: Zed Books, 1988.


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Schraeder, Peter J., and Jerel A. Rosati. “Policy Dilemmas in the Horn of Africa: Contradictions in the U.S.Somalia Relationship.” North East African Studies 9, no. 3 (1987): 19–42.

Siles Zuazo, Hernán (1914–1996) president of Bolivia Hernán Siles Zuazo was born in La Paz, Bolivia, on March 21, 1914, a son of Hernando Siles Reyes, a former president of that country. After performing military service in the Chaco War with Paraguay in 1932, he passed through the America Institute and San Andres University and obtained a law degree. Siles Zuazo practiced law briefly before being caught up in tumultuous national politics. In 1941 he assisted VÍCTOR PAZ ESTENSSORO in the founding of the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (MNR), National Revolutionary Movement, an eclectic blend of nationalism, Marxism, and fascism. In 1943 the movement toppled an unpopular dictator and seized power. A countercoup was launched in 1946 and Siles Zuazo was forced to flee the country. The military again intervened in 1951, and the following year a full-scale popular revolution broke out that expelled the army and allowed Paz Estenssoro to resume the presidency. Siles Zuazo served as vice president and four years later he was formally elected chief executive himself. Bolivia was then experiencing acute economic distress owing to high inflation and Siles Zuazo had little recourse but to adopt strict austerity measures imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The new program caused considerable distress among the lower classes and drove union support away from the MNR, but the economy finally stabilized. Siles Zuazo completed the remainder of his term uneventfully and stepped down from power in 1960 to serve as ambassador to Uruguay. In 1964 the military under General RENÉ BARRIENTOS ORTUÑO again intervened and deposed both Paz Estenssoro and the MNR. Siles Zuazo then returned as an opposition member and sought the immediate restoration of democracy to Bolivia. His greatest political weakness was in failing to ally himself to sympathetic factions within the military and, consequently, he lacked support. Siles Zuazo was arrested and deported to Uruguay several times. In 1972 he founded his own MNR de Izquierda (MNRI), a more radical offshoot of his old party and led it into a broad-based political

coalition called the Unidad Democrática y Popular (UDP), Popular and Democratic Union. He then served as the UDP presidential candidate in 1978, 1979, and 1980, received a majority of votes but was forbidden by the military to hold office. Alternately elected and exiled, he finally prevailed in October 1982 and was made president by congress. He was the first civilian leader elected after 18 years of military rule. Siles Zuazo’s second term was characterized by even more extreme hardships than his first. Like all Latin America, Bolivia was awash in national debt and facing the worst economic crisis in its history. Furthermore, both agriculture and the political infrastructure were slowly being eroded by a thriving cocaine industry that had enormous corrupting influences. The nation’s distress was so pervasive that Siles Zuazo suspended payments on the national debt until more realistic terms were granted by the IMF. He was the first Latin American leader to do so and his stance so angered conservative elements that the president was briefly kidnapped and held hostage. When strict austerity measures were finally imposed to tackle surreal inflation rates of 26,000 percent, the economy shrank even further, triggering another round of labor strikes and protests. A broad spectrum of interest groups then began calling for his immediate resignation. At one point even Roberto Suarez Gómez, a major drug lord, offered to help pay off the national debt. With the authority of his presidency crumbling around him, Siles Zuazo called for national elections a year ahead of time, and he stepped aside in July 1985. He then quit politics altogether and relocated to Uruguay. Siles Zuazo died there in Montevideo on August 7, 1996. It was his misfortune to preside over what possibly was the most difficult period in all of Bolivia’s history. But, despite his economic failures, he is regarded as the moving force behind Bolivia’s belated resumption of democracy in the 1980s. Further Reading Alexander, Robert. “Bolivia’s Democratic Experiment.” Current History 84 (February 1985): 73–76, 86–87. Cammack, P. “The Worker’s Movement and the Bolivian Revolution Reconsidered.” Politics and Society 11, no. 2 (1982): 211–222. Kofas, J. V. “The Politics of Adversity: The IMF and U.S. Foreign Policy in Bolivia, 1956–1964.” Journal of Developing Areas 29 (January 1995): 213–236.


SMITH, IAN Malloy, James M. Revolution and Reaction: Bolivia, 1964–1985. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1988. Mitchell, Christopher. The Legacy of Populism in Bolivia: From the MNR to Military Rule. New York: Praeger, 1977. Padilla, John C. “Revolución aceptada: U.S. Relations with Bolivian Revolutionaries during the Eisenhower Era.” Unpublished master’s thesis, New Mexico State University 2002.

Smith, Ian (1919– ) prime minister of Rhodesia Ian Douglas Smith was born in Selukwe, Southern Rhodesia, on April 18, 1919, a son of Scottish settlers. This was a British colony and administered on a racial basis, in which 240,000 whites ruled over 4.5 million blacks. Smith was attending Rhodes University in South Africa when World War II began, so he joined the Royal Air Force as a fighter pilot. He served with distinction but facial injuries left him with a grim, unsmiling demeanor. In 1945 Smith resumed his studies and received a degree in economics. Three years later he was elected to the all-white Legislative Assembly as part of the conservative Liberal Party. When Southern Rhodesia was united with Nyasaland in 1953 to form a federation, Smith joined the new federal parliament with the United Front Party. He proved himself adept at backbench politics, and in November 1956 Prime Minister ROY WELENSKY appointed him the government whip. The federation was then exerting pressure upon Great Britain for independence, and in 1961 they adopted a new constitution allowing limited black representation, 15 seats out of 65. Smith, an ardent racist, felt the concession unwarranted and he quit the party to form a new and more militant organization, the Rhodesian Front (RF). This group utterly opposed concessions toward the black majority under any circumstances. Most white voters apparently agreed with their hard-line stance, and in 1962 the RF captured control of parliament. Smith served as treasury minister and in 1963 the federation was dissolved. On April 13, 1964, he became prime minister of Southern Rhodesia and defiantly exclaimed “I do not expect to see Africans ruling Rhodesia in my lifetime.” While continuing to press for independence, Smith dismissed British demands that he make

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provision for eventual African majority rule. In fact one of his first acts as prime minister was to imprison several leading African nationalists. Extensive talks with British prime minister HAROLD WILSON produced nothing, and on November 11, 1965, Smith unilaterally declared Rhodesia’s independence from the Commonwealth. This was the first such incident since the American Revolution of 1776 and the British were powerless to intervene. When Wilson prodded the United Nations to employ economic sanctions against the rogue colony, the resilient Rhodesians found handy allies in neighboring South Africa and Portuguesecontrolled Mozambique. In March 1970 Smith further thumbed his nose at the British by declaring Rhodesia a republic and severing all ties with the Commonwealth. But black resentment over white supremacy occasioned the rise of guerrilla movements under Joshua Nkomo and Robert Mugabe, and a costly and protracted bush war of liberation ensued. The small Rhodesian army and air force, splendidly trained and led, inflicted punishing blows upon the insurgents but ultimately failed to defeat them. The white community also displayed remarkable resilience in what was essentially a doomed effort, and in 1970 and 1974 they overwhelmingly reelected Smith to office. By 1975 even the recalcitrant Smith was willing to enact cosmetic changes to allow black suffrage. That year, when Mozambique was freed from Portuguese rule, a new guerrilla front opened up, and the whites were increasingly hemmed in on both sides. Smith then held talks with rebel leaders with the assistance of Prime Minister BALTHAZAR VORSTER of South Africa and President KENNETH KAUNDA of Zambia, but he stubbornly refused to compromise. By 1979 the white regime was on its last legs, and talks at Lancaster House in London finally drafted a new constitution guaranteeing black majority rule. The transition to majority rule went smoothly and national elections in February 1980 made Robert Mugabe the new prime minister. Smith continued on in government as minister without portfolio for several months while the country was renamed Zimbabwe. Smith continued serving in parliament until 1987, and he proved one of the government’s most strident critics. He has since retired to his farm in Chiruguri and continues speaking out against the growing tyranny of the Mugabe regime. In August 2001 Smith protested the government’s policy of seizing white-owned farms to


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give to black guerrilla veterans, and urged the multiracial government of South Africa to apply pressure. “What we’ve got to do is get all the powers working together,” he declared defiantly, “and I think there is hope.” Further Reading Coggins, Richard T., and Nicholas Owen. “Rhodesian UDI and the Search for a Settlement, 1964–68.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Oxford, 2002. Home, Gerald. From the Barrel of a Gun: The United States and the War against Zimbabwe, 1965–1980. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. King, Anthony, “Identity and Decolonization: The Policy of Partnership in Southern Rhodesia, 1945–62.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Oxford, 2001. Mungazi, Dickson A. The Last Defenders of the Laager: Ian D. Smith and F. W. de Klerk. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998. Nhema, Alfred G. Democracy in Zimbabwe: From Liberation to Liberalization. Oxford, England: African Books Collective, 2002. Rowe, David M. Manipulating the Market: Understanding Economic Sanctions, Institutional Change, and the Political Unity of White Rhodesia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001. Smith, Ian D. Bitter Harvest. London: Blake, 2001.

his standing among fellow Boers. Smuts then resumed his legal practice, and in 1904 he joined forces with war hero LOUIS BOTHA to found the Het Volk (The People), a political party aimed at securing self-rule. In 1905 Smuts arrived back in England to confer with Prime Minister HENRY CAMPBELL-BANNERMAN, and selfgovernment was granted. Smuts then worked with Botha to effect a political union among the four disparate colonies, and in 1910 the new Union of South Africa was born. Botha became prime minister, while Smuts accepted various portfolios as minister of mines, defense, and the interior. The Het Volk also merged with smaller parties to become the new South African Party (SAP). A political crisis ensued following the outbreak of World War I when Botha, at Smuts’s urging, declined neutrality and aligned the country with Great Britain. This caused a round of civil unrest from the conservative, anti-British Boers, and Smuts was dispatched to

Smuts, Jan (1870–1950) prime minister of South Africa Jan Christian Smuts was born on May 24, 1870, in Ribeek West, Malmesbury district of Cape Province, South Africa, the son of a prosperous Boer (Dutch) farmer. A brilliant student, he graduated from Victoria College at Stellenbosch and subsequently studied law at Cambridge University, England, on a scholarship. Smuts again distinguished himself academically and was called to the bar in 1895, but he returned home to open a practice. Three years later he won appointment as state attorney of Transvaal at the age of 28. However, that same year the Boer War against Great Britain erupted and Smuts won renown as a guerrilla fighter. When the war was lost in 1902, he participated in peace negotiations with the British, further enhancing

Jan Smuts (Library of Congress)


SOBHUZA II restore order. He was then entrusted with the task of driving German forces out of Southwest Africa and Tanganyika, which was accomplished brilliantly. Consequently Smuts represented South Africa at the 1917 Imperial War Conference and was an architect of the Balfour Declaration granting Jews a national home in Palestine. He also proved instrumental in helping establish the Royal Air Force. In 1919 Smuts attended the Paris Peace Conference and called for lenient treatment for Germany and Austria but was overruled. However, he did make a lasting impression by calling for creation of the League of Nations, which materialized the following year. When Botha died in 1919, Smuts became prime minister to succeed him and led the nation through the difficult postwar era. Economic hardships induced a bitter strike by gold miners, and Smuts reluctantly but firmly dispatched troops to quell the disturbance. However, when the economy refused to improve he was defeated in 1924. The victors, the Boerbased National Party, began calling for severing all ties to England and promoting Afrikaner nationalism through strict racial separation (apartheid). The more moderately disposed Smuts then settled in as head of the opposition for a decade. In addition to politics, Smuts published several philosophical tracts that were well received at home and abroad. In 1933 he joined Prime Minister James Hertzog in a fusion government under the United South African National Party banner to promote unity during the Great Depression. Smuts then served as minister of justice until World War II broke out in 1939 and he once again advocated a close alliance with Great Britain. When Hertzog insisted on neutrality he was turned out of office and Smuts became prime minister a second time. In this capacity he provided South African forces for the campaign in North Africa and Great Britain rewarded him with the rank of field marshal. When the war ended in 1945 Smuts attended the first assembly for the new United Nations in San Francisco and helped draft its charter. He returned home a hero but still had to confront a rising tide of Boer nationalism and demands for complete racial separation between black and white South Africans. Smuts, who was something of a liberal in racial matters, urged a gradual adoption of universal suffrage once blacks became “civilized” but he underestimated the appeal of the National Party. In 1948 they completely dominated national elections and Smuts stepped down

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from office a second time. He served briefly as head of the opposition until his death at home on September 11, 1950. Although Smuts has been roundly criticized for failing to head off the apartheid politics that dominated South Africa for the next four decades, he wins universal acclaim as the nation’s most prominent statesman of the 20th century. Further Reading Crowder, Michael. “Tshekedi Khama, Smuts, and South West Africa.” Journal of Modern African Studies 25 (March 1987): 25–42. Geyser, Alfred. “Jan Smuts and Alfred Milner.” Round Table no. 360 (July 2001): 415–432. ———. Jan Smuts and His International Contemporaries. London: Covos-Day, 2002. Harvey, Robert. The Fall of Apartheid: The Inside Story from Smuts to Mbeki. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Hyam, Ronald. The Lion and the Springbok: Britain and South Africa since the Boer War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Schlanger, Nathan. “Making the Past for South Africa’s Future: The Prehistory of Field Marshal Smuts.” Antiquity 76 (March 2002): 200–209. Smuts, Jan C. Toward a Better World. New York: World Book Co., 1944.

Sobhuza II (1899–1982) king of Swaziland Nkhotfotjeni was born in Zombodze, Swaziland, on July 22, 1899, a son of King Ngwane V. His father died months later and he was raised under a regency headed by his grandmother, Queen Labotsibeni. As crown prince he was educated locally before attending the Lovedale Institute in Cape Province, South Africa. Nkhotfotjeni came home in 1918 and was groomed for his succession to the throne. On December 6, 1921, he was crowned Sobhuza II at the age of 22. Among his many other formal titles was that of Ngwenyama (Lion of Swazi). Swaziland at that time had been a British protectorate since 1903 and subject to colonization and exploitation from white settlers in nearby South Africa. It was a poor, underdeveloped region, landlocked and surrounded by stronger tribes. Worse, it had recently lost two-thirds of its lands to Europeans. However, Sobhuza proved himself to be no ordinary monarch and determined to regain his territories. In 1922 he visited London with his royal entourage and pleaded his case


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before King George V. When his request was denied, he made a later appeal to the Privy Council in 1926, which was also turned down. Sobhuza spent the next 15 years exhausting all the legal appeals available to him, and in 1941 he petitioned the new monarch, King George VI. By this time England was at war with Germany and requested military assistance from Swaziland. Sobhuza played coy until the British agreed to demands that his former lands be purchased back from settlers and given to Swazis. In this fashion the wily monarch came to possess two-thirds of the land formerly constituting his domain. It was a rare African victory against England’s colonial administration. In addition to reacquiring land, Sobhuza also determined to end Swaziland’s dependence on the outside world for goods and cultivated economic independence. He helped to found and manage large agricultural projects like the Usutu pine forests, the largest man-made reserves in Africa. He also pioneered new farming techniques and encouraged development of the iron ore industry. With considerable business savvy and insight, Sobhuza presided over the transformation of Swaziland from an impoverished backwater to a thriving economic state. Because he was landlocked between the apartheid regime in South Africa and the Marxist-run government of Mozambique, Sobhuza also proved himself diplomatically astute. He performed a delicate balancing act between the feuding nations, being dependent upon their transportation net to get Swaziland exports to market. Sobhuza may have been a modernizer politically, but he was strictly a traditionalist in governance. Before granting Swaziland independence in September 1968, Britain made the king agree to reign as a constitutional monarch with limited powers and beholden to a parliamentary legislature. Sobhuza agreed in principle to the changes but he found the concept of democracy alien to traditional practices and therefore “un-Swazi.” As king, he made it a point to dress in his royal regalia of feathers and hides and impressed upon his 600,000 subjects the necessity of preserving their identity through tradition. To facilitate this, he coopted the British by founding his own Imbokodvo (royal) Party in 1964, which was completely loyal to the Crown and controlled the legislature following independence. He toyed with democracy as long as it proved expedient, but by April 1973 the king had had enough. That month he unilaterally suspended the constitution, abolished parliament

and political parties, and substituted a more traditional council of appointed nominees. Henceforth he ruled as an absolute monarch by decree, while still evoking tremendous affection and respect from his people. Sobhuza further enhanced his power through an intricate system of intermarriage that bound up tribal loyalties to his own Dlamini clan. Ultimately he acquired 100 wives and sired upward of 600 children. By the time Sobhuza died in Mbabane on August 21, 1982, he was the world’s longest-serving monarch. His 61 years on the throne were marked by peace, prosperity, and independence, an achievement that made him one of the most successful African leaders of modern times. Further Reading Cocks, Paul. “The King and I: Bronislaw, King Sobhuza II of Swaziland, and the Vision of Cultural Change in Africa.” History of Human Sciences 13 (November 2000): 25–47. Gillis, D. Hugh. The Kingdom of Swaziland: Studies in Political History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999. Kunene, Gerard S. “British Colonial Policy in Swaziland, 1920–1960.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., York University, 1992. Kuper, Hilda. Sobhuza II, Ngwenyama and King of Swaziland: The Story of a Hereditary Leader and His Country. New York: Africana, 1978. Lowe, Christopher C. “Swaziland’s Colonial Politics: Decline of Progressivist South African Nationalism and the Emergence of Swazi Political Traditionalism, 1910–1939.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1999. Simelane, Hamilton S. “War, Economy, and Society in Colonial Swaziland, 1939–1945.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1991.

Somare, Michael (1936– ) prime minister of Papua New Guinea Michael Somare was born on Karau, New Guinea, on April 9, 1936, the son of a policeman. The eastern half of the island was then administered by Australia as a League of Nations mandate. He was educated at local missionary schools and completed teacher training at the Sogeri Secondary School in 1956. Somare then taught for a decade until 1965, when he enrolled at the


SOMOZA DEBAYLE, ANASTASIO Administrative College in Port Moresby. His experience there with other native students radicalized his politics, and in 1967 he helped to found Panhu Pati (PP), a party dedicated to independence and self-governance. The following year he successfully ran for a seat in the House of Assembly and began promoting his cause. This proved no mean feat, for Papua New Guinea is home to 1,000 diverse tribes speaking over 500 languages. Moreover, separatist movements were already at play in the highlands and on the important island of Bougainville. Residents also feared a loss of Australian financial and technical aid should independence came. Nonetheless, Somare, a large, impressive man, continued rising politically by dint of his personality, and in 1972 he formed a coalition government with the rival United Party (UP) to become chief minister. This constituted Papua New Guinea’s first indigenous administration and Somare wasted no time venturing into the highlands to cement political alliances there. Australia, meanwhile, sensed what was coming and generally supported the drive toward independence in an orderly, peaceful manner. Internal autonomy was granted in 1973 and that year Somare promulgated an Eight Point Plan containing his proposed social and economic policy. In September 1975 Papua New Guinea became a new nation and Somare continued on as its first prime minister. Once in power, Somare had his hands full addressing economic issues, as well as a militant separatist movement on Bougainville. In 1976 the secessionists openly rebelled against the government, and many encouraged Somare to stamp out the rebellion by force. However, the prime minister arrived on the island to conduct talks with rebel leadership in person, and they reached a peaceful solution after agreeing to tax concessions. For his decisive performance, Somare was easily reelected in 1977 just as trouble in the highlands broke out. Crime and resentment against central authority proved endemic, and this time he was unable to address problems quickly. In March 1980 a new coalition was formed under Julius Chan, and Somare stepped down from office. Two years later the PP scored a complete election victory and Somare was reinstated as prime minister. He remained in power three more years before losing a vote of confidence over budgetary matters in November 1985 to Paias Wingti. When the PP returned to power three years later, Somare was made foreign minister and in 1990 he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. He was then forced to address

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another violent rebellion on Bougainville by separatist guerrillas. Somare, assisted by diplomats from New Zealand, finally managed to contain the movement peacefully in January 1991. Nevertheless Somare was ousted from office the following year when the PP lost a new round of elections. In 1993 he quit the PP leadership altogether and formed a new party, the National Alliance. In July 1997 Somare attempted to regain the premiership but lost heavily, and the magnitude of the defeat seemed to spell the end of his career in politics. But on August 5, 2002, he was again elevated to prime minister by assembling a coalition government and ousting Sir Mekere Morauta’s People’s Democratic Movement from power. Curiously, and perhaps reflecting the fractious nature of Papua New Guinea politics, Somare’s National Alliance holds only 19 seats of 109 in parliament, and is part of a seven-party coalition. In recognition of his skill as a negotiator and a consensus builder, Somare continues to be informally known as “the chief.” Further Reading Hegarty, D., and P. King. “Papua New Guinea in 1982: The Election Brings Change.” Asian Survey 23 (February 1983): 212–226. King, Peter. “Papua New Guinea in 1983: Pangu Consolidates.” Asian Survey 24, no. 2 (1984): 159–166. Lenon, M. “Papua New Guinea: Remaking Alliances.” Arena 80 (December 1987): 42–46. O’Callaghan, Mary L. Enemies Within: Papua New Guinea, Australia, and the Sandline Crisis: The Inside Story. New York: Doubleday, 1999. Saffu, Y. “Papua New Guinea in 1987: Wingati’s Coalition in a Disabled System.” Asian Survey 28 (February 1988): 242–251. Siaguru, Anthony. In-house in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Asia Pacific Press, 2001. Somare, Michael T. Sana: An Autobiography. Port Moresby: Niugini, 1975.

Somoza Debayle, Anastasio (1925–1980) president of Nicaragua Luis Anastasio Somoza Debayle was born in León, Nicaragua, on December 5, 1925, a son of Nicaraguan president ANASTASIO SOMOZA GARCÍA. He was educated


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locally before being sent to the United States to attend a private military school. Somoza graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1946 and returned. He then became part of the feared Nicaraguan National Guard, which very much constituted the basis of the Somoza family’s power. He would wield it as a private army. In 1956 Somoza became commander of the guard shortly before his father was assassinated. His brother Luis then assumed the presidency, while he undertook a brutal interrogation of suspects. In 1963 Luis Somoza stepped down from office in favor of René Shick, while Somoza used the National Guard to clamp down on political opposition. In 1967 he promoted himself to major general before resigning and declaring his candidacy as president. The ensuing process was marred by the usual violence and fraud, and he was “elected” to office, the third and final member of the Somoza family dynasty. Like his father, Somoza used his office for the sole purpose of self-enrichment and political repression. His tenure in office was marked by corruption and brutality toward all those who opposed him. Somoza proved eager to placate conservative critics and monied interests by guaranteeing them 40 percent of seats in the national legislature. Thus in 1971 they arranged for Somoza to succeed himself in office through constitutional amendment. But his excesses coincided with the rise of a Marxist resistance movement under DANIEL ORTEGA, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), more commonly known as the Sandinistas. A vicious cycle of guerrilla warfare, interspersed with harsh crackdowns, then ensued for many years. The turning point in Somoza’s regime occurred in the wake of a deadly earthquake that struck Managua in December 1972. He used it as a pretext for declaring a state of siege and ruling by decree. Thousands of people were either killed or left homeless, but Somoza began a bidding war to start buying up victims’ property. He also managed to abscond with significant portions of relief money sent to assist survivors. His behavior managed to unite a vast coalition of interests against him, ranging from extreme left to conservative right. Even the Catholic Church, a nominal Somoza ally, came down against him. But protests, when they emerged, were swiftly and harshly suppressed by force. Rigged elections in 1974 gave Somoza another six years in office while the ongoing Sandinista conflict resulted in human rights violations on both sides. In 1977 a new American

president, JIMMY CARTER, began reducing military assistance just as Cuba and the Soviet Union increased theirs to rebel forces. Curiously, during this same interval, Somoza expanded family holdings to virtually every aspect of Nicaraguan business, including real estate, banking, gambling, prostitution, and the drug trade. Before he died he was estimated to have amassed a personal fortune in excess of $900 million. In January 1978 the regime overstepped its bounds by assassinating opposition newspaper editor Pedro Joaquín Chamorro. The result was a spontaneous outbreak of marches and demonstrations demanding Somoza’s ouster. When the National Guard responded with its usual brutality, this time the ranks of the Sandinista guerrillas began to swell. A series of wellorchestrated offensives delivered larger and larger amounts of the countryside into their hands and they began attacking Managua with impunity. Somoza consented to an American mediation effort between his government and the guerrillas, but he refused all proposals to hold a national referendum on the future of his regime. Mounting internal opposition, coupled with a declaration from the Organization of American States in June 1979, finally induced Somoza to resign. On July 17, 1979 he turned affairs of state over to Vice President Francisco Urcuyo and left for Miami. His 13 years of misrule allowed the communists finally to establish a beachhead in Central America. Somoza subsequently settled in Paraguay at the invitation of President ALFREDO STROESSNER. He was assassinated in Asunción by Argentine guerrillas on September 17, 1980. With his passing the bloody 43year reign of the Somoza dynasty reached its ignominious ending. Further Reading Alegria, Claribel. Death of Somoza. Willimantic, Conn.: Curbstone Press, 1996. Cruz, A. “After Somoza, the Flood.” North-South 3 (August–September 1993): 18–23. Gambone, Michael D. Capturing the Revolution: The United States, Central America, and Nicaragua, 1961–1972. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2001. Morely, Morris H. Washington, Somoza, and the Sandinistas, 1969–1981. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Pezzullo, Lawrence. At the Fall of Somoza. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993.


SOMOZA GARCÍA, ANASTASIO Ryan, Phil. “Structure, Agency, and the Nicaraguan Revolution.” Theory and Society 29 (April 2000): 187–213. Somoza, Anastasio. Nicaragua Betrayed. Boston: Western Islands, 1988.

Somoza García, Anastasio (1896–1956) president of Nicaragua Anastasio Somoza García was born in San Marcos, Nicaragua, on February 1, 1896, the son of an affluent landowner. He was educated locally and subsequently attended the Pierce School of Business in Philadelphia, where he perfected his English language skills. Back home he enhanced his social standing by marrying into the wealthy Debayle family and becoming active in Liberal Party politics. Throughout the 1920s Nicaragua verged on civil war between competing factions, and United States Marines were dispatched to maintain order. Renewed fighting brought them back in the early 1930s and Somoza, given his language proficiency and familiarity with American culture, offered his services as a translator. In 1932 his wife’s uncle, Juan Bautista Sacasa, was elected to the presidency and—with American blessing—Somoza was appointed commander of the new National Guard. Once the marines were withdrawn that year, he moved swiftly to consolidate his position within the military to provide a base of support. In 1934 Somoza orchestrated the assassination of rebel leader Augusto Cesar Sandino, who had gained renown by resisting American intervention, thereby cementing his allegiance with the business classes. Success emboldened Somoza to overthrow Sacasa in 1936, and he seized control of the government altogether. In January 1937 he became president through fraudulent elections but, with the National Guard looming in the background, criticism remained muted. For the next two decades Somoza ran Nicaragua like a personal fiefdom, using every conceivable opportunity to line his pockets with the national treasure. He bought out the leadership of the Liberal Party and made it an official adjunct of his money-raising organizations. Furthermore, he headed off conservative opposition through bribery and accorded them 40 percent of seats in the national legislature. Those individuals failing to cooperate were persuaded by the National Guard to do so. In this manner Somoza became the biggest landowner in the country with assets totaling $150 million. He

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strove to project an air of modernity, and in 1939 American president FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT received him with great fanfare. Mindful that he could not rule forever by force alone, Somoza authorized certain reforms such as a labor code in 1944, an income tax in 1952, and a National Development Institute in 1953. He also implemented market changes to lessen the country’s dependency on banana exports and marginally improved the working conditions of most peasants. These cosmetic changes notwithstanding, his grip on power remained absolute. In 1947, after prodding by the United States, Somoza briefly stepped down and allowed a succession of puppet presidents to run the nation. In 1950 Somoza arranged for his own reelection to high office where he remained another six years. American criticism of Somoza’s regime tapered off at the onset of the cold war, thanks to his peerless credentials as an anticommunist. He was more than willing to act as an American watchdog for Central America—since it coincided with his own best interests. In 1951 Somoza allowed CIA operatives to use Nicaraguan airfields in their coup against JACOBO ARBENZ GUZMÁN in Guatemala and he also allowed antigovernment guerrillas to stage attacks against Costa Rican president JOSÉ FIGUERES FERRER. But despite his impressive record of promoting economic growth, Somoza perpetually enriched himself while the majority of the population saw little benefit. The unbelievable disparity of wealth between the president and his cronies on one hand and ordinary citizens on the other incited resistance to his continuation in power. On September 21, 1956, Somoza was shot by a gunman shortly after being nominated for a fifth term in office. He died on September 30 at a U.S. Army hospital in Panama and was succeeded by his sons Luis Somoza Debayle (1956–63) and ANASTASIO SOMOZA DEBAYLE (1967–79), who continued the family’s tradition of corruption and oppression. Further Reading Clark, Paul C. The United States and Somoza, 1933–1956: A Revisionist Look. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1992. Gambone, Michael D. Eisenhower, Somoza, and the Cold War in Nicaragua, 1953–1961. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1997. Gould, Jeffrey. “For an Organized Nicaragua: Somoza and the Labor Movement, 1944–1948.” Journal of


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Latin American Studies 19 (November 1987): 353–387. Krenn, Michael L. “Life with Somoza: The United States and Dictatorship in Nicaragua, 1945–1954.” Secolas Annals 26 (1995): 48–56. Walter, Knut. The Regime of Anastasio Somoza, 1936–1956. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Souphanouvong (1909–1995) president of Laos Souphanouvong was born at Luang Prabang, Laos, on July 13, 1909, a son of Viceroy Boun Khong. As a member of the royal Laotian family he was well educated in Hanoi before studying civil engineering in Paris, France. He became politically active while abroad and was attracted to the French Communist Party. Souphanouvong came home to construct bridges throughout Indochina, all the while resenting the second-class status accorded himself and fellow Asians by the French. After the Japanese withdrew from Vietnam in August 1945, he ventured to Hanoi to establish contacts with Vietnamese nationalist and communist HO CHI MINH, who provided him with arms and a military escort back to the Laotian capital of Vientiane. There he became minister of defense until 1946, when the French returned in force and chased the nationalists to Thailand. Thereafter Souphanouvong became so closely allied to the Vietnamese communists that he gained the sobriquet of Red Prince. From exile he founded a Laotian communist movement in 1950, the Pathet Lao (Lao Nation), and commenced a guerrilla war against the Westerners. In 1953 the French formally relinquished control of Indochina, and the following year Souphanouvong conferred in Geneva with his half brother, SOUVANNA PHOUMA, about forming a coalition government. He subsequently received the portfolio of minister of planning and economic development, while an uneasy truce prevailed between communist and royalist interests. In office Souphanouvong proved himself a vigorous official, and he was elected deputy from Vientiane by a large majority. He had originally hoped to integrate the Pathet Lao into the fabric of society but his close liaison with Vietnam—a traditional Laotian enemy—sparked a confrontation with conservative military elements. In July 1959 open hostility broke out between the opposing camps and Souphanouvong

was arrested and imprisoned. He escaped the following year and remained in the jungles until 1961, when he served as the Pathet Lao delegate to another Geneva conference on Laos. Souvanna Phouma then entreated him to join a new coalition government. This endeavor proved no more successful than the first, and it collapsed in 1963. Souphanouvong then made his way back to Hanoi to formally ally himself with the Vietnamese communists in a war of national liberation. By this time Southeast Asia was embroiled in the second Indochina war, this time against the United States, which clandestinely bombed Pathet Lao positions throughout Laos. Nonetheless, Laotian communists conducted a stubborn guerrilla war against the royalists and, after the Americans withdrew from the region in 1973, they quickly overran most of the countryside. That February Souvanna Phouma agreed to an armistice with the communists, and by April 1974 another shaky coalition government had been hammered out. However, with the final communist victory over South Vietnam in April 1975, Souphanouvong formally assumed control in Laos and installed a communist government. In December 1975 the People’s Democratic Republic of Laos came into being with Souphanouvong acting in the ceremonial role as president. This was more out of respect for his lifelong devotion to the party than for any innate political skills on his part. The Pathet Lao he founded was also disbanded and replaced by the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP) under Kaysone Phomvihane. Souphanouvong continued serving as president until poor health prompted his resignation in 1986. He nonetheless clung to a seat with the party Politburo until March 1991. The Red Prince died in Vientiane on January 9, 1995, a pivotal figure in the rise and ultimate triumph of Laotian communism. Further Reading Castle, Timothy N. At War in the Shadow of Vietnam: U.S. Military Aid to the Royal Lao Government, 1955–1975. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Gunn, Geoffrey C. “Prince Souphanouvong: Revolutionary and Intellectual.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 22, no. 1 (1992): 94–103. Joiner, Charles A. “Laos in 1986: Administrative and Internationally Partially Adaptive Communism.” Asian Survey 21, no. 1 (1987): 104–114.


SOUVANNA PHOUMA Shaw, Geoffrey D. T. “Laotian ‘Neutrality’: A Fresh Look at a Key Vietnam War Blunder.” Small Wars and Insurgencies 31, no. 1 (2002): 25–56. Simms, Peter, and Sanda Simms. The Kingdom of Laos: Six Hundred Years of History. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2001. Souphanouvong, Prince. Autobiography of Prince Souphanouvong. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysia Mining Corporation Berhad, 1989.

Souvanna Phouma (1901–1984) prime minister of Laos Souvanna Phouma was born in Luang Prabang, Laos, on October 7, 1901, a son of Viceroy Boun Khong. He attended private academies in Hanoi before enrolling in the Universities of Paris and Grenoble to study engineering. In 1931 Souvanna Phouma joined the Public Works Service, rising quickly to director by 1945. That year the Japanese occupying army urged Laos to declare its independence from France, and Souvanna Phouma joined the free national government. However, when the French reasserted control in 1946, both he and his half brother, Prince SOUPHANOUVONG, fled to Thailand and safety. Souvanna Phouma remained there until 1949, when France finally allowed Laos to seek independence from colonial rule. He thereupon returned to occupy various government ministries and in November 1951 Souvanna Phouma was elected prime minister. However, the onset of independence did little to ameliorate the fractious nature of Laotian politics. While Souvanna Phouma worked for the royal government, his half brother solicited aid from HO CHI MINH’s Vietnamese communists to overthrow it. Six years of low-level guerrilla warfare continued until November 1957 when Souvanna Phouma, striving to maintain Laotian neutrality, allowed the communist Pathet Lao into a coalition government. The arrangement lasted one year before conservative elements in the military, backed by the United States, kicked the communists out, and the insurgency resumed. Souvanna Phouma subsequently resigned from high office and submitted to political exile as ambassador to France. After severe fighting in a three-way split between royalists, neutrals, and communists, the competing factions agreed to a Geneva conference in 1962 and another coalition was formed. This was done at the behest of

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the Soviet Union and the United States, who sought to preserve Laotian neutrality for their own ends. Souvanna Phouma was thus reinstated as prime minister and he resumed steering Laos down its perilous course between armed camps. Unfortunately, all of Southeast Asia was by then embroiled in the greater conflict between the United States and North Vietnam. The Americans, fearing that the Pathet Lao would overthrow the government, applied economic pressure on Souvanna Phouma to eject them from the coalition. He did so in 1963 and the civil war recommenced, only this time underscored by American air power, Thai and Hmong mercenaries, and increasing North Vietnamese aid and advisers. For a decade Souvanna Phouma sought reconciliation with the communists to bring them back into the fold, but they were too indebted to Hanoi to compromise. Likewise the United States would not tolerate any government with communists in it for fear they would covertly assist the North Vietnamese. Thus a secret and ancillary campaign evolved whereby the communists infiltrated large numbers of troops and supplies down the Ho Chi Minh trail through Laos while the Americans used air power and other means to interdict them. They also bombed Pathet Lao forces in the field whenever possible. Laos had unwillingly become a battleground between competing domestic factions, who were themselves pawns in a much larger game. After 1973 the United States began withdrawing its forces from the region and Souvanna Phouma moved quickly to establish a cease-fire and a new coalition government with Souphanouvong. But following North Vietnam’s conquest of South Vietnam in April 1975, the Pathet Lao insisted on complete dominance. The People’s Democratic Republic of Laos was then established and Souvanna Phouma stepped down as prime minister for the last time. In recognition of his sincere efforts to secure Laotian neutrality during very tumultuous times, he was not punished and, in fact, remained on as a governmental adviser. He died in Vientiane on January 11, 1984, the most influential Laotian politician of the revolutionary generation. Further Reading Dickey, Angela. “Reporting Laos: U.S. Media and the ‘Secret’ War in Laos, 1955–1975.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Maryland–College Park, 2001.


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Grant, Evens. A Short History of Laos: The Land in Between. Crowns Nest, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin, 2002. Homsany, John-Thomas A. “John F. Kennedy, the Soviet Union, and the Laos Crisis, 1961–1962.” Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University–Fullerton, 2000. Koprowski, Daniel C. “John F. Kennedy, the Development of Counterinsurgency Doctrine and American Intervention in Laos, 1961–1963.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Massachusetts–Amherst, 2000. Quincy, Keith. Harvesting Pa Chay’s Wheat: The Hmong and America’s Secret War in Laos. Spokane, Wash.: Eastern Washington University Press, 2000. Stuart-Fox, Martin. Historical Dictionary of Laos. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2001. Verrone, Richard B. “Behind the Wall of Geneva: Lao Politics, American Counterinsurgency, and Why the U.S. Lost in Laos, 1961–1965.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Texas Tech University, 2001.

Spínola, António de (1910–1996) president of Portugal António Sebastião Ribeiro de Spínola was born in Estremoz, Portugal, on April 11, 1910, part of an established aristocratic family. He attended the Escola Militar and graduated in 1933 as a cavalry officer. That same year ANTÓNIO DE OLIVEIRA SALAZAR overthrew the republican government and established a right-wing dictatorship that lasted 40 years. Against this background Spínola fulfilled his military obligations to the country, first in assisting the regime of FRANCISCO FRANCO during the Spanish civil war and then as an observer of German forces during World War II. A competent professional soldier, he continued rising through the ranks on merit, and by 1961 he was a lieutenant colonel. At that time Portuguese African colonies were beset by communist-inspired wars of liberation, and Spínola was dispatched there to suppress them. An internecine bush war unfolded and Spínola acquired a national reputation for dash and heroism under trying circumstances. In 1964 he was recalled to head the National Republican Guard and two years later advanced in rank to brigadier general. However, the deteriorating situation in Africa demanded his return, so in 1968 he was appointed military governor of Portuguese Guinea

(Guinea-Bissau). In a campaign for “hearts and minds,” Spínola sought to win over the populace not simply through intimidation, but by building roads, hospitals, and schools. However, under the enlightened leadership of AMILCAR CABRAL, the rebel movement kept gaining popular support. Spínola had failed to crush the insurrection, but in 1973 he nonetheless returned home a national hero once more, was highly decorated, and promoted to deputy chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. To Spínola, Portugal’s inability to retain its colonies—and the national obsession for doing so— spoke to a greater malaise in national society. In 1974 he addressed these problems in a book entitled Portugal and the Future, which shook the existing political order to its foundations. Here Spínola declared the colonial wars unwinnable and, while not advocating independence, suggested that the colonies should be allowed into a federal arrangement with the homeland and entitled to complete political rights. He further hinted that the nation itself should embrace democratic reforms and liberalization of the economy. His argument struck a responsive chord with the populace, who were weary of losing money and lives in a quixotic imperial strategy. Such honesty, long overdue in Portuguese political dialogue, further elevated his status as a national hero and spokesman, but the government responded by dismissing him from office. It fell upon disenchanted elements within the army officer corps to effect immediate change by forming the Armed Forces Movement. On April 25, 1974, they staged a bloodless coup that toppled the dictatorship of Marcelo Caetano. Spínola’s participation in the affair has never been documented, but he publicly lauded the rebels. As Portugal’s greatest living military hero, he could confer both leadership and legitimacy on the young officers, so he became head of the Junta of National Salvation to initiate democratic change. In short order he authorized freedom of speech, of the press, and of political parties for the first time since 1933. The return of exiles, the release of political prisoners, and the disbanding of the secret police shortly followed. On May 15, 1974, Spínola was also appointed president of Portugal until national elections could be orchestrated. However, en route the national revolution was hijacked by communists and other radicals who sought to impose a left-wing dictatorship in place of the old, conservative one. Sympathetic military officers then seized the initiative by granting immediate


STALIN, JOSEPH independence to all African colonies. Spínola watched silently as events bore out, but he finally protested when the radicals began nationalizing industries. His more moderate approach brought him the wrath of the radical left, who branded him a traitor. With anarchy breaking out around him, Spínola attempted to seize complete power in March 1975 but was ousted in a coup. He then fled the country for Brazil but returned the following year as pent-up revolutionary zeal finally exhausted itself. The former general thereafter took no further role in national politics. He died in Lisbon on August 13, 1996. Spínola’s tenure in office lasted less than a year, but his measures placed Portugal irrevocably down the road toward democracy after four decades of dictatorship. Further Reading Cabral, Adalino. “Voices from Portugal’s Colonial War in Africa.” Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University–Dominguez Hills, 2001. Cann, John P. Counterinsurgency in Africa: The Portuguese Way of War, 1961–1974. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997. MacQueen, Norrie. “António de Spínola and the Decolonization of Portuguese Africa.” Diplomacy and Statecraft 7, no. 2 (1996): 436–465. Manuel, Paul C. Uncertain Outcome: The Politics of the Portuguese Transition to Democracy. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1994. Raby, Dawn L. Fascism and Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals, and Military Dissidents in the Opposition to Salazar, 1941–1974. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988. Spínola, Manuel. Portugal and the Future. Johannesburg: Perskor Publishers, 1974.

Dzhugashvili had become deeply involved in Marxist agitation throughout Georgia, was arrested, and exiled to Siberia. He escaped soon after and, secretly locating to Moscow, joined the Social Democratic Party. Around this time Dzhugashvili also adopted the pseudonym Stalin (“steel”) as his last name. When the Social Democrats split into Menshevik and Bolshevik factions, he joined the latter under the auspices of professional revolutionary VLADIMIR LENIN. Stalin quickly established a reputation for craftiness and ruthlessness—even by Russian standards—so in 1912 he was allowed to join the party’s Central Committee. In this capacity he helped orchestrate the clandestine campaign to overthrow the Russian monarchy and displayed genuine talent as a propagandist. After the revolution of October 1917 the Bolsheviks seized control of the country and eventually prevailed in a bloody civil war with conservative forces. Stalin, operating largely in the background of events, made his presence felt throughout the party even though Lenin and other revolutionaries, like Leon Trotsky, distrusted him

Stalin, Joseph (Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (1879–1953) secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili was born in Gori, Georgia (Russian empire), on December 21, 1879, into a poor peasant household. Highly intelligent, he won a scholarship to attend the Tiflis Orthodox Theological Seminary in 1893 and performed well. However, here he was first exposed to the radical ideas of Karl Marx and was subsequently expelled for revolutionary activities in 1898. Within two years

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intensely. Both underestimated the diminutive Georgian’s guile, and on April 4, 1922, Stalin was appointed secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Before Lenin died in January 1924, he began warning his compatriots that Stalin could not be trusted and declared that in a memorandum. However, since Stalin controlled the party information apparatus, the memo was suppressed. Over the next four years he continually purged the party of his leading opponents, including Trotsky, and consolidated his grip on power. By 1929 he was free to implement his vision of a highly centralized, industrial state and issued the first of several five-year plans. The first entailed widespread collectivization of agriculture, namely, the forced concentration of farmers and equipment on state-owned farms. This was in essence a crash program designed to bring Russia out of the agrarian age and into the 20th century. Impressive progress was made in production, but collectivization met fierce resistance from the peasant classes. Stalin responded with wholesale repression and terror. He greatly expanded the NKVD, the dreaded secret police, who arrested, detained, and executed millions of people with abandon. The government also engineered an artificial famine in the Ukraine to wipe out the kulaks (wealthy peasants) as a class. By the 1930s the Soviet Union boasted an impressive industrial base and the world’s largest military. But Stalin, a paranoid personality, continued seeing potential enemies everywhere around him. In 1934 he began purging the Communist Party of suspected malcontents, placing the accused in public “show trials” and executing them in droves. The event, known as the Great Terror, also extended to members of the military, and Stalin ordered the deaths of many leading generals. Concurrently, he began developing a national cult of personality around himself in which poets, painters, and songwriters commemorated him. If anything, Stalin raised totalitarianism to a fine art. In June 1941 German dictator ADOLF HITLER commenced a massive invasion of the Soviet Union to destroy communism and acquire land. The massive Red Army, thanks to Stalin’s interference, was routed in the early stages of the war and suffered astronomical casualties. Fortunately for Russia, the front stabilized, and Stalin began receiving military supplies and equipment from British prime minister WINSTON CHURCHILL and American president FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, with

whom he also conferred on several occasions. After the deaths of nearly 20 million people, the Red Army, in concert with the forces of the Western Allies, finally defeated Nazi Germany in May 1945. Stalin, an able negotiator, had since secured from Churchill and Roosevelt pledges of noninterference while he acquired Eastern Europe as a buffer zone against future aggression. The Soviet Union by this time possessed one of the largest military establishments in history, but Stalin, paranoid as ever, refused to trust his erstwhile allies. He then sealed off Eastern Europe from their influences, an act prompting Churchill to declare that “an iron curtain” had fallen across the region. Stalin’s aggressive posturing against his erstwhile allies commenced a new phase of global confrontation known as the cold war, which pitted the communist East against the capitalist West. In 1948 he orchestrated a land blockade of West Berlin in a failed attempt to evict the Allies from East Germany. He was thwarted by the Berlin airlift, the largest such supply effort in history. But Stalin’s most direct action was in supplying arms and advisers to North Korea, which attacked neighboring South Korea, an American ally, in June 1950. The fighting escalated until American forces were committed by U.S. president HARRY S. TRUMAN. This, in turn, triggered Communist Chinese intervention under MAO ZEDONG. The bloody impasse continued up through June 1953, when an armistice was signed and both East and West girded themselves for future confrontations. Through the early 1950s Stalin’s health had seriously declined, and he was about to order another wholesale purge of the Communist Party when he suddenly died on March 5, 1953. A scramble for power in the Kremlin ensued, and a group of moderates under NIKITA S. KHRUSHCHEV finally prevailed. Many of Stalin’s most loyal and notorious supporters were themselves rounded up and executed, suffering the same fate they had inflicted on untold millions. In 1956 Khrushchev took the unprecedented step of denouncing Stalin’s crimes and atrocities before the assembled party leadership in Moscow. Without any exaggeration, Stalin was one of the most heinous dictators of all time and a black mark on Russian history. However, he also left a powerful legacy in transforming his nation from semifeudal status into a superpower capable of challenging the United States with nuclear weapons. Given the chaotic state of Russian affairs today, many former communists continue paying homage to the deceased tyrant.


STOLYPIN, PYOTR In March 2003, the 50th anniversary of Stalin’s death, over 3,000 communists and nationalists led a solemn procession past Stalin’s grave on Red Square. Despite the deaths of over 20 million citizens by firing squads and starvation, and in the notorious Siberian gulags (labor camps), many Russians look favorably upon the discipline and vitality of the former Soviet Union with pride and laud him as a model leader. “Stalin was a great statesman who had a strong fighting character and a strong will,” declared Communist leader Gennady Zyuganov. He is likely both to be reviled as a tyrant and hailed as a hero for many years to come. Further Reading Brackman, Roman. The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 2002. Brent, Jonathan. Stalin’s Last Crime: The Plot against the Jewish Doctors, 1948–1953. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Filtzer, Donald A. Soviet Workers and Late Stalinism: Labour and the Restoration of the Stalinist System after World War II. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Hoyt, Edwin P. Stalin’s War: Tragedy and Triumph, 1941–1945. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2002. Mawdsley, Evan. The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union, 1929–1953. New York: Manchester University Press, 2003. McLoughlin, Barry, and Kevin McDermott, eds. Stalin’s Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Miner, Steven M. Stalin’s Holy War: Religion, Nationalism, and Alliance Politics, 1941–1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. Stalin, Joseph. The Stalin-Kaganovich Correspondence, 1931–1936. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003. Tread, Christopher. The Stalin Years: A Reader. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Van Ree, Erik. The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: A Study in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

Stolypin, Pyotr (1862–1911) prime minister of Russia Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin was born in Dresden, Saxony, on April 14, 1862, into a noble Russian family.

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He graduated from St. Petersburg University in 1885 and found work within the Ministry of State Domains. Hard-working and energetic, he rose quickly through the bureaucratic ranks, and in 1889 he was appointed district marshal of Kovno Province, Russian Poland. There he familiarized himself with the misery and drudgery afflicting the peasant classes, and it conditioned him for what followed. By 1903 he was serving as governor of Saratov Province on the Volga, then a notorious hotbed of revolutionary activity. Stolypin, a no-nonsense disciplinarian, quickly imposed draconian order on the unruly populace. Success there brought him to the attention of Czar NICHOLAS II, and in 1906 Stolypin became minister of the interior and president of the Council of Ministers (prime minister). He now confronted the entire spectrum of economic and social malaise afflicting imperial Russia, then in the final stages of decay. When serfdom had been abolished in 1861, the peasantry could be legally removed from the land, and most were so poverty-stricken that they could not afford to purchase their own. The year prior to Stolypin’s appointment witnessed the bloody and violent revolution of 1905, which resulted in creation of the Duma, Russia’s first elected body. Stolypin earnestly sought major reforms to improve the lot of the poor majority but, as an aristocrat and devoted monarchist, he disdained constitutional government. Furthermore, the agenda he promulgated consisted of social and agricultural reform coupled with severe political repression. Stolypin sought to quickly implement widespread land reforms but he was stymied by the Duma, which demanded a hand in the process. He therefore dissolved it and circumvented the constitutional process by issuing executive decrees. These included extending voting rights to peasants for choosing local government representatives. Furthermore peasants were also encouraged, with government assistance, to buy land. Through such expedients Stolypin hoped to create a stable class of conservative landowners that would be loyal to the throne and oppose revolutionary overtures. However, Russia’s deep-seated inequities were giving rise to a professional class of revolutionaries, and Stolypin typically responded with force. The secret police and military rounded up thousands of suspects who were then hung with such alarming regularity that the hangman’s noose was called “Stolypin’s necktie.” For all his good intentions, Stolypin’s efforts alienated vast tracts of the Russian polity. Conservative


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landowners railed against his efforts to acquire their land and sell it to the peasantry, while the left and center assailed his willingness to dispense with constitutional procedures. In the end he was simultaneously accused of being both a revolutionary and a reactionary. Stolypin simply brushed off such criticism and instituted reforms by fiat—again symptomatic of his contempt for constitutional law. In 1907 he again dismissed the Duma for noncooperation, further impeding the growth of democracy and hardening attitudes toward the government. He also reimposed a strict Russification program upon Finland, creating an upsurge in nationalistic resentments. By 1911 his widely publicized land reforms had yet to produce the stable landowning class he sought. The czar was probably contemplating Stolypin’s dismissal at this juncture but events intervened. On September 14, 1911, while attending the opera in Kiev, Stolypin was shot by a revolutionary with shadowy police connections. The prime minister lingered four days before dying on September 19, 1911, and his much-vaunted reform program died with him. Stolypin was certainly a gifted statesman, among the czar’s most capable, but his willingness to discard constitutional processes undermined the very system he strove so hard to preserve. Further Reading Ascher, Abraham. P. A. Stolypin: The Search for Stability in Late Imperial Russia. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2001. Cawood, I., D. Bell, and A. Hannah. “Tsarism, 1881–1905: A ‘Superannuated’ Form of Government?” “Petr Stolpyn: The Czar’s Last Hope?” Modern History Review 10 (September 1998): 28–33. Korros, Alexandra S. A Reluctant Parliament: Stolypin, Nationalism, and the Politics of the Russian Imperial State Council, 1906–1911. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. Pisiotis, Argyrios K. “Orthodoxy versus Autocracy: The Orthodox Church and Clerical Political Dissent in Late Imperial Russia, 1905–1914.” 2 vols. Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 2000. Waldron, Peter. Between Two Revolutions: Stolypin and the Politics of Renewal in Russia. Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1998.

Wartenweiler, David. Civil Society and Academic Debate in Russia, 1905–1914. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Stresemann, Gustav (1878–1929) chancellor of Germany Gustav Stresemann was born in Berlin, Germany, on May 10, 1878, the son of an innkeeper. He pursued economics at the Universities of Berlin and Leipzig, became a successful businessman, and married into a wealthy family by 1903. In 1907 he parlayed his success into a political career, being elected to the Reichstag with the National Liberal Party and becoming that body’s youngest member. Stresemann proved himself a brilliant parliamentarian, and by 1917 he was party leader. He strongly supported Germany’s expansionist policies during World War I and, in concert with General Erich Ludendorff, he helped orchestrate the removal of THEOBALD VON BETHMANN HOLLWEG as chancellor. In 1918 he opposed Germany’s surrender and the following year voted against ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, which imposed heavy reparations. Following the abdication of Kaiser WILHELM II, the democratic Weimar Republic came into existence. Stresemann, an avowed monarchist, initially despised the new government and founded a conservative organization, the German People’s Party, to oppose it. But by 1922 he resigned himself to constitutional governance and used his considerable skills on behalf of the nation. Consequently, in August 1923, Stresemann became chancellor at the head of a broad coalition of liberals and socialists. Stresemann inherited a nation on the brink of chaos. The economy was in ruins, inflation was rampant, and Germany rocked by leftist and reactionary street gangs fighting to overturn the government. For that reason his administration was equally unstable and lasted only 100 days. But during that interval Stresemann achieved several important accomplishments, beginning with the stabilization of the currency. Next he sought to impose law and order by disbanding left-wing governments in Thuringia and Saxony. He also managed to have police forces squelch the aborted putsch of Nazi agitator ADOLF HITLER in Bavaria. Unfortunately, neither Stresemann nor the government could keep up with scheduled reparations payments to France, and in 1923 France forcibly occupied the


STROESSNER, ALFREDO industrialized Ruhr River valley. This caused the Social Democrats to bolt his coalition in November 1923, and he resigned, although retaining the portfolio of foreign minister. As foreign minister, Stresemann indelibly imprinted the course of Weimar diplomacy with astonishing success. While dealing from a position of weakness, he determined to resurrect Germany’s reputation and restore it to the world community as a trusted partner for peace. With consummate skill Stresemann convinced European leaders of Germany’s intention to resolve international disputes through negotiation and reconciliation. In 1925 he persuaded France and Great Britain to adopt the American-sponsored Dawes Plan to ease the burden of reparation payments. The following year he signed the Locarno Treaty with French foreign minister ARISTIDE BRIAND, whereby his nation formally acknowledged the transfer of Alsace and Lorraine to France. This stance enabled Germany to join the League of Nations, and Stresemann and Briand consequently received the Nobel Peace Prize. Turning eastward, he next strove for rapprochement with the Soviet Union by concluding the Rapallo Agreement, whereby both countries would not intervene militarily in conflicts involving third parties. In 1928 he was a signatory to the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which outlawed war as a means of national advancement. The next year Stresemann topped his litany of achievement by supervising adoption of the Young Plan, which further reduced reparations and ended French military occupation of the Rhineland five years ahead of schedule. Stresemann’s efforts thus allowed Germany to begin rehabilitating its reputation as a great power. Unfortunately for the Weimar Republic, Stresemann died of complications arising from overwork on October 3, 1929. He was by far the most accomplished German diplomat of Weimar and the period 1923–29 is commonly regarded as the Stresemann era. He was spared seeing his life work demolished by the Great Depression—and the rise of Hitler’s Nazis. Further Reading Eley, Geoff, and James Retallack, eds. Wilhelmism and Its Legacies: German Modernities, Imperialism, and the Meanings of Reform, 1890–1930. New York: Berghahn Books, 2003.

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Grathwol, Robert P. Stresemann and the DNVP: Reconciliation or Revenge in German Foreign Policy, 1924–1928. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1980. Lee, Stephen J. The Weimar Republic. New York: Routledge, 1998. McNeil, William C. American Money and the Weimar Republic: Economics and Politics on the Eve of the Great Depression. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. O’Riordan, Elspeth Y. Britain and the Ruhr Crisis. New York: Palgrave in association with King’s College, London, 2001. Stresemann, Gustav. Gustav Stresemann: His Diaries, Letters, and Papers. London: Macmillan, 1945–50. Wright, Jonathan R. C. Gustav Stresemann: Weimar’s Greatest Statesman. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Stroessner, Alfredo (1912– ) president of Paraguay Alfredo Stroessner was born in Encarnación, Paraguay, on November 3, 1912, the son of a German immigrant father and a Paraguayan mother. In 1929 he entered the National Military Academy at Asunción and he served with distinction during the Chaco War of 1932 before his studies were completed. For bravery in combat he received a battlefield commission and continued rising through the ranks. In 1940 he was selected for advanced military training in Brazil and three years later remained loyal to the president, Higinio Moringo, during an abortive coup. He performed similar useful service during the civil war of 1947 when the country was dominated by the conservative Colorado Party. A succession of coups and countercoups ensued over the next five years, and at one point Stroessner was forced to flee the country. However, when his faction finally assumed power under President Federico Chaves, Stroessner returned and received an appointment as head of the armed forces. In this capacity he unceremoniously toppled Chaves in May 1954 and installed himself as president. Stroessner remained in office for the next 34 years, longer than any other South American head of state. His longevity in power is attributable to several reasons. Unlike most Latin dictators, he was far from charismatic but enjoyed the advantages of being intelligent and


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hard-working. He depended on the army and the Colorado Party as the twin pillars of state, and erected a comprehensive system of patronage and punishment to enforce his will. He also encouraged the growth of factions within the party, which, while under his tight control, militated against the rise of a possible competitor. Over time he created a system of pervasive control that permeated virtually every aspect of Paraguayan life. All members of the civil service were required to have Colorado Party membership to join the bureaucracy, and loyalty was both expected and enforced. Stroessner also skillfully manipulated a mass following through patronage and membership in ancillary party organizations, which existed down to the city block and village level. Surprisingly, as long as the economy prospered, the regime enjoyed a good deal of popularity despite authoritarian overtones and intolerance for political opposition. The government also turned a blind eye to large-scale smuggling, a traditional Paraguayan source of wealth, which further cemented vested interests to the government. Consistent with his extremely conservative views, Stroessner was adamantly anticommunist and sought friendly relations with the United States. He also participated in Operation Condor, a clandestine program undertaken to identify and eliminate all suspected communist operatives. Furthermore, the government unhesitatingly granted asylum to fellow conservatives such as JUAN PERÓN, ANASTASIO SOMOZA DEBAYLE, and scores of Nazi fugitives including the notorious Josef Mengele. In economic terms, Stroessner attracted foreign investors and spent heavily constructing the Itaipu Dam on the Paraná River between Paraguay and Brazil; it remains the world’s largest hydroelectric facility. This project not only met the nation’s electrical needs but it also provided surplus energy for sale to the rest of Latin America. Stroessner’s rule remained uncontested until a worldwide recession plunged Paraguay into chaos during the 1980s. This sparked rising inflation, unemployment, and national debt. Discontent arose from the country’s new and heretofore thriving middle class, which had depended upon the general’s patronage. The nominally pliable Colorado Party also underwent a fractious period, with some leaders demanding Stroessner’s resignation. On February 2, 1989, troops under General Andres Rodriguez deposed the aging tyrant in a bloodless coup and he was allowed to seek asylum in Brazil.

Stroessner lived in obscurity and anonymity until June 2001, when a Paraguayan judge issued a request to the Brazilian government for his extradition. He is charged with authorizing the kidnapping and murder of several political opponents. However, since the Brazilian government has declined to honor similar requests in the past, Stroessner is likely to finish his final days in peace. Further Reading Abente Brun, Diego. Stronismo, Post-stronismo, and the Prospects for Democratization in Paraguay. Notre Dame, Ind.: Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame, 1989. Carter, Paul C. “The Role of the Paraguayan Catholic Church in the Downfall of the Stroessner Regime.” Journal of Latin American Studies 23 (October 1991): 599–621. Chambers, Kevin C. “Rural Transformation of Paraguay under General Alfredo Stroessner, 1954–1989.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of California– Santa Barbara, 2001. Lambert, P. “A Decade of Electoral Democracy: Continuity, Change and Crisis in Paraguay.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 19 (July 2000): 379–396. Miranda, Carlos R. The Stroessner Era: Authoritarian Rule in Paraguay. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990. Sondrol, Paul C. Power Play in Paraguay: The Rise and Fall of General Stroessner. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, 1996.

Suazo Córdova, Roberto (1927– ) president of Honduras Roberto Suazo Córdova was born in La Paz, Honduras, on March 17, 1927, and he studied medicine at the University of San Carlos in Guatemala. He practiced country medicine for 25 years before joining the Liberal Party in 1957 and serving as a delegate in various constitutional conventions. He gained national recognition by becoming head of the Liberals in July 1979, and was closely associated with the Rodista, or conservative, wing. He sought a working relationship with General Gustavo Alvarez Martínez, the national security chief, in an attempt to return the country to democracy. In 1980 the junta decided to


SUKARNO restore civilian governance under the aegis of a new constitution granting the armed forces veto power over cabinet appointments and total control over matters pertaining to national security. New elections were held in November 1981 and Suazo Córdova, as the Liberal nominee, easily defeated National Party candidate Ricardo Zúñiga Agustinus. He was the first elected official in nearly 20 years. Once in office, Suazo Córdova faced several seemingly intractable problems. The first was the overall situation in Central America, dominated by the ongoing Nicaraguan civil war between the communist regime of DANIEL ORTEGA and American-backed guerrillas, the contras. As the insurgency gathered force, the United States desired a larger military presence in Honduras to check communist aggression throughout the region. Suazo Córdova, an ardent anticommunist, proved compliant and he allowed both American troops and contra fighters to be stationed on Honduran soil. He also joined the Central American Democratic Community with El Salvador and Costa Rica as an additional bulwark against Nicaragua. In exchange he was visited by President RONALD REAGAN, who promised greater financial aid to sustain the numerous refugee camps that arose from the fighting. Mindful of communist subversion on the home front, Suazo Córdova did not object to oppressive measures employed by security services to stifle dissent. Consequently Honduras acquired a dismal human rights record throughout his tenure in office. Another problem spot was the economy, which was in deep recession. Suazo Córdova initially backed a plan of moderate agrarian reform, but it proved unequal to the task of easing economic distress. Recovery efforts were further beset by rising military expenditures, which increased the national debt and fueled inflation. By the time he left office, Suazo Córdova had accomplished little to promote growth. The president enjoyed greater success promoting Honduran democracy. He came to office with the military establishment looming in the background and in 1983 he supported constitutional reforms that transferred his responsibilities as commander in chief to General Alvarez. Suazo Córdova was temporarily incapacitated by a heart attack in 1983, which made Alvarez appear politically stronger and fueled rumors of an impending coup. Surprisingly, in March 1984 Suazo Córdova dismissed Alvarez from office and appointed

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his successor. In return, the general began hatching an assassination plot against the president and was arrested by FBI agents in November 1984. Civilian authority over the military had finally been reaffirmed. When Suazo Córdova left office in 1985 Honduras was still embroiled in regional conflict and experiencing economic dislocation. Public discontent with both his performance in office and the strong American military profile he solicited manifested in his inability to enforce his choice of a successor. Suazo Córdova wanted the Liberal Party to nominate Carlos Flores Faccuse, but instead the vote went to JOSÉ AZCONA HOYO, who went on to win the election. Suazo Córdova has since retired from public life although he remains a force in Liberal Party politics. Further Reading Bailey, J. M., and J. H. Sood. “The Honduran Agrarian Reform under Suazo Córdova, 1982–1985: An Assessment.” Inter-American Economic Affairs 39 (fall 1985): 45–62. Booth, J., M. Rosenberg, and M. Seligson. Elections and Democracy in Central America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. Coats, John D. “Parallel Interests: United StatesHonduran Relations, 1981–1987.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Texas A & M University, 1991. Schultz, Donald E., and Deborah S. Schultz. The United States, Honduras, and the Crisis in Central America. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994. Shepherd, Frederick M. “State, Countryside, and External Forces in Honduras and Nicaragua.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1991. Tervo, Kathyrn H. “Honduras and the Contras: Effects of the 1980s U.S.-Sponsored Contra War on the Central American Republic of Honduras.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Central Connecticut State University, 1998.

Sukarno (1901–1970) president of Indonesia Sukarno was born in Surabaya, Dutch East Indies, on June 6, 1901, the son of a Javanese father and a Balinese mother. He performed well in Dutch missionary schools and ultimately graduated from the Bandung Institute of Technology in 1926. However, Sukarno proved himself a peerless patriot and commenced his


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anticolonial agitations by founding the Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI), Indonesian National Party, that same year. He was a brilliant inflammatory speaker, so much so that Dutch authorities arrested him and outlawed the PNI in 1929. After his release in 1932, Sukarno served as chairman of the new Partai Indonesia (PI), Indonesian Party, until his arrest the following year. This time Sukarno remained incarcerated until 1942, when he was freed by Japanese occupiers. They prevailed on him to cooperate with the military government and he obliged, but only to eventually declare national independence. In June 1945 he issued the Panjat Sila—the five principles of Indonesian sovereignty: unity, respect for humanity, consensus, social justice, and faith in one God. These tenets served as the backbone of the forthcoming Indonesian state. Once the Japanese surrendered in August 1945, Sukarno, backed by MOHAMMAD HATTA, unilaterally declared Indonesia’s independence, and the two men served as president and vice president, respectively. However, the Netherlands was determined to retain the islands as a colony, and over the next four years a guerrilla war ensued. The Dutch finally abandoned their quest in December 1949, and the new Republic of Indonesia emerged and was allowed into the equally new United Nations. In practice, Sukarno proved more capable as a revolutionary than as the head of a new government. He subscribed to a unique blend of socialism and Islam that proved unworkable and also failed to establish a coherent, long-term agenda for development. Consequently the economy faltered and instability ensued. Sukarno also revealed a strong authoritarian streak in slowly undoing the 1946 constitution and its parliamentary democracy in favor of what he called “guided democracy,” under his dictatorial rule. Here the progress of the state was of far more importance than individual liberties. The ensuing crackdown on dissent led to several outright rebellions on Sumatra and Sulawesi in 1958. Sukarno also had designs on the remaining European colonies in his region, and in 1961 he took military action to seize the western half of New Guinea from the Dutch. In foreign policy, Sukarno alternated between conciliatory and hostile. In 1955 he summoned newly emerging states from Africa and Asia to a conference to endorse a nonaligned status independent of both the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1963 he

strongly opposed the transformation of Malaya into Malaysia owing to territorial claims there, and embarked on a “confrontation” with the new government. He was so angered by the latter’s admission into the United Nations that he withdrew Indonesia from that body in 1965. As a developing nation, Sukarno was eager to solicit assistance from the United States and the USSR, but when either side balked, he turned increasingly to Communist China for help. At home Sukarno fell under increasing criticism for his alleged friendly ties to the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), Indonesia Communist Party, a stance he denied. But by 1962 he had appointed several of its members to high ministerial positions, and they generally lent him political support. However, on September 30, 1965, the communists launched a mass uprising while attempting to topple Sukarno’s regime. They were easily defeated by army general Suharto, hunted down, and slaughtered. But like most military figures, Suharto held the president responsible for the disturbance, owing to his cozy relations with the communists. Therefore throughout the fall of 1965, Sukarno was forced to gradually surrender power to the military, and in March 1966 he was forced out of office and placed under house arrest. He nevertheless retained the honorary title of “lifetime president.” Sukarno died in Jakarta, Indonesia, on June 21, 1970, a driving force behind Indonesian nationalism whose erratic 21 years in office imbued his country with unnecessary conflict. Nonetheless his funeral was attended by half a million mourners. Further Reading Easter, David. “British Intelligence and Propaganda during the ‘Confrontation’, 1963–1966.” Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 2 (2001): 83–102. Guan Ang, Cheng. “The Johnson Administration and ‘Confrontation’.” Cold War History 2 (April 2002): 111–128. Kingsbury, Damien. The Politics of Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Saltford, John. The United Nations and the Indonesian Takeover of West Papua, 1962–1969: The Anatomy of Betrayal. New York: Routledge Curzon, 2002. Subritzky, John. Confronting Sukarno: British, American, Australian, and New Zealand Diplomacy in the Malaysian-Indonesian Confrontation, 1961–65. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.


SUN YAT-SEN Taylor, Jean G. Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003.

Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian) (1866–1925) president of China Sun Yat-sen was born in Guangdong Province, China, on November 12, 1866, the son of a small farmer. Sun received a classical Chinese education but relocated to Hawaii while a teenager and attended missionary school. In this manner Sun became both a Christian and fluent in English. He subsequently studied medicine in Hong Kong and graduated in 1892. By then Sun, like many Chinese of his generation, was disillusioned by Europe’s interference in China, which was largely brought on by the corruption and weakness of the Manchu dynasty. These were descendants of Manchurians who had conquered China in 1644 and were still regarded as outsiders. In 1894 Sun submitted a detailed list of reformations to the government but was

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officially rebuffed. He then became a revolutionary bent on overthrowing the Manchu dynasty and establishing a Chinese republic. Later that year he returned to Hawaii, founded the Society to Revive China, and began organizing for revolution. Sun directed a failed rebellion in Canton the following year and had to flee the country. He then set up residence in London where he was kidnapped by Chinese agents and freed only upon the insistence of the British government. Sun also immersed himself in Western political philosophy, especially Karl Marx, and he opted for a mixed national economy containing elements of both capitalism and socialism. He then relocated to Japan, where large numbers of Chinese students were studying, and organized a revolutionary group, the United League, in 1905. Around this time he began espousing his Three People’s Principles for the governance of China; nationalism, democracy, and the people’s livelihood. Sun, like many other young bureaucrats, railed against the Manchu dynasty’s refusal to modernize the country, leaving it weak in the face of Western and Japanese expansionism. Several more failed uprisings ensued, but in October 1911 a force of rebels and army units finally toppled the Manchus from power. Sun, who was overseas at the time, immediately rushed home and, for his earlier efforts, he became the first president of the new Republic of China on December 29, 1911. But independence alone could not solve China’s political instability. No sooner had Sun become president than his authority was challenged by YUAN SHIKAI, a powerful northern warlord who was prime minister. To promote national unity, Sun voluntarily stepped down from office in February 1912 after serving a few months. He then spent most of his energies transforming the United League into China’s first political party, the Kuomintang (KMT), a nationalist organization. Yuan, however, was determined to install himself as emperor of China and begin a new dynasty. When the KMT parliamentary representatives were attacked and dispersed by forces loyal to Yuan, Sun was forced to flee China a second time, in August 1913. Worse, when Yuan died suddenly in June 1916, his various military commanders established themselves as regional warlords and the country descended into chaos. Sun then returned home once again and labored to reestablish constitutional governance in China. From his southern base in Guangdong Province, where he served as provisional president, Sun began


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marshaling military assets of his own under his military adviser CHIANG KAI-SHEK. He concurrently solicited the Western powers to invest heavily in China’s new but mildly socialist economy. When aid was not forthcoming, the KMT turned to the Soviet Union for help and it was instrumental in establishing the famous Wampoa Military Academy in Canton. China was still riven by dissent and feuding between warlords, so in November 1924 Sun ventured to Beijing and made a plea for national unity. Failing this he intended to unleash the KMT in a northern expedition to unify the country by force. Unfortunately Sun died of cancer on March 12, 1925, and never saw the dream of a unified, modernized China realized. He was also regarded as something of a reckless revolutionary lacking a firm grasp of political realities and organization. However, Sun was the driving spirit behind China’s unification and his three principles for governance are jointly claimed as their inspiration by the KMT party on Taiwan and the Communist Party of mainland China. He thus remains a cherished symbol of

China’s determination to modernize and rid itself of foreign influence. Further Reading Bergere, Marie Claire. Sun Yat Sen. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1998. Harrison, Henrietta. The Making of the Republican Citizen: Political Ceremonies and Symbols in China, 1911–1929. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Kriukov, Vassily. “Sun Yatsen and the ‘Third Revolution’: The Shandong Version.” Far Eastern Affairs 1 (November–December 2001): 64–80. Lum, Yansheng Ma. Sun Yat Sen in Hawaii: Activities and Supporters. Honolulu: Hawaii Chinese History Center, 1999. Sun Yat Sen. Memoirs of a Chinese Revolutionary. New York: AMS Press, 1970. Wells, Audrey. The Political Thought of Sun Yat-sen: Development and Impact. New York: Palgrave, 2001.


T Taft, William H. (1857–1930) president of the

tually, one of his most trusted political advisers. Roosevelt was so impressed by Taft’s administrative abilities that in 1908 he arranged for him to secure the Republican presidential nomination. That fall Taft handily defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan and gained the White House. In contrast with the high-powered and overtly confident Roosevelt, Taft proved something of a shrinking violet. Whereas the former relished political infighting, the latter shunned confrontation in favor of consensus and never fully engaged himself in the politics of policy making. He was also hindered by a close association with Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon, a tyrannical conservative figure. In this manner Taft managed to alienate the progressive wing of the Republican Party— Roosevelt’s base of popularity. Nonetheless, his administration accomplished much in the way of useful legislation. Among other feats, he signed laws calling for the direct election of U.S. senators and the first implementation of income taxes, overhauled the postal system, and attempt to break up the large steel monopolies. But his party split over the issue of tariffs: the eastern establishment sought high tariffs to protect American industries, but western, progressive interests wanted them lowered to reduce the costs of living. The result was a badly splintered party, whose unity was further eroded by Roosevelt’s mounting antipathy for his former friend.

United States William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on September 15, 1857, into a prominent political family. He graduated from Yale with honors in 1878 and subsequently earned a law degree from the Cincinnati Law School. Taft then became active in Republican political circles and in 1882 President Chester A. Arthur appointed him district collector of internal revenue. Five years later he served as a judge on the state superior court. In 1890 President Benjamin Harrison made Taft the solicitor general before the federal Supreme Court and the following year he obtained a federal judgeship, in becoming the first federal jurist to declare that workers have the right to strike. Taft’s tenure with the Court was extremely productive and he made clear his desire to become a Supreme Court justice, but in 1901 President William McKinley asked him to serve as the first civilian governor of the newly annexed Philippine Islands. Taft, never a confident man, agreed only after much hesitation, but his handling of such complicated matters proved adroit and confirmed his expertise as a legal authority. He enjoyed his overseas work to such an extent that he declined two invitations from President THEODORE ROOSEVELT to become a Supreme Court justice. However, he did return home in 1904 to become Roosevelt’s secretary of war, and even-

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Believing that Taft had sold out to the conservatives, Roosevelt decided to challenge him for the Republican Party nomination in 1912. When he failed to unseat Taft, Roosevelt went on to establish his own progressive Bull Moose Party as an alternative. The national vote was thus split three ways during the election, with Democrat WOODROW WILSON coming first, Roosevelt second, and Taft a distant third. Curiously, Taft had no regrets over handing the White House over to Democrats, as he believed that Roosevelt was planning a constitutional coup against the government. Out of Washington, Taft taught law for several years at Yale University and was also voted president of the American Bar Association. In 1921 he fulfilled a lifelong ambition when President WARREN G. HARDING appointed him chief justice of the Supreme Court. He again displayed considerable flair and his Judiciary Act of 1925 proved instrumental in allowing the Court to refuse cases, thereby reducing its overwhelming work load. This was undoubtedly the happiest period in Taft’s public career and he looked back upon his years in the White House as an unhappy aberration. “The truth is,” he confided, “that in my present life I don’t remember that I ever was president.” He died in Washington, D.C., on March 8, 1930, a highly respected, congenial figure on the national landscape but unable to unite party factions behind strong, decisive leadership. A towering figure weighing over 300 pounds, Taft was the largest man to occupy the White House, and his sheer girth became the butt of public humor. But his political and judicial achievements, where he was able to achieve them, proved significant. Further Reading Anderson, D. F. “The Legacy of William Howard Taft.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 12 (winter 1982): 54–65. Burton, David H. Taft, Holmes, and the 1920s Court: An Appraisal. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1998. ———. Taft, Wilson, and World Order. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2003. Renstrom, Peter G. The Taft Court: Justices, Rulings, and Legacy. Oxford: ABC-Clio, 2003. Romero, Francie S. Presidents from Theodore Roosevelt through Coolidge, 1902–1929: Debating the Issues in Pro and Con Primary Documents. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Taft, William H. The Collected Works of William Howard Taft. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2001.

Takeshita Noboru (1924–2000) prime minister of Japan Takeshita Noboru was born in Kakeya, Shimane Province, Japan, on February 26, 1924, the son of a sake brewer and local politician. He enrolled at Waseda University in 1942 and two years later was drafted into the military before graduating. Takeshita resumed his studies after the war and taught English for several years. In 1952 he commenced his political career by being elected to a local assembly and four years later joined the lower house of the legislature (Diet) as part of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). This was the nation’s largest political organization and would rule Japan for the next four decades. He was reelected from the same district 11 consecutive times. Despite his relative youth and inexperience, Takeshita proved himself adept at behind-the-scenes machinations and in 1964 Prime Minister SATO EISAKU appointed him deputy cabinet secretary. Almost a decade later he occupied the post of cabinet secretary under TANAKA KAKUEI. In short order the two leaders became identified with a drive toward greater consensus and coalition building at the expense of new or innovative policies. In fact, the entire government was beholden to the politics of rapid economic growth. Despite this overwhelming emphasis, both leaders were quick to ensure that the rice farmers—the LDP’s most important voting constituency—received subsidies. When Tanaka resigned in 1976 over a bribery scandal, Takeshita transferred over as minister of construction under Takeo Miki, and in 1982 NAKASONE YASUHIRO made him finance minister. His most significant work was signing the Plaza Accord, which allowed the yen to float against the dollar and sent the economy on such a robust ride that the period was known as the “bubble years.” It also precipitated one of Japan’s worst recessions. Takeshita became head of the LDP in 1987 and, hence, prime minister. His superlative back-benching abilities were now exposed to the full glare of public exposure, and he did not fare as well. In fact, the shy, somewhat retiring prime minister failed to enunciate a distinct philosophy for either economics or governance, choosing instead to allow others to speak for him. The most constructive event of his 18 months in office was


TANAKA KAKUEI imposition of a 3 percent sales tax that proved widely unpopular. In April 1987 Takeshita was embroiled in a bribery scandal of his own involving the Recruit company’s attempt to buy influence. Having admitted to taking stock and cash donations, Takeshita publicly apologized for his indiscretion and resigned from office. Out of the spotlight, where he felt infinitely more comfortable, Takeshita wielded enormous influence over the selection of future LDP prime ministers like Obuchi Keizo. In fact he was commonly referred to as the “puppet master” for his uncanny ability to manipulate votes and politics to his liking. In 1992 allegations of another scandal involving organized crime and farright smear groups emerged, but he was never charged with a crime. Takeshita finally retired from politics in April 2000 and he died in Tokyo on June 19, 2000. He was the first Japanese prime minister to be born of humble origins and perhaps best exemplified the old-style machine politics of his generation. Further Reading Fukui, Haruhiro. “Japan in 1988: At the End of an Era.” Asian Survey 29 (January 1989): 1–11. ———. “Japan’s Takeshita at the Helm.” Current History 87, no. 528 (1988): 173–175. Hoshi, Iwao. Japan’s Pseudo-Democracy. New York: New York University Press, 1993. Imai, Masatoshi. “Support for the Cabinet.” Japan Quarterly 35, no. 4 (1988): 377–382. Kenzo, Uchida. “Slow and Steady: The Takeshita Administration’s First Year.” Japan Quarterly 35 (October–December 1988): 371–376. Woodall, Brian. Japan Under Construction: Corruption, Politics, and Public Works. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Tanaka Kakuei (1918–1993) prime minister of Japan Tanaka Kakuei was born in Futada, Niigata Province, Japan, on May 4, 1918, the son of a cattle dealer. He obtained only a secondary education before being drafted into the army during World War II and receiving a medical discharge. Tanaka then returned home and entered the construction industry, accruing a minor fortune before the war ended. In 1947 he was elected to the lower house of the legislature (Diet) and the following year was appointed vice minister of the justice ministry

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under Prime Minister YOSHIDA SHIGERU. Tanaka quickly demonstrated his mastery of the deal making and consensus building essential to Japanese politics and he fulfilled a succession of important ministerial posts under IKEDA HAYATO. But his most significant assignment was as head of the vital Ministry for International Trade and Industry (MITI) under SATO EISAKU, where he showed great foresight appreciating the value of communication and information technology. He also determined to interject economic vitality into the western reaches of the nation, traditionally poverty stricken, and likewise address urban decay in older cities. Beginning in 1955, when the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) was first formed, Tanaka also seized the opportunity to command one of the largest factions within the party and, with it, the ability to influence overall policy. Furthermore, as party secretary, he proved effective at quelling intraparty rebellions against sitting prime ministers, and his influence and control allowed Sato to remain in office eight years—longer than any other incumbent. In 1972 Tanaka was elected head of the LDP and with it gained the office of prime minister, becoming the youngest in Japanese history, in an unexpected upset over Sato’s hand-picked successor. A colorful, dynamic figure and quite different from the usual nondescript variety of Japanese leaders, Tanaka initially enjoyed a surge in public opinion polls and much was expected of him. Tanaka’s most important act came in 1974 when he visited Beijing and established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. However, his political legitimacy was undercut by revelations of political corruption. Tanaka had apparently accepted bribes from the America’s Lockheed Corporation to secure Japanese purchases of their transport aircraft. As his once-soaring popularity figures dropped, he was forced to resign in December 1974 and was replaced by TAKESHITA NOBORU. Two years later he was arrested and charged with accepting $2 million from Lockheed, and his trial lasted seven years. Found guilty, he was heavily fined and received a four-year suspended sentence. He was also forced out of the LDP. As embarrassing as Tanaka’s predicament was, it did little to diminish his popularity with the voters in Niigata. He expended considerable effort revitalizing the poorer half of the country and he was reelected to the Diet as an independent. In this capacity he continued to wield tremendous influence over the largest


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faction within the LDP and played a king-making role in selection of the next three prime ministers. Tanaka suffered a stroke in 1985, and afterward his ability to control events diminished. He died in Tokyo on December 16, 1993, and, though largely remembered for the scandal that brought him down, he was possibly the most influential Japanese politician of his generation. Tanaka was also the only post-World War II prime minister to lack a college education. Further Reading Babb, James. Tanaka and the Making of Postwar Japan. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 2000. Hunziker, Steven, and Ikuro Kamimura. Kakuei Tanaka: A Political Biography of Modern Japan. Los Gatos, Calif.: Daruma International, 1995. Hurst, Cameron G. Tanaka Kakuei and Postwar Japanese Politics. Hanover, N.H.: Universities Field Staff International, Inc., 1983. ———. The Tanaka Decision: Tanaka Kakuei and the Lockheed Scandal. Hanover, N.H.: Universities Field Staff International, Inc., 1983. Ito, Go. Alliance in Anxiety: Detente and the SinoAmerican-Japanese Triangle. New York: Routledge, 2003. Johnson, Chalmers. “Tanaka Kakuei: Structural Corruption and the Advent of Machine Politics in Japan.” Journal of Japanese Studies 12, no. 1 (1986): 1–28. Toyozo, T. “Breakup of the Tanaka Faction: End of an Era.” Japan Quarterly 34 (October–December 1987): 371–376.

Thant, U See U THANT. Thatcher, Margaret (baroness Thatcher of Kesteven) (1925– Britain

) prime minister of Great

Margaret Hilda Roberts was born in Grantham, England, on October 13, 1925, the daughter of a prosperous grocer. She endured a strict Methodist upbringing before attending Oxford University to study chemistry. Despite her middle-class background, she became politically active by joining campus conservative organizations. In 1951 she married Dennis Thatcher, a wealthy businessman, who enabled her to pursue a law degree and ultimately politics. She ran twice unsuccessfully for

office but succeeded on the third attempt in 1959. Despite the fact there were very few women in British politics—and even fewer operating in conservative circles—Thatcher displayed a resolve to succeed that belied her gender. Throughout the 1960s, when the party was in opposition, she fulfilled several positions in the “shadow cabinet” of EDWARD HEATH, whom Thatcher respected but never really liked. Nonetheless, when Heath was elected prime minister in 1970, he appointed her to serve as secretary of state for education and science. Thatcher thrived in the role, despite her growing reputation for a personal stridency bordering on imperiousness. When Heath was defeated in 1975, she was among the first Conservative Party leaders to challenge him for the leadership. Surprisingly, she easily defeated Heath on the first ballot—sowing enmity between them—but catapulting herself into the national limelight. Over the next four years Thatcher gained renown as a fierce, well-informed parliamentary debater with a commanding physical and media presence. When the conservatives were finally returned to power in 1979, Thatcher became Great Britain’s first-ever woman prime minister. Early on Thatcher determined to leave her mark on the political landscape by disparaging and dismantling the “welfare state” that had been in effect since 1945. Because she ascribed the country’s decline as a world power to the cult of government dependency, numerous state programs were targeted for elimination. In their stead Thatcher proposed a return to free-market principles and greater self-reliance. The prime minister was especially eager to reduce the size of government, privatize government holdings, cut back on government bureaucracy, and roll back the power of unions. She also sought to tackle the problem of spiraling inflation by adopting strict monetary measures and fiscal austerity, which caused unemployment to rise but restored economic growth. Furthermore, she received an additional boost in public ratings through her firm handling of the 1982 Falkland Islands war, initiated when Argentine president LEOPOLDO GALTIERI seized the colony by force. A complete British victory and a badly split Labour Party resulted in her stunning reelection in 1983. Aside from her domestic agenda, Thatcher was also a cold war warrior of the first rank. She abhorred communism and greatly increased military spending. Together with her friend and ally President RONALD REAGAN, they presented a solid front against Soviet expansionism in Afghanistan and elsewhere. She also allowed the


TISZA, ISTVÁN Americans to base cruise missiles in England and use local airbases to bomb Libya in 1986. Such was her resolve to confront communism that Kremlin leaders bestowed on her the none too flattering sobriquet of The Iron Lady, an accurate reflection of her persona. Back at home, Thatcher’s second term in office was characterized by a determined campaign to end the coal miners’ strike by force, and break their stranglehold on the labor market. Thatcher also proved herself a staunch British nationalist whose distrust of Europe bordered on outright dislike. For this reason, while she supported a common market, she railed against the adoption of a unified currency as an assault upon national sovereignty. Thatcher’s stridency over the issue occasioned several high-ranking resignations, along with poor-natured sniping from fellow conservative Heath, who openly detested her policies. But in 1987 Thatcher made history by winning her third general election, if by reduced margins. She now gained the ire of the middle class she once championed by imposing a hated “poll tax” upon all residents to help pay for public services. Her increasing unpopularity cause a revolt among large segments of the Conservative Party and in 1990 they prevailed upon her to resign from power. Thatcher did so obligingly out of concern for her party and endorsed the candidacy of John Major, who went on to secure the Conservatives’ fourth straight election victory. Shortly before her resignation, Thatcher was elevated to the House of Lords as baroness of Kesteven. She continues on as a respected elder stateswoman and continues drawing crowds for speaking and book-signing engagements. Her 11-year term in office is the longest continuous tenure as prime minister since William Pitt in the 1790s. It marked Great Britain’s resurgence as a world power and led to a permanent diminution of the welfare state that had dominated national politics for most of the 20th century. Thatcher also forced the Labour Party opposition to moderate its position on many controversial issues. Not surprisingly, the conservative philosophy she espoused has passed into history as “Thatcherism.” Further Reading Campbell, John. Margaret Thatcher. London: Jonathan Cape, 2000. Dorman, Andrew M. Defense under Thatcher. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Evans, Eric J. Thatcher and Thatcherism. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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Hoskyns, John. Just in Time: Inside the Thatcher Revolution. London: Aurum, 2000. Maddox, Brenda. Maggie: The Personal Story of a Public Life. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 2003. Parker, Mike. Thatcherism and the Fall of Coal. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Reitan, E. A. The Thatcher Revolution: Margaret Thatcher, John Major, and Tony Blair, 1979–2001. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003. Thackery, Frank W., and John E. Findling, eds. Events That Changed Great Britain since 1689. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. Thatcher, Margaret. The Path to Power. New York: HarperCollins, 1995. ———. Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

Tisza, István (1861–1918) prime minister of Austria-Hungary István Tisza was born in Budapest, Hungary, on April 22, 1861, the son of Kalman Tisza, an aristocrat and influential politician. Hungary was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which since the 1867 Ausgleich (compromise) had been ruled by a dual crown. This entailed the Austrian emperor also serving as the king of Hungary. The elder Tisza felt strongly that a close working relationship with German-speaking Austria was essential if Hungary’s distinct culture was to survive while surrounded by a host of Slavic nationalities. The younger Tisza was educated in Berlin and Heidelberg and, like his father, he joined the conservative-leaning Liberal Party, which represented large, landholding interests. He too saw the need of maintaining the Dual Crown at any cost to preserve Hungary’s sovereignty and gained election to the legislature on that platform in 1886. From the onset his stance put him at odds with Magyar nationalists who wanted less Austrian influence and liberals who sought greater rights for Hungary’s sizable minority population. By the turn of the century Hungary’s politics were also roiled over attempts to enlarge the Hungarian contingent of the polyglot, multinational army. Nationalists demanded a separate Hungarian force within a federal structure while Tisza sought to maintain a unitary force under one command to preserve the Hapsburg monarchy. When Tisza became prime minister of Hungary in October 1903 he vigorously pursued an army bill intent


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upon strengthening the size and control of that force. However, public resentment proved so overwhelming against the measure that in January 1905 the Liberal Party was completely defeated and he resigned from office. Back in the legislature, Tisza set about reorganizing the Liberals into a new organization, the National Party of Work. He was also a skilled politician who gradually wrested control away from the nationalists by taking a majority of seats in the 1910 elections. Tisza continued exerting control as president of the Chamber of Deputies, pushing through additional army bills and rules for limiting the practice of filibustering legislation. In June 1913 Tisza again occupied the prime minister’s office while all of Europe anxiously awaited the outbreak of war. The spark that lit the fuse happened in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, when Serbian nationalists assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Tisza then attended an emergency summit of the Crown Council on July 14, 1914, to consider a declaration of war against Serbia. The Hungarian prime minister strongly opposed the move, for it might entail the annexation of Serbia to the empire. Tisza considered any increase of the empire’s Slavic population to be detrimental to national security and, hence, to the dual crown. However, Emperor FRANZ JOSEPH opted for hostilities, and Tisza fell into line behind his sovereign. Over the next three years Tisza served as a capable and forceful exponent of victory and urged strong cooperation with Germany’s Kaiser WILHELM II. It was hoped that victory in the east would prevent any attempt by the Russian Empire to unify the Slavs into a threat against Hungary. Moreover, Tisza ruled in a dictatorial fashion that trampled countering opinions and created great antipathy toward the monarchy and the war effort. He singularly refused to grant Italy and Romania minor territorial concessions that might have kept them neutral and considered such talk a sign of weakness. Tizsa also refused to enlarge and expand the voting franchise in Hungary, leaving only 10 percent of the population eligible to participate. In 1916 Franz Joseph died and was replaced by a new emperor, Charles I (King Charles IV of Hungary), a committed reformer. The new king determined to liberalize and modernize the Hungarian political system and clashed repeatedly with Tisza, who finally resigned from office on May 22, 1917. But because his National Party of Work continued control-

ling the legislature, he still managed to stymie all attempts at constitutional or social reform. For the rest of World War I Tisza served as an infantry officer on the Italian front. Unfortunately few of his fellow Hungarians were aware of his efforts to prevent the outbreak of hostilities and many blamed him for the hardships they endured. On October 31, 1918, he was murdered by a group of resentful soldiers. Tizsa was an outstanding political operator but fatally beholden to the old political order. Further Reading Cornwall, Mark. The Last Years of Austria-Hungary: A Multi-national Experiment in Early TwentiethCentury Europe. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002. ———. The Undermining of Austria-Hungary: The Battle for Hearts and Minds. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Healy, Maureen. Vienna and the Fall of the Hapsburg Empire: Total War and Everyday Life in World War I. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Jeszenszky, Geza. “István Tisza: Villain or Tragic Hero? Reassessments in Hungary—Verdict in the U.S.” Hungarian Studies Review 14, no. 2 (1987): 45–57. Tisza, István. Count Stephen Tisza, Prime Minister of Hungary: Letters (1914–1916). New York: P. Lang, 1991. Vermes, Gabor. István Tisza: The Liberal Vision and Conservative Statecraft of a Magyar Nationalist. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Tito, Marshal (Josip Broz) (1892–1980) president of Yugoslavia Josip Broz was born in Kumrovec´, Croatia, on May 25, 1892, into a large peasant family. Croatia was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and, after being trained as a locksmith, Broz was drafted into the army to fight in World War I. He was captured by the Russians in 1917 and witnessed the Bolshevik revolution that fall. Having volunteered to fight in the Red Army, he returned home in 1920 as a communist agent. His homeland had since been freed of Austrian domination and renamed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, or Yugoslavia. Broz continued his subversive activities until he was caught and imprisoned. In 1925 he was released and ventured back to Moscow for


TITO, MARSHAL further political training. Broz sufficiently impressed Soviet dictator JOSEPH STALIN with his trustworthiness and in 1937 he was sent home as secretary general of the Yugoslav Communist Party. He also referred to himself as Tito, after a pen name. When German forces under ADOLF HITLER attacked and conquered Yugoslavia in April 1941, Tito followed Stalin’s strict orders to remain neutral in accordance with the recent non-aggression pact. But, when Hitler invaded the Soviet Union two months later, Tito began raising partisan forces to resist. The next four years established Tito as one of history’s most brilliant guerrilla fighters for, always outnumbered and outgunned, he defied all attempts to eradicate his little band. When he was not fighting Germans, his communists found time to resist Serbian royalists under General Draja Mikhailovich—in effect a civil war within a war. Tito’s success enabled the Allies to supply him with arms after 1943, and he succeeded in pushing the Germans out of Yugoslavia completely the following year—the only guerrilla leader in World War II to do so. In 1945 he proclaimed creation of the People’s Republic of Yugoslavia with himself as prime minister. Tito was at heart a doctrinaire communist and he imposed a Stalinist one-party dictatorship on the country, replete with a large and effective secret police. He also nationalized the economy and made the six different nationalities comprising Yugoslavia pledge loyalty to the concept of “brotherhood and unity.” But, because Yugoslavia was neither liberated by Soviet troops nor occupied by them, he felt less inclined to follow the Stalinist line and render his country a Soviet puppet state. He also refused to erect an extremely centralized regime along Soviet lines, preferring instead a federal model with plenty of autonomy for the six different regions. These heretical stances brought him the ire of Stalin, who in 1949 expelled Yugoslavia from the Cominform, a communist trade organization. Tito countered by seeking aid from the capitalist West to buoy up his economy and supply him with weapons. And, while solidly in the communist camp philosophically, he gained international renown as a maverick communist seeking his own path to socialism. To that end he ruled over the most liberal communist regime of Eastern Europe where some minor dissent was eventually allowed. In 1953 Tito promulgated a new constitution that made him president of the republic. He was theoretically elected to high office every five years but, as the indis-

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pensable man, he never faced serious opposition. After Stalin’s death he was wooed by new premier NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV to return to the fold but Tito refused. Instead, in 1956 he helped to establish the Nonaligned Movement of developing nations in concert with Egypt’s GAMAL ABDEL NASSER and India’s JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. Soviet misbehavior allowed him to enlarge his role as a socialist maverick by roundly condemning the 1956 invasion of Hungary and the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. He remained on especially good terms with another East Bloc rebel, NICOLAE CEAUS¸ESCU of Romania. Tito ruled Yugoslavia oppressively but, ironically for a communist leader, he unabashedly acquired a reputation for fine cars and luxurious living. He died in Ljubljana on May 4, 1981, greatly mourned. For 30 years he presided over an ethnic and religious tinderbox and, on the surface at least, made it work. But his successors lacked the charisma and vision for success, and the system he founded barely survived him by a decade. In 1990 Yugoslavia disintegrated in a deluge of warring factions and was disbanded. Tito is nonetheless one of


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the most important cold war figures for his brilliance as a guerrilla and his unbridled defiance of the Soviet Union. Further Reading Benson, Leslie. Yugoslavia: A Concise History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Djokiac, Dejan, ed. Yugoslavism: Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918–1992. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003. Granville, Johanna. “Hungary 1956: The Yugoslav Connection.” Europe-Asia Studies 50, no. 3 (1998): 493–517. Hudson, Kate. Breaking the South Slav Dream: The Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. Sterling, Va.: Pluto Press, 2003. Lees, Lorraine M. Keeping Tito Afloat: The United States, Yugoslavia, and the Cold War, 1945–1960. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997. Lensink, Paul D. “Building Tito’s Separate Road: Yugoslavia and the United States, 1949–1957.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1995. West, Richard. Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1995.

Tojo Hideki (1884–1948) prime minister of Japan Tojo Hideki was born in Tokyo, Japan, on December 30, 1884, into an old military family. He graduated from a military academy in 1899 and saw service in the Russo-Japanese War, 1904–05. After passing through the army war college in 1915 Tojo was sent to Europe for additional studies in Switzerland and Germany. He came home in 1922 and commenced a rapid rise through the military hierarchy, proving himself both capable and ruthless. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1936, just as Japan was swept by a tide of aggressive ultranationalism. Tojo was active during the initial phases of the renewed SinoJapanese conflict in 1937 and helped subdue Inner Mongolia. The following year he was recalled to Japan to serve as vice minister of war and argued stridently for expanding the conflict to include the Soviet Union. In 1940 Tojo gained appointment as war minister under Prime Minister KONOE FUMIMARO and was a driving force behind the Tripartite Pact with ADOLF HITLER and BENITO MUSSOLINI. Following the German

conquest of France in May 1940, Japan was allowed to obtain French colonial possessions in Indochina. However, this expansion drew a sharp response from American president FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, who placed an oil embargo on Japan until it withdrew its forces from the Asian mainland. To Tojo and his fellow militarists, only a victorious war with the United States, Great Britain, and the Netherlands would grant Japan access to the raw materials it so desperately needed. They equated conflict with nothing less than national survival. When Konoe tried and failed to reach a negotiated settlement with the Americans over China, he resigned as prime minister in October 1941 and was replaced by Tojo. Previously, Tojo decided against attacking the Soviet Union despite the fact that it was being pummeled by German forces. This proved one of the biggest strategic missteps of military history for if Japan had attacked Russia the battered forces of Soviet dictator JOSEPH STALIN could not have decisively reinforced their western front. Tojo then badgered army and navy leaders into attacking Western colonial possessions throughout the Pacific to establish a “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere”—an enlarged Japanese Empire. After the failure of last-minute negotiations in Washington, D.C., Japanese naval forces attacked the American naval installation at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. This single act precipitated World War II in the Pacific. In addition to prime minister, Tojo also held the portfolios of war minister and home minister. Over the next three years he directed the Japanese military onslaught, which, while spectacularly successful at first, gradually slowed and stopped after stiffened Allied resistance. By 1944 the tide of war had turned inexorably against Japan despite fanatical sacrifices by Japanese soldiers, sailors, and airmen. Through it all Tojo put on the best face possible and promised his countrymen ultimate victory if they would only persevere. However, the American conquest of Saipan in July 1944 put the Japanese homeland within reach of American bombers, and Tojo was forced to resign from office. For almost a year he watched the American military juggernaut gather steam and grind down Japanese defenses. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, Emperor HIROHITO acted decisively and ordered his generals to surrender. Japan was soon after occupied by American


TOMBALBAYE, FRANÇOIS forces under General Douglas MacArthur, who arrested Tojo as a war criminal. The former prime minister failed at a suicide attempt in September 1945 and was put on trial, charged with plotting aggression and condoning atrocities committed by Japanese forces. Tojo was found guilty and hanged as a “Class A” war criminal on December 23, 1948, having guided Japan into its most destructive conflict. His entire career closely mirrored the rise of militarism in Japan, its triumphant dominance of national politics, and its spectacular demise. Further Reading Hoyt, Edwin P. Warlord: Tojo Against the World. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2001. Li, Peter, ed. Japanese War Crimes. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2002. Rees, Laurence. Horror in the East: Japan and Atrocities of World War II. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2002. Slavinsky, Boris N. The Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact: A Diplomatic History, 1941–45. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. Tanaka, Toshiyuki. Japan’s Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution during World War II and the U.S. Occupation. New York: Routledge, 2001. Yamazaki, Jane W. “A Nation Apologizes: Japanese Apologies for World War II.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Wayne State University, 2002. Zeiler, Thomas W. Unconditional Defeat: Japan, America, and the End of World War II. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2003.

Tombalbaye, François (1918–1975) president of Chad François Tombalbaye was born in Bessada, Chad, on June 15, 1918, the son of a Protestant Sara trader. His religion and background made him something of an anomaly in this predominantly Catholic and Muslim French colony. Having passed through missionary schools, Tombalbaye took up teaching for several years and also became active in union activities. In 1950 he helped to found the Parti Progressiste Tchadien (PPT), Chadian Progressive Party, to agitate against continuance of French rule. His defiance angered colonial administrators, and he was stripped of his teaching license and forced to fend for himself as a brick maker.

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However, after France began relaxing its grip on African colonies in 1956 and permitted greater regional autonomy, Tombalbaye was elected to the territorial legislature as a PPT delegate. The following year he replaced the Marxist-oriented Gabriel Lisette as head of the party and in 1959, when the PPT swept national elections, Tombalbaye was installed as prime minister. Chad was finally granted independence on August 11, 1960, and Tombalbaye became the nation’s first president. Tombalbaye inherited an impoverished desert nation, deeply split between a largely Muslim, Arabic north and a Christian, African south. Therefore, to enforce order and ensure his rule, he established a oneparty dictatorship from the onset and abolished all opposition parties in 1962. He also founded a farranging criminal court system to arrest and eliminate his enemies from power. After 1964 Tombalbaye also initiated a policy of deliberate Africanization to expunge all French influence. The number of trained French bureaucrats was drastically reduced and replaced by inexperienced native labor. Consistent with this policy, he also changed his given name to Ngartha. And, as a Christian African, Tombalbaye proved less than diplomatic in his favoritism toward members of his own region, which further alienated the Muslim north. When he cracked down on numerous hard-line clerics who opposed his rule in 1965, an internecine civil war erupted along racial and religious lines. The strength of rebel groups was greatly abetted by aid and advisers from neighboring Libya and Sudan, and Tombalbaye turned to France for help. In exchange he was forced to liberalize his regime, release political prisoners, and bring more northerners into the government by 1971. However, after a failed coup attempt against him the following year, Tombalbaye clamped down on dissent, crushed student strikes, and resumed his dictatorial rule. After a decade of civil strife it was clear to Tombalbaye that he would have to accommodate his Muslim neighbors in order to survive. Accordingly, he reestablished closer ties with Libyan strongman Muammar Gadhafi in December 1972, quietly granted him access to the coveted Aouzou strip in the north, and broke off diplomatic relations with Israel to appease other Arab states. Consequently, Arab support for the northern rebel groups waned. The following year he attempted to consolidate his own power base by reintroducing widespread Africanization to such an extent


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that even foreign-sounding street names were ordered changed. Worse, he also made his Sara tribe practice of yondo, a painful initiation rite involving facial scars, mandatory for employment in the civil service. This move only alienated fellow southerners who did not share the same tribal customs. By 1974 Tombalbaye’s regime was further battered by a prolonged drought and a mishandling of relief aid. At this juncture many military officers began drawing up plans against him. Tombalbaye was apparently alert for such dissension, for in March 1975 he ordered the arrest of several ranking officers whom he viewed as hostile. On April 13, 1975, he was suddenly killed in a coup. Unfortunately, the dissension he had sown between northerners and southerners kept Chad in turmoil up through the 1990s. Tombalbaye himself was buried in an unmarked grave for 19 years and not reinterred in his home village of Bessada until April 13, 1994. Further Reading Azevedo, Mario J. Chad: A Nation in Search of Its Future. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998. Burr, Millard. Africa’s Thirty Years’ War: Libya, Chad, and the Sudan, 1963–1993. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1999. Decalo, Samuel. Historical Dictionary of Chad. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1997. Nolutshungu, Sam C. Limits of Anarchy: Intervention and State Formation in Chad. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996. Talbot, George T. “Origins, Causes, and Effects of the Tchadian Civil War and the French Interventions, 1968–1971.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Notre Dame, 1974. Wright, John L. Libya, Chad, and the Central Sahara. Totowa, N.J.: Barnes and Noble Books, 1989.

Torrijos, Omar (1929–1981) president of Panama Omar Torrijos Herrera was born in Santiago, Panama, on February 13, 1929, the son of schoolteachers. He opted for a military career and received military training in El Salvador and the United States before becoming an officer in the Panamanian National Guard in 1952. Panama, traditionally ruled by a handful of white European families, was experiencing political pressure to allow the newly rising middle class to share power. In May 1968 Arnulfo Arias Madrid was elected to the

presidency on a platform of radical reforms to enhance the poor and middle classes. However, he was quickly overthrown by a coterie of National Guard officers, including Torrijos, who eventually emerged as the new strongman by January 1969. He then assumed the title, Chief of Government and Supreme Leader of the Panamanian Revolution. In this capacity the head of state purged radical students from the universities, shut down opposition presses, and arrested political dissidents. Torrijos then broke with the established pattern of military rule by appointing several well-known leftists to places of prominence within the government. In December 1969 disgruntled officers launched a coup against him while he was outside the country, but Torrijos acted energetically, returned home, and defeated the insurgents. His capacity for decisive action and determination to succeed favorably impressed his fellow citizens. In 1972 he was granted full civil and military authority by the national assembly and ruled by decree. The rise of military leaders was nothing new in Latin America, but Torrijos, a staunch nationalist and a populist, determined to forever alter the political landscape of Panama. More than anything he wished to break the monopoly of power held by the traditional elites. Torrijos toured the country in uniform, deliberately talking to peasants and workers to hear their grievances—an unprecedented act in Panama. He then instituted a far-reaching system of land reform for thousands of poor and needy families. The government also expanded educational and technical training opportunities for those traditionally excluded from the system, and established new schools throughout the countryside. Moreover, Torrijos made concerted efforts to improve and expand health care for the masses, construct new hospitals in the hinterland, and improve national infrastructure with new bridges and roads. On the labor front, he supported union activities and ordered that collective bargaining be mandatory. But for all his good intentions, Torrijos was no democrat and continued to rule with tight control. Political parties were outlawed save for his own Partido Revolucionario Democrático (PRD), Democratic Revolutionary Party, which he intended as the first step towards one-party rule. As a nationalist, Torrijos centered his policy on reclaiming the Panama Canal from the United States, which had constructed and operated that famous facility since the early 20th century. Torrijos began insisting


TOURÉ, AHMED SÉKOU on talks to turn over the canal in 1971 but, despite threats and entreaties, he made no progress for eight years. Ownership of the canal was a highly emotional issue in both countries, but it was not until the election of American president JIMMY CARTER that real negotiations got under way. A treaty was then signed in September 1977, whereby the Americans eliminated the canal zone immediately, while sovereignty of the canal itself would transfer slowly and be surrendered on January 1, 2000. However, the United States insisted upon, and Torrijos was forced to agree to, clauses that gave the Americans the right to intervene militarily to keep the canal open. The entire affair marked a turning point in United States relations with Central America and rendered Torrijos a hero throughout the region. In international relations, Torrijos was no Marxist but he was certainly his own man. He reestablished diplomatic relations with Cuba for the first time since 1959, and struck up cordial relations with dictator Fidel Castro. He also expressed sympathy for the ongoing Nicaraguan revolution and allowed rebels to use Panama as a transit point for weapons shipments. But in 1979 he honored an American request to allow the deposed shah of Iran to seek refuge in the country. By 1980 the Panamanian economy was slipping under the weight of Torrijos’s excessive borrowing, and he resigned as head of the government in favor of a civilian puppet. However, as chief of the National Guard, he remained the real power behind the throne—and a popular national leader. Torrijos died suddenly in a helicopter crash on August 1, 1981, and he was replaced by his henchman, MANUEL NORIEGA. His death has never been explained and has been variously ascribed to both the American CIA and the ambitious Noriega himself. Further Reading Conniff, Michael L. Panama and the United States: The Forced Alliance. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001. Guevara Mann, Carlos. Panamanian Militarism: A Historical Interpretation. Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1996. Harding, Robert C. Military Foundations of Panamanian Politics. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2001. Koster, R. M., and Guillermo Sanchez Borbon. In the Time of Tyrants: Panama, 1968–1989. New York: W. W. Norton, 1990.

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Major, John. Prize Possession: The United States Government and the Panama Canal, 1903–1979. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Priestly, George. Military Government and Popular Participation in Panama: The Torrijos Regime, 1968–75. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1986.

Touré, Ahmed Sékou (1922–1984) president of Guinea Ahmed Sékou Touré was born in Faranah, French Guinea, on January 9, 1922, a Muslim of mixed Soussou and Malinke parentage. After receiving a Koranic education, he was admitted to the prestigious Georges Poiret technical school in Conakry but was expelled for organizing students. He subsequently finished his education through correspondence courses and also became enamored of the teachings of Karl Marx. By 1940 Touré was working within the colonial post and telecommunications department and five years later became head of the local union. In 1946 he was a founding member of the Rassemblement Democratique Africain (RDA), an intercolonial political party demanding independence from France. Touré, a noted activist and an accomplished speaker, was French Guinea’s best-known politician by 1952 and he was appointed secretary of the Parti Démocratique de Guinée (PDG), Democratic Party of Guinea, a regional wing of the RDA. In this capacity he led a successful two-month strike in 1953 and was elected to the Territorial Assembly. Touré, whose politics were increasingly radicalized, was disenchanted by the conciliatory policies of the RDA and demanded direct confrontation with colonial authorities. His stance enabled him to be twice elected to the French National Assembly, but he was as often denied a seat. Such controversy only heightened his visibility and popularity and in 1956, after France allowed its colonies greater internal autonomy, he was elected vice president. Two years later French president CHARLES DE GAULLE offered all colonies independence or membership in an “international community.” Touré, stridently anticolonial in outlook, opposed any further association with France, insisting, “We prefer poverty in freedom to opulence in slavery.” Accordingly, when given the choice in a public plebiscite, the voters of Guinea decisively voted for independence, becoming the first French African


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colony to do so. At that point an angry de Gaulle withdrew all technical and financial support from France’s former colony—further impoverishing it. Nonetheless, Touré basked in his role as a leading national figure, and he became the first president of Guinea in October 1958. Bereft of outside support, Touré turned to neighboring KWAME NKRUMAH of Ghana for a loan to stabilize the sinking Guinean economy. Thereafter the two Pan-Africanist leaders coordinated their foreign policies closely to develop a multinational union between Guinea, Ghana, and Mali. The effort collapsed over irreconcilable differences by 1961, but Touré continued on his radical course. He initially sought a close relationship with the Soviet Union but grew dissatisfied with their political interference and expelled their ambassador in 1962. Thereafter he placed greater emphasis on friendly relations with the West for money and technical assistance, all the while imposing a radical socialist regimen upon the nation. He cemented his credentials as a radical in 1966 by allowing the deposed Nkrumah to reside in Guinea and appointing him copresident. Touré ruled Guinea dictatorially for 26 years. He enjoyed considerable prestige throughout Africa as a nationalist but at home he functioned as a tyrannical despot. The PDG became the nation’s sole legal organization, dissenters were arrested or murdered, and extreme limits on press freedom and civil rights enacted. At length over 1 million Guineans fled to neighboring countries rather than submit to Touré’s increasingly paranoid regime. Political opponents were routinely arrested, tried, and publicly executed. In 1971, suspecting a coup against him, Touré ordered a widespread crackdown against all enemies of the state—real or imagined—while he continued running for the presidency unopposed. But as Guinea’s socialist command economy became hopelessly mired, he was forced to seek closer relations with his old adversary France by 1978. The West provided aid but also applied political pressure to promote liberalization efforts, which Touré steadfastly resisted. He finally died in Cleveland, Ohio, on March 26, 1984, while receiving medical treatment in the United States, and the military overthrew his government a few days later. While acknowledged as a leading architect of independence in French West Africa, Touré’s legacy was built on and sustained by oppression and murder.

Further Reading Camara, Mohammed S. “From Military Politicization to Militarization of Power in Guinea-Conakry.” Journal of Politics and Sociology 28 (winter 2000): 311–326. Coats, Geoffrey C. “French West Africa: The Political Philosophy of Ahmed Sékou Touré and Leopold Sedar Senghor.” Unpublished master’s thesis, James Madison University, 1994. Cort, Leon L. “The Quest for Socio-economic and Political Change in Guinea: Aspects of the Political Ideology of Ahmed Sékou Touré.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1982. Diallo, Geraldyne P. “The Philosophy of Ahmed Sékou Touré and Its Impact on the Development of the Republic of Guinea, 1958–1971.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., 1990. Ingham, K. Guinea United against the World: Politics in Modern Africa. London: Routledge, 1990. Touré, Ahmed Sékou. Africa on the Move. London: Panaf Books, 1979.

Trudeau, Pierre (1919–2000) prime minister of Canada Pierre Elliott Trudeau was born in Montreal, Quebec, on October 18, 1919, into an affluent business family. He was well educated at the University of Montreal, Harvard University, and the London School of Economics before embarking on a round-the-world tour in 1948. The inequities and hardships he encountered on this trip indelibly altered Trudeau’s world view, and thereafter he became a staunch member of the Liberal Party. Back home he served as a lawyer specializing in labor issues and also edited a progressive monthly magazine. But unlike many contemporaries in his native Quebec, Trudeau treated the issue of French Canadian nationalism with disdain and considered it harmful to Canada. He boldly attacked its proponents for promoting cultural intolerance and contributing to the province’s political backwardness. By 1960 Trudeau was teaching law at the University of Montreal where he argued that Quebec’s interests were better served by remaining a part of Canada than seceding from it. His outspokenness brought him to the attention of Prime Minister LESTER B. PEARSON, who encouraged him to run for office in 1965. He succeeded and was next appointed Pearson’s parliamentary secretary. Trudeau, a natural-born politician with a flair for media, excelled as a political


TRUDEAU, PIERRE lightning rod and he subsequently received the high-visibility portfolio of minister of justice. In this capacity he embarked on a crusade to liberalize Canadian society and relaxed long-standing strictures against homosexuality, abortion, and divorce. These were all controversial issues and never universally applauded, but also indicative of his daring brand of politics. In 1968 Pearson decided to resign from office and Trudeau, among others, stepped forward to succeed him. His flashy flamboyance certainly separated him from the traditional stodgy image of Canadian heads of state and he easily won leadership of the Liberal Party and the prime minister’s office. In fact, the country and media were so enthralled by his refreshing panache that the expression Trudeaumania was coined. His popularity was confirmed when the Liberals swept national elections later that year and a new era in Canadian politics emerged. For most of his term in office, Trudeau was overtly concerned by events in his home province of Quebec. It had long been his contention that, as a federal arrangement, Canada could easily accommodate French and English language and cultures on an equal footing. To placate the rising sense of French cultural nationalism— with its attendant calls for secessionism—Trudeau introduced official bilingualism throughout the civil service in 1969. For the first time in three centuries, French was finally given parity with English in matters of governance. However, this concession did little to dampen the growth of secessionist sentiment. In 1970 militants from the Front de Liberation du Quebec kidnapped the British high commissioner to Canada and murdered a Quebec cabinet minister. Trudeau countered with the imposition of the War Measures Act, which suspended civil rights in the province and led to hundreds of arrests. Through such heavy-handed tactics the radical secessionists were effectively squelched. Most Canadians applauded his handling of the crisis, but Trudeau was less successful at improving the national economy. After 1972 the Liberals could retain power only by forming a coalition with the small Free Democratic Party. Over the next seven years Trudeau’s administration remained transfixed by events in Quebec and a sagging economy. Moreover, the western provinces, angered by what they considered Trudeau’s kowtowing toward Quebec, increasingly swerved toward the Conservatives. Events crested in 1979 when the Liberals were narrowly defeated and Trudeau was briefly replaced by JOE CLARK.

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But within months the Liberals eked out a victory and Trudeau returned to power for another four years. His second term in office was consumed by a drive to update the Canadian constitution with a written bill of rights (the Charter of Rights and Freedoms) and to formally sever its ties to the British Parliament. This was accomplished in 1982 amid great pomp and ceremony, with Queen Elizabeth II in attendance. When the specter of French secessionism again arose in 1980, he led an intense effort to defeat a public referendum that would have granted Quebec sovereignty. He also displayed his independence from the United States—always a touchy issue in Canada—by recognizing Communist China in 1970, visiting Fidel Castro’s Cuba, and touring the Soviet Bloc promoting nuclear disarmament. But for all his energy and drive, Trudeau was singularly unable to improve Canada’s economic lot, which was burdened by rising deficits and unemployment. He was further beset by his controversial marriage to jet-setter Margaret Sinclair, with whom he endured a high-profile divorce. Trudeau, worn out and disappointed, announced his resignation in February 1984, and he was replaced by JOHN TURNER. His 16 years in office establish him as the second-longest-serving Canadian prime minister after WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE KING and among the most influential. Trudeau died in Montreal on September 28, 2000, a Canadian statesman of the first order and a French Canadian original. Further Reading Axworthy, Tom. Towards a Just Society: The Trudeau Years. Toronto: Penguin Books, 2000. Bowering, George. Egotists and Autocrats: The Prime Ministers of Canada. Toronto: Penguin, 2000. Carment, David, John F. Stack, and Frank P. Harvey. The International Politics of Quebec Secession: State Making and State Breaking in North America. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001. Chennells, David. The Politics of Nationalism in Canada: Cultural Conflict since 1760. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001. Coleman, Ron. Just Watch Me! Trudeau’s Tragic Legacy. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford, 2003. Kinsman, Jeremy. “Who Is My Neighbor? Trudeau and Foreign Policy.” International Journal 51 (winter 2001–2002): 57–77. Sanger, Clyde. “Trudeau and the Commonwealth.” Round Table no. 358 (January 2001): 95–201.


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Trudeau, Pierre E. Memoirs. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1993.

Trujillo, Rafael (1891–1961) president of the Dominican Republic Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina was born in San Cristóbal, the Dominican Republic, on October 24, 1891, the son of a small businessman. As part of the lower-middle class his economic prospects were limited on an island dominated by the landed elite, and for many years he held down numerous odd jobs. However, in 1915 the Dominican Republic was occupied by U.S. Marines in an attempt to restore order. Part of this process entailed establishment of the Dominican National Guard in 1918, which for Trujillo became a vehicle of social and economic mobility. He proved himself an excellent and attentive soldier and, once the marines were withdrawn from the island in 1924, he rose steadily through the ranks. Within four years Trujillo had become head of the National Guard and he began undermining civilian authority with staged civil disturbances. Having intimidated the political opposition, Trujillo ran for the presidency in May 1930 representing the Confederation of Parties. He went on to win a fraudulent election and subsequently chased a supreme court justice out of the country for challenging the results. Trujillo was to remain in power over the next 31 years. In 1938 he “stepped down” from office and was replaced by a puppet president while still controlling events from behind the scenes. As an American sycophant, he was warmly received by President FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT in 1939, and the following year they concluded the Trujillo-Hull Treaty that ended custom duties of Dominican imports. Trujillo was the first Latin American leader to declare war on the Axis during World War II and his administration was bolstered by a massive influx of American military and financial assistance. He resumed office in 1942 and during the cold war years he further cemented relations to Washington, D.C., by expressing virulent anticommunism and providing intelligence from throughout the Caribbean. In time Trujillo erected one of the most thorough and efficient dictatorships in Latin American history. He ruled brutally through violence and intimidation, unhesitatingly arresting, torturing, or executing all perceived enemies. Furthermore, all political parties, freedom of the press, and union activities were expressly

forbidden. Trujillo’s most visible symbol of authority, the National Guard, was his bodyguard, utterly ruthless and the instrument of his political will. In October 1937, in an attempt to “whiten” the Dominican half of the island of Hispaniola, Trujillo ordered the murder of nearly 20,000 Haitian squatters. It was one of the biggest massacres in the Western Hemisphere but went largely unnoticed in the United States because of Trujillo’s determination to maintain excellent economic relations, especially respecting the sale of sugar. To that end he also controlled virtually every aspect of the national economy, with the state treasury receiving a flat 10 percent donation from all workers. The entire island thus toiled to enrich Trujillo and the members of his immediate family. It is estimated that he amassed a fortune in excess of $800 million at a time when most of his fellow citizens were malnourished and impoverished. In 1930 the Dominican Republic was a backward island community overwhelmingly dependent on the sugar trade. Trujillo may have been a tyrant, but he also served as a badly needed agent for modernization. Under his aegis roads were built, harbors enlarged, and factories constructed. Through his efforts the Dominican Republic enjoyed a thriving economy, even if most of the fruits were for Trujillo alone. However, by the 1950s his control of the economy had stymied the rising expectations of the flourishing middle class and civil unrest mounted. In 1959 Cuban dictator Fidel Castro and Venezuelan president RÓMULO BETANCOURT tried and failed to overthrow Trujillo by arming numerous refugees. Trujillo countered with an assassination attempt that nearly killed Betancourt and led to an embargo by the Organization of American States (OAS). By this time the Americans had concluded that they could no longer afford the embarrassment of close relations with the aging despot. On May 31, 1961, four assassins, armed and trained by the Central Intelligence Agency, killed Trujillo in his car. Members of his family attempted to maintain themselves in power but they were ousted by the end of the year. Ironically, among the older generation of Dominicans, Trujillo is remembered not such much for his oppression as for the discipline and prosperity he brought to that troubled island. Further Reading Calzler, B. J. The Impact of Intervention: The Dominican Republic during the U.S. Occupation of 1916–1924. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1984.


TRUMAN, HARRY S. Chester, Eric T. Rag-tags, Scum, Riff-raff, and Commies: The U.S. Intervention in the Dominican Republic, 1965–1966. New York: Monthly Review, 2001. Diederich, Bernard. Trujillo: The Death of the Dictator. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 2000. Hall, Michael R. Sugar and Power in the Dominican Republic: Eisenhower, Kennedy, and the Trujillos. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000. Roorda, Eric P. The Dictator Next Door: The Good Neighbor Policy and the Trujillo Regime in the Dominican Republic, 1930–1945. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1998. Turits, Richard L. Foundations of Despotism: Peasants, the Trujillo Regime, and Modernity in Dominican History. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2003.

Truman, Harry S. (1884–1972) president of the United States Harry S. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, on May 8, 1884, the son of a farmer. After completing high school—his only education—he worked on the family farm for several years before serving in the army during World War I. He returned home to work in a haberdashery store and when it failed he turned to politics as a Democrat. As part of the political machine operated by Thomas J. Pendergast, Truman was successively elected county judge and presiding judge in Jackson County, Missouri. When the Great Depression swept the country in 1929, he distinguished himself by devising civic work projects, and in 1934 Truman was elected to the U.S. Senate. In this capacity he strongly supported the New Deal legislation of President FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, although the latter, while cordial, considered him simply a machine politician. But Truman was reelected in 1940 on the basis of his no-nonsense performance and during World War II he chaired the influential Senate committee investigating government expenditures and contracts. His thorough inquiries exposed shocking degrees of waste, inefficiency, and corruption, and the changes he instituted saved the taxpayers millions of dollars. Truman was by now a respectable figure within the Democratic Party—if little known nationally— and in 1944 Roosevelt tapped him to serve as his vice presidential candidate. Truman complied more out of a sense of duty than desire, yet he campaigned vigorously for the ticket and won. The two leaders virtually

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never communicated during his vice presidency— Roosevelt’s behavior toward him remained cool but correct. But after Roosevelt’s death on April 12, 1945, Truman constitutionally succeeded him and assumed power at a critical juncture in American history. He was still relatively unknown to the public and, compared to his aristocratic predecessor, exuded a decidedly simplistic and homespun air. World War II had nearly ended in Europe but fighting in the Pacific raged with great fury. It fell upon Truman to execute a momentous decision in human history by authorizing the use of atomic bombs against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, rather than attempt a costly invasion of the islands. The bombs staggered the Japanese government, and Emperor HIROHITO ordered his nation to lay down its arms, thereby sparing millions of lives on both sides. The episode is indicative of Truman’s penchant for decisive action and his unflinching determination to accept responsibility, no matter how grave, for his actions. The postwar era posed difficulties of a different nature when, faced with inflation and rapid demobilization of the military, Truman attempted to continue the New Deal policies of his predecessor. He dealt with an uncooperative Republican Congress that stymied legislation on full employment, but he managed to secure laws promoting housing and unemployment benefits. In 1948 Truman also scored a major triumph for civil rights by ordering the armed forced desegregated. Shortly thereafter, foreign affairs intruded on his domestic agenda and dominated his activities for the rest of his presidency. Aggressive actions by Soviet dictator JOSEPH STALIN in Eastern Europe signaled the start of the cold war, and in 1947, the president promulgated his famous Truman Doctrine. Henceforth the United States would provide millions of dollars in aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent a communist takeover, which would be followed by billions of dollars in aid for Europe through the Marshall Plan. Thus was born the global strategy of “containment.” Truman was also the driving force behind creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949, which was created as a bulwark against communist aggression. In 1948, when Stalin ordered a land blockade of Berlin to starve the Allies out, Truman ordered a massive airlift that kept the populace fed through the winter and forced the Russians to relent. For all his decisiveness, Truman faced a close election in 1948 against Republican candidate Thomas


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Harry S. Truman (Library of Congress)

E. Dewey. The night of the election several newspapers predicted the outcome with headlines declaring “Dewey defeats Truman” only to discover the next morning that Truman won by a close margin of 2 million votes. This come-from-behind victory astonished the pundits and became the stuff of political legend. Truman’s second administration continued to be battered by foreign affairs and domestic fears of communist subversion, and in 1947 he enacted a loyalty oath for prospective civil servants but the Democrats fell under increasing attack by Republican senator Joseph McCarthy for being “soft” on communism. When the Chinese regime of CHIANG KAI-SHEK was driven from the mainland to Taiwan by MAO ZEDONG’s communists, Truman was accused of having “lost” China for lack of proper support. But the biggest jolt occurred in June 1950 when the army of North Korean dictator Kim Il Sung suddenly attacked the South Korean regime of SYNGMAN RHEE, precipitating the

Korean War (1950–53). Truman reacted with typical decisiveness and dispatched American forces to the peninsula while courting United Nations assistance. As the war ground on, he dismissed popular war hero General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination when—in defiance of orders—he tried extending the war into Manchuria. The result was a bloody three-year stalemate that saw Truman’s popularity plummet. Rather than run for a third term, he announced his resignation in 1952 and the Republicans returned to power under the aegis of DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER. Truman left the White House an embittered man, convinced that he was a failure. Out of office, the plain-talking Truman lived on his farm in Independence, Missouri, where he wrote his typically candid memoirs. He occasionally campaigned for Democratic candidates around the country before dying at home on December 26, 1972. Truman has since passed into history as one of America’s most effective and popular executives. Thanks to his determined leadership the United States remained engaged as a world player after 1945 and did not sink back into its traditional isolationism. Whatever he lacked in education or personal finesse was amply compensated by his bluntness, unimpeachable honesty, and an attitude of governance encapsulated in his personal dictum that “The buck stops here.” Further Reading Axelrod, Alan. When the Buck Stops with You: Harry S. Truman on Leadership. New York: Portfolio, 2004. Beschloss, Michael R. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman, and the Destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1941–1945. Waterville, Me.: Thorndike Press, 2002. Byrnes, Mark S. The Truman Years, 1945–1953. New York: Longman, 2000. Hess, Gary R. Presidential Decisions for War: Korea, Vietnam, and the Persian Gulf. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 2001. Karabell, Zachary. The Last Campaign: How Harry Truman Won the 1948 Election. New York: Knopf, 2000. Parry-Giles, Shawn J. The Rhetorical Presidency, Propaganda, and the Cold War, 1945–1955. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002. Pierce, Ann R. Woodrow Wilson and Harry Truman: Mission and Power in American Foreign Policy. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003.


TSHOMBE, MOÏSE Truman, Harry S. The Autobiography of Harry S. Truman. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002. ———. Memoirs of Harry S. Truman, 2 vols. New York: Da Capo Press, 1986–87.

Tshombe, Moïse (1919–1969) prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Moïse Kapenda Tshombe was born in Katanga Province, Belgian Congo, on November 10, 1919, the son of an affluent businessman. He was also part of the large and influential Lunda tribe, the majority within the mineral-rich Katanga region. Tshombe was educated at local missionary schools and followed his father into business, where he displayed no aptitude. After nearly driving the family into bankruptcy, Tshombe next pursued politics as an evolue, one of Congo’s westernized elites. In 1956 he founded the Confederation of Tribal Associations, or Conaket, to advance Lunda interests. For Tshombe, this meant striking up cordial relations with Belgian economic and mining interests in Katanga just as the region girded itself for independence. In 1960 Tshombe attended round table discussions in Brussels to determine the future of Congo. He specifically favored a federal arrangement whereby the regions—especially Katanga—would enjoy broad swathes of autonomy. This view contrasted sharply with that of the radical PATRICE LUMUMBA, who argued for a strict unitary state under a highly centralized government. In the end Lumumba’s argument won out. In May 1960 elections granted Conaket only eight seats out of 137 in the new national legislature, which further underscored Tshombe’s minority status. When the Democratic Republic of the Congo was declared on June 30, 1960, Lumumba was installed as prime minister while JOSEPH KASAVUBU served as president. Unfortunately for all involved, independence only accelerated the trend toward sectionalism and tribal violence. Within 10 days the army mutinied against the government and Tshombe, sensing an opportunity, declared Katanga’s independence from the Congo. On August 8, 1960, the provincial legislature voted him president and he backed up his claim with white mercenaries and financial support from business contacts in Belgium. Lumumba decried the move as treason, but he had his hands full dealing with other machinations instigated by Kasavubu. When Lumumba was finally deposed that September he was arrested, flown to

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Katanga, and murdered by troops loyal to Tshombe. Events were further complicated when United Nations general secretary DAG HAMMARSKJÖLD flew out to help settle the dispute and died in a mysterious plane crash. Kasavubu subsequently tried negotiating a settlement to the Katanga secession, but Tshombe refused all overtures until he was suddenly arrested and forced to sign a written agreement. He immediately recanted the deal after his release; United Nations forces were introduced to end the rebellion by the summer of 1961. Two years later, with his forces defeated and his regime crumbling, Tshombe fled the province for exile in Spain. Tshombe’s exile proved relatively short-lived for in 1964 Kasavubu suddenly summoned him back and appointed him prime minister. In this capacity he was made responsible for putting down a tribal rebellion in the eastern Congo. Again, Tshombe relied heavily on his Western contacts, assembled a force of European mercenaries, and crushed the rebellion by force. His harshness in dealing with the rebels and his willingness to hire foreigners only contributed to his national unpopularity. Worse, after a new constitution had been adopted that year which granted the prime minister expanded powers, Tshombe’s party scored exceptionally well and he was apparently preparing to depose Kasavubu. The president preempted him with a dismissal on October 13, 1965, and a military impasse ensued for several weeks. The stalemate finally ended on November 24, 1964, when General Joseph Mobutu overturned both Tshombe and Kasavubu. Tshombe fled once again to the safety of Spain and was condemned to death in absentia. Tshombe remained abroad for several years and was apparently planning a return to power. However, on June 30, 1967, the passenger liner he flew in was hijacked over the Mediterranean and he was conveyed to Algeria and arrested. The government of HOUARI BOUMÉDIENNE refused all demands for extradition and Tshombe remained under house arrest until his death there on June 29, 1969. His tenure as a Congolese national figure remains controversial and contentious, and partially laid the groundwork for Mobutu’s corrupt and brutal dictatorship. Tshombe is also held largely responsible for ordering Lumumba’s death and for the instability it engendered. Further Reading Bouscaren, Anthony T. Tshombe. New York: Twin Circle Pub. Co., 1967.


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Colvin, Ian G. The Rise and Fall of Moïse Tshombe: A Biography. London: Frewin, 1968. Linavo, J. V. “The Causes of the Shaba I and Shaba II Rebellions in Zaire during the Second Republic.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Denver, 1984. Lumumba-Kasongo, Tukumbi. “Katanga Secession: Creation of the West or Manifestation of the Congolese Internal Power Struggle? Journal of African Studies 15, nos. 3–4 (1988): 101–109. Nzongaola-Ntalaja, Georges. Resistance and Repression in the Congo: Strengths and Weaknesses of the Democracy Movement, 1956–2000. New York: Zed Books, 2001. Tshombe, Moïse. My Fifteen Months in Government. Plano, Tex.: University of Plano, 1967.

Tsiranana, Philibert (1912–1978) president of Madagascar Philibert Tsiranana was born in Majunga, Madagascar, on October 18, 1912, into a Tsimihety peasant family. His homeland was then a French colony and beset by traditional tensions between his tribe, which inhabited the coastline, and the Merinas, who dominated the island’s interior. Poverty forced him to tend his father’s flock and he did not attend school until the age of 12. Eventually Tsiranana proved himself adept academically and he ultimately passed through the University of Montpelier, France, for a teaching credential. Meanwhile, resentment against colonialism culminated in a bloody rebellion in 1947 after which the French began modifying their rule. Tsiranana returned home in 1950 to work as a teacher and two years later commenced his political career by winning a seat in the territorial legislature. Madagascar remained chafing under the continuance of French control, but Tsiranana, like most coastal dwellers, did not want to see a resurgence of Merina rule. Therefore he argued for a gradual relaxation of colonial rule to forestall either the rise of communism or Merina domination. In 1956 France granted its colonies direct representation in its National Assembly and Tsiranana was elected. While attending he also joined the French Socialist Party. The following year he was appointed head of the Council of Government back in Madagascar as the French allowed a proliferation of political parties to form. Tsiranana then founded the Parti Social Democratique du Madagascar (PSD),

Social Democratic Party, which, despite socialist overtones, sought to maintain a French presence on the island. Continuing political maneuvers on his part allowed Madagascar to seek independence while remaining part of the French international community. In June 1960 the Malagasy Republic was proclaimed, and Tsiranana was appointed its first president. In power Tsiranana espoused his own peculiar brand of socialism that was hostile to communism, opposed the nationalizing of industry, and accepted the status quo in terms of landowning. He basically limited government intervention to supervising private investments and promoting mixed public/private companies. The nation was committed to free-market economics and welcomed foreign investment. Moreover, Tsiranana was extremely pro-Western in outlook for a former colonial head of state and rejected all overtures of friendship from the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. In fact, Tsiranana went on record as stridently opposing Communist China’s admission to the United Nations in 1966. He also pursued a pragmatic, independent foreign policy that included diplomatic and trade relations with the apartheid regime in South Africa. This caused resentment among Pan-Africanist leaders, but did not prevent Tsiranana from serving as spokesman for the 12nation association of former francophone colonies. As long as the economy flourished, Tsiranana enjoyed political popularity and he was easily reelected in 1965. However, the onset of inflation and a global recession soured his political prospects and he called for snap elections in January 1972 to bolster his standing. Unfortunately, the process proved a sham whereby he received 99.9 percent of votes cast. This ploy quickly undermined his legitimacy and occasioned mass demonstrations by students and workers angered by continuing reliance upon France and close relations with South Africa. The Merinas of the interior were also agitating for a greater role in governance, while the declining economy sparked a round of violent labor unrest. Within months Tsiranana’s position had become untenable and he resigned from office on October 11, 1972. Power was assumed by General Gabriel Ramanantsoa for the time being. Tsiranana remained active in party politics, with declining influence, until his death in Tananarive on April 16, 1978. His 12 years of power were instrumental in helping Madagascar make the transition to independence and democratic practices, but failed to address deep-seated fissures


TUBMAN, WILLIAM between coastal dwellers and highland inhabitants. The problems remain unresolved to the present time. Further Reading Allen, Philip M. Madagascar: Conflicts of Authority in the Great Island. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995. Brown, Mervyn. A History of Madagascar. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2001. Cole, Jennifer. Forget Colonialism?: Sacrifice and the Art of Memory in Madagascar. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. Kottak, Conrad P., ed. Madagascar: Society and History. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 1986. Middleton, Karen, ed. Ancestors, Power, and History in Madagascar. Boston: Brill, 1999. Sharp, Leslie A. The Sacrificed Generation: Youth, History, and the Colonized Mind in Madagascar. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Tubman, William (1895–1971) president of Liberia William Vacanarat Shadrack Tubman was born in Cape Palmas, Liberia, on November 29, 1895, the son of a Methodist preacher. Liberia, Africa’s first republic, had been established in 1847 as a haven for freed American slaves and largely administered by their descendants. Tubman, whose ancestors emigrated from Georgia, was thus part of the national elite. He attended local missionary schools and worked as a teacher for many years before studying law and being called to the bar in 1917. Tubman gained renown as a “poor man’s lawyer” for outstanding help toward the poor, and in 1923 he gained election to the senate as a True Whig representative. This was the only legal party in Liberia at the time and likewise dominated by Americo-Liberians. Tubman served intermittently over the next decade and established himself as a leading national figure. In 1937 his career took an unexpected turn when he became an associate justice on the Supreme Court of Liberia, remaining until 1943. That year Tubman was tapped as the True Whig presidential candidate to replace President Edwin Barclay. In this tightly controlled oneparty state, nomination alone was sufficient to ensure victory, and Tubman was sworn into office on January 3, 1944. As a candidate Tubman pledged himself to enlarging the Liberian electorate by extending suffrage to include not only women, but also inhabitants of the

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interior traditionally excluded from power. He also sought to give tribesmen legal parity with the elites and bring them into the government. This reform was accomplished by a constitutional amendment, and Tubman further distinguished himself by erecting numerous schools, hospitals, and roads throughout the hinterland. Similar efforts were also expended upon communications, infrastructure, and education. Economically, Tubman sought to break the national dependency upon rubber exports and invited foreign investors to develop Liberia’s natural resources, particularly the iron ore industry. Within a decade Liberia’s gross national product thus soared from $1 million annually to over $30 million. More than any other individual in Liberia’s history, Tubman did the most to finally bridge the deep-seated animosity between indigenous peoples and the traditional Americo-Liberian elites. His efforts at promoting harmony and economic growth were completely successful and resulted in reelection in 1950. However, to accomplish this, Tubman urged revising the constitution to allow him to serve consecutive terms. He was ultimately reelected six times. Tubman matched his domestic endeavors with success in international affairs. In 1944 he visited Washington, D.C., to confer with American president FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, becoming the first African head of state to ever sleep over in the White House. That year he also declared war on Germany and Japan, receiving an influx of military and financial aid in return. But for all his accommodation toward the West, Tubman was a Pan-Africanist dedicated to the end of white rule in Africa. He criticized the apartheid regime of South Africa, and in 1958 he joined KWAME NKRUMAH of Ghana and AHMED SÉKOU TOURÉ of Guinea in organizing the Accra Conference of Independent African States. However, Tubman rejected the notion of political integration in favor of promoting common interests and economic cooperation. In 1963 he was a cofounder of the new Organization of African Unity (OAU). Tubman remained in office for 31 years, making him one of Africa’s most successful statesmen. He was consistently reelected by wide margins even though various parties and candidates were tolerated. But his governance through patronage and discouragement of a genuine opposition alienated radical elements and resulted in several assassination attempts. By the time he died in London on July 23, 1971, Tubman enjoyed the enviable reputation as one of the continent’s most


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visible and respected elder statesmen. At home he is best remembered for having modernized Liberia and bringing it into the 20th century. His administration remains the longest-serving in the history of that nation. Further Reading Boley, G. Saigbe. Liberia: The Rise and Fall of the First Republic. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984. Dunn, D. Elwood. The Foreign Policy of Liberia during the Tubman Era, 1944–1971. London: Hutchinson Benham, 1979. Fahnbulleh, Henry B. The Diplomacy of Prejudice: Liberia in International Politics, 1945–1970. New York: Vantage Press, 1985. Greenwood, Ralph. “The Presidency of William V. S. Tubman of Liberia, 1944–1971.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Northern Arizona University, 1993. Liebenow, J. Gus. Liberia: The Quest for Democracy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. Tubman, William V. S. The Official Papers of William V. S. Tubman, President of Liberia. London: Longmans, 1968.

Turner, John (1929– ) prime minister of Canada John Napier Turner was born in Richmond, England, on June 7, 1929, to an English father and a Canadian mother. His father died when he was three and his mother relocated and raised him in Rossland, British Columbia. Turner studied at the University of British Columbia and won a prestigious Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford University in 1949. By 1953 he had obtained his doctorate in law from the University of Paris and he settled in Montreal to establish a practice specializing in corporate law. In 1962 Turner commenced his political career by winning a seat in the House of Commons as a Liberal. Here he joined a vocal group of young politicians advocating party reform, who were eventually labeled the “Young Turks.” Prime Minister LESTER B. PEARSON was sufficiently impressed by Turner’s youth and drive to appoint him minister without portfolio in 1965, and two years later he served as minister of consumer and corporate affairs. By 1968 Turner felt emboldened to become the Liberal Party leader but he lost to an equally flashy newcomer, PIERRE ELLIOTT TRUDEAU. Trudeau then named him minister of justice, where he served four years and implemented numerous reforms. In 1972 Turner was chosen to serve as minister

of finance where he had to concoct and pass coalition budgets in concert with the New Democratic Party. The process generally discouraged him, so in 1975 he resigned from office and resumed his legal practice. However, he was careful to remain in touch with party leaders and keep abreast of political developments. Turner waited four years for Trudeau to finally retire in 1984 before returning to the fold and running for party head. In June 1985 Turner defeated Jean Chretien on the second ballot, becoming both party head and Canada’s newest prime minister. Turner’s tenure in office lasted only 80 days. He had inherited from Trudeau a party that was totally dispirited and disorganized after 21 years in power. Furthermore, he, like the Liberal leadership in general, failed to acknowledge that the public was ready for a change in national direction. Nonetheless, he called for early elections, betting that a fresh new face would invigorate the Liberals’ fortunes. Turner was sadly mistaken, for he and his party were crushed by the Progressive Conservatives under Brian Mulroney. Turner was lucky enough to hold onto his seat while Liberal representation was reduced to 40 members. He resigned on September 17, 1984, after one of the shortest and most humiliating tenures in Canadian history. Over the next six years Turner functioned as head of the opposition in Parliament. Here he commenced the long and difficult process of rebuilding his party and was generally helped by a spate of scandals that embarrassed the Conservatives. In 1988 Mulroney was poised to offer the North American Free Trade Act (NAFTA) to the public as a referendum, an act that would eliminate trade barriers between Canada, the United States, and Mexico, thereby increasing competition and lowering prices. Turner, however, railed against the measure, viewing it as a threat to national sovereignty. He ran again for prime minister in 1988 on the basis of opposition to NAFTA and nearly won, but in the end the Conservatives prevailed and the agreement was signed. Turner remained on as party head until 1990—losing two more elections in the process— before finally resigning as party head. He has since abandoned politics and resumed his legal activities as a private lawyer. Further Reading Cahill, Jack. John Turner: The Long Run. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1984.


TURNER, JOHN Clarke, Harold D., Allan Kornberg, and Peter Wearing. A Polity on the Edge: Canada and the Politics of Fragmentation. Orchard Park, N.Y.: Broadview Press, 2000. Huyer, Sophia. “What Constitutes a Social Movement? The Action Canada Network and Free Trade Opposition in Canada, 1983–1993.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., York University, 2000. Lynch, Charles. Race for the Rose: Election 1984. New York: Methuen, 1984.

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McCall, Christina. Grits: An Intimate Portrait of the Liberal Party. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1982. Simpson, Jeffrey. The Friendly Dictatorship. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 2001. Turner, John N. The Politics of Purpose. Toronto: McClelland, 1968. Weston, Greg. Reign of Error: The Inside Story of John Turner’s Troubled Leadership. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1988.


U Ubico, Jorge (1878–1946) president of

treasury, which contained only $27.00 when Ubico assumed power, was slowly and steadily built up along with Guatemala’s international credit. However, the government outlawed union activities, and working conditions for the average Guatemalan deteriorated. Moreover, he abolished the centuries-old practice of holding Native Indians in servitude for debt and determined to bring them directly into the economy. This entailed a new law in 1933 that required all Indian males to work 150 days a year at minimum wage—and also two weeks a year without pay unless they paid a tax. Through this expedient Ubico broke the landlords’ control over Indian lives and made them dependent upon the government. As the economy improved and money flowed into the coffers, Ubico next set about modernizing the primitive Guatemalan infrastructure. He began a crash construction program to build highways and roads connecting the distant interior to the capital for the first time. Over 6,000 miles of new roads were eventually added. Major public works, including buildings, hospitals, and schools, sprang up around the country while fresh water and electrification were made available in the countryside for the first time. The resulting economic boom led to the growth of Guatemala’s tiny middle class, although the overwhelming majority of benefits were enjoyed by the wealthy landowners. Nonetheless, Guatemala acquired a modern infrastruc-

Guatemala Jorge Ubico y Castañeda was born in Guatemala City, Guatemala, on November 10, 1878, the son of a prominent politician. He was partially educated in the United States before coming home to attend the Escuela Politecnica and being commissioned a lieutenant in the army. Ubico enjoyed a distinguished military career and reached the rank of colonel by the time he was 28 years old. He fought well in the 1906 border war with El Salvador and directed the National Sanitation Commission in its drive to eradicate yellow fever. In 1921 President José María Orellana appointed the young, hard-charging officer as his minister of war, and the following year Ubico was promoted to full general. However, by 1930 Guatemala was experiencing political chaos brought on by the Great Depression and, by dint of political maneuvering, he emerged as the sole candidate for presidential elections that year. Ubico enjoyed a reputation for decisive leadership and honesty, so much was expected from his administration. Ubico’s first priority was stabilizing the national economy, which had been nearly gutted by the falling price of coffee. He implemented acute cost-cutting measures and a severe austerity budget to bring inflation under control and also offered favorable conditions to attract foreign investment. Consequently, the national

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ULBRICHT, WALTER ture that served as the basis of its national economy for most of the 20th century. For all Ubico’s positive contributions to Guatemala, he also ran one of the most ruthless and efficient dictatorships in all Central America. His Liberal Progressive Party became the only legal outlet for political expression of participation. He also organized a well-funded and ruthless security apparatus that spied on citizens, arrested some, and executed others. Ubico was virulently anticommunist, and he ruthlessly suppressed Guatemalan leftists, union activists, and other undesirables. The country’s thriving cultural life also suffered, for Ubico forbade any artistic expression that might be construed as criticism. Nor did he choose to respect constitutional law forbidding consecutive terms by executive officers. In 1936 and 1942 Ubico arranged to have the constitution amended to allow him to hold office indefinitely. But throughout the 1940s the regime began experiencing domestic and external pressures for change. During most of World War II he supported the Axis powers, but he finally cemented a relationship to the Allies and expropriated German-owned property on American insistence. The biggest movement for change, however, came from the very middle class that he had so painstakingly created. Shut off from opportunity by oligarchic control and desiring a greater say in governance, students, professional classes, and even young army officers began organizing marches against the government. In July 1944 dissidents staged a successful revolution that finally toppled Ubico, and he fled into exile. He left behind a 13-year record of impressive national growth underscored by a legacy of tyranny and oppression. Ubico died in New Orleans, Louisiana, on June 14, 1946, and his remains could not be peacefully returned to Guatemala until 1963. Further Reading Ciria, Alberto. “The Individual in History: Five Latin American Biographies.” Latin American Research Review 20, no. 3 (1985): 247–267. Dosal, Paul J. Doing Business with the Dictators: A Political History of the United Fruit Company in Guatemala, 1899–1944. Wilmington, Del.: SR Books, 1993. Grieb, Kenneth J. Guatemalan Caudillo: The Regime of Jorge Ubico: Guatemala, 1931–1944. Athens: University of Ohio Press, 1979. Pitti, Joseph A. Jorge Ubico and Guatemala Politics in the 1920s. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1975.

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Randolph, David E. “The Diplomatic History of Guatemala during the Administration of President Jorge Ubico, 1931–1944.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Arizona State University, 1980. Sieder, R. “Paz, Progresso, Justica y Honradez’: Law and Citizenship in Alta Verapaz during the Regime of Jorge Ubico.” Latin American Research 19 (July 2000): 283–302.

Ulbricht, Walter (1893–1973) general secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of East Germany Walter Ulbricht was born in Leipzig, Germany on June 30, 1893, the son of a carpenter. He apprenticed as a cabinetmaker and joined the left-leaning Social Democratic Party (SDP) in 1912. After serving in World War I Ulbricht gravitated toward more radical politics, and in December 1918 he was a founder of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD), German Communist Party. He displayed real talent as a bureaucrat and an organizer so in 1923 he was elected to the party’s central committee. Moreover, following the rise of JOSEPH STALIN in the Soviet Union, Ulbricht became irrevocably committed to the Stalinization of the KDP and to organizing it along a strict, centrally controlled basis. In 1928 he was also elected to the Reichstag (legislature). At that time the KDP was formally committed to overthrowing the democratic Weimar Republic and foolishly cooperated with the National Socialist Party (the Nazis) of ADOLF HITLER. But no sooner did Hitler assume power in January 1933 than he commenced a terror campaign against the communists and Ulbricht fled to Paris. There he functioned as an agent of Moscow and also served in the Spanish civil war with Republican forces. There Ulbricht successfully prosecuted Trotskyites to enhance Soviet control of Spanish communists, and by 1939 he was summoned back to Moscow. He became one of few foreigners to survive Stalin’s bloody purge of the Communist Party. During World War II Ulbricht led the propaganda effort against German prisoners and became thoroughly trusted by Stalin. When the Red Army rolled through a defeated Germany in 1945 he accompanied them, now tasked with organizing and administering the new Soviet-occupied zone. Though not initially in charge, Ulbricht performed several useful tasks to cement Russian control over its new possession. He proved instrumental in forcing a


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merger between the SDP and the KDP, which resulted in formation of the new Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED), Socialist Unity Party, in April 1946. Three years later, when the German Democratic Republic was formed, Ulbricht was installed as deputy prime minister and general secretary of the SED. In this capacity he wielded real power over domestic affairs and was determined to apply the Stalinist political model to his situation. Ulbricht’s doctrinaire and inflexible approach to governance resulted in a violent workers’ rebellion in 1953, which had to be crushed by Russian tanks. He was lucky to have been retained by Soviet leaders, especially after the death of Stalin that year. The new Soviet premier NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV tried to effect liberalizing reforms throughout Eastern Europe in a program of de-Stalinization, but Ulbricht boldly refused to change. After the failed 1956 Hungarian revolution he purged the SED of its remaining moderates and ruled over the last Stalinist party in Europe. Following the death of President Wilhelm Pieck in 1960, Ulbricht unilaterally abolished that office and substituted a council of state with himself as chairman. He was now in complete control of East Germany’s political apparatus. His authoritarian measures to increase industrial output at workers’ expense led to a mass exodus toward West Germany and freedom. To counter this potentially fatal hemorrhage of skilled workers, in August 1961 Ulbricht authorized construction of the infamous Berlin Wall. This proved a propaganda embarrassment to the communist bloc as a whole, but did stabilize East Germany’s economy for the time being. With time the Berlin Wall served as a hated symbol of communist oppression and tyranny. Over the next decade Ulbricht remained true to his inflexible Stalinist creed. In 1968 he provided troops that invaded and crushed the Czechoslovakian Spring under ALEXANDER DUBCˇEK. In 1971 the East Germans proved somewhat receptive toward West German chancellor WILLY BRANDT’s Ostpolitik but Ulbricht adamantly demanded recognition of the GDR as a precondition for better relations. His intransigence toward detente greatly angered Soviet premier LEONID BREZHNEV, who sought a lessening of tensions between the East and West blocs. In 1971 the Soviets helped orchestrate a minor coup that removed Ulbricht as general secretary in favor of the more flexible ERICH HONECKER. Ulbricht retained the honorary title as chairman of the state council, where he performed ceremonial functions until

his death in East Berlin on August 1, 1973. Dogmatic and stubborn, Ulbricht’s 21-year reign established him as the dominant political figure of the GDR throughout its formative period. Further Reading Anderson, Sheldon R. A Cold War in the Soviet Bloc: Polish-East German Relations: 1945–1962. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2001. Byrne, Malcolm, ed. Uprising in East Germany, 1953: The Cold War, the German Question, and the First Major Upheaval behind the Iron Curtain. New York: Central European University Press, 2001. Gearson, John P. S., and Kori Schake, eds. The Berlin Wall Crisis: Perspectives on Cold War Alliances. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Gray, William G. Germany’s Cold War: The Global Campaign to Isolate East Germany, 1949–1969. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. Harrison, Hope M. Driving the Soviets up the Wall: SovietEast German relations, 1953–1961. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003. Loth, Wilfried. Stalin’s Unwanted Child: The Soviet Union, the German Question, and the Founding of the GDR. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Major, Patrick, and Jonathan Osmond, eds. The Workers’ and Peasants’ State: Communism and Society in East Germany under Ulbricht, 1945–71. New York: Manchester University Press, 2002.

U Nu (1907–1995) prime minister of Burma U Nu was born in Walema, Burma, on May 25, 1907, the son of a small shopkeeper. Dissolute as a young man, U Nu rediscovered Buddhism, cured himself of alcoholism, and enrolled at the University of Rangoon to study law. There he became embroiled in anti-British agitation and served as head of the student union. U Nu subsequently taught for several years before joining a nationalist group, the Dobams Asiayone (We Burmans), to end colonial rule. In 1936 he led the first-ever student strike against the British, was arrested, and struck up cordial relations with his fellow revolutionary Aung San. U Nu continued his anticolonial actions and writings, and in 1940 he was arrested and jailed for sedition. He was not released until 1942 when the Japanese invaded Burma, forced the British out, and enticed him


U THANT to serve in a puppet regime headed by Ba Maw. U Nu did as he was told, while secretly opposing Japanese rule, and he was relieved when the British returned in 1945. He next headed up the colony’s most prominent political organization, the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL), with a view toward pursuing independence. Two years of intense negotiations ensued before Great Britain finally allowed Burma its freedom. Aung San was slated to serve as the first interim executive, but he was assassinated by a political rival on July 19, 1947. Because U Nu was the only other Burmese politician of national stature, he was asked to serve as the nation’s first prime minister as of January 1948. At that time Burma was invited to remain within the British Commonwealth but he chose instead to abandon it altogether. U Nu inherited a country ruined by war and suffering from widespread poverty. Burma was also riven by an active communist insurgency and ethnic infighting throughout the countryside. But, as a celebrated Buddhist scholar, he was calm and resolute in the midst of seemingly insurmountable problems. U Nu subscribed to a relatively mild form of socialism and he enacted legislation to reduce the power of wealthy landlords. He was also an intensely religious figure and helped spark a national Buddhist revival through his publications and synods. Eager to sidestep the mounting tensions of the cold war, U Nu also helped champion the Nonaligned Movement among developing nations. He continued on with moderate success for a decade until 1958, when the military under General NE WIN temporarily deposed U Nu in a bloodless coup. He typically retired to a monastery to help reorganize his party apparatus and by 1960 the military was ready to allow a return to democracy. U Nu was easily reelected prime minister and resumed his course of trying to rule a divided, poor nation. In 1962 Ne Win again intervened and overthrew the government a second time, which spelled the end of democracy in Burma for the next 30 years. U Nu was summarily imprisoned until 1966. Following his release U Nu was invited to join Ne Win’s National Unity Advisory Board, where he demanded a return to parliamentary democracy. Rather than face possible arrest again, he left Burma for Thailand, ostensibly to study Buddhism but, in reality, to help organize a resistance movement. When this endeavor failed he subsequently relocated to India until

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1980 when Ne Win summoned him home under a general amnesty. At this juncture U Nu became a Buddhist monk—but in 1988, following the overthrow of Ne Win, he declared himself head of a provisional government under his new National League for Democracy. Burma was then engulfed in mass prodemocracy movements, and the government felt sufficiently threatened to arrest U Nu again in 1989. He remained imprisoned until April 1992 and continued with prodemocracy agitation until his death in Rangoon on February 14, 1995. U Nu remains a venerated national figure and a driving force behind independence, but was also too infatuated with Buddhism to be an effective leader. Further Reading Butwell, Richard A. U Nu of Burma. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1969. Callahan, Mary P. Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2003. Fink, Christina. Living Silence: Burma under Military Rule. New York: Zed Books, 2001. Thant Myint-U. The Making of Modern Burma. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Tucker, Shelby. Burma: The Curse of Independence. Sterling, Va.: Pluto Press, 2001. U Nu. U Nu, Saturday’s Son. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1975.

U Thant (1909–1974) secretary general of the United Nations U Thant was born in Pantanaw, Burma, on January 22, 1909, and he was educated at the National High School. He subsequently studied at University College, Rangoon, and befriended U NU, a future Burmese prime minister. After graduating in 1929 U Thant taught English and history in Pantanaw for many years before rising to headmaster. Following the Japanese conquest of Burma in 1942 he served as secretary of the Education Reorganization Committee but later quit to resume teaching. In 1945 the British returned to Burma and tried reimposing colonial rule, so U Thant joined U Nu’s Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL) as head of the Information Department. After Burma obtained its independence in January 1948, he was invited to join the government as secretary of the Ministry of Information. U Thant excelled as an


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administrator and quickly became recognized as one of U Nu’s most trusted advisers. In 1957 he was selected to represent Burma as one of its permanent representatives at the United Nations, and within a year the smooth-talking intellectual was elected vice president of that body. He continued functioning well in that capacity until Secretary General DAG HAMMARSKJÖLD died in a mysterious plane crash on November 3, 1961. Because the United States and the Soviet Union could not agree on a successor, U Thant’s name was put forward as a compromise candidate, and he was immediately accepted. Having successfully fulfilled the balance of Hammarskjöld’s term, U Thant was formally elected to his own five-year term as secretary general on December 2, 1962. U Thant’s acceptance of the UN mantle coincided with some of the most tumultuous years of the 20th century. His immediate concern was staving off an armed confrontation between American president JOHN F. KENNEDY and Soviet premier NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV over the deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. Acting as an intermediary, U Thant managed to facilitate removal of the Russian missiles without provoking an American invasion of Cuba. That year also witnessed the gradual absorption of Irian Jaya (western New Guinea) by Indonesia dictator SUKARNO, and large-scale peacekeeping operations in the former Belgian colony of Congo. In 1963 the island of Cyprus was racked by ethnic fighting between Greeks and Turks, which threatened to involve Greece and Turkey. U Thant managed to have UN peacekeeping forces deployed between the combatants and initiated talks to resolve the conflict peacefully. In 1967, the opposite occurred: Egyptian president GAMAL ABDEL NASSER demanded that the UN withdraw its forces separating Egypt from Israel, in anticipation of war, and U Thant reluctantly complied. He was later criticized for the move despite his insistence that the UN lacked any legal right to refuse Egypt’s request. Nonetheless, in December 1966 U Thant was unanimously reelected to a second five-year term. U Thant’s most conspicuous failure as secretary general involved the unfolding Second Indochina War between North Vietnam and the United States. After the 1964 Tonkin Gulf incidents, which precipitated direct American air raids on Hanoi, the secretary general attempted to mediate indirectly between President

LYNDON B. JOHNSON and HO CHI MINH. Johnson was not officially interested in peace talks at that stage, but he handed the issue off to his UN ambassador Adlai Stevenson for further discussion. Talks were fruitful, but Johnson rejected the “Rangoon initiative” along with a new Geneva peace conference. In a rare moment of anger, U Thant denounced the American administration for obstructionism, at which point Johnson denied that such talks had been undertaken in the first place. By 1968 public opinion in America was turning against the war, and U Thant arranged for Johnson to allow a partial bombing halt along with peace talks in Paris. Throughout the rest of his second term, the UN remained stretched thin over continuing crises in the Middle East and between India and Pakistan. Given the failure of peacekeeping efforts abroad, U Thant began placing greater emphasis on funding social and economic development programs, but he remained hard-pressed to come up with the financing. By 1972 U Thant had had enough, and he declined to run for a third consecutive term. That December he was replaced by KURT WALDHEIM of Austria and he retired to a home in upstate New York to compose his memoirs. U Thant died of cancer in New York City on November 25, 1974. He was the first non-European secretary general of the UN and among its most successful. Ironically, when his body was shipped back to Burma student riots erupted over the military government’s refusal to bury it on the grounds of the university he had attended.

Further Reading Firestone, Bernard J. The United Nations under U Thant, 1961–1971. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2001. Gorman, Robert F. Great Debates at the United Nations: An Encyclopedia of Fifty Key Issues, 1945–2000. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001. James, Alan. Keeping the Peace in the Cyprus Crisis of 1963–64. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Nassif, Ramses. U Thant in New York, 1961–1971: A Portrait of the Third United Nations Secretary General. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988. Saltford, John. The United Nations and the Indonesian Takeover of West Papua, 1962–1969: The Anatomy of Betrayal. New York: Routledge Curzon, 2002. U Thant. View from the UN. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1978.


V Vargas, Getúlio (1883–1954) president of Brazil

hence, more subservient to control. Next he greatly expanded the voting franchise by allowing women the right to vote and employing the secret ballot. Vargas was extremely concerned about the welfare of the working classes so he enacted sweeping educational reforms and introduced social security measures. Labor unions were organized—and controlled by the government—and a minimum wage adopted. In economic terms Vargas also sought to revolutionize Brazil by de-emphasizing the traditional reliance upon coffee exports and stimulating the rise of a nascent industrial base. Factories were encouraged along with foreign investment, infrastructure, roads, and all the facets of a modern society. All these changes irrevocably altered Brazil’s political landscape and placed it on the path to modernity. Because of his determination to break the power of big business and the landowners, he was hailed as the “father of the poor.” However, Vargas extracted a steep political toll for his reforms. Having been formally elected president in 1932, he ruled as a despot. Congress was abolished, labor activity banned, and political parties outlawed. Police powers were also greatly expanded after a failed communist rebellion in 1935, and civil rights were suspended. In 1937 Vargas promulgated the New State (Estado Novo), a corporate authoritarian entity based on the fascist regimes of ANTÓNIO SALAZAR’s Portugal, FRANCISCO FRANCO’s

Getúlio Dorneles Vargas was born in São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, on April 19, 1883, into a prominent political family. He briefly entertained a military career but quit and studied law to enter politics in 1908. In 1922 Vargas was elected to the national Chamber of Deputies and served four years. In 1926 President Luis Pereira de Souza appointed him minister of finance. However, Vargas left office two years later to successfully run for the governorship of his home state. His tenure there was characterized by effective leadership under centralized authority so in 1930 he announced his candidacy for the presidency of Brazil with the Liberal Alliance Party. Vargas was narrowly defeated but, rather then claim fraud, he temporarily accepted the outcome until a popular revolution tossed out the incumbent in October 1930. For the next two years Vargas was installed as provisional president with a mandate for change. Vargas was determined to change the basic nature of Brazilian governance by placing greater emphasis on social control and centralized authority. Brazil heretofore consisted of a loose confederation of semiautonomous states dominated by rural landowners and financed by agricultural exports. But Vargas changed the tax structure of the system to make the states dependent upon the government for funding and,

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Spain, and BENITO MUSSOLINI’s Italy. Here the rights of the individual were sacrificed for the benefit of the group, and were both aided and carefully monitored by the government. Despite his sympathy for Nazi Germany, Vargas entered World War II on the side of the Allies—more to receive American financial aid than from any sense of altruism. However, the specter of Brazilian forces fighting for democracy in Europe undermined his own authority at home. On October 29, 1945, Vargas was bloodlessly deposed by the military after 15 years of uninterrupted rule. He was nonetheless extremely popular in his home state and was elected to the senate that fall. Vargas remained on the political sidelines for five years while Brazil experienced a period of economic stagnation. In 1950 he ran for the presidency a second time and was elected on a platform of labor reform and unbridled nationalism. To that end he nationalized the oil industry and granted wage increases, but was unable to cope with dramatic inflation. In August 1953 Vargas narrowly survived an assassination attempt, and the military withdrew its support from the government. They then demanded his resignation, but Vargas refused and, to underscore his indignation, he committed suicide on August 24, 1954. In a note left behind, the former executive dedicated his demise to the Brazilian people, for whom he claimed slavish devotion. Vargas was easily the most influential Brazilian politician of the 20th century and his legacy of centralized authority, nationalism, and populism remains a potent factor in national politics to present times. Further Reading Beattie, Peter M. The Tribute of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, and Nation in Brazil, 1864–1945. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001. Cardoso-Silva, V. A. Foreign Policy and National Development: The Brazilian Experiment under Vargas, 1951–1954. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1985. Dulles, John W. F. Sobral Pinto, “the Conscience of Brazil”: Leading the Attack against Vargas (1930–1945). Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002. Levine, Robert M. Father of the Poor? Vargas and His Era. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. McCann, Frank D. Soldiers of the Patria: A History of the Brazilian Army, 1889–1937. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2004.

Rose, R. S. One of the Forgotten Things: Getúlio Vargas and Brazilian Social Control, 1930–1954. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000. Steiger, William R. “What Once Was Desert Shall Be a World: Getúlio Vargas and Westward Expansion in Brazil, 1930–1945.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of California–Los Angeles, 1995. Williams, Daryle. Culture Wars in Brazil: The First Vargas Regime, 1930–1945. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001.

Velasco, Juan (1910–1977) president of Peru Juan Velasco Alvarado was born in Piura, Peru, on June 16, 1910, the son of a civil servant. He left home to join the army in 1929 and, as an outstanding common soldier, was selected to attend the national military academy. Velasco graduated with distinction in 1934 and compiled a distinguished military career with diplomatic assignments in Paris and Washington, D.C. He was promoted to full general and head of the military in 1964 by President FERNANDO BELAÚNDE TERRY. As a soldier and a nationalist, Velasco believed that Peru was in dire need of social and economic reforms to circumvent a Marxist revolution similar to Communist Cuba’s. His concerns were shared by President Belaúnde who tried implementing a package of modest reforms in 1968 but was thwarted by vested interests in congress. The president also experienced domestic pressure to nationalize the assets of the International Petroleum Company (IPC), an American firm with abiding control of Peru’s oil industry. However, when Belaúnde inadvertently signed a controversial agreement favorable to the company it spurred great national resentment. On October 3, 1968, Velasco headed a bloodless coup that toppled Belaúnde and instituted the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces. He and his coterie of officers then determined that if politicians could not implement needed change, the military would. A top priority would be reducing Peru’s overall economic dependence upon the United States. Velasco conceived and implemented a series of sweeping reforms known collectively as Plan Inca. He capitalized on nationalistic fervor by nationalizing the property of IPC and other American-owned companies in the copper and iron industries. No compensation was offered and when the United States refused to grant


VELASCO IBARRA, JOSÉ Peru further developmental loans, Velasco opened diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union to obtain funding there. He also instituted a 200-mile fishing limit off Peru’s Pacific coast and impounded several American vessels for trespassing. The military next tackled the pressing problem of agrarian reform. Peru had long been dominated by large estates worked by landless Indian peasants for scant compensation. In 1969 Velasco announced sweeping changes that broke up the estates and distributed land to farmers, cooperatives, and landless peasants. The junta then oversaw the nationalization of the banking industry, railroads, and public utilities. State control was subsequently extended over international trade and also served as a source of revenue for new businesses. In sum, Velasco concocted one of the most thorough economic programs in Latin American history, being both populist and reformist in tenor. He then set his sights on equally pressing social matters by enlarging the national pension program, providing medical service to the poor, and introducing clean water and ready supplies of electricity into the countryside. Furthermore, the government declared complete equality for women and granted Quechua—the Indian dialect of the Andes—parity with Spanish. To lay the groundwork for the eventual return to democracy, Velasco also sponsored the Sistema Nacional de Apoyo a la Mobilización Social (SINAMOS), Social Mobilization Support System, to integrate peasants and workers into a coherent voting bloc. On the downside, Velasco’s regime, if not an outright dictatorship, was authoritarian by nature and brooked little dissent. The military initially enjoyed great public support and respected individual rights provided the economy was good. However, by 1973 Peru was experiencing a severe economic downturn, which led to labor unrest, strikes, and riots. Velasco responded with a harsh crackdown and also nationalized the country’s newspapers to silence criticism. The general himself was increasingly sidelined with poor health that impaired his political judgment and led to increasingly erratic behavior. On August 29, 1975, Velasco was bloodlessly overthrown by General FRANCISCO MORALES BERMÚDEZ, who scaled back many of the state-owned enterprises in favor of free-market practices. Velasco lingered on for two years before dying in Lima on December 24, 1977. As a testimony to his enduring popularity with the largely poor Indian

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population, his funeral procession was accompanied by 200,000 mourners. He remains the most popular and respected Peruvian executive of recent memory. Further Reading Atwood, Roger. “Democratic Dictators: Authoritarian Politics in Peru from Leguia to Fujimori.” SAIS Review 21 (summer–fall 2001): 155–176. Bamat, Thomas. “Peru’s Velasco Regime and Class Domination after 1968.” Latin American Perspectives 10 (spring 1983): 128–150. Harik, Judith P. “‘Nasserism’ in the Andes? An Analysis of the Government of Peruvian General Juan Velasco Alvarado.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Iowa, 1981. Klaren, Peter F. Peru: Society and Nationhood in the Andes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Kruijt, Dirk. Revolution by Decree: Peru, 1968–1975. Amsterdam: Thela Publishers, 1994. Valdes, Benjamin E. “The Development of Peruvian Indigenismo and Its Influence on the Regime of General Juan Velasco Alvarado.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Vanderbilt University, 1983.

Velasco Ibarra, José (1893–1979) president of Ecuador José Velasco Ibarra was born in Quito, Ecuador, on March 19, 1893, the son of an engineer. He completed his doctoral thesis at the Sorbonne in Paris before coming home to work as a journalist. In 1932 Velasco was elected to the congress as a Liberal but he showed no real affinity for party politics. In fact, he presented himself as a supreme opportunist who struck alliances with any interest group that suited his purposes. But Velasco enhanced his appeal by being a skilled political operator and a charismatic orator. By 1933 he functioned as Speaker of the House, and in this capacity he led the fight against President Juan de Dios Martínez Mera, then accused of electoral fraud. When congress moved to declare the presidency vacant, Velasco stepped forward as a candidate and was elected with the backing of both Liberals and Conservatives. In power he proved himself a populist and a reformer but was also perpetually thwarted by oligarchic interests in congress. To break the legislative logjam Velasco unsuccessfully tried imposing a dictatorship and was exiled to Colombia in August 1935. This set the pattern for his remaining four


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terms in office. In light of his repeated exile he became popularly known as “The Great Absentee.” Velasco remained abroad until 1940 when he returned to Ecuador to run again for president. He lost to Liberal candidate Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río that year and resumed his exile in Argentina. However, when Arroyo was overthrown by a coup in May 1944, Velasco came home again and was proclaimed head of state by the Constituent Assembly for a second term. His new administration was backed by a crazy quilt of parties spanning the ideological spectrum, and with their help he implemented a new constitution in 1946. However, Velasco was overthrown again by his own defense minister on August 23, 1947, and again returned to exile in Argentina. The following year free elections were won by GALO PLAZA LASSO, who completed a full term in office and retired in 1952. That year Velasco came home and successfully ran for office a third time. He was allowed to serve out a complete four-year term and accomplished several useful reforms in an unusually healthy economic climate. In 1956 he stepped down in favor of the Conservative Camilo Ponce. Four years later Velasco ran again against Plaza Lasso and a government candidate, handily defeating both with sizable left-wing support. But Velasco, at heart a conservative, proved hostile to Fidel Castro’s Communist Cuba and also tried to increase taxes to fund new projects. His brusqueness so alienated the opposition that conservatives, liberals, and communists all formed an alliance to oppose him. The military, fearing the outbreak of civil war, then ousted Velasco for the third time on November 7, 1961. A series of provisional presidents and military juntas ensued until democratic rule was finally restored in March 1966. In 1968 Velasco came home and successfully ran for the presidency for an unprecedented fifth term. As before he inherited a congress hostile to his reform agenda and he threatened to resign. This time the military entreated him to stay on in the interest of national stability, and in June 1970 he disbanded congress and declared a dictatorship. The following year a revolt among military officers forced Velasco to become a pawn of the military to remain in power. Velasco intended to retire at the end of his term, but the military asked him to extend his stay. He refused, and when new elections were held in 1972 and about to be won by the radical Assad Bucaram, the army intervened once more and installed a new junta.

Velasco went to Argentina for the next seven years but returned to his home town of Quito to die there on March 30, 1979. He enjoyed one of the longest political careers in Ecuadoran political history, principally for his ability to effortlessly shift alliances to gain an advantage. Velasco remains the most durable national figure of the 20th century but, given his lack of identifiable political values, he bequeathed no lasting legacy to the process. Further Reading Cueva Davila, Agustin. The Process of Political Domination in Ecuador. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1982. De la Torre, Carlos. Populist Seduction in Latin America: The Ecuadorian Experience. Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 2000. ———. “Velasco Ibarra and ‘La Revolucion Gloriosa’: The Social Production of a Populist Leader in Ecuador in the 1940s.” Journal of Latin American Studies 26 (October 1994): 683–711. Isaacs, Anita. Military Rule and Transition in Ecuador, 1972–92. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993. Maier, Georg. “The Impact of Velasquismo on the Ecuadorian Political System.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Southern Illinois University, 1965. Martz, John D. The Military in Ecuador: Policies and Politics of Authoritarian Rule. Albuquerque, N.M.: Latin American Institute, University of New Mexico, 1988.

Venizélos, Eleuthérios (1864–1936) prime minister of Greece Eleuthérios Kyriakos Venizélos was born in Mounriés, Crete, on August 23, 1864, the son of a prominent Cretan revolutionary who fought against the Ottoman Empire. He followed his family into exile on the island of Siros and subsequently attended the law school at the University of Athens. After graduating in 1877 Venizélos came home to work as a journalist but became caught up in the island’s revolutionary politics. He was elected to the national assembly as part of the Liberal Party and in 1897 helped lead an unsuccessful insurrection to unite Crete with Greece. With European help the Cretans received autonomy from the Ottomans, and Prince George, son of King George I of Greece, arrived


VERWOERD, HENDRIK as high commissioner. Venizélos, now serving as minister of justice, clashed repeatedly with the prince, and in 1906 led an insurrection that drove him back to the mainland. By that time Greece had fallen under the sway of a political clique known as the Military League and in August 1910 they encouraged Venizélos to run as a deputy from Athens. He was successful and subsequently gained appointment as prime minister. Venizélos, a devout monarchist, amended the 1864 constitution to allow a prominent role to be played by the royal household in governance. He also enacted sweeping reform programs to modernize the military and initiate war against the Ottoman Empire. During the Balkan War of 1912–13, Greece, in concert with Bulgaria, successfully drove the Turks out of the region. Venizélos thus doubled the size of his nation by seizing Macedonia, Crete, and the Aegean islands. When World War I commenced in 1914, he strongly urged Greece to join on the side of the Allies, but King Constantine I, who was pro-German, pursued a neutral course. Venizélos tried to change his monarch’s mind for two years, so in 1916, after German, Austrian, and Bulgarian forces invaded Macedonia, he led an insurrection against the king. The Greek rebels were assisted by French and British forces, who helped install Constantine’s son, Alexander, on the throne. Venizélos then led Greece into war against the Central Powers and in 1919 he represented his country for two years during the Paris Peace Conference. In this capacity he managed to secure additional territorial gains in Thrace and the western Balkans. He returned home in 1920 to a hero’s welcome. However, when King Alexander died suddenly, Constantine was recalled through a popular plebiscite. Rather than deal with his adversary, Venizélos resigned as prime minister and entered self-imposed exile in Paris. Constantine pursued an unsuccessful war against KEMAL ATATÜRK in Anatolia, where his armies were badly defeated and 1.2 million refugees had to be absorbed. This led to a rebellion by the military and he was overthrown in 1920. Venizélos was then invited back to Greece and reinstalled as prime minister. He negotiated a peace treaty with the new Republic of Turkey in 1923 but quit his office the following year when several politicians tried to abolish the monarchy altogether. Venizélos moved briefly to Paris, but then returned to serve as head of the Liberal Party in the legislature. He was overwhelmingly elected prime minister

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in 1928 for the third time and performed constructive work normalizing relations with Greece’s Balkan neighbors. He also concluded an important series of territorial treaties with Turkey, Italy, and Yugoslavia. The onset of the Great Depression in 1929 greatly weakened his standing with the public, unfortunately, and in 1932 he was voted out of office. Venizélos continued on as head of the Liberals until 1935, when the monarchy was successfully reestablished. Because he now opposed a kingship for Greece, Venizélos resigned from office again. He was subsequently implicated in a plot against the throne and exiled again to Paris. He died there on March 18, 1936, widely acclaimed as Greece’s outstanding international statesman of the early 20th century. Further Reading Gerolymatos, Andre. “Lloyd George and Eleuthérios Venizélos, 1912–1917.” Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora 15, nos. 3–4 (1988): 37–50. Kaloudis, George S. Modern Greek Democracy: The End of a Long Journey? Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2000. Karamanlis, Konstantine A. “Venizélos and the External Relations of Greece from 1928 to 1932.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 1984. Macrakis, Aglain Lily. “Cretan Rebel: Eleuthérios Venizélos in Ottoman Crete.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1983. Mazower, Mark. “The Messiah and the Bourgeoisie: Venizélos and Politics in Greece, 1909–1912.” Historical Journal 35 (December 1992): 885–904. Vlavianos, Aristea A. “Venizélos, Constantine, the Great Powers and the Ethnikos Dichasmos.” Unpublished master’s thesis, James Madison University, 1994.

Verwoerd, Hendrik (1901–1966) prime minister of South Africa Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on September 8, 1901, a son of Dutch Reformed Church (Calvinist) missionaries. As such he was raised in an intense religious atmosphere that strongly influenced his world view. His family relocated to Capetown, South Africa, while he was still a child, and he subsequently attended the University of Stellenbosch, an intellectual center of Afrikaner nationalism. Verwoerd performed brilliantly in college


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and went on to acquire advanced degrees in sociology from the Universities of Hamburg, Leipzig, and Berlin. While in Germany he was also impressed by the nascent National Socialist (Nazi) teachings of ADOLF HITLER. Verwoerd came home in 1927 and served as a professor of psychology and sociology at Stellenbosch. Already an ardent nationalist, in 1937 he was one of several Afrikaner professors who railed against the government’s policy of granting German Jewish refugees asylum in South Africa. As Verwoerd’s politics became gradually radicalized, he joined the race-supremacist National Party and the Broederbond (Brotherhood), a secret Afrikaner society. In 1937 he became editor of the influential newspaper Die Transvaaler, where his views of racial separation were crystallized in print. In addition to pro-Nazi views, he also scathingly denounced the British, black Africans, and Jews. Verwoerd unsuccessfully ran for the legislature in 1948, the year that the National Party was swept to power, but he later received an appointment to the senate. In October 1950 Verwoerd was made minister of native affairs, an important post that he occupied for eight years. It was here that he served as the main architect of apartheid, the government’s official policy of segregating citizens on the basis of race. No simple racist, Verwoerd strongly believed that white and black cultures were incompatible and ought to develop free of one another. To him God had ordained that people of differing backgrounds be permanently separated (apartheid means “apartness”). This entailed forcibly relocating the black majority from the cities and relegating them to various homelands (Bantustans) under traditional tribal chiefs. In practice this policy did no less than strip Africans of their political and civil rights. When required to serve as a source of cheap labor, they were beholden to the hated “pass system” in order to work and travel about. Furthermore, workers were not allowed to take their families, who remained behind in the homeland. It was a carefully contrived, strongly enforced system of racial oppression that would leave deep scars on South Africa’s national psyche for decades to come. Verwoerd was finally elected to the legislature in April 1958, where he became head of the National Party and prime minister. As head of state he was finally free to bring the full weight of the government upon erecting long desired racial barriers. In March 1960, when

members of the Pan Africanist Congress sponsored a peaceful protest against apartheid in Sharpeville, they were brutally attacked by police forces. No less than 67 people were killed and more than 300 wounded, and the South African regime was intensely criticized by fellow members of the British Commonwealth. Verwoerd responded by sponsoring a referendum to make South Africa an independent republic. The measure passed narrowly, and on May 31, 1961, the Republic of South Africa was formally established. When member states continued objecting to the government’s racial policies, Verwoerd pulled out of the Commonwealth altogether. Thereafter, antiapartheid groups successfully pressed for economic sanctions against the apartheid regime and South Africa grew increasingly isolated diplomatically. In light of increased guerrilla activity against the government, the republic stepped up counterinsurgency programs against blacks, outlawed the African National Congress, and began evolving into a repressive police state. Verwoerd retained a good deal of popularity among his fellow Afrikaners and, with the onset of black guerrilla warfare, increasing numbers of Englishspeaking South Africans turned to him for security. On April 9, 1960, he miraculously survived an assassination attempt at the hands of a crazed white farmer, which only deepened his conviction of doing God’s work. But on September 6, 1966, Verwoerd was stabbed to death in the legislature by a deranged messenger. Furthermore, the loathsome system of apartheid that he erected lasted 30 more years until the election of Nelson Mandela as South Africa’s first black prime minister. Further Reading Alexander, Peter. Workers, War, and the Origins of Apartheid: Labour and Politics in South Africa, 1939–48. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000. Duffy, Joanne L. “Afrikaner Unity, the National Party, and the Afrikaner Nationalist Right in Stellenbosch, 1934–1938.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Oxford, 2001. Nesbitt, Francis N. “Race for Sanctions: The Movement against Apartheid, 1946–1994.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts–Amherst, 2002. Roberts, Martin, and Josh Brooman. South Africa, 1948–94: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001.


VIDELA, JORGE Van Woerden, Henk. The Assassin: A Story of Race and Rage in the Land of Apartheid. New York: Holt, 2001. Waddy, Nicholas L. “The Growing Divide: British and South African Parliamentary Attitudes to Racial Policy, 1945–1948.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 2001.

Videla, Jorge (1925– ) president of Argentina Jorge Rafael Videla was born in Mercedes, Argentina, on August 2, 1925, the son of a high-ranking army officer. Like his father, he pursued a military career by attending the National Military College and being commissioned in 1944. Videla went on to compile an impressive service record, with diplomatic stints in Washington, D.C. By 1973 he was serving as the army’s chief of staff, a position he retained until 1975, when President Isabel Perón (second wife of dictator JUAN PERÓN) appointed him commander in chief of the army. The Argentine military by now had a strong tradition of intervening in national politics during times of crisis. But Videla, a self-professed political moderate, was not viewed as a threat to the democratic order. Unfortunately the country was then racked by the twin evils of soaring inflation and a bloody left-wing insurgency in the cities. Perón, however well-intentioned, proved politically inept and could not restore either the economy or society. For this reason Videla, in concert with other senior military figures, bloodlessly toppled the civilian regime on March 24, 1976, and he was installed as acting president of a nine-man junta. In preparation, the legislature was dissolved, courts disbanded, and both unions and political parties were banned. Argentina had known military governments before, but the thoroughness of Videla’s handling of national affairs was unanticipated. The democratic process was completely suspended and supplanted by near despotic authority. Faced with widespread urban violence from guerrillas of the People’s Revolutionary Army, Videla ordered the harshest crackdown upon left-wing dissidents and their suspected supporters that the nation ever knew. Upward of 30,000 guerrillas and their cohorts— including journalists, union leaders, and students—were arrested en masse and subjected to torture and interrogation. Worse, the majority were either murdered outright or simply categorized as “disappeared.” The

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government’s efforts were greatly facilitated by rightwing “death squads,” which seemingly operated above the law with military approval. This period, known as the so-called Dirty War, was among the most repressive ever imposed in a Latin American country. Videla was fully intent upon crushing the communist insurgency and he succeeded, but at a terrible cost in human rights. The government also lent its energies and military intelligence in Operation Condor, a multinational effort throughout Latin America intending to target and eliminate guerrillas and leftists. The effort was largely successful, and political stability was restored—but the toll in lives proved immense. Concurrent with the crackdown, Videla also sponsored economic reforms to reduce an annual inflation rate of 400 percent. He ordered the Peronist emphasis on government controls ended and substituted freemarket principles and foreign investment. Some progress was made at improving Argentina’s economy and balance of payments, but deep-seated structural problems remained. In 1978 Videla intended to surrender the presidency but he was persuaded by the junta to remain on another three years. He finally left office in March 1981, shortly before President LEOPOLDO GALTIERI led the nation into the disastrous Falkland Islands war. Defeat here paved the way for a return to civilian rule and in October 1983 RAÚL ALFONSÍN became the first civilian executive in seven years. After assuming office in 1984, one of his first acts was to have Videla and other military leaders arrested for human rights violations. Videla was tried, found guilty, and sentenced to life imprisonment. However, in 1991 President Carlos Saúl Menem, wishing to harmonize relations with the military, released Videla and others from jail. Videla remained unrepentant and defended his actions as being strictly in the interests of national security. But accusations of murder continued stalking the former general and in 1998 he was placed under house arrest while new charges were leveled against him. In September 2001 a federal judge ordered Videla to stand trial for the abduction of 72 foreigners in concert with Operation Condor—his trial remains pending. Further Reading Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001. Lewis, Paul H. Guerrillas and Generals: The “Dirty War” in Argentina. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.


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Marchak, Patricia. God’s Assassins: State Terrorism in Argentina in the 1970s. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2002. Munck, Geraldo L. Authoritarianism and Democratization: Soldiers and Workers in Argentina, 1976–1983. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1998. Osiel, Mark. Mass Atrocity, Ordinary Evil, and Hannah Arendt: Criminal Consciousness in Argentina’s Dirty War. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001. Roehrig, Terence. The Prosecution of Former Military Leaders in Newly Democratic Countries: The Cases of Argentina, Greece, and South Korea. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2002.

Villeda Morales, Ramón (1909–1971) president of Honduras Ramón Villeda Morales was born in Ocotepeque, Honduras, on November 26, 1909, and he studied medicine at the National University of Honduras. He pursued advanced studies in Germany and finally established a successful practice at Tegucigalpa in 1940. Shortly after, Villeda Morales became active in Liberal Party politics and, by dint of organizational prowess and speaking abilities, he emerged as party leader by 1949. He first ran for the Honduran presidency in October 1954 against National Party nominees Carias Andino and Abraham Williams, winning a plurality of votes. It then fell upon the legislature to resolve the election by a direct vote but National Party members boycotted the session to keep Villeda Morales from winning. On December 5, 1954, Vice President Julio Lozana declared himself constitutional dictator and, when Villeda Morales led a strike to protest the takeover in July 1956, he was exiled to Costa Rica. When Lozano was deposed in turn by the military five months later, Villeda Morales returned home and was installed as ambassador to the United States. In 1957 he again ran for the presidency and was elected by the constituent assembly. Villeda Morales thus became the first Liberal Party executive in several decades on December 21, 1957. The new president had previously renounced radical reforms in a pact with the United Fruit Company, but he remained determined to effect change. In 1959, following an unsuccessful rebellion by the National Police, he dissolved them in favor of a new 2,000-man

Civil Guard responsible to the Ministry of Government and Justice. This restored a sense of stability to the nation but it also angered the military, which felt that its autonomy was being violated. Villeda Morales next turned his attention to modernizing the Honduran national infrastructure. He initiated a concerted effort to develop new highways, ports, and air facilities, and also directed improvements in health programs and national education. He made a significant contribution to Honduras’s economic well-being in July 1959 by signing into law the nations’s first Labor Code. This document codified rights in terms of hours, wages, compensation, and the right to strike. The following month Villeda Morales directed adoption of the first social insurance law with increased benefits for unemployment, maternity leave, and disabilities. In 1960 he was among the first Central American leaders to endorse American president JOHN F. KENNEDY’s Alliance for Progress, consisting of social reform legislation intending to preclude communist-style insurrections as in Cuba. Honduras consequently received large increases in economic and military aid, and Villeda Morales drew even closer to the United States in foreign policy. To facilitate trade he pushed Honduras along into the new Central American Common Market. In 1961 Honduras also broke relations with Cuba while the government cooperated closely with the Central Intelligence Agency to thwart communist guerrilla movements throughout the region. In 1962, again at the behest of the United States, Villeda Morales signed a new and far-reaching agrarian reform law that brought idle acreage into production to ease the burden on overworked peasant organizations. This had the effect of alienating the powerful United Fruit Company and other conservative interest groups, who were wary of creeping socialism. By the time new elections were scheduled in 1963, neither the military nor the landed interests wished to see a continuation of Liberal Party rule. Moreover, once it appeared that the Liberals under Modesto Rodas Alvarado would win, the military suddenly seized control under Colonel Oswaldo López Arellano on October 3, 1963. Both Villeda Morales and Rodas Alvarano were then forced to flee the country. The military continued ruling Honduras until 1971, when Villeda Morales was finally allowed to go home. He then received an appointment as Honduran representative to the United Nations in New York but died shortly after arriving there on


VORSTER, BALTHAZAR October 8, 1971. Villeda Morales remains a significant national figure for his many reforms in labor, health, and education. Further Reading Echeverri-Gent, Elisavinda. “Labor, Class, and Political Representation: A Comparative Analysis of Honduras and Costa Rica,” 2 vols. Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1988. Euraque, Dario A. Reinterpreting the Banana Republic: Region and State in Honduras, 1870–1972. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996. Hammond, Tony. “The Role of the Honduran Armed Forces in the Transition to Democracy.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Florida, 1991. MacCameron, Robert. Bananas, Labor, and Politics in Honduras, 1954–1963. Syracuse, N.Y.: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, 1983. Morris, James A. Honduran Electoral Politics and Military Rule: The Geopolitics of Central America. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, Dept. of Political Science, 1982. ———. Honduras: Caudillo Politics and Military Rulers. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1984.

Vorster, Balthazar (1915–1983) prime minister of South Africa Balthazar Johannes Vorster was born in Jamestown, South Africa, on December 13, 1915, the son of a wealthy sheep rancher. He attended the University of Stellenbosch, then a hotbed of Afrikaner (Dutch) nationalism, and befriended noted lecturer HENDRIK VERWOERD. Vorster quickly absorbed the notions of racial superiority and hatred for all things English, hallmarks of the Dutch-based National Party (NP). However, Vorster was quite given to extremes, and in 1938 he helped form the more militant Osewabrandwag (Ox wagon guard), which espoused anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi viewpoints. In 1939, when the government of JAN SMUTS led South Africa into World War II on the side of Great Britain, Vorster’s followers strongly opposed the move. Pro-Nazi Afrikaners then launched a sabotage campaign to impede the war effort and Vorster was arrested and imprisoned for alleged complicity. After his release he resumed his political career by

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attempting to rejoin the NP but was rejected as too extreme. He then unsuccessfully ran for office in 1948 as part of the right-wing Afrikaner Party and lost. It was not until 1953 that Vorster was allowed to rejoin the NP and he was finally elected to the legislature. He proved himself a skilled debater and an astute politician, so in 1958 Prime Minister Verwoerd appointed him minister of education. Vorster, who prided himself upon his toughness, implemented those aspects of apartheid (racial separation) intended to keep the black African majority subservient to whites. He performed up to hard-line expectations, so in 1961 Verwoerd made Vorster minister of justice and police. In this capacity he gained a degree of infamy by strengthening security forces and cracking down harshly on black dissent though the Sabotage Act of 1962. Through this expedient the African National Congress (ANC) was outlawed and its members, such as Nelson Mandela, could be subject to arrest and detention without trial. Vorster certainly reaffirmed his reputation for toughness, and following the assassination of Verwoerd in 1966, he succeeded him as prime minister. Over the next 12 years Vorster headed up the South African apartheid regime, although with greater pragmatism than most right-wing extremists anticipated. At home he pursued a racial hard line, and in 1970 he created the first of the native homelands (Bantustans) intended to keep black tribes separated from white society. He also allowed security forces to arrest, harass, torture, and in some instances murder anti-apartheid Africans. This repression, in turn, had the effect of swelling the ranks of ANC guerrillas, who conducted a low-intensity urban war against the government. In 1976 hundreds of black demonstrators were killed by police and army forces during the Soweto uprising. In light of this oppression, South Africa faced sanctions and isolation from the rest of the world but Vorster, in concert with his defense minister P. W. Botha, made the nation self-sufficient in terms of modern weapons and economics. They also forged close relationships with the Jewish state of Israel to obtain the newest technology. Vorster may have upheld the tenets of apartheid domestically but in the foreign policy arena he attempted a rapprochement with neighboring states. He met with leaders such as KENNETH KAUNDA of Zambia and SAMORA MACHEL of Mozambique to defuse regional tensions and, after the fall of Portugal’s African empire in


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1974, he urged Rhodesian prime minister IAN SMITH to seek accommodation with the black majority. Paradoxically, he singularly refused to contemplate such clear-eyed solutions to racial problems at home. In 1976, when South African forces were dispatched to fight Cuban mercenaries in AGOSTINO NETO’s Angola, Vorster lost whatever goodwill he was able to cultivate among African heads of state. Poor health forced him to resign as prime minister in September 1978 and he assumed ceremonial tasks as state president. However, his role in covering up the so-called “Muldergate scandal” finally forced him from public life altogether on June 4, 1979, and he was succeeded by the even more reform-minded Botha. Vorster came out of retirement periodically to denounce his successor’s liberal policies toward Coloreds and Asians before his death in Capetown on September 10, 1983. He is still regarded as among South Africa’s most forceful and successful white politicians.

Further Reading Chanock, Martin. The Making of South African Legal Culture, 1902–1936: Fear, Favour, and Prejudice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Haynie, Stacia L. Judging in Black and White: Decision Making in the South African Appellate Division, 1950–1990. New York: P. Lang, 2003. Hyam, Ronald. The Lion and the Springbok: Britain and South Africa since the Boer War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Osada, Masako. Sanctions and Honorary Whites: Diplomatic Policies and Economic Realities in Relations between Japan and South Africa. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. Rhoodie, Eschel M. The Real Information Scandal. Atlanta, Ga.: Orbis, 1983. Sanders, Mark. Complicities: The Intellectual and Apartheid. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.


W Waldheim, Kurt (1918– ) secretary general of the

dency of Austria. He then resumed his work at the UN as a chairman within the Atomic Energy Committee in 1971. Waldheim had acquired a reputation as a professional, well-informed diplomat from a small neutral country. This made him an ideal compromise candidate to succeed U THANT as UN secretary general in December 1971. Like his predecessor, Waldheim inherited a world in crisis. Over the next eight years he was forced to address lingering problems in Cyprus, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. His biggest challenge was in helping to end the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, which threatened to engulf the entire region. Waldheim, an effective manager, easily won reelection as secretary general in December 1976, but he was confronted by escalating spirals of violence that UN efforts could not contain. Foremost of these were the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the outbreak of the bloody Iran-Iraq war in 1980. Nor could he successfully resolve the dangerous Iranian hostage crisis between the United States and Iran that also threatened to expand into confrontation. Waldheim nonetheless handled his charge competently and in 1981 he sought to run for an unprecedented third term. He enjoyed backing from the United States and Russia, but China objected and his office was passed to the Peruvian JAVIER PÉREZ DE CUÉLLAR. After serving two years as a visiting professor

United Nations and president of Austria Kurt Waldheim was born in St. Andrä-Wördern, Austria, on December 21, 1918, into a middle-class Catholic family. He studied law and diplomacy at the University of Vienna and, following the 1938 annexation of Austria by ADOLF HITLER, Waldheim joined a Nazi student group. When World War II erupted the following year, he was drafted into the army and saw active service on the eastern front. After being wounded he was transferred to the staff of General Alexander Lohr in the Balkans theater, where he remained until 1945. Once the war ended Waldheim worked in the foreign ministry as a secretary and performed diplomatic work in Paris. He also participated in negotiations that led to the end of Austria’s military occupation by the Allied Powers in May 1955. Thereafter the country hewed closely to strict policies of neutrality. Waldheim then arrived in New York as part of the Austrian delegation to the United Nations, and he also served as ambassador to Canada. Back home in 1960, he next worked for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs before returning to the United Nations in 1964. Waldheim then became chairman of the Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space until 1968, when he again joined the foreign ministry. After a third stint as UN ambassador in 1970 he returned home to run unsuccessfully for the presi-

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of diplomacy at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., he returned to Austria in 1984. In 1986 Waldheim commenced his political career by running for the presidency of Austria with the conservative Austrian People’s Party (OVP). This is a largely ceremonial post and his campaign proved lackluster until the World Jewish Congress produced evidence that Waldheim had been less than candid about his World War II activities. According to documentary sources, he belonged to units that committed atrocities against civilians in Yugoslavia and had also facilitated the deportation of 40,000 Jews to death camps. Waldheim stridently denied that he had anything to do with criminal behavior. He further insisted that his membership in Nazi-sponsored groups was taken only to protect his family. “I did what was necessary to survive the system, the war,” he maintained,

“no more, no less.” By portraying himself as a victim of Jewish extremists, Waldheim was elected president by a large margin, becoming Austria’s first non-socialist president since 1945. In consequence Israel withdrew its ambassador from Austria, and the United States banned Waldheim from visiting. In February 1988 an international commission investigating the charges against Waldheim concluded that, while he did not actively participate in criminal activities, he had been less than forthcoming in admitting his past. The Austrian president thus became something of a pariah on the international scene while his nation endured diplomatic isolation. Waldheim served capably as always, but to spare his country additional grief he declined running for office in 1992. He has since served as a respected elder statesman and a private citizen at home. Further Reading Kille, Kent J. “Leadership and Influence in the United Nations: A Comparative Analysis of the Secretaries General.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 2000. Linn, Andrew J. “The Careers of Adolph Eichmann, Dr. Joseph Mengele, and Kurt Waldheim.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Louisville, 2002. Ryan, James D. The United Nations under Kurt Waldheim, 1972–1981. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2001. Tittmann, Harold H. The Waldheim Affair: Democracy Subverted. Dunkirk, N.Y.: O. Frederick, 2000. Vansant, Jacqueline. “Political Memoirs and Negative Rhetoric: Kurt Waldheim’s In the Eye of the Storm and Im Glaspalast der Weltpolitik.” Biography 25, no. 2 (2002): 343–362. Waldheim, Kurt. In the Eye of the Storm: A Memoir. Bethesda, Md.: Alder and Alder, 1986.

Weizmann, Chaim (1874–1952) president of Israel

Kurt Waldheim (UN Photo/Y. Nagata)

Chaim Weizmann was born in Motol, in the Russian Empire (present day Belarus), on November 27, 1874, the son of a successful Jewish merchant. He was raised in a fervent Zionist atmosphere and was inculcated with beliefs that Jews should resurrect the ancient state of Israel as a homeland. Weizmann proved himself a brilliant student and, because Russian authorities restricted Jewish access to higher education, he


WEIZMANN, CHAIM enrolled at the University of Freiburg, Switzerland, and the University of Geneva. He graduated with the highest possible honors in 1900 and lectured on chemistry at his alma mater for several years. However, Weizmann also found time to join the World Zionist Organization to develop his political and religious views. Thereafter the twin themes of science and Zionism dominated his life. However, he disagreed with the cautious brand of leadership dominating Zionist thinking at that time and gradually formulated what he called synthetic Zionism to reconcile the competing schools of thought extant. In 1904 Weizmann arrived at the University of Manchester, England, to teach and research. While present he met and befriended Prime Minister ARTHUR BALFOUR, who seriously considered his suggestions for a Jewish state. He visited Palestine soon after and established a company to expedite the settlement of Jewish settlers there. By 1914 he was also de facto leader of the worldwide Zionist movement and intensified the push for a Jewish homeland. Weizmann greatly enhanced his career in World War I as a military researcher and was responsible for the invention of acetone in smokeless gunpowder. Weizmann carefully used his friendship with the British elite to advocate his beliefs. These efforts culminated in the Balfour Declaration of November 1917, whereby Great Britain called for the eventual creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. The following year the British also introduced him to FAISAL I of Syria (later Iraq) with whom he reached an accord on ArabJewish cooperation. By 1920 Weizmann headed the World Zionist Organization and methodically pursued his nationalist goals by traveling worldwide to raise money and recruits. In 1934 he returned to Palestine to establish the Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot. Weizmann also continued cooperating closely with the English authorities who administered Palestine as a League of Nations mandate—although he railed against moves to curtail Jewish immigration in the face of mounting Arab violence. During World War II Weizmann performed useful research in both the United States and Great Britain and formulated a process for synthetic rubber. However, his long absence from the Zionist leadership led to the rise of other, more militant figures such as DAVID BEN-GURION and MENACHEM BEGIN, who proved willing to fight both the Arabs and England for a homeland. After the

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war Weizmann addressed the new United Nations assembly in 1947 and—in view of the Nazi holocaust against the Jews—pleaded for creation of a Jewish state. He finally succeeded and Great Britain agreed to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab portions. Weizmann was also instrumental in convincing American president HARRY S. TRUMAN to supply the new nation with arms and financial assistance in order to survive. Consequently, the day after Israel was founded in 1948 it received American diplomatic recognition. Once the brief but victorious Arab-Israeli war concluded, the Jewish state of Israel reemerged following an absence of nearly 19 centuries. Weizmann was appointed president of the new provisional government but real power was ultimately assumed by Ben-Gurion. On February 16, 1949, Weizmann was formally sworn in as the first official president, a largely ceremonial post. The restrictions of this office suited Weizmann perfectly for he was worn down by his exertions and devoted considerable time to publishing chemistry papers. Although his reputation as a Zionist leader had diminished with age, he was still a popular figure and easily won reelection in 1951. Weizmann died in Rehovot on November 9, 1952, a pivotal figure in the history of his nation. The world-famous Chaim Weizmann Research Institute in Rehovot has been named in his honor. Further Reading Avishal, Bernard. The Tragedy of Zionism: How Its Revolutionary Past Haunts Israeli Democracy. New York: Helios Press, 2002. Miller, Rory. Divided against Zion: Anti-Zionist Opposition in Britain to a Jewish State in Palestine, 1945–1948. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 2000. Reinharz, Jehuda. Chaim Weizmann: The Making of a Statesman. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. ———. “His Majesty’s Zionist Emissary: Chaim Weizmann’s Mission to Gibraltar in 1917.” Journal of Contemporary History 27 (April 1992): 259–277. Rose, Norman. Chaim Weizmann: A Biography. New York: Viking Press, 1986. Weizmann, Chaim. Trial and Error: The Autobiography of Chaim Weizmann. New York: Harper, 1949. ———. The Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann, 23 vols. London: Oxford University Press, 1968–80.


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Welensky, Roy (1907–1991) prime minister of the Central African Federation Roy Welensky was born in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), on January 20, 1907, the son of a Lithuanian Jewish immigrant and a South African mother. Poorly educated, he worked many years with the railroads and became active in the railwaymen’s trade union. Welensky, over six feet tall and 250 pounds in his prime, was also physically robust and became Rhodesia’s heavyweight boxing champion between 1926 and 1928. In 1938 he was elected to the Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) legislative council and worked to protect the rights of white laborers in their disputes with cheaper black Africans. Intent upon preserving white racial privileges, he also founded the Labour Party in 1941. Throughout World War II Welensky was director of manpower in northwestern Rhodesia and fulfilled his assignment to the satisfaction of British authorities; he would be knighted for these efforts in 1953. Prior to that, Welensky expanded his political activities by advocating a stronger union between the two Rhodesias to cement white political and economic supremacy over the indigenous black population. In 1953 the British government allowed the new Central African Federation to be born, although it now included the region of Nyasaland (Malawi). The three regional governments closely coordinated their efforts to preserve their privileged positions, despite resounding opposition by local African leaders. Welensky, meanwhile, was admitted into the government as minister of transport under Prime Minister Sir Godfrey Huggins. Three years later he replaced Huggins and became the federation’s second prime minister and head of the United Federal Party. The Central African Federation was a dream come true for Welensky and others who embraced notions of white supremacy, but it was doomed from the start. White settlers, comprising only 5 percent of the population, controlled the land and the political process to the exclusion of the overwhelming black majority. Resentment was rife and occasioned numerous and bloody protests. In 1959 Welensky was forced to declare a state of emergency and cracked down harshly on the opposition. His excesses soon came to the attention of the British government. In 1960 Prime Minister HAROLD MACMILLAN questioned the efficacy of white rule and hoped some kind of multiracial democracy would emerge in the federation. Welensky, however,

remained firmly wedded to white supremacy and adamantly opposed any form of power sharing. The hulking prime minister made several trips to London to defend his regime but the British remained unmoved. Welensky then made threatening noises about declaring independence and leaving the Commonwealth altogether, but he relented. In 1963 he reluctantly attended the Victoria Falls Conference, which granted independence to the new states of Zambia and Malawi, effectively breaking up the short-lived federation. Welensky angrily denounced Macmillan but ultimately determined that the last bastion of white rule in Central Africa, Southern Rhodesia, would at least remain part of the British Commonwealth. To his last days he was embittered over the demise of his new homeland. Welensky stood for a seat in the Rhodesian parliament in 1964 but was defeated, and concluded his political career. The following year he bitterly opposed IAN D. SMITH’s efforts to seek complete independence from Great Britain—the very act he himself had once proposed in 1960. For the next 15 years he lived as a private individual until 1980, when Rhodesia became the new nation of Zimbabwe under African majority rule. The following year Welensky and his family relocated to Britain where he died on December 5, 1991. He was an effective politician but his cherished federation proved so fraught with racism that it could not survive the challenge of rising African nationalism. Further Reading Allighan, Garry. The Welensky Story. London: Macdonald, 1962. Clegg, Edward M. Race and Politics: Partnership in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960. Franklin, Henry. Unholy Wedlock; the Failure of the Central African Federation. London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1963. Makaya, Peter. “Sir Roy Welensky and the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1907–1964.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Georgia State University, 1977. Welensky, Roy. Welensky’s 4000 days: The Life and Death of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. New York: Roy Publishers, 1964. Wood, J. R. T. The Welensky Papers: A History of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Durban, South Africa: Graham, 1983.


WHITLAM, GOUGH

Whitlam, Gough (1916– ) prime minister of Australia Edward Gough Whitlam was born in Kew, Australia, on July 11, 1916, the son of a successful lawyer. After serving with the Royal Australian Air Force in World War II he attended the University of Sydney to study law and was admitted to the bar in 1947. In 1952 Whitlam successfully ran for a seat in Parliament as a Labor Party member and held it for the next 26 years. Labor was then politically marginalized owning to a strong resurgence by the Liberal (actually conservative) Party, but Whitlam determined to revamp it and increase its appeal to the rising middle class. In 1959 he became a member of the party’s parliamentary board and the following year he rose to deputy leader. However, Whitlam’s reforms caused great resentment among the traditional old guard of the left wing and he narrowly escaped being ejected from the party for his support for Catholic schools. The intraparty battle continued until February 1967 when Whitlam finally supplanted the more traditional Arthur Caldwell as head of Labor. He was now free to accelerate his efforts at bringing the party more toward the political center and dropping its procommunist orientation. His endeavors bore fruit in 1969 when Labor enlarged its parliamentary holdings by 7 percent, and in December 1972, while campaigning under the slogan of “It’s time,” Whitlam captured the prime ministership. He was the first Labor leader to hold high office since 1949. Labor also commanded a large majority in the House of Representatives, although it came short in controlling the Senate. Now in power, Whitlam instituted changes on a number of fronts. In foreign policy he extended diplomatic recognition to Communist China in 1971 and the following year he ended conscription and brought Australian troops home from Vietnam. He also entered into talks with Papua New Guinea to establish a time frame for granting independence. Closer to home, Whitlam passed rules affording equal pay for women, greater recognition and rights for Australia’s aboriginal peoples, and limits upon American and British influence in cultural matters. Furthermore, the government lowered the voting age to 18, introduced free college education for qualified candidates, expanded welfare benefits, and finally abandoned the traditionally raceoriented approach to non-white immigration. After two decades of conservative rule, Whitlam’s social reforms forever altered the political landscape of Australia.

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Despite his success at social engineering, Whitlam failed to greatly improve the national economy. Australia remained beset by protracted periods of stagnation and rising inflation brought on by the 1973 Arab oil embargo throughout his tenure in office. His major economic initiatives were also blocked by the Liberal-controlled Senate. In 1974 Whitlam scheduled early elections to try to break the legislative deadlock, but Labor actually lost seats in the House while the Senate remained unchanged. This defeat emboldened Conservatives under MALCOLM FRASER to be more confrontational and in 1975 the Senate resolutely refused to fund more of the government’s social programs. Whitlam was further pummeled by the outbreak of numerous administration scandals that further weakened his public standing. He could have dissolved Parliament and called for new elections to resolve the issues, but he refused and settled upon a war of nerves with the Senate. The budget impasse continued for several weeks until Sir John Kerr, Australia’s English-appointed governor general, dismissed Whitlam from office and allowed Fraser to head an interim government. This was the first instance in 200 years that the British Crown intervened to remove an Australian head of state. An angry Whitlam then barnstormed the country seeking to upset the Conservatives, but Labor lost in a landslide and Fraser continued as prime minister. Whitlam resumed his role as head of the opposition in Parliament until 1977, when Labor lost another national election. He thereupon resigned as party chief and finally withdrew from politics in 1978. Whitlam enjoyed a very active retirement and variously served as a university lecturer, Australia’s United Nations representative for UNESCO, and head of various constitutional commissions. He has also penned a number of highly regarded books on political science. Whitlam is regarded as a well-intentioned prime minister and critical to the rebirth of the Labor Party but unable to manage the economy that ultimately did him in. His dismissal from office remains one of the most controversial episodes in Australian political history. Further Reading Emy, Hugh, Owen Hughes, and Race Mathews, eds. Whitlam Re-visited: Policy Development, Policies, and Outcomes. Leichhardt, New South Wales: Pluto Press, 1993.


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Monk, Paul M. “Secret Intelligence and Escape Clauses: Australia and the Indonesian Annexation of East Timor, 1963–76.” Critical Asian Studies 33 (June 2001): 181–208. Powell, Mike. “The Whitlam Labor Government: Barnard and Whitlam, a Significant Historical Dyad.” Australian Journal of Politics and History 43, no. 2 (1997): 183–199. Pusey, Michael. The Experience of Middle Australia: The Dark Side of Economic Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Warhurst, John. “Transitional Hero: Gough Whitlam and the Australian Labor Party.” Australian Journal of Political Science 31 (July 1996): 243–252. Whitlam, Gough. Abiding Interests. St. Lucia, Qld.: University of Queensland Press, 1997.

Wilhelm II (1859–1941) emperor of Germany Frederick Wilhelm Victor Albrecht von Hohenzollern was born in Potsdam, Prussia, on January 27, 1859, a son of Prince Frederick of Prussia and Victoria, eldest daughter of England’s Queen Victoria. A difficult birth left him with a badly deformed left arm and throughout life the prince tended to overcompensate through arrogance and profanity. After passing through the University of Bonn, he was commissioned into the Prussian army and became extremely fond of military life and parades. More important, he absorbed the Prussian sense of martial superiority to other nations, a strident sense of duty to the kingdom, and intolerance toward any opinions but his own. To his peculiar mindset, he was invariably right and regarded differing attitudes as both treasonous and “un-German.” With the defeat of France in 1871, Germany had been transformed from a collection of independent states to a single, unified empire under Prussian military and political leadership. In March 1888 the 29-year-old Wilhelm was suddenly thrust into leadership, following the death of his father, when he was enthroned as kaiser (emperor). The wily chancellor Otto von Bismarck and others believed that the young monarch would be more pliable than his father toward state policies, but the two leaders were soon at cross-purposes. Wilhelm, wishing to exercise his independence from Bismarck, suddenly dismissed him in 1890 and decided to personally lead Germany down a new path. In time his ascension had disastrous consequences for Germany—and Europe.

Wilhelm, possessing none of the diplomatic finesse of Bismarck, embarked on an ultranationalistic campaign of militarism and expansionism. Utterly contemptuous of France, he espoused similar views toward Russia and ended the long-standing treaty of friendship between the two countries. Wilhelm was also determined to establish a global colonial empire like other European nations and commenced construction of a large and powerful navy. This build-up earned him the ire of Great Britain, then the world’s leading naval power, which felt that Wilhelm’s imperialistic drive directly threatened its own empire. Moreover Wilhelm’s arrogant behavior further insulted and alienated British public opinion. In 1898 he openly lauded the South Africa Boers in their ill-fated war for independence, and several years later, during an interview in England, he openly proclaimed his countrymen’s dislike for that country. Wilhelm’s Weltpolitik (world policy) thus remained bent on securing Germany’s imperial place under the sun, regardless of the circumstances. Such thoughtless behavior drove France, Russia, and England into a grand military alliance against Germany—the Triple Entente. Germany, meanwhile, entered into a secret alliance with the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In July 1914, after Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, the kaiser firmly supported Emperor FRANZ JOSEPH’s ultimatum toward Serbia. This in turn brought on a rapid Russian mobilization by Czar NICHOLAS II and a German declaration of war. Furthermore, once German forces violated Belgian neutrality, England sided with France and the Russians. Germany was thus caught in the pincers of a two-front war. Over the next four years World War I unfolded with unparalleled ferocity and proved disastrous for all involved. During the war years Wilhelm abrogated his responsibilities for leadership and slowly surrendered more and more political power to Generals Erich von Ludendorff and PAUL VON HINDENBERG. Consequently he had very little to say about the disastrous policy of resuming unrestricted submarine warfare at sea in 1917, despite the forebodings of Chancellor THEOBALD VON BETHMANN HOLLWEG. Consequently the United States was brought into the war on behalf of the Allies, and the infusion of 1 million American soldiers quickly tipped the scales against Germany. By the fall of 1918 the war was lost, yet President WOODROW WILSON, who considered Wilhelm an aggressor, refused to consider an armistice with the imperial government. After considerable maneuvering in Berlin, buttressed by the fact that


WILLIAMS, ERIC the army was on the verge of mutiny and would no longer follow the kaiser, Wilhelm abdicated and fled to Holland on November 10, 1918. Wilson and other Allied leaders wanted him tried for war crimes but the Dutch government declined to extradite him. Wilhelm spent the rest of his life in luxurious exile at Doorn Castle, awaiting the day when the German people would depose the Weimar Republic and invite him back to the throne. After the rise of ADOLF HITLER in 1933, this became an impossibility and the former emperor continued living in isolation. When the Germans conquered Holland in May 1940, Hitler refused to acknowledge his presence and forbade ranking officers from even visiting him. Wilhelm died at Doorn on June 4, 1941, a symbolic anachronism from an imperial age. His erratic, bellicose behavior compounded Germany’s strategic isolation and was a major cause of his own downfall. Further Reading Anderson, Margaret L. Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. Clark, Christopher M. Kaiser Wilhelm. Harlow: Longman, 2000. Eley, Geoff, and James Retallack, eds. Wilhelminism and Its Legacies: German Modernities, Imperialism, and the Meanings of Reform, 1890–1930. New York: Berghahn Books, 2003. Feuchtwanger, E. J. Imperial Germany, 1850–1918. New York: Routledge, 2001. Jefferies, Matthew. Imperial Culture in Germany, 1871–1918. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Macdonogh, Giles. The Last Kaiser: The Life of William II. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Seligman, Matthew S. Germany from Reich to Republic, 1871–1918: Politics, Hierarchy, and Elites. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Wilhelm II. Wilhelm II: The Kaiser’s Personal Monarchy, 1888–1900. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Williams, Eric (1911–1981) prime minister of Trinidad and Tobago Eric Eustace Williams was born in Trinidad on September 25, 1911, into a modest background. In concert with the small island of Tobago, Trinidad forms a small chain

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immediately north of the Venezuelan coastline. A distinguished student, Williams was admitted to Oxford University in 1932 and graduated six years later with a doctorate in Caribbean history. He subsequently joined the faculty at Howard University in Washington, D.C., and began a lifelong diatribe against British cultural superiority. Over the next several years Williams became a recognized authority on Caribbean slavery and published several books on the topic. He also joined the Caribbean Commission, established during World War II to better coordinate the colonial holdings of Great Britain, Holland, and the United States. However, he was extremely political in outlook and his professed leanings toward socialistic governance alienated him from members of the board. Williams then came home to found a militant cultural group, the Teachers Educational and Cultural Association (TECA) to foment anticolonial change. After teaching several years on Trinidad, Williams carried his politicizing one step further by founding the People’s National Movement (PNM) in January 1956. His activism and unrelenting criticism of colonialism rendered him one of Trinidad and Tobago’s most popular public figures. In 1956 the PNM won a round of legislative elections, and Williams was appointed chief minister at a time when negotiations for independence from Great Britain were in the offing. Williams also directed his nation’s entry into the new West Indies Federation, although, when the PNM lost power in 1962, the federation was dissolved. Prior to this, the PNM adopted more leftist policies, swept the latest legislative elections, and Williams was appointed the first prime minister in August 1962. But having led Trinidad and Tobago to independence, he nonetheless decided to remain within the British Commonwealth for the economic benefits it offered. Once in power, Williams enacted a policy he deemed “empirical socialism,” with programs for free education and generous social services. He also pursued an independent foreign policy by establishing diplomatic relations with Communist Cuba, but Williams was careful to balance his ideological zeal with pragmatism and he maintained good relations with the United States. In economic terms, his government moderated its socialistic slant and invited foreign investment. He also instituted a series of carefully crafted five-year plans to enhance the island’s economic growth and independence. This program, coupled with the rise in oil export prices, led Trinidad and Tobago to become the wealthiest nation among the British Caribbean islands.


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Williams’s success as a leader and his sound economic planning made him politically popular, and he easily won reelection in 1966 and 1971. However, in 1970 the islands were racked by a “black power” movement that painted Williams as overtly pro-European. When a radical-led rebellion erupted in the armed forces he declared a state of emergency to suppress it. After 1973 his position was buttressed by surging petroleum prices following the Arab oil boycott and in 1976 the PNM won another decisive election victory. Williams ultimately served 20 years as prime minister before dying in office on March 29, 1981. The final years of his tenure were marked by declining influence over island politics and growing detachment from public affairs in general. Nonetheless, his longevity, high scholarship, and economic success mark him as one of the most influential Caribbean leaders of recent history. Further Reading Cateau, Heather, and H. H. Selwyn. Capitalism and Slavery Fifty Years Later: Eric Eustace Williams—a Reassessment of the Man and His Work. New York: Peter Lang, 2000. Darity, William A. “Eric Williams and Slavery: A West Indian Viewpoint?” Callaboo 20, no. 4 (1997): 801–816. Douglas, Lincoln H. “A Pedagogy of the Public Square: The Story of Eric Williams’s Adult Education Movement.” Unpublished Ed.D., Northern Illinois University, 2000. Feyno, Mario. “The Greatness Thrust upon Eric Williams.” Caribbean Quarterly 47, no. 4 (2001): 49–57. Henry, Ralph. “Eric Williams and the Reversal of the Unequal Legacy of Capitalism and Slavery.” Callaboo 20, no. 4 (1997): 829–848. Meighoo, Kirk P. Politics in a ‘Half Made Society’: Trinidad and Tobago, 1925–2001. Princeton, N.J.: M. Wiener Publishers, 2003. Williams, Eric. Inward Hunger: The Education of a Prime Minister. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Wilson, Harold (baron of Rievaulx) (1916–1995) prime minister of Great Britain James Harold Wilson was born in Yorkshire, England, on March 11, 1916, the son of a government chemist.

An exceptional student, he was admitted to Jesus College, Oxford University, and studied politics, philosophy, and economics. In 1938 he started a teaching career at Oxford and also worked with Lord Beaverbrook in drawing up plans for what became the British welfare state. Wilson began his political career in 1945 when he successfully ran for a seat in Parliament as a Labour Party member. His skills at politicking were impressive, and within two years Prime Minister CLEMENT ATTLEE assigned him a seat on his cabinet as president of the board of trade. Aged but 31 years, Wilson became the youngest sitting minister since William Pitt the Younger in the 18th century. He served the administration effectively until 1951, when he resigned over the charging of health care fees to fund British participation in the Korean War. After this act Wilson was closely identified with the left wing of his party, although he consistently displayed pragmatic streaks that infuriated party purists. He continued rising through the party hierarchy, and in 1960 unsuccessfully challenged Hugh Gaitskell for the mantle of party leadership. However, when Gaitskell died unexpectedly in 1963, Wilson was the overwhelming favorite to succeed him. He then astutely united the warring factions of his party behind a center-left agenda and in 1964 defeated Conservative ALEXANDER DOUGLAS-HOME to become the first Labour prime minister in 13 years. Plain-spoken and simply attired, Wilson reveled in his unpretentious middle-class background and sought to closely identify with the majority of British voters. Wilson inherited a dispirited nation in economic straits. Great Britain had long ceased being a world military power, and its fundamental industrial and economic weaknesses served to underscore that reality. Previously, Wilson campaigned on a pledge to bring science and technology into the forefront of British modernization but he proceeded cautiously. He attempted limiting increases in wages and prices but to no avail, as the economy continued sinking. Many of the more radical elements in Labour railed against Wilson’s refusal to embark on dramatic social programs, but his efforts were continually undercut by the weak economy. Conditions worsened in the face of major strikes and by 1967 Wilson was necessarily forced to devaluate the pound—a feat he had pledged himself against. It took a further two years to restore Britain’s international balance of payments with a surplus.


WILSON, WOODROW Despite problems at home, Wilson remained determined to assert Britain’s role abroad. In 1967 he applied for membership in the European Common Market to facilitate trade, but the effort stalled when French president CHARLES DE GAULLE vetoed the application. England’s inability to influence foreign affairs, even within its own Commonwealth, became painfully apparent when Prime Minister IAN D. SMITH of Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence. Wilson could only respond ineffectively through the use of sanctions. During his tenure widespread violence in Northern Ireland also erupted and Britain deployed military troops and reimposed direct rule to restore order. On a more positive note, Wilson did pass useful social legislation touching upon race relations, abortion, and divorce. And, while giving verbal support to the American-led war in Vietnam, he flatly refused a request by President LYNDON B. JOHNSON to commit British troops to combat. He also withdrew the remaining British garrisons from the Far East as a cost-cutting measure. But by 1970 Labour had worn out its welcome with the British electorate, and that June Wilson was defeated and replaced by the Conservative EDWARD HEATH. Wilson continued on in Parliament as head of the opposition, and the Conservatives proved no better at handling the economy than Labour. Elections held in February 1974 returned Wilson as prime minister with the smallest of majorities. Again, his tenure in office was beset by a declining economy, bitter strikes, inflation, and overall economic malaise. Worse yet, Britain had been brought into the EEC by Heath and its membership was up for renewal. The majority of Labour bitterly opposed its continuance but Wilson orchestrated a public referendum that confirmed British membership. This was the biggest accomplishment of his second term. After several more months of poor economic performance, Wilson suddenly resigned from office on March 16, 1976, and was replaced by JAMES CALLAGHAN. The announcement stunned the public, but Queen Elizabeth II responded by elevating him to the peerage as Baron Wilson of Rievaulx. He continued on in the House of Lords for several more years before retiring from public life in 1983. Wilson struggled with cancer for a decade before dying in London on May 24, 1995. Though little appreciated while in office, he compiled the longest tenure in office of any modern Labour leader (eight years) and performed effectively despite the economic problems he inherited.

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Further Reading Daddow, Oliver J. Harold Wilson and European Integration: Britain’s Second Application to Join the EEC. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 2003. Dean, Dennis. “The Race Relations Policy of the First Wilson Government.” 20th Century British History 11, no. 3 (2000): 259–283. Dockrill, Saki. “Forging the Anglo-American Global Defense Partnership: Harold Wilson, Lyndon Johnson, and the Washington Summit, December, 1964.” Journal of Strategic Studies 23, no. 4 (2000): 107–130. Rose, Peter. How the Troubles Came to Northern Ireland. New York: Palgrave in association with the Institute of Contemporary British History, 2000. Seldon, Anthony, and Kevin Hickson, eds. New Labour, Old Labour: The Wilson and Callaghan Governments, 1974–79. New York: Routledge, 2004. Wilson, Harold. Memoirs: The Making of a Prime Minister, 1916–64. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1986. Young, John W. “The Wilson Government’s Reform of Intelligence Coordination, 1967–68.” Intelligence and National Security 16, no. 2 (2001): 133–151.

Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924) president of the United States Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia, on December 28, 1856, the son of a Presbyterian minister. He inherited from his father stern moral convictions and a personal sense of mission that defined his entire life. Wilson attended college intermittently due to poor health, but he finally graduated from Princeton University in 1879. He next studied law and briefly opened a legal practice in Atlanta, Georgia, before pursuing graduate studies at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. There Wilson found his niche as an outstanding historian, and he graduated with honors in 1886. He taught with distinction for many years and in 1902 was elevated to president of Princeton University. There he also acquired fame as a determined educational reformer and in 1910 he received the Democratic nomination for the governorship of New Jersey. The scholarly Wilson proved himself a surprisingly effective campaigner and won easily. Once in office, he pursued his personal credo of modernization and reform, securing such notable legislation as direct


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primaries, anticorruption laws, employers’ liability, and regulation of public utilities. Success here made him a viable candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination for 1912, and he was finally chosen on the 46th ballot. The national election that year was thrown askew when former president THEODORE ROOSEVELT, having failed to dislodge Republican incumbent WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, ran as an independent on the Bull Moose Party ticket. The conservative vote was therefore split, and Wilson managed to out-poll both opponents and gain the White House. As president, Wilson subscribed to a notion of strong executive leadership and used it effectively to enact his reform-minded agenda. He quickly secured a number of historically important bills, including a revised tariff, the Federal Reserve Act, and the Federal Trade Commission Act, and imposition of the first income tax. But from the onset foreign affairs began dominating Wilson’s attention and energies. In 1914 he refused to recognize the dictatorship of Mexico’s VICTORIANO HUERTA, and ordered American naval forces to seal the port of Veracruz to prevent his regime from receiving arms supplies. Wilson subsequently ordered American troops into Mexico to pursue the guerrilla bandit Pancho Villa. Villa was never caught but the campaign was well conducted by General John J. Pershing, in whom Wilson explicitly confided. The tempo of international tensions had climaxed in August 1914 when World War I erupted in Europe. Wilson, strongly backed by public opinion, was committed to a policy of neutrality toward all belligerents. Unfortunately German hostility toward neutral shipping at sea was underscored by the new submarine warfare. In May 1915, when the British liner Lusitania was sunk with the loss of 128 American lives, Wilson sternly warned the Germans to refrain from Uboat warfare but otherwise remained neutral. The political wisdom of this move paid dividends in the 1916 presidential election when Wilson was narrowly reelected under the slogan, “He kept us out of war.” The Germans refrained until the spring of 1917, when General PAUL VON HINDENBERG announced resumption of submarine warfare—regardless of the consequences. At this juncture, Wilson felt that United States intervention on behalf of France and Great Britain was all but inevitable. He therefore asked for and received a declaration of war against the Central Powers on April 6, 1917. “The world,” he insisted, “must be made safe for democracy.” This proved no small task, as the United States was

Woodrow Wilson (Library of Congress)

woefully unprepared for modern war and had to raise a gigantic army from scratch. But, assisted by the enlightened leadership of General Pershing, American forces arrived in Europe during the spring of 1918 and tipped the balance of the war against Germany on the western front. By November 1918 Kaiser WILHELM II was forced to abdicate, and the Germans concluded an armistice recognizing their defeat. Wilson’s entrenched idealism was never more apparent than during the peace negotiations at Paris in the spring of 1919. His overarching principles had been the defeat of imperial Germany and concrete measures to guarantee the peace afterward. Therefore, in January 1918 he had outlined his famous Fourteen Points, a set of political principles intended to enshrine self-determination and national boundaries. More important, it called for creation of an international body, the League of Nations, which would defuse world tensions, circumvent war, or carry out actions against aggressor nations. To emphasize the urgency of


WITTE, SERGEI his beliefs, Wilson attended the Paris Peace Conference in person, becoming the first president to conduct foreign policy abroad. And, while he failed to limit reparations levied against Germany, he prevented France from detaching the Rhineland and other areas from that country. He also dissuaded the Italians from seizing Dalmatia, but could not convince Japan to relent from acquiring the Shantung peninsula in China. Happily, European leaders were also receptive to the League of Nations—although Wilson faced a much harder sell at home. Elections in 1918 had delivered Congress into the hands of the Republicans, who felt that commitments to the League of Nations would embroil America in commitments abroad and end its traditional isolationism. Wilson came home in 1919 determined to force American acceptance of the League of Nations. With the best of intentions, he believed this was a moral responsibility that the nation must shoulder, but his puritanical stridency worked against him. From the onset Wilson made it clear to Congress that no compromise legislation would be acceptable to him—it was all or nothing. But the Republicans were equally adamant that American interests abroad should never be beholden to any international body. Undeterred, Wilson embarked on a strenuous national campaign to secure its passage, only to suffer a severe stroke en route. When political compromise proved impossible, the Senate rejected the League of Nations in November 1919. Wilson remained a near-invalid for the rest of his term in office, a mere shadow of the steely executive he had been. When Democratic candidate James Cox insisted on carrying the cause of the League of Nations into the 1920 elections, he was handily defeated by Republican WARREN G. HARDING. Wilson’s idealistic dream of a mechanism to enforce world peace thus vanished, but for his efforts he received the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize. He died in Washington, D.C., on February 3, 1924, a headstrong, inflexible moralist but among the most accomplished executives in American history. Further Reading Ambrosius, Lloyd E. Wilsonianism: Woodrow Wilson and His Legacy in American Foreign Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Auchincloss, Louis. Woodrow Wilson. New York: Viking, 2000.

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Bucklin, Steven J. Realism and American Foreign Policy: Wilsonians and the Kennan-Morganthau Thesis. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001. Burton, David H. Taft, Wilson, and World Order. Madison, Wis.: Associated University Presses, 2003. Cooper, John M. Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for League of Nations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Davis, Donald E., and Eugene P. Trani. The First Cold War: The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson in U.S.-Soviet Relations. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002. Lynch, A. “Woodrow Wilson and the Principle of ‘National Self-Determination’: A Reconsideration.” Reviews of International Studies 28 (April 2002): 419–436. Macmillan, Margaret O. Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. New York: Random House, 2002. Pierce, Anne R. Woodrow Wilson and Harry Truman: Missions and Power in American Foreign Policy. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003. Startt, James D. Woodrow Wilson and the Press: Prelude to the Presidency. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Witte, Sergei (1849–1915) prime minister of Russia Sergei Yulyevich Witte was born in Tiflis, Georgia (in czarist Russia), on June 17, 1849, the son of a senior government bureaucrat. He passed through the University of Odessa in 1871 and was admitted to the governor general’s chancellery. In 1877 he opened a successful railroad company employing modern business practices and was subsequently tapped by the imperial government to develop the national railway system. Witte, an accomplished organizer, was tremendously successful in this role and he proved instrumental in helping develop and refine the famous trans-Siberian railway linking European and Asiatic Russia. He eventually promulgated what became known as the “Witte system,” which utilized railroad construction, protectionism, and foreign investment to accelerate Russia’s nascent drive toward industrialization. In 1892 Witte was appointed minister of ways of communication by Czar Alexander III, and shortly afterward he assumed his most important role, minister of finance. Again, he acted decisively to update Russia’s


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struggling capitalistic system. He created a state bank to finance industry, placed the ruble on the gold standard to facilitate conversion into other currencies, and secured favorable long-terms loans from France, Germany, and Great Britain. Moreover, Witte proved amazingly free from the prevailing and deep-seated prejudices of his day. With few exceptions, he appointed talented Jews, Poles, Ukrainians, and Germans to positions of high authority. But even a genius of Witte’s caliber could not overcome the inherent autocracy and backwardness of Russia’s political institutions. His policies, which gravitated toward creation of a large and stable middle class, mostly alienated the aristocracy, including the new czar, NICHOLAS II. And, more than many contemporaries, Witte also realized that Russia needed time and peace to complete its transition to modernity. Therefore he vociferously opposed the government’s expansionist policies in the Far East, which threatened to embroil the country in hostilities with Japan. After a series of economic depressions and labor disputes, the czar finally dismissed Witte as minister in 1903, reducing him to a ceremonial role as chairman of the committee of members. But when Russia was badly defeated in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, he was called back into service as a peace negotiator in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Assisted by American president THEODORE ROOSEVELT, Witte secured favorable terms, considering the magnitude of the disaster, and returned home a national hero. However, he arrived in a nation riven by strikes, labor unrest, and revolution, as the old order unraveled under the weight of leftist agitation. It was during this period that Witte, now formally restored to government service, made his greatest contributions. Witte was autocratic by nature and an exponent of strong, centralized government. However, he realized that a degree of democratization would be necessary to forestall revolutionary unrest. Thus in 1905 he promulgated the October Manifesto, which outlined basic civil rights for Russian citizens for the first time in 300 years. It also enshrined constitutional government by creating Russia’s first elected legislature, the Duma. Witte then became the nation’s first prime minister and he negotiated a series of emergency loans from abroad to stabilize the tottering Russian government. Yet even at this late date, Witte failed to secure the czar’s trust. In April 1906 he was dismissed a sec-

ond time and replaced by PYOTR STOLYPIN. While in retirement Witte found the time to help reorganize the State Council, but his influence on state affairs waned. He strongly but futilely argued against Russian participation in World War I and undertook several private initiatives to secure a negotiated settlement with Germany. Witte’s death in St. Petersburg on March 12, 1915, spared him the agony of watching the imperial system collapse in fire and ruin in 1917. He was a highly capable minister whose talents were unequal to the task of modernizing Russian politics and society. Further Reading Crankshaw, Edward. The Shadow of the Winter Palace: The Drift to Revolution, 1825–1917. New York: Da Capo, 2000. Harcave, Sidney. Count Sergei Witte and the Twilight of Imperial Russia: A Biography. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2004.

Sergei Witte (Library of Congress)


WITTE, SERGEI Hildebrandt, David E. “Reports from St. Petersburg: The British Embassy’s Evaluation of Sergei Witte’s Economic and Industrial Programs, 1900–1901.” Unpublished master’s thesis, South West Texas State University, 1995. Marks, Steven G. Road to Power: The Trans-Siberian Railroad and the Colonization of Asian Russia, 1850–1917. London: I. B. Tauris, 1991.

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Tomaszewski, Fiona K. A Great Russia: Russia and the Triple Entente, 1905–1914. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002. Witte, Sergei. Memoirs of Count Witte. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1990. Wood, Alan. The Origins of the Russian Revolution, 1861–1917. New York: Routledge, 2003.


Y Yaméogo, Maurice (1921–1993) president of

Union, in December 1959, which went on to capture the legislature in new elections. The following year, once Upper Volta became independent, Yaméogo was retained in high office as the new nation’s first president. In 1965 he was reelected with 99.98 percent of votes cast in tightly controlled elections. As president, Yaméogo instituted a draconian, authoritarian style of leadership. He outlawed the political opposition and was seconded by a rubber-stamp legislature. His country, then among the poorest in the world, was further beset by his extravagant lifestyle. In 1966 he wed a local beauty queen half his age and spent $100,000 on his ceremony and honeymoon. Such lavish excess greatly angered the citizenry and discontent rose. Once the burgeoning national deficit began ruining the economy, Yaméogo unilaterally imposed stringent austerity measures with reduced wages and higher taxes. Such measures were strongly resisted by organized labor, which inspired mass demonstrations against the regime. The spiraling escalation of violence induced the army to intervene on January 3, 1966, and Yaméogo was bloodlessly deposed. He was then arrested, charged with embezzlement, and detained over the next four years. Yaméogo was finally released under a general amnesty in 1970, although stripped of his civil rights. Since 1970 Yaméogo vicariously resumed his political career through the activities of his son, Herman, a

Burkina Faso Maurice Yaméogo was born in Koudougor, French Upper Volta (Burkina Faso), in December 1921, a member of the influential Mossi tribe. He was trained locally at missionary schools before entering the French civil service. In 1932 Upper Volta was joined to nearby Cote d’Ivoire by the French for administrative purposes and did not emerge as a separate entity until 1948. Two years earlier Yaméogo had been elected to the new territorial legislature and the Grand Council of all West Africa as part of the Union Voltaic, a Catholicdominated party that opposed political domination by the Cote d’Ivoire. Yaméogo was repeatedly elected to the legislature and in March 1957 Premier Ouezzin Coulibaly appointed him minister of agriculture and he joined the Parti Démocratique Unifié (PDF), Unified Democratic Party. After Coulibaly died in September 1958, Yaméogo replaced him as president of the PDF and premier. In this capacity he directed the colony to abandon the French-speaking federation structure proposed by LÉOPOLD SÉDAR SENGHOR, which ultimately caused its collapse. Upper Volta at that time was locked in deep discussion over its impending independence from France, and dissension arose within the ranks of the PDF. Yaméogo countered by establishing the Union Démocratique Voltaïque (UDV), Voltaic Democratic

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YOSHIDA SHIGERU state minister. In 1977 he founded a new party, the Union Nationale pour la Démocratie et le Développement (UNDD), National Union for the Defense of Democracy, which scored heavily in elections, although he was not a candidate. To expedite his gradual rehabilitation, he was allowed to visit President Sangoule Lamizana and in 1980 he was allowed to serve as head of the UNDD’s propaganda wing. However, his political rehabilitation was delayed several years following a coup in 1980, and his rights were not fully restored until 1991. At that time Yaméogo was living in Cote d’Ivoire and he died on a plane flight from there to Burkina Faso on September 15, 1993. He had ruled as a despot but his role as an architect of national independence was secure, and President Blaise Compaoré ordered three days of national mourning in his honor. Further Reading Boubacar, Diarra S. “Political Change, Rural Transformation and Development Administration: The Politics of Change and Development in Francophone Africa with Special Reference to the Upper Volta.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Minnesota, 1974. Cordell, Dennis D., Joel W. Gregory, and Victor Piche. Hoe and Wage: A Social History of a Circular Migration System in West Africa. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996. Engberg-Pedersen, Lars. Endangering Development: Politics, Projects, and Environment in Burkina Faso. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003. Englebert, Pierre. Burkina Faso: Unsteady Statehood in West Africa. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996. McFarland, Daniel M., and Lawrence Rupley. Historical Dictionary of Burkina Faso. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1998. Skinner, Elliott P. The Mossi of Burkina Faso: Chiefs, Politicians, and Soldiers. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, 1989.

entered the diplomatic service. After holding numerous consular posts in China and Manchuria, he transferred to Washington, D.C., in 1919. That year he also represented Japan at the Paris Peace Conference before subsequently serving as ambassador in London. Yoshida proved himself a capable diplomat, and by 1928 he had served as minister to Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. However, by 1930 Japan itself was seized by a pervasive militant nationalism, which Yoshida decried. That year army officers in the government scuttled his nomination to serve as foreign minister on account of his liberal views. Yoshida then resumed his ambassadorship in Great Britain until 1939 when, disillusioned by Japan’s drift toward war, he withdrew from diplomacy altogether and entered into business. Yoshida remained highly critical of Prime Minister TOJO HIDEKI’s government throughout World War II, and in June 1945 he was imprisoned for suggesting surrender. Following the Japanese capitulation and Allied occupation of September 1945, Yoshida was released from jail. He was one of few senior officials untainted by wartime service. Out of prison Yoshida was appointed foreign minister in an interim administration. In this capacity he

Yoshida Shigeru (1878–1967) prime minister of Japan Yoshida Shigeru was born in Tokyo on September 22, 1878, into a family of prominent politicians. He was subsequently adopted by a merchant whose wealth allowed him to obtain an elite education. Yoshida studied diplomacy at Tokyo Imperial University in 1906 and

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Yoshida Shigeru (Library of Congress)


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met with General Douglas MacArthur, arranged for him to confer with Emperor HIROHITO, and also convinced him to allow the imperial system to be retained. In 1946 Yoshida became head of the Liberal Party and a major player in national politics. Japan was then governed by Prime Minister HATOYAMA ICHIRO, who was suddenly removed from power by Allied authorities, and on May 22, 1946, Yoshida took his place. His accession was a decisive moment in Japanese national and political history for it placed him in the forefront of occupation politics. Yoshida, a realist, submitted to the notion that Japan should remain closely meshed with the United States in defense and foreign policy matters while also pursuing modern industrialization. In time his policy became widely regarded as the “Yoshida Doctrine.” He was also strongly anticommunist and pleased the Americans by purging the government and labor unions of leftists and their sympathizers. Yoshida nonetheless cooperated closely with occupation authorities and helped to craft a new constitution that granted women equal rights, enshrined freedom of expression, and made future Japanese military forces defensive in nature. He cultivated a strong personal following among allies in the Diet (legislature), which allowed him to rule in a near autocratic manner. Under Yoshida’s determined rule the Japanese economy rebounded and made its first strides toward world dominance. In 1951 he concluded a security pact with the United States that formalized existing defense arrangements, including the retention of American bases on Okinawa. His political fortunes crested in April 1952 when the Americans finally ended their military occupation, and Japan reacquired national sovereignty. That year he also declared Japan’s intention—in concert with U.S. prerogatives—to recognize Taiwan’s CHIANG KAI-SHEK as the sole legitimate leader of China. However, Yoshida resisted strong pressure by the United States to rearm Japan’s military during the cold war, and also managed to limit the new National Defense Force to 150,000 men as planned. Despite his successes, Yoshida became increasingly unpopular due to his aloof manner and in December 1954 he was removed as both head of the Liberal Party and prime minister. He subsequently retired from politics and basked in his reputation as a highly respected elder statesman. Yoshida died in Osio on October 20, 1967, one of the most important Japanese politicians of the 20th century. He was largely responsible for Japan’s

reemergence into the community of nations, its acceptance of democratization, and its economic modernization. Consequently he received the first state funeral of the postwar period. Further Reading Beer, Lawrence W. From Imperial Myth to Democracy: Japan’s Two Constitutions, 1889–2001. Boulder, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 2002. Finn, Richard B. Winners in Peace: MacArthur, Yoshida, and Postwar Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. Hellegers, Dale M. We, the Japanese People: World War II and the Origins of the Japanese Constitution. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2002. Moore, Ray A. Partners for Democracy: Crafting the New Japanese State under MacArthur. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Oinas-Kukkonen, Henry. Tolerance, Suspicion, and Hostility: Changing U.S. Attitudes Toward the Japanese Communist Movement, 1944–1947. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. Peaslee, Steven M. “Yoshida’s Victory: Individual Roles and Greater Forces in Postwar Japanese Rearmament.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Harvard University, 1991. Yoshida, Shigeru. The Yoshida Memoirs: The Story of Japan in Crisis. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1973.

Yrigoyen, Hipólito (1850–1933) president of Argentina Hipólito Yrigoyen was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on July 13, 1850, the son of a blacksmith. He briefly entered law school but quit to become police commissioner of a city neighborhood in 1879. Three years later he commenced his political career by acquiring a seat in the provincial legislature. Yrigoyen served briefly and taught at a girls’ school for several years before finally returning to politics by joining the middle-class oriented Civic Union Party, Unión Cívica (UC). Following a failed revolt in 1891, the new Unión Cívica Radical (UCR), Radical Civic Union, split off from the UC, and Yrigoyen joined. In 1896 he assumed leadership of the UCR after the death of Leandro N. Alem. In this capacity he sought to mobilize the nation’s rising middle class against the oligarchic interests traditionally dominating Argentine politics. Curiously, as a political figure,


YUAN SHIKAI Yrigoyen’s public persona remained cloaked in obscurity. He rarely spoke in public, lived and dressed modestly in a run-down neighborhood, yet enjoyed a reputation for charismatic leadership. Part of his success lay in an uncanny ability to craft intricate political bargains behind the scenes. In 1912 the ruling Partido Autonomista Nacional (PAN), National Autonomous Party, sought to preempt rising discontent by expanding the voting franchise. However, rather than establishing a large conservative base, this played into Yrigoyen’s extensive network of patronage. Elections held in 1916 established him as Argentina’s first democratically elected president. Yrigoyen presented himself as a champion of the middle class and continuing political reform, but he conducted his affairs conservatively. He did nothing to upset his patronage-based system and was also careful not to infringe upon traditional conservative interests. Internationally, he kept Argentina neutral during World War I, overhauled the university system, and nationalized the oil industry. Yet the nation was experiencing a deep economic depression that undermined the effect of his endeavors. The distress arising from rampant inflation occasioned numerous labor strikes that culminated in a bloody confrontation between workers and paramilitaries on January 9, 1919. Yrigoyen did nothing to assist his erstwhile allies and instead shored up his political base among moderates and conservatives. Consequently, by the time his first term ended in 1922, he had failed to implement the badly needed political reforms. That year his successor, Marcelo T. de Alvear, an aristocratic-leaning member of the UCR, succeeded him in office. Over the ensuing four years De Alvear managed to alienate moderate supporters by overtly catering to conservatives, and Yrigoyen, his former mentor, finally broke with him. The UCR was consequently split down the middle and Yrigoyen, running again for president, was decisively reelected with 60 percent of votes cast. Yrigoyen’s second term proved even more disruptive than his first. Verging on senility he had apparently lost his fine grasp of politics and failed to maintain his tangled alliances of patronage. Worse, after 1929 Argentina was beset by the Great Depression, which gutted the national economy. Yrigoyen was sensitive to the plight of the poor under such circumstances, but his open support for them incited the middle class and rich against the UCR. The military was also incensed by

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Yrigoyen’s constant meddling in their affairs. On September 6, 1930, he was bloodlessly overthrown by the army and sent into exile. Yrigoyen was soon allowed back home but he never again held public office. He died in Buenos Aires on July 3, 1933, the most popular Argentine executive until JUAN PERÓN, but otherwise lacking a concrete political philosophy. Further Reading Hora, Roy. The Landowners of the Argentine Pampas: A Social and Political History, 1860–1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Horowitz, Joel. “Argentina’s Failed General Strike of 1921: A Critical Moment in the Radicals’ Relations with Unions.” Hispanic American Historical Review 75, no. 1 (1995): 57–79. ———. “Bosses and Clients: Municipal Employment in the Buenos Aires of the Radicals, 1916–30.” Journal of Latin American Studies 31 (October 1999): 617–644. Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001. Potash, Robert A. The Army and Politics in Argentina, 3 vols. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1969–96. Rock, David. State Building and Political Movements in Argentina, 1860–1916. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2002.

Yuan Shikai (Yuan Shih-K’ai) (1859–1916) president of China Yuan Shikai was born in Xiangcheng, Henan Province, China, on September 16, 1859, into an established aristocratic family. He received a classical Chinese education but failed the bureaucratic exams and opted instead for a military career. Yuan displayed considerable leadership abilities in 1882, when he rapidly suppressed a Japanese-inspired rebellion in Korea. During the unsuccessful Sino-Japanese War, 1894–95, he distinguished himself further for his logistical work, and subsequently led efforts to modernize the obsolete Chinese army with German advisers. Yuan returned to Beijing soon after and became an important player at the Qing (Manchu) imperial court. In 1889, when informed by conspirators of an impending rebellion against the Empress Ci Xi, he promptly betrayed them to the government and was promoted to governor of


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Shandong. In 1900 he was responsible for suppressing the Boxer Rebellion against foreigners and greatly strengthened the forces under his command. He became one of the most powerful figures in northern China, and in 1901 he assumed duties as high commissioner of military and foreign affairs. A professional soldier, Yuan was painfully aware of China’s growing military and economic backwardness, so he vigorously embraced reform and modernization. He pursued these policies to expand his military and political alliances and further enhance his national status. This fact did not go unnoticed by a wary Qing court, and by 1909 Yuan had been forced into retirement. In October 1911 the Chinese revolution commenced, and the court urgently requested the previously disgraced Yuan to return to service. He did so coyly and on his own terms, more concerned with acting as a power broker than a general. The Qing dynasty was forced to abdicate, and the leading revolutionary, SUN YAT-SEN, was appointed provisional president. However, Yuan remained a force to reckon with and Sun was persuaded to step down and allow him to serve in his place. He assumed office in March 1912 and was immediately confronted by a nation bankrupt and verging on chaos. Yuan responded with plans to borrow enormous amounts of foreign money, a scheme widely resented by the Kuomintang (KMT) nationalists. Yuan then arranged for the KMT parliamentary leader to be murdered and banned his party. The result was a second revolution that Yuan easily crushed, and he consolidated his grip on power. He was formally sworn in on October 10, 1913, and three months later he dissolved the National Assembly. A new political council was then appointed, which granted Yuan dictatorial powers and made him president for life. Yuan’s momentary triumph was soon undermined by China’s chronic military and political weakness. After World War I began in 1914, Japan eagerly annexed all German possessions in China, an act further whetting its appetite for aggression. Japan then presented Yuan’s government with the notorious “Twenty-One Demands,” which would have reduced the entire country to protectorate status. China’s position was essentially hopeless, and by 1915 Yuan reluctantly accepted most of Japan’s terms. Such subservience cost him his political credibility with most of the nation. He then blundered incredibly by renouncing the republic completely and establishing a

Yuan Shikai (Library of Congress)

new dynasty with himself as emperor. This move occasioned the outbreak of several rebellions and Yuan was summarily abandoned by most of his leading generals. After occupying the throne but a few days, he resigned. Yuan died a bitter and disillusioned man in Beijing on June 6, 1916. Many of his subordinates subsequently established themselves as regional warlords, which brought further chaos and disunity to China. Yuan was a talented soldier but overtly ambitious as a political figure. While reviled for his futile attempts to seize power, he remains one of the most effective national reformers of the late imperial period. Further Reading Esherick, Joseph. Reform and the Revolution in China: The 1911 Revolution in Hunan and Hubei. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1998. Fung, Edmund S. K. The Military Dimension of the Chinese Revolution: The New Army and Its Role in the Revolution of 1911. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1980.


YUAN SHIKAI Hsueh, Chun-tu. The Chinese Revolution of 1911. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1983. Lin, Ming-te. “Yuan Shih-kai and the 1911 Revolution.” Chinese Studies in History 15, nos. 3–4 (1982): 123–128. MacKinnon, Stephen R. Power and Politics in Late Imperial China: Yuan Shi-kai in Beijing and Tianji, 1901–1908. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

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Reynolds, Douglas R. China, 1895–1912: StateSponsored Reforms and China’s Late-Qing Revolution: Selected Essays from Zhongguo jindai shi (Modern Chinese History, 1840–1919). Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1995. Zarrow, Peter G. “Chinese Anarchists: Ideals and the Revolution of 1911.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1987.


Z Zaghlu¯l, Sa’d (1857–1927) prime minister of

The onset of World War I in 1914 exacerbated tensions between Egypt and Great Britain. When the British imposed martial law and banned all political activity, riots broke out and the assembly was dissolved. Zaghlu¯l, like other nationalists, feared that England would reduce Egypt to a colony, and increased his political agitation for independence. In November 1918 he headed a Wafd (delegation) that approached the British High Commissioners to demand their immediate withdrawal. The British refused and responded to social unrest by arresting Zaghlu¯l in March 1919 and deporting him to Malta. He was released the following month and next ventured to the Paris Peace Conference to repeat his demands. He failed again to get results, and several months later, when the British dispatched Lord Milner to discuss possible independence, Zaghlu¯l instigated a boycott of the talks. In 1921 negotiations were again resumed but when Zaghlu¯l led large-scale disruptions, he was arrested a second time and exiled to Gibraltar. He was detained there two years while his reputation as Egypt’s leading nationalist was enhanced. But this time his efforts proved successful, and in 1922 the British granted Egypt partial independence. The British slowly relinquished control of Egypt, but when elections were allowed in December 1923, the Wafd Party won decisively and in January 1924

Egypt Sa’d Zaghlu¯l was born in Ibyanah, Egypt, in July 1857, into a family of modest means. After obtaining an Islamic education he attended Al-Azhar University in Cairo to study law and philosophy. It was there he absorbed the teachings of Jamal al-Din and Muhammad Abduh, two Islamic scholars with a pronounced modernizing, pro-Western bent. After graduation Zaghlu¯l passed through the Egyptian School of Law and in 1892 he was appointed judge in the Court of Appeals. By 1906 he was head of the Ministry of Education and advocated increased efforts to uplift the educational levels of all Egyptians. He also helped found the Hizb alUmmah (People’s Party) that stressed close cooperation with Great Britain. This was essential, as England had occupied Egypt and the Sudan since 1882 despite mounting resentment. Zaghlu¯l, meanwhile, also worked with the Ministry of Justice from 1910 to 1912, where he instituted many needed reforms. But in 1913 he resigned to protest the government’s corrupt and shameless subservience to the British, after which he successfully stood for a seat in the Legislative Assembly. He was soon vice president of that body and reversed his previously pro-British stance in favor of independence. Zaghlu¯l was the first Egyptian figure of national standing to do so.

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ZHAO ZIYANG Zaghlu¯l became the country’s first elected prime minister. However, nationalist resentment continued spilling out onto the street, and in November 1924 the British commander of the Egyptian army was assassinated. Zaghlu¯l then received an ultimatum from the British government demanding his resignation, and he left office after only 11 months. Nonetheless, the Wafd Party overwhelmingly won a new round of elections and, rather than have Zaghlu¯l reappointed prime minister, King Faud dissolved the parliament. In May 1926 the Wafd again carried the election, and Zaghlu¯l was allowed to serve as president of the Chamber of Deputies. He occupied this office until his death in Cairo on August 23, 1927. Zaghlu¯l is considered Egypt’s first nationalist leader and a major force in the drive toward independence. Moreover, the Wafd Party he founded exerted tremendous influence upon political affairs for 30 years, until GAMAL ABDEL NASSER established a republic in 1952. Further Reading Badrawi, Malak. Political Violence in Egypt, 1910–1925: Secret Societies, Plots, and Assassinations. Richmond, England: Curzon, 2000. Bishku, Michael B. “The British Empire and the Question of Egypt’s Future, 1919–1922.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1981. McIntyre, John D. The Boycott of the Milner Mission: A Study in Egyptian Nationalism. New York: P. Lang, 1985. Pollard, Clarissa L. “Nurturing the Nation: The Family Politics of the 1919 Egyptian Revolution.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of California– Berkeley, 1997. Smith, Russell Y. “The Making of an Egyptian Nationalist: The Political Career of Saad Zaghlu¯l Pasha to 1919.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1972. Terry, Janice J. The Wafd, 1919–1952: Cornerstone of Egyptian Political Power. London: Third World Centre for Research and Pub., 1982.

Zhao Ziyang (Chao Tzu-yang) (1919– ) general secretary, Communist Party of China Zhao Ziyang was born in Henan Province, China, on October 17, 1919, the son of a prosperous landlord. He

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joined the Communist Youth League in 1932 and two years later solicited membership in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Zhao functioned as a party propagandist against Japan throughout World War II and performed similar work as a prefectural leader during the civil war against CHIANG KAI-SHEK’s Nationalists. When the People’s Republic of China was proclaimed by MAO ZEDONG in 1949, Zhao transferred to the southern reaches of the country and occupied a succession of increasingly significant party posts. His career received a major boost in 1955 when he became part of the People’s Council of Guangdong Province, where he specialized in agrarian and economic reforms at the expense of doctrinaire collectivization. Here Zhao pioneered the use of private plots and free rural markets to counter the disastrous effects of Mao’s Great Leap Forward campaign in 1958. His efforts proved highly successful, and in 1965 he was rewarded with promotion to first party secretary of Guangdong Province. However, Zhao’s willingness to question party orthodoxy led to his being branded a “capitalist roader” during the so-called Cultural Revolution, and in 1967 he was arrested and paraded through the streets as a criminal. Zhao was not politically rehabilitated until 1971 when he was reassigned party work in Inner Mongolia. But within years his career resumed its fast track when he became first party secretary of vitally important Szechwan Province and was encouraged to experiment with reforms again. This proved to be Zhao’s finest hour, for his policy of decentralization and peasant empowerment led to dramatic increases in grain and industrial production. Hailed as a hero, Zhao was appointed to the Politburo by Deng Xiaoping in 1977, and three years later he supplanted HU YAOBANG as premier (prime minister). As premier Zhao embarked on a program of radical economic and structural reforms bent on making the Chinese economy more productive and profitable—in a word, more capitalistic. He gave the industrial sector greater autonomy from the party apparatus and incorporated a more efficient tax system. He also incurred the wrath of hard-liners by attempting to streamline bureaucracy and reduce interference from the CCP but still managed to replace HUA GUOFENG as premier of the state council in 1980. The economy responded impressively but also brought a rise of inflation and corruption. Another unforeseen development was the push for greater democratization, principally


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among the large student population. Serious political destabilization resulted, and in 1986 Zhao was forced to dismiss his ally Hu and replace him with the more orthodox Li Peng. In 1987 Zhao’s good performance resulted in his becoming general secretary of the CCP, in effect, the head of China. He continued pursuing his reforms and liberalization policies against a storm of conservative criticism and mounting student demands for freedom. A crisis was reached in the spring of 1989 following the death of Hu, when spontaneous student demonstrations erupted across the length and breadth of China. The largest of these was in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Zhao experienced tremendous pressure to use military force to end the demonstration, but he openly sided with the students and refused to interfere. An internecine party struggle ensued in which liberals were finally ousted by the hard-liners, and the Tiananmen Square demonstrations were repressed with deadly force on June 4, 1989. Zhao was arrested, accused of having made “mistakes,” and removed from power. He consequently lost all his offices and titles and was placed under house arrest indefinitely. Once replaced by hard-liner Jiang Zemin, he also endured the ignominy of becoming an official “non-person.” Zhao continues under house arrest to the present day, although he reputedly follows national politics closely. In August 2002 he issued a tersely worded statement to be read at the 16th Party Congress and attacked Jiang for his lack of progressive politics. He is still considered one of China’s most successful economic reformers. Further Reading Fewsmith, J. China since Tiananmen: The Politics of Transition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ———. Dilemmas of Reform in China: Political Conflict and Economic Debate. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1994. Fincher, John. “Zhao’s Fall, China’s Loss.” Foreign Policy, no. 76 (fall 1989): 3–25. Goldman, M. Sowing the Seeds of Democracy in China: Political Reforms in the Deng Xiaoping Era. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994. Shambaugh, David L. The Making of a Premier: Zhao Ziyang’s Provincial Career. Epping, England, Bowker, 1984.

Woodruff, John. China in Search of Its Future: Reform vs Repression, 1982 to 1987. Secaucus, N.J.: Carole Pub. Group, 1990.

Zhelev, Zhelyu (1935– ) president of Bulgaria Zhelyu Zhelev was born in Vesselinovo, Bulgaria, on March 3, 1935, the son of poor farmers. Bulgaria was occupied by Soviet troops during World War II and they imposed a communist-style dictatorship upon the country under GEORGI DIMITROV. As a promising intellectual, Zhelev joined the Communist Party and was allowed to attend Sofia University to study philosophy. But even at this juncture he proved something of a maverick thinker for in 1958 his master’s thesis openly criticized the ideology of VLADIMIR LENIN. Zhelev was consequently expelled from both the party and the university and he was forced to seek menial employment in his wife’s village. He remained an outcast until 1972, when he was offered a sociologist position at the Center for Amateur Arts. Zhelev was eventually rehabilitated politically, readmitted to the university, and successfully defended his thesis in 1974. He then served in the Institute for Culture and published a landmark book entitled Fascism in 1982. This was superficially a critique of German, Italian, and Spanish fascism, but was in actuality a stinging rebuke of Bulgarian political institutions. The book was subsequently banned and Zhelev was dismissed from academe a second time. Fortunately, he did manage to complete and defend his doctorate on political philosophy in 1987. By this time Bulgaria, like all communist-controlled states of Eastern Europe, was experiencing profound changes, thanks to the liberalization policies of Soviet premier MIKHAIL GORBACHEV. Zhelev, as one of the nation’s leading dissidents, was actively organizing opposition to the Bulgarian Communist Party, and in 1988 he founded the Club in Support of Openness and Reform. The following year the hard-line communists renamed themselves the Bulgarian Socialist Party to retain a measure of political popularity. Zhelev countered by gathering various opposition groups into a single entity, the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), in which he served as president of the Coordination Council. By 1990, in response to overwhelming popular pressure, the former Bulgarian communists agreed to allow the first free elections in 40 years. In the spring of 1990 Zhelev was elected to the new National Assembly and he also served as president of the UDF. That August his party, while winning fewer


ZHIVKOV, TODOR seats than the Socialists, managed a coalition arrangement with other parties and Zhelev became president of the new Bulgarian republic. Having succeeded long-time dictator TODOR ZHIVKOV, he became the first elected chief executive in Bulgarian history. Under the Bulgarian system, the prime minister wields actual power of state while the presidency is more or less a unifying, ceremonial position. Nonetheless, Zhelev determined, for the sake of national unity, to forget the past and operate with magnanimity. He therefore pursued a policy of political reconciliation between communists and noncommunists, along with Bulgars and the Turkish minority. The result was a remarkable violence-free transition from totalitarianism to democracy and capitalism. Economically, Zhelev was committed to building a free market in Bulgaria, and he supported privatization of all state-owned industries. Furthermore, intent upon working Bulgaria into the fabric of the European Community, he met repeatedly with Western officials to better coordinate economic agendas. Impatient for results, he ordered an accelerated drive toward decollectivization of agriculture in 1992, while also instituting improved relations with neighboring Greece and Turkey. The transition to freedom proved politically difficult and in 1992 Zhelev was forced to endure a vote of “no confidence” in the National Assembly. He survived and remained in office another four years. But in June 1996 Zhelev lost the UDF presidential vote and five months later he stepped down in favor of Petar Stoyanov. Considering that Bulgaria was one of the more hard-line communist regimes of Eastern Europe, Zhelev’s tenure in office was surprisingly productive and peaceful. Since leaving public office he has continued on as something of a political sage, in the vein of Czechoslovakian playwright Václav Havel. He reemerged on the international scene in January 1998 by handing over top-secret Bulgarian documents pertaining to former dictator Todor Zhivkov and his role in suppression of ALEXANDER DUBCˇ EK’s “Prague Spring” in 1968. “Although it is only a piece of the puzzle of those events,” he maintains, “I believe it will help to give a full picture of social and political life in 1968.” Further Reading Baer, Josette. “Perspectives in Totalitarianism: Comparing the Theories of Zheliu Zhelev and Hannah Arendt.” East Central Europe 27, no. 2 (2000): 69–85.

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Bell, John D. Bulgaria in Transition: Politics, Economics, Society, and Culture after Communism. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998. Dimitrov, Vesselin. Bulgaria: The Uneven Transition. London: Routledge, 2001. Ganev, Venelin I. “Preying on the State: Political Capitalism after Communism.” Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 2000. Giatzidis, Emil. An Introduction to Post-communist Bulgaria: Political, Economic, and Social Transformations. New York: Manchester University Press, 2002. Melone, Albert P. Creating Parliamentary Government: The Transition to Democracy in Bulgaria. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998.

Zhivkov, Todor (1911–1998) general secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party Todor Zhivkov was born on September 7, 1911, in Pravets, Bulgaria, a son of poor peasants. He trained as an apprentice and was befriended by communist agitator GEORGI DIMITROV, who persuaded him to join the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1932. Zhivkov continued with his underground political efforts despite the fact that his faction was not particularly beholden to the Moscow line. However, when German forces invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the bickering communists finally unified themselves. Throughout the war Zhivkov was a guerrilla leader and he enjoyed considerable success in that role. On September 8, 1944, as the Red Army was approaching the capital of Sofia, he seized the city and arrested several leading ministers. He then was appointed head of the new militia force, consisting principally of former guerrillas, whose mission was to round up and execute thousands of suspected collaborators. In consequence of his newfound loyalty to the Soviet Union, Zhivkov was made a nonvoting member of the Communist Party Central Committee. Thereafter he made a rapid ascent up the party bureaucracy, filling a succession of increasingly important posts. After serving as first secretary of the capital committee in 1948 and becoming a full member of the Politburo in 1950, Zhivkov’s rise was abetted by the death of JOSEPH STALIN in 1953. Stalin’s successor, NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV, initiated a sweeping deStalinization of the Eastern Bloc, and Zhivkov immediately toed the new, more moderate line. With


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Khrushchev’s help, he toppled Stalinist prime minister Vulko Chervenkov in April 1956, and was appointed general secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party. At that time, aged but 43 years, Zhivkov was the youngest leader of a Soviet Bloc nation. Zhivkov ultimately retained power for 35 years, longer than any other Eastern leader. Part of his longevity can be traced to unswerving obedience toward Moscow in terms of both economic and foreign policy. In his pronouncements he often equated Bulgarian patriotism with loyalty to Russia. Consequently, the Soviets rewarded their faithful ally with ample supplies of weapons, credit, and food. Zhivkov also displayed a pragmatic streak in simply buying off the intelligentsia with patronage rather than oppressing them. After the 1964 coup in Moscow that deposed Khrushchev and installed LEONID BREZHNEV, he quickly reversed himself and supported the new orthodox line. He also became more reactionary by nature and developed a cult of personality around himself. But Zhivkov’s unquestioning obedience toward Soviet leaders was a source of tension within his own party, and in 1965 he endured a coup attempt from disgruntled military and party leaders— the only such instance from within a Soviet Bloc nation. To further consolidate his hold on power, Zhivkov assumed the powers of the prime minister in 1962 and, once a new constitution was enacted, took on the title of president in 1971. All told he maintained an iron grip on Bulgaria and for over three decades functioned as the Soviet Union’s most pliable ally. By the late 1980s the East Bloc was being upended by the liberalizing policies of new Soviet premier MIKHAIL GORBACHEV. Loyal soldier that he was, Zhivkov publicly endorsed the changes even though they were slowly undermining his authority. But he was still a hard-line communist in other respects and could enact destructive policies. In 1984 he ordered the country’s Turkish minority to adopt Bulgarian names, triggering a mass exodus of refugees. But by 1989 communist regimes throughout Eastern Europe were tottering and political change proved irrevocable. Zhivkov, unyielding and inflexible as ever, tried to resist and was bloodlessly deposed in a coup in December 1989. The following spring he was arrested and expelled from the party. In 1992 Zhivkov was convicted of embezzlement but the elderly leader was allowed to serve his seven years in house arrest. Six years later he was allowed to rejoin the communists’ successors in the Bulgarian Socialist Party.

Zhivkov died in Sofia on August 6, 1998, still a respected father figure to the nation. When the new government refused to grant him a state funeral, thousands of former followers escorted his burial procession through the capital. In September 2001, 12 years after his downfall, Zhivkov was further honored in his hometown when residents erected a 10-foot bronze statue in his memory. Further Reading Anguelov, Zlatko. Communism and the Remorse of an Innocent Victimizer. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2002. Bell, John D. The Bulgarian Communist Party from Blagerov to Zhivkov. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1986. Genov, Nikolai, and Anna Krusteva. Recent Social Trends in Bulgaria, 1960–1995. Ithaca, N.Y.: McGillQueen’s University Press, 2001. Glapinski, Adam. The Origin, Development, and Collapse of Communism in Bulgaria, 1944–1990. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1994. Tchakarov, Kostadin. The Second Floor: An Expose of the Backstage Politics in Bulgaria. London: Macdonald, 1991. Zhivkov, Todor. Statesman and Builder of the New Bulgaria. New York: Pergamon, 1982.

Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai) (1898–1976) prime minister of China Zhou Enlai was born in Huaian, Kiangsu Province, China, on March 5, 1898, into an affluent family of Mandarin bureaucrats. His parents died during his infancy and he was raised and educated by an uncle. In 1917 Zhou attended college in Japan and was introduced to Marxist political philosophy. Two years later he returned to Beijing to take part in revolutionary activities and edit a radical newspaper. He was subsequently arrested for protesting the ceding of land to Japan, and in 1920 he visited Paris, France, to continue his education. Zhou openly associated with French and Chinese socialists living there and joined a communist front organization. In 1922 he studied in Berlin and while there formally joined the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Zhou returned to China in 1924 and found the nation beset by social and political ferment. In an attempt to suppress regional


ZHOU ENLAI warlords, he next joined the Kuomintang (KMT, or Nationalist Party) of revolutionary SUN YAT-SEN, then in alliance with the communists. He was appointed deputy director of political affairs at the newly created Wampoa Military Academy under General CHIANG KAI-SHEK. However, in 1927 Chiang succeeded Sun as head of the KMT and he viciously turned on his erstwhile communist allies. Zhou fled from Shanghai and joined the main communist force under MAO ZEDONG in 1929. It proved a fateful alliance for, in contrast to the crude and boisterous Mao, Zhou cut a sophisticated figure who exuded urbanity and charm. Their careers became inextricably linked over the next 40 years. Zhou functioned extremely well as a leading communist diplomat and spokesman throughout the formative decade of the 1930s and into World War II. His efforts proved instrumental in persuading Chiang and the KMT to present a united front against Japanese aggression after 1937. After 1945 Zhou continued meeting with Allied ambassadors in China, especially American secretary of state George C. Marshall, and received high marks for his acumen, courtesy, and skill. The long-anticipated showdown between the Nationalists and communists finally erupted in 1946 and ended three years later in a decisive victory for Mao’s peasant-based guerrillas. When the People’s Republic of China finally emerged in 1949, Zhou was simultaneously appointed prime minister (premier) and foreign minister, and tasked with expanding China’s diplomatic contacts abroad. His efforts were largely stymied by a hostile United States, which refused to allow China a seat in the United Nations. When the Korean War broke out in 1950, it fell upon Zhou to issue the Americans a warning through the Indian ambassador that the presence of U.S. forces north of the 38th parallel would trigger Chinese intervention. General Douglas MacArthur blithely ignored the warning, and the Chinese struck suddenly in November 1950, ensuring that the war was stalemated by 1953. The following year Zhou became the first communist Chinese ambassador to work abroad when he appeared at the 1954 Geneva Convention. This was convened to end the First Indochina War between France and Vietnam’s HO CHI MINH. Again, Zhou performed smoothly and even issued hints that diplomatic relations with the United States were possible. In 1955 he

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appeared at the Bandung Conference, Indonesia, and asserted China’s claim as leader of the developing nations. When tensions flared between the Chinese mainland and Chiang’s forces sequestered on Taiwan in 1958, Zhou prevailed upon Mao not to invade the island of Matsu and risk a confrontation with the United States. He was also active in promoting close relations with the Soviet Union although, following the rise of reform-minded NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV, an ideological split between Russia and China proved inevitable. Still, Zhou did his best to contain hostility between the two communist superpowers despite skirmishing along their common border in 1969. Domestically, Zhou was a useful ally of Mao and his sometimes erratic, radical policies such as the Great Leap Forward of 1958 and the Great Cultural Revolution of 1966. However, he always sought to steer a moderate ground to mitigate ideological excesses, and was frequently accused of harboring and protecting dissidents from radical forces. But by 1971 China was as diplomatically isolated as ever, and even Mao saw the need for a new and dramatic rapprochement with the United States to offset the growing military might of the Soviet Union. In 1971 Zhou initiated his famous “ping pong” diplomacy, when athletes from the United States were cordially invited to China for the first time. This paved the way for President RICHARD M. NIXON to visit China the following year, establish formal diplomatic relations, and allow China into the UN. He even managed to strike a friendly accord with Japan, long considered among China’s most deadly enemies. After Mao died in 1975, Zhou was officially retained as prime minister but he was actually running China. His most important work was to rehabilitate the political career of arch reformer Deng Xiaoping and to disarm and discredit the radical “Gang of Four” who attempted to fill the vacuum left by Mao’s death. Zhou himself died in Beijing on January 8, 1976. Like other revolutionary leaders of his generation, he was a truly beloved public figure and hailed as the “people’s premier.” His sagacity, tact, and consummate professionalism were instrumental in helping reestablish China’s links to the rest of the world. Further Reading Bloodworth, Dennis. The Chinese Machiavelli: 3,000 Years of Chinese Statecraft. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2004.


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Chan, Adrian. Chinese Marxism. New York: Continuum, 2002. Gregor, Anthony J. A Place in the Sun: Marxism and Fascism in China’s Long Revolution. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2000. Han, Suyin. Eldest Son: Zhou Enlai and the Making of Modern China, 1898–1976. New York: Kodansha International, 1995. Lee, Chae-jin. Zhou Enlai: The Early Years. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. Shao, Kuo-kang. Zhou Enlai and the Foundations of Chinese Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. Smith, Stephen A. A Road Is Made: Communism in Shanghai, 1920–1927. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2000. Song, Yongyi. “The Role of Zhou Enlai in the Cultural Revolution: A Contradictory Image from Diverse Sources.“ Issues and Studies 37 (March–April 2001): 1–28.

Zia ul-Haq, Mohammad (1924–1988) president of Pakistan Mohammad Zia ul-Haq was born in Jullander, East Punjab, India, on August 12, 1924, the son of an army clerk. Though Muslim, he was well educated at Christian missionary schools and subsequently attended the Royal Indian Military Academy in Dhehra Dun. Zia was then commissioned in the military and rendered distinguished service with the British in Burma during World War II. In 1947 Britain partitioned the subcontinent into two new nations, Hindu-dominated India and Muslim-dominated Pakistan. Zia sided with the latter and joined the Pakistani army. He proved himself a dedicated soldier and in 1955 was selected to attend the Command Staff College in Quetta. After several tours of military schools in the United States, Zia fought well in the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War and by 1969 had advanced to brigadier general. However, it was not until the administration of ZULFIKAR ALI BHUTTO in 1975 that Zia’s career greatly accelerated. He was made lieutenant general in 1975, and the following year Bhutto elevated him to army chief of staff—over the objections of more senior officers. Clearly the prime minister wanted a high-ranking military commander with few political aspirations

and the pious, devout Zia seemed a perfect choice. But in March 1977 Bhutto’s manipulation of elections backfired, when the opposition accused him of rigging the process. Pakistan then erupted into ceaseless demonstrations and disorder that threatened national stability. At this juncture Zia, nominally aloof from politics, decisively intervened on July 5, 1977, and toppled the Bhutto regime. He declared himself president on September 16, 1978. Zia initially intended to restore civilian authority within 90 days, but this was not feasible due to widespread social unrest. He consequently clamped down on dissent by suspending the constitution, dissolving parliament, and outlawing political and labor activity. This had the effect of restoring a semblance of order to Pakistan but there remained the problem of Bhutto. Zia initially wanted to release the former prime minister but his popularity surged, and the general feared revenge. At length he arranged for Bhutto to be charged with the murder of a political opponent, for which he was hanged in April 1979. This act embittered members of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) against the government and led to more instability. The economy was failing and political stability deteriorated once again, but Zia was succored by the December 1979 Soviet invasion of neighboring Afghanistan. Suddenly the United States, one of his biggest critics, became his staunchest ally. As a Muslim, Zia strongly opposed the Soviet occupation, and he allowed the Americans to supply clandestine military aid to freedom fighters using Pakistani soil. His cooperation proved essential in the containment of Soviet expansionism. Buoyed by American financial aid, Zia was allowed to slowly restore the democratic process in a modified form. He introduced strict Islamic law that called for harsh punishments and sought to shore up support from fundamentalist Muslim groups. He also promoted regional cooperation by reestablishing good relations with India and China. Zia finally permitted elections in March 1985, but political parties were still forbidden. Zia had arranged his own elevation to the presidency of Pakistan, which was confirmed in a referendum in December 1984. He also authored specific constitutional changes allowing him to dissolve parliament at his discretion and enhanced the power of his office. Zia continued running Pakistani affairs smoothly and efficiently until August 17, 1988, when he was killed in an


ZIA UL-HAQ, MOHAMMAD unexplained airplane crash. Two years earlier Benazir Bhutto, daughter of the late prime minister, had returned home to organize the PPP for upcoming elections. In November 1988 she was elected the first female prime minister of an Islamic country, fittingly avenging her father’s death. Further Reading Ahmed, Mumtaz. “The Crescent and the Sword: Islam, the Military, and Political Legitimacy in Pakistan, 1977–1985.” Middle East Journal 50, no. 3 (1996): 372–386. Arif, Khalid M. Working with Zia: Pakistan’s Power Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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Burki, Shahid J., Craig Baxter, and Robert LaPorte. Pakistan under the Military: Eleven Years of Zia ulHaq. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1991. Hussain, Mushahid. Pakistan’s Politics: The Zia Years. New York: Konark Pub., 1991. Parveen, Shaukat Ali. Politics of Conviction: The Life and Times of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. London: London Centre for Pakistan Studies, 1997. Wirsing, Robert G. Pakistan’s Security under Zia, 1977–1988: The Policy Imperatives of a Peripheral Asian State. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991. Ziring, Lawrence. “Public Policy Dilemmas and Pakistan’s Nationality Problem: The legacy of Zia ul-Haq.” Asian Survey 28 (August 1986): 795–817.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Current Biography. New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1940– . Eccleshall, Robert, and Graham Walker, eds. Biographical Dictionary of British Prime Ministers. New York: Routledge, 1998. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale Group, 1998– . Fredriksen, John C. Biographical Dictionary of Modern World Leaders, 1992 to the Present. New York: Facts On File, 2003. Glickman, Harvey, ed. Political Leaders of Contemporary Africa South of the Sahara. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992. Hamilton, Neil A. Founders of Modern Nations: A Biographical Dictionary. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABCClio, 1995. ———. Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Facts On File, 2001. Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Modern Political Biography. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1999. Jackson-Laufer, Guida M. Women Rulers through the Ages. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio, 1999. Kavanagh, Dennis, ed. A Dictionary of Political Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Laybourn, Keith. British Political Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio, 2001. Lentz, Harris M. Encyclopedia of Heads of State and Governments, 1900 through 1945. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1999.

Leung, Pak-Wah. Political Leaders of Modern China: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. Magill, Frank N., and John Powell. U.S. Government Leaders. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 1997. Newsmakers. Detroit: Gale Group, 1985– . Palmer, Alan W. Who’s Who in Modern History. London: Routledge, 2001. ———. Who’s Who in World Politics: From 1860 to the Present Day. New York: Routledge, 1996. Powell, John, ed. Biographical Encyclopedia of the 20th Century World Leaders, 5 vols. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2000. Rosen, Greg, ed. Dictionary of Labour Biography. London: Politico’s, 2001. Sobel, Robert, and David B. Sicilia, eds. The United States Executive Branch: A Biographical Directory of Heads of State and Cabinet Officials. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003. Uwechue, Ralph. Makers of Modern Africa: Profiles in History. London: Africa Books, 1996. Vazquez Gomez, Junita. Dictionary of Mexican Rulers, 1325–1997. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997. Wilsford, David. Political Leaders of Contemporary Western Europe: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1995. Young, Hugo, ed. Political Lives. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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INDEX

AFGHANISTAN Amanullah Khan Karmal, Babrak

ALBANIA Hoxha, Enver

ALGERIA Ben Bella, Ahmed Boumédienne, Houari Chadli, Benjedid

ANGOLA Neto, Antonio

ARGENTINA Alfonsín, Raúl Galtieri, Leopoldo Perón, Juan Videla, Jorge Yrigoyen, Hipólito

AUSTRALIA Barton, Edmund Bruce, Stanley Chifley, Joseph Curtin, John

BY

COUNTRY

Deakin, Alfred Fraser, Malcolm Gorton, John Hawke, Robert Hughes, William Morris Menzies, Sir Robert Gordon Scullin, James Henry Whitlam, Gough

BELIZE (BRITISH HONDURAS) Price, George

BENIN (DAHOMEY) Apithy, Sourou Migan Maga, Hubert

BIAFRA Ojukwu, Chukwuemeka

AUSTRIA Dollfuss, Engelbert Kreisky, Bruno Raab, Julius Renner, Karl

BOLIVIA

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

BOTSWANA

Franz Joseph I Tisza, István

Khama, Seretse

Barrientos Ortuño, René Paz Estenssoro, Victor Siles Zuazo, Hernán

BRAZIL BANGLADESH Ershad, Hussein Mohammad Rahman, Mujibur Rahman, Ziaur

BELGIUM Martens, Wilfried

507

Castelo Branco, Humberto Figueiredo, João Geisel, Ernesto Kubitschek, Juscelino Quadros, Jânio Sarney, José Vargas, Getúlio


508

INDEX BY COUNTRY

BULGARIA

CHILE

DJIBOUTI

Dimitrov, Georgi Zhelev, Zhelyu Zhivkov, Todor

Alessandri Palma, Arturo Allende, Salvador Frei, Eduardo Pinochet, Augusto

Gouled Aptidon, Hassan

BURKINA FASO (UPPER VOLTA) Yaméogo, Maurice

CHINA, PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Bosch, Juan Trujillo, Rafael

Micombero, Michel Rwagasore, Louis

Hu Yaobang Hua Guofeng Liu Shaoqi Mao Zedong Sun Yat-sen Yuan Shikai Zhao Ziyang Zhou Enlai

CAMBODIA

CHINA, REPUBLIC OF

Farouk Nasser, Gamal Abdel Sadat, Anwar alZaghlu¯l, Sa’d

Chiang Ching-kuo Chiang Kai-shek

EL SALVADOR

BURMA (MYANMAR) Ne Win U Nu

BURUNDI

Heng Samrin Lon Nol Pol Pot

CAMEROON Ahidjo, Ahmandou

CANADA Bennett, Richard Bedford Borden, Robert Laird Clark, Joe Diefenbaker, John King, William Lyon Mackenzie Laurier, Sir Wilfrid Meighen, Arthur Pearson, Lester St. Laurent, Louis Trudeau, Pierre Turner, John

CAPE VERDE

Betancur Cuartas, Belisario Gómez Castro, Laureano Lleras Camargo, Alberto Rojas Pinilla, Gustavo

CONGO Kasavubu, Joseph Lumumba, Patrice Massamba-Débat, Alphonse Tshombe, Möise

COSTA RICA Arias Sánchez, Oscar Figueres Ferrer, José

CUBA Batista, Fulgencio

CYPRUS

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Kyprianou, Spyros Makarios III

Bokassa, Jean-Bédel Dacko, David

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

Habré, Hissène Malloum, Félix Tombalbaye, François

Plaza Lasso, Galo Velasco Ibarra, José

EGYPT

Duarte, José Napoleón

COLOMBIA

Pereira, Aristides

CHAD

ECUADOR

Benesˇ, Edvard Dubcˇek, Alexander Gottwald, Klement Husák, Gustav Masaryk, Tomásˇ

EQUATORIAL GUINEA Macías Nguema, Francisco

ETHIOPIA Haile Selassie Mengistu Haile Mariam

FINLAND Kekkonen, Urho Koivisto, Mauno Mannerheim, Carl Gustav

FRANCE Blum, Léon Briand, Aristide Clemenceau, Georges Daladier, Édouard Gaulle, Charles de Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry Herriot, Édouard Laval, Pierre Pétain, Philippe Poincaré, Raymond Pompidou, Georges

GABON M’Ba, Léon


INDEX BY COUNTRY GERMANY

GRENADA

IRAQ

Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald von Brüning, Heinrich Bülow, Bernhard Hindenburg, Paul von Hitler, Adolf Papen, Franz von Stresemann, Gustav Wilhelm II

Bishop, Maurice Gairy, Eric

Faisal I Qassem, Abdul Karim

GUATEMALA

IRAN

Arbenz Guzmán, Jacobo Cerezo Arévalo, Marco Ríos Montt, Efraín Ubico, Jorge

Khomeini, Ruholla Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mossadegh, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi

GERMANY, EAST

GUINEA

IRELAND

Honecker, Erich Krenz, Egon Ulbricht, Walter

Touré, Ahmed Sékou

Cabral, Amilcar

Cosgrave, Liam Cosgrave, William T. De Valera, Eamon FitzGerald, Garrett

GUYANA

ISRAEL

GUINEA BISSAU

GERMANY, WEST Adenauer, Konrad Brandt, Willy Erhard, Ludwig Kiesinger, Kurt Schmidt, Helmut

Burnham, Forbes

HAITI Duvalier, François Duvalier, Jean-Claude

GHANA Busia, Kofi Nkrumah, Kwame

GREAT BRITAIN Asquith, Herbert Henry Attlee, Clement Baldwin, Stanley Balfour, Arthur Callaghan, James Campbell-Bannerman, Henry Chamberlain, Neville Churchill, Sir Winston Douglas-Home, Alexander Eden, Anthony Heath, Sir Edward Law, Andrew Bonar Lloyd George, David MacDonald, Ramsay Macmillan, Harold Thatcher, Margaret Wilson, Harold

HOLY SEE John XXIII Paul VI Pius XII

HONDURAS Azcona Hoyo, José Suazo Córdova, Roberto Villeda Morales, Ramón

ITALY Craxi, Bettino De Gasperi, Alcide Giolitti, Giovanni Mussolini, Benito

JAMAICA Bustamante, William

HUNGARY

JORDAN

Grósz, Karóly Horthy, Miklós Kádár, János Nagy, Imre Rákosi, Mátyás

JAPAN

INDIA Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Nehru, Jawaharlal Prasad, Rajendra

GREECE Papandreou, George Venizélos, Eleuthérios

Begin, Menachem Ben-Gurion, David Eshkol, Levi Meir, Golda Weizmann, Chaim

INDONESIA Sukarno

Hussein, Abdullah ibn

Hatoyama Ichiro Hirohito Ikeda Hayato Konoe Fumimaro Nakasone Yasuhiro Saionji Kimmochi Sato Eisaku Takeshita Noboru Tanaka Kakuei Tojo Hideki Yoshida Shigeru

509


510

INDEX BY COUNTRY

KENYA Kenyatta, Jomo

LAOS Souphanouvong Souvanna Phouma

LESOTHO Jonathan, Joseph Leabua

LEBANON Aoun, Michel Chamoun, Camille Gemayel, Amin Karami, Rashid Sarkis, Elias

LIBERIA Doe, Samuel K. Tubman, William

MADAGASCAR Tsiranana, Philibert

MALAYSIA Hatta, Mohammad Rahman, Abdul

MALI Keita, Modibo

MALTA Mintoff, Dom

MAURITANIA Daddah, Moktar Ould

MAURITIUS

Calles, Plutarco Elías Cárdenas, Lázaro Carranza, Venustiano de la Madrid, Miguel Díaz, Porfirio Díaz Ordaz, Gustavo Echeverría, Luis Huerta, Victoriano López Mateos, Adolfo López Portillo, José Madero, Francisco Obregón, Álvaro Ruiz Cortines, Adolfo

NEW ZEALAND Holyoake, Keith Lange, David Massey, William Muldoon, Robert

NICARAGUA Ortega, Daniel Somoza Debayle, Anastasio Somoza García, Anastasio

NIGER Diori, Hamani

NIGERIA Azikiwe, Nnamdi Balewa, Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Gowon, Yakubu Muhammed, Murtala Ramat

PAPUA NEW GUINEA Somare, Michael

PARAGUAY Stroessner, Alfredo

PERU Belaúnde Terry, Fernando García Pérez, Alan Morales Bermúdez, Francisco Odría, Manuel Velasco, Juan

PHILIPPINES Aquino, Corazon Garcia, Carlos P. Macapagal, Diosdado P. Magsaysay, Ramón Marcos, Ferdinand Quezon, Manuel Quirino, Elpidio Roxas, Manuel

POLAND Bierut, Bolesl/aw Gierek, Edward Gomul/ka, Wl/adysl/aw Jaruzelski, Wojciech Mazowiecki, Tadeusz Pil/sudski, Józef Rakowski, Mieczysl/aw

PORTUGAL

O’Neill, Terence

Salazar, António Spínola, António de

NORWAY

ROMANIA

NORTHERN IRELAND

Ramgoolam, Seewoosagur

Michelsen, Christian Quisling, Vidkun

Ceaus¸escu, Nicolae Michael I

MOROCCO

PAKISTAN

RUSSIA

Mohammed V

Machel, Samora

Ayub Khan, Mohammad Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali Jinnah, Mohammed Ali Zia ul-Haq, Mohammad

Kerensky, Aleksandr Lvov, Georgi Nicholas II Stolypin, Pyotr Witte, Sergei

MEXICO

PANAMA

Alemán Valdés, Miguel Ávila Camacho, Manuel

Noriega, Manuel Torrijos, Omar

MOZAMBIQUE

RWANDA Kayibanda, Grégoire


INDEX BY COUNTRY SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE

SRI LANKA (CEYLON)

Pinto da Costa, Manuel

SAUDI ARABIA

Bandaranaike, Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Jayewardene, Junius

Faisal Saud, Abd al-Aziz ibn

SUDAN

SENEGAL Senghor, Léopold Sédar

SERBIA Pasˇic´, Nikola

SIERRA LEONE Margai, Albert Margai, Milton

SINGAPORE Lee Kuan Yew

SOMALIA

Azhari, Ismail Sayyid alNimeiri, Gaafar

SWAZILAND Sobhuza II

SWEDEN Branting, Karl Erlander, Tage Palme, Olof

SYRIA Kuwatli, Shukri al-

Pérez de Cuéllar, Javier U Thant Waldheim, Kurt

UNITED STATES Bush, George H. W. Carter, Jimmy Coolidge, Calvin Eisenhower, Dwight D. Ford, Gerald R. Harding, Warren G. Hoover, Herbert Johnson, Lyndon B. Kennedy, John F. Nixon, Richard M. Reagan, Ronald Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Theodore Taft, William H. Truman, Harry S. Wilson, Woodrow

TANZANIA Nyerere, Julius

Siad Barre, Mohamed

URUGUAY Batlle y Ordóñez, José

TOGO SOUTH AFRICA Botha, Louis Botha, Wilhelm Smuts, Jan Verwoerd, Hendrik Vorster, Balthazar

SOUTH KOREA Chun Doo Hwan Park Chung Hee Rhee, Syngman

SOVIET UNION Andropov, Yuri Brezhnev, Leonid Chernenko, Konstantin Gorbachev, Mikhail Khrushchev, Nikita Lenin, Vladimir Stalin, Joseph

SPAIN Franco, Francisco

Olympio, Sylvanus

VANUATU Lini, Walter

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Williams, Eric

TUNISIA Bourguiba, Habib Ben Ali

TURKEY Atatürk, Kemal Evren, Kenan Inönü, Ismet

UGANDA Amin, Idi Obote, Milton

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

VENEZUELA Betancourt, Rómulo Pérez Jiménez, Marcos

VIETNAM, NORTH Ho Chi Minh

VIETNAM, SOUTH Ngo Dinh Diem Nguyen Cao Ky Nguyen Van Thieu

YUGOSLAVIA Markovic´, Ante Tito, Marshal

Maktoum, Mohammed Rashid bin Said al-

ZAMBIA

UNITED NATIONS

ZIMBABWE (RHODESIA)

Hammarskjöld, Dag Lie, Trygve

Smith, Ian Welensky, Roy

Kaunda, Kenneth

511


BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY

OF

modern world leaders 1992 TO THE PRESENT

JOHN C. FREDRIKSEN


Biographical Dictionary of Modern World Leaders: 1992 to the Present Copyright © 2003, 1997 by John C. Fredriksen All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Biographical dictionary of modern world leaders : 1992 to the present / [compiled] by John C. Fredriksen. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8160-4723-5 1. Statesmen—Biography—Dictionaries. 2. Heads of state—Biography—Dictionaries. 3. Biography—20th century—Dictionaries. 4. Biography—21st century—Dictionaries. I. Fredriksen, John C. D412.B55 2003 909.82’9’0922—dc21 [B]2002192849 Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com Text design by Joan M. Toro Cover design by Cathy Rincon Printed in the United States of America VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper.


CONTENTS List of Entries v Introduction ix Entries A to Z 1 Bibliography 541 Index by Country 542


LIST OF ENTRIES Abacha, Sani Abdullah II Abiola, Moshood Adamkus, Valdas Adams, Gerry Afwerki, Isaias Ahern, Bertie Aidid, Mohammed Farah Akayev, Askar Alemán, Arnoldo Alia, Ramiz Aliyev, Heydar Amarjargal, Rinchinnyamiin Amato, Giuliano Andreotti, Giulio Annan, Kofi Antall, Jozsef Anthony, Kenny Arafat, Yasser Aristide, Jean-Bertrand Arthur, Owen Assad, Bashar alAssad, Hafez alAung San Suu Kyi Aylwin, Patricio Azali, Assoumani Aznar, José María Babangida, Ibrahim

Balaguer, Joaquín Balkenende, Jan Balladur, Edouard Banda, Hastings Bandaranaike, Sirimavo Banzer, Hugo Barak, Ehud Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmed alBatlle Ibáñez, Jorge Luis Bédié, Henri-Konan Ben Ali, Zine el Abidine Beregovoy, Pierre Berisha, Sali Berlusconi, Silvio Bhutto, Benazir Bildt, Carl Bird, Lester Bird, Vere Biya, Paul Bizimungu, Pasteur Blair, Tony Bolger, Jim Bolkiah, Muda Hassanal Bondevik, Kjell Bongo, Omar Borja Cevallos, Rodrigo Bouteflika, Abdelaziz Boutros-Ghali, Boutros v

Brundtland, Gro Harlem Bruton, John Bush, George W. Buthelezi, Gatsha Mangosuthu Buyoya, Pierre Caldera, Rafael Calderón, Rafael Callejas, Rafael Campbell, Kim Cardoso, Fernando Carlsson, Ingvar Castro, Fidel Cavaco Silva, Anibal Cédras, Raoul Chamorro, Violeta Barrios de Charles, Mary Eugenia Chaudhry, Mahendra Chávez, Hugo Chen Shui-bian Cheney, Dick Chernomyrdin, Viktor Chiluba, Frederick Chirac, Jacques Chissanó, Joaquim Chrétien, Jean Chuan Leekpai Ciampi, Carlo Ciller, Tansu


vi LIST OF ENTRIES Clark, Helen Clerides, Glafcos Clinton, Bill Collor de Mello, Fernando Compaore, Blaise Constantinescu, Emil Conté, Lansana Cresson, Edith Cristiani, Alfredo Dalai Lama D’Alema, Massimo Deby, Idriss Dehaene, Jean-Luc De Klerk, Frederik de la Rúa, Fernando Demirel, Süleyman Deng Xiaoping Denktash, Rauf Dini, Lamberto Diouf, Abdou Djukanovic, Milo Do Muoi Dos Santos, José Douglas, Denzil Douglas, Roosevelt Dowiyogo, Bernard Drnovsek, Janez Dzurinda, Mikulás˘ Ecevit, Bülent Endara, Guillermo Erbakan, Necmettin Estrada, Joseph Eyadema, Gnassingbe Fahd bin Abdul al-Saud Falcam, Leo A. Fenech-Adami, Eddie Fernández, Leonel Finnbogadóttir, Vigdís Flores, Carlos Flores, Francisco Fox, Vicente Franco, Itamar Frei, Eduardo Fujimori, Alberto Gatti, Gabriele Gaviria, César

Gayoom, Maumoon Abdul Gligorov, Kiro Goh Chok Tong Göncz, Árpád González, Felipe González Macchi, Luis Gordon, Pamela Gore, Albert, Jr. Gowda, H. D. Deve Guei, Robert Guelleh, Ismail Omar Gujral, Inder Kumar Gusmão, Xanana Guterres, Antonio Manuel de Oliveira Habibie, Bacharuddin Jusuf Habyarimana, Juvénal Haider, Jörg Hans Adam II Hariri, Rafiq alHashimoto, Ryutaro Hassan II Haughey, Charles Havel, Václav Herzog, Chaim Hosokawa, Morihiro Houphouët-Boigny, Félix Howard, John Hrawi, Elias Hu Jintao Hun Sen Hussein I Hussein, Saddam Iliescu, Ion Ingraham, Hubert Ionatana Ionatana Izetbegovic, Alija Jaber III Jagan, Cheddi Jagan, Janet Jagdeo, Bharrat Jammeh, Yahya Jawara, Dawda Jiang Zemin John Paul II Jospin, Lionel

Jugnauth, Anerood Juncker, Jean-Claude Juppe, Alain Kabbah, Ahmad Tejan Kabila, Joseph Kabila, Laurent Kagame, Paul Kalam, Abdul Kalpokas, Donald Karadzic, Radovan Karamanlis, Constantine Karimov, Islam Karzai, Hamid Kasyanov, Mikhail Katsav, Moshe Keating, Paul Kérékou, Mathieu Khalifa, Hamad bin Isa alKhalifa, Isa bin Sulman alKhamtay Siphandone Khamenei, Said Ali Khatami, Mohammed Kim Dae Jung Kim Il Sung Kim Jong Il Kim Young Sam Kiriyenko, Sergei Klaus, Václav Klestil, Thomas Klima, Viktor Kocharyan, Robert Kohl, Helmut Koirala, Girija Prasad Koizumi, Junichiro Kok, Wim Konaré, Alpha Kostov, Ivan Kostunica, Vojislav Kravchuk, Leonid Kucan, Milan Kuchma, Leonid Kumaratunga, Chandrika Kwasniewski, Aleksandr Lagos, Ricardo Lahoud, Emile Landsbergis, Vytautas


LIST OF ENTRIES vii Lebed, Aleksandr Lee Teng-hui Leghari, Sardar Le Kha Phieu Le Pen, Jean-Marie Liberia-Peters, Maria Li Peng Lipponen, Paavo Lubbers, Ruud Lucinschi, Petru Lukashenko, Alyaksandr Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio Macapagal-Arroyo, Gloria Mahdi Mohammed, Ali Major, John Malielegaoi, Tuilaepa Sailele Mandela, Nelson Manley, Michael Masire, Quett Mbasogo, Teodoro Mbeki, Thabo McAleese, Mary Menem, Carlos Saúl Meri, Lennart Mesi´c, Stjepan Meta, Ilir Milosevi´c, Slobodan Mitchell, James Mitchell, Keith Mitterrand, François Miyazawa, Kiichi Mkapa, Benjamin Mobutu Sese Seko Mogae, Festus Mohamad, Mahathir Mohammed VI Moi, Daniel arap Molné, Marc Forné Monteiro, Antonio Mascarenhas Morauta, Mekere Mori, Yoshiro Moscoso, Mireya Mosisili, Pakalitha Mswati III Mubarak, Hosni Mugabe, Robert v

Mulroney, Brian Muluzi, Bakili Murayama, Tomiichi Musa, Said Museveni, Yoweri Kaguta Musharraf, Pervez Mwinyi, Ali Hassan Nabiyev, Rakhman Najib, Mohammad Nakamura, Kuniwo Nawaz Sharif, Mian Muhammad Nazarbayev, Nursultan Netanyahu, Binyamin Niyazov, Saparmurad Nkomo, Joshua Noboa, Gustavo Norodom Ranariddh Norodom Sihanouk Note, Kessai Ntaryamira, Cyprien Nuhayyan, Zayid bin Sultan alNujoma, Sam Obasanjo, Olusegun Obuchi, Keizo Oddsson, David Ogi, Adolph Omar, Mohammad Orban, Viktor Özal, Turgut Paisley, Ian Panday, Basdeo Panic, Milan Papandreou, Andreas Pastrana, Andrés Patasse, Ange-Félix Patterson, Percival James Paz Zamora, Jaime Peres, Shimon Pérez, Carlos Andrés Persson, Goran Plavsic, Biljana Portillo Cabrera, Alfonso Premadasa, Ranasinghe Préval, René Primakov, Yevgeny Prodi, Romano

Putin, Vladimir Qaddafi, Muammar Rabin, Yitzhak Rafsanjani, Ali Rainier III Rakhmonov, Imomali Ramgoolam, Navinchandra Ramos, Fidel Rania al-Abdullah Rao, P. V. N. Rasmussen, Anders Rasmussen, Poul Ratsiraka, Didier Rau, Johannes Rawlings, Jerry René, Albert Reynolds, Albert Robinson, Mary Rodríguez, Andrés Rodríguez, Miguel Angel Roh Moo Hyun Roh Tae Woo Rugova, Ibrahim Said, Qaboos bin alSaleh, Ali Abdullah Salinas de Gortari, Carlos Samper, Ernesto Sassou-Nguesso, Denis Savimbi, Jonas Scalfaro, Oscar Schluter, Poul Schroeder, Gerhard Schuessel, Wolfgang Serrano, Jorge Sezer, Ahmet Shamir, Yitzhak Sharon, Ariel Shevardnadze, Eduard Shipley, Jenny Simeon II Simitis, Costas Smith, Jennifer Soares, Mario Stoltenberg, Jens Suchocka, Hanna Suharto, Thojib


viii LIST OF ENTRIES Sukarnoputri, Megawati Tandja, Mamadou Taufa’ahau Tupou IV Taya, Maaouya Taylor, Charles Than Shwe Thani, Hamad bin Khalifa alThani, Khalifa bin Hamad alThorbjoern, Jagland Tito, Teburoro Toledo, Alejandro Tosovsky, Josef Trajkovski, Boris Trimble, David Trovoada, Miguel

Tudjman, Franjo Tutu, Desmond Ulufa’alu, Bart Uribe, Alvaro Vajpayee, Atal Behari Venetiaan, Runaldo Verhofstadt, Guy Vieira, João Vike-Freiberga, Vaira Vranitzky, Franz Wade, Adboulaye Wahid, Abdurrahman Wajed, Hasina Walesa, Lech Wangchuk, Jigme Singye

Wasmosy, Juan Weizman, Ezer Wijdenbosch, Jules Yalá, Kumba Yeltsin, Boris Zahir Shah, Mohammed Zedillo, Ernesto Zeman, Milosv Zenawi, Meles Zeroual, Liamine Zhirinovsky, Vladimir Zhu Rongji Zia, Begum Khaleda Zyuganov, Gennadi


INTRODUCTION S

ince the end of the cold war, the global community has undergone profound geopolitical changes. The breakup of the Soviet Union alone resulted in a bevy of new national entities stretching from eastern Europe to Asia. This, in turn, stimulated ideological readjustment among the Western democracies to compensate for a seemingly more hospitable clime. The Arabic and Muslim worlds, meanwhile, have also experienced a surge in Islamic fundamentalism, marked by a concomitant rise in global terrorism. The apocalyptic events of September 11, 2001, have put the United States on notice that, despite its unique status as the only surviving superpower, perfidy knows no boundaries. So, unlike the relatively stable state of world affairs occasioned by the cold war, new nations have arrived in a world that is patently unpredictable and, therefore, highly dangerous. Under such unsettling circumstances, the need for understanding mind-sets and political systems around the world has never been greater. The book you hold is a concerted effort to address all these issues by proffering capsule biographies of the leaders in charge. Collectively, they delineate the path of global political developments over the past 10 years. This knowledge may also provide insight towards possible trends in the decade that follows. The approach to writing these 400 essays was relatively conventional; they range from 700 to 1,500 words, depending on the relative significance of each subject. Here I touch upon such diverse considerations as ethnic background, religion, education level, party affiliation, and performance in office. Wherever possible, I also cite a direct quotation to liven up an otherwise dour recital of facts and give greater perspective to the individual in question. In designing this reference book, I also decided to cast as wide a net as possible to afford complete world coverage. Thus, all 190 of the world’s countries, ranging from newly constituted Afghanistan to newly independent East Timor and quasi-independent Kosovo, are represented. However, the chronological limiix


x INTRODUCTION tations are absolute and restricted to heads of state who were either in power as of 1992, or have risen to power since then through election or other means. A handful of prominent contemporary figures such as Jörg Haider and Ian Paisley are also included. There are other biographical dictionaries extant, and of varying quality and merit. However, as a trained reference librarian and researcher, I notice a disturbing trend in terms of bibliographic citations. Lately, many authors seem content to simply cite newspaper essays or news magazine articles pertaining to given subjects. I find this practice self-defeating from a reference standpoint, seeing how, in most circumstances, these sources can only be accessed on microfilm. Most students, particularly at the undergraduate level, usually lack the discipline and resolve to retrieve such materials and, hence, their research efforts are discouraged. To counter this, I chose to cite only those books and scholarly journals most likely to remain in hard copy for years to come. This makes them readily available, either by accessing them on the shelf or through interlibrary loan. Also, great care has been taken to cull only the latest and most comprehensive works available. I relied almost exclusively on such useful sites as the Library of Congress and WorldCat to gather requisite materials, which include not only published data like books and articles but also unpublished works such as master’s theses and dissertations. Thus readers are exposed to the fullest possible range of political and biographical research. Autobiographical matter or writings were my strongest criteria for inclusion, but I occasionally cite national or political studies for greater context. All told, I hold this approach to confer more utility to youthful users than chasing slender and hard-to-find newspaper citations on microfilm. Another distinctive feature of this book was the methodology underlying its compilation. As librarians and researchers, we live in an automated information age whereby the newest and most recent information on a given person or circumstance is but a few clicks away. Therefore, I crafted every essay based largely on news postings available through such on-line wonders as CNN.com and BBC.com to keep events as absolutely current as possible. Online databases such as Infotrac and EBSCO were also regularly combed for the latest-breaking developments, worldwide. Biographical Dictionary of Modern World Leaders will go far in promoting research and awareness of world politics, along with the varied individuals and systems it is made up of. No effort was spared in terms of providing comprehensive coverage or recency of citations so, as a reference tool, it remains in a class by itself. I would like to thank my editor, Owen Lancer, for suggesting this project to me. It proved an arduous undertaking, but also a valuable learning experience—for which I remain highly gratified. —John C. Fredriksen


A helped orchestrate a second coup which deposed Buhari and elevated General IBRAHIM BABANGIDA to supremacy. While in power, Babangida always promised to restore Nigeria’s democracy and in 1993 he allowed the nation’s first free elections in nearly two decades. However, when a member of the opposition party apparently won the contest, Babangida quickly annulled the results and resumed control. This act prompted much civil and political unrest against the military regime, and he eventually resigned from office and appointed a civilian, Ernest Shonekan, to succeed him. Abacha was then installed as defense secretary, but on November 17, 1993, Abacha, having moved steadily closer to the centers of national power, staged a bloodless coup of his own, ousted Shonekan, and declared himself president. For the most part, Nigerians willingly accepted new military regimes for the stability and reform they represented. However, Abacha’s intentions and methods were entirely different. Like his predecessors, he paid the usual lip service to restoring democracy—but then severely clamped down on the entire political process. By degrees, he dissolved all of Nigeria’s political institutions, including the national assembly, local government, and the constitution. Moreover, he banned all political parties and replaced sitting civilian governors with military officers. The Abacha regime proved both

Abacha, Sani (1943–1998) president of Nigeria Sani Abacha was born in Kano, Kano state, Nigeria, on September 20, 1943, a member of the influential HausaFulani-speaking peoples of northern Nigeria. This group wields an inordinate degree of national influence because it traditionally dominates the upper echelons of the military. From 1957 to 1962 Abacha was a student at the local primary and secondary schools, and in 1962 he joined the army. A promising soldier, he was allowed to pass through the Nigerian Military Training College at Kaduna, 1962–63, before being commissioned a second lieutenant. Abacha then received additional training in the United States and also attended several prestigious military schools in the United Kingdom. He thereafter climbed steadily through the ranks, rising to brigadier general by 1980. Throughout this period, Nigeria, which had won its independence from Great Britain in 1960, had been subject to a series of military coups that usually deposed—then restored—civilian rulers. Now part of the military elite, Abacha proved himself a willing accomplice in several of these disturbances, and struck up close relationships with several senior military figures. In December 1983 Abacha figured prominently in a coup that toppled the regime of Shehu Shagari, which ended the Second Republic and ushered General Muhammed Buhari into power. Two years later he

1


2 ABDULLAH II brutal and intolerant of enemies, either real or perceived, and it arrested, tortured, or executed dissidents by the score. Among them were OLUSEGUN OBASANJO, a former president, MOSHOOD ABIOLA, winner of the annulled 1993 elections, and world renowned writerenvironmentalist Ken Saro-Wiwa. Both Abiola and Wiwa died while in prison. Abacha’s paranoia even extended to members of his own ruling circle, for in December 1997 he arrested Oladipo Diya, his own secondin-command. While in power, the Abacha regime did little else than systematically plunder Nigeria of revenues accruing from the sale of oil. During his five-year tenure in office national poverty rates skyrocketed from 21 percent to nearly 80 percent, while the ruling clique amassed fantastic fortunes. All the while, Abacha buttressed his rule with large-scale police forces, undercover agents, and a determination to wield them ruthlessly. However, by 1998 international pressure was brought to bear upon Nigeria and, to forestall the possibility of economic sanctions, Abacha scheduled elections for August of that year. However, the dictator did not live to see the results of his handiwork for on June 8, 1998, Abacha died suddenly of a heart attack in Abuja, Nigeria. When elections were finally held the former president Obasanjo was returned to office and has since restored democratic rule to the country. Since Abacha’s death and the restoration of democracy, the Nigerian government has been pressing the Abacha family for an estimated $3 billion looted from the national treasury and deposited in foreign banks. In April 2002 the government of Switzerland agreed to return $535 million from accounts there alone. However, the political settlement caused consternation at home for, as part of the deal, criminal proceedings were dropped against members of Abacha’s family, who also kept an estimated $100 million acquired before the general took power. The entire episode also proved an embarrassment to Switzerland, which had previously enacted laws intended to prevent such laundered funds from reaching its financial institutions. Further Reading Fayemi, Kayode. Nigeria: Crisis of Manhood. London: Parliamentary Human Rights Group, 1996. Igwara, Obi. “Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Nation-Building in Nigeria.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of London, 1973.

Ihonvbeve, Julius O. “Are Things Falling Apart? The Military Crisis of Democratization in Nigeria.” Journal of Modern African Studies 34 (June 1996): 193–226. Njoku, Raphael C. “Deconstructing Abacha: Demilitarization and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria after the Abacha Era.” Government and Opposition 36, no. 1 (2001): 71–97. Onadipe, A. “Nigeria: The World’s Newest Pariah State.” Contemporary Review 268 (February 1996): 69–74.

Abdullah II (1962– ) king of Jordan Abdullah ibn al-Hussein was born in Amman, Jordan, on January 30, 1962, the youngest son of King HUSSEIN I and his second wife, a British subject. At the age of four he was enrolled at St Edmund’s School in Surrey, England, and he subsequently passed through the Deerfield Academy, Massachusetts. Abdullah, in view of this Western-style education, is fluent in English and speaks it better than Arabic. In 1980, the young prince attended the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, England, and three years later studied international affairs at prestigious Oxford University. He then returned home in 1984 to commence a long and distinguished career in the Jordanian military. Beginning as a platoon commander in the 40th Armored Brigade, Abdullah advanced steadily through the ranks through ability, rising to the rank of major general within the nation’s special forces. He also found the time to attend the School of Foreign Service and Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., before the mantle of leadership was suddenly and unexpectedly thrust upon him. Prior to 1999, Abdullah was never a serious contender for the Jordanian throne. This was accorded to his older half-brother Hassan, the formal crown prince. However, King Hussein’s dissatisfaction with Hassan’s penchant for palace intrigue led him to choose the 39year-old Abdullah to succeed him. Consequently, following the king’s death on February 7, 1999, he ascended to the throne as Abdullah II, and declared his loyalty to the country before a joint session of the Jordanian parliament. Mindful of his father’s moderate legacy, he then declared in a televised address that “Today you are my brothers and sisters and you are dear to me. We will preserve the course that Hussein set.” Given Abdullah’s Western-style outlook and half-European heritage, it was not known if his tenure would incite resentment among Jordan’s increasingly restless population. Criti-


ABDULLAH II 3 cism proved muted, possibly because his wife, the reigning Queen RANIA, is a native-born Palestinian. They have three children. King Abdullah II presently holds the unenviable position of running a small but strategic country that borders four potentially hostile neighbors: Israel to the west, Syria to the north, Iraq to the east, and Saudi Arabia to the south. Hence, like his father, Abdullah’s foreign policy is calculated to follow a fine balancing act between national priorities and popular passions. This feat is made all the more perilous by the fact that fully half of Jordan’s population consists of Palestinians, many of whom support the violent creation of their own state. Abdullah’s determination to remain on good terms with Israel remains a flash point with many Palestinians, especially given the climate of hostility over the fate of the West Bank and continuing Israeli occupation. It is perhaps a good indication of the youthful monarch’s character that he remains committed his father’s policy of peace with the Jewish state. To underscore his determination, on April 23, 2000, two months after being sworn in, Abdullah conducted his first state visit to Israel to confer with his counterpart, EHUD BARAK. The result was continuation of a previous agreement of Israel to supply Jordan with freshwater, an essential commodity for his desert kingdom. Abdullah faces even greater challenges with the country’s economy, which remains in deep recession. With a national debt of $7 billion and an unemployment rate of 15–20 percent, he actively promotes a free-market economy at home and encourages investment from abroad. The king takes inspiration from the success of Singapore and is determined to structure the Jordanian economy around new information technology to break the poverty and despair gripping the majority of his people. Such widespread dislocation, in turn, has fueled the rise of Islamic fundamentalism and mounting calls from militant clergymen for increasing terrorism against Israel and its chief sponsor, the United States. Furthermore, the September 11, 2001, destruction of the World Trade Center only reaffirmed Abdullah’s determination, in his own words, “to fight evil,” however unpopular at home. Three weeks after the attack, he met with President GEORGE W. BUSH in Washington and pledged Jordan’s wholehearted cooperation in the fight against international terrorism. Consequently, Bush pronounced him a “strong friend of America” and signed a free trade agreement with Jordan, only the fourth country to enjoy such

King Abdullah II and Queen Rania (Jordan Information Bureau)

a privilege. Abdullah is also committed to freedom of the press and increasing democratization of Jordan, but at a slower, more controlled pace than would be accepted in the West. “Democracy is a learning experience,” the young king insists. “Down the line you will see a shift of responsibility as institutions mature.” Initially dismissed as a novice and a political lightweight, Abdullah is forcefully stepping into the strategic niche carved out by his father. He will undoubtedly function as a voice for peace and moderation throughout this very volatile region. Further Reading Fischbach, Michael R. State, Society, and Land in Jordan. Boston: Brill, 2000. Jarman, Robert L. Palestine and Jordan. Slough, England: Archives Editions, 2001. Joffe, E. G. H. Jordan in Transition. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Milton-Edwards, Beverly, and Peter Hinchcliffe. Jordan: A Hashemite Legacy. London: Routledge, 2001.


4 ABIOLA, MOSHOOD Ryan, Curtis R. Jordan in Transition: From Hussein to Abdullah. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002. Rubin, Barry, ed. Revolutionaries and Reformers: Contemporary Islamist Movements in the Middle East. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003. Tamini, Azzam. Islam and Democracy: Jordan and the Muslim Brotherhood. Tokyo: Islamic Area Studies Project, 2000.

Abiola, Moshood (1937–1998) president of Nigeria Moshood Kashimawa Abiola was born on August 24, 1937, in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, the son of a Muslim family from the Yoruba tribal grouping. None of the family’s previous 22 children had survived past infancy, so his middle name means “Let us see if he will survive.” Abiola endured a hardscrabble existence and was allegedly so poor that he had to sell firewood to pay for his school books. Nonetheless, he attended a nearby Baptist missionary school, proved bright academically, and subsequently won a scholarship to the University of Glasgow, Scotland. There Abiola studied public accounting and earned his master’s degree by 1965. After returning home he was employed by the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and by a large pharmaceutical firm, but his big break occurred in 1968 when he joined the African division of ITT, a telecommunications concern. He flourished as company chairman, amassing a fortune and expanding his commercial empire to include oil exports, shipping, and publishing. By 1974 he had become one of the world’s richest men, and he became celebrated for lavish philanthropic spending. Among his beneficiaries were the education system, political groups, and his own soccer team. Abiola also gained a degree of international notoriety in 1992 when he castigated Western powers for enslaving black Africans and demanded that reparations be paid. And, as the nation’s leading business figure, it was inevitable that Abiola would, by necessity, establish cordial relations with the military establishment, which had run the nation since the late 1960s. Accordingly, Abiola became closely associated with General IBRAHIM BABANGIDA, who administered Nigeria for eight years after promising free elections. Abiola’s political aspirations dated back at least as far as 1979, when he joined the National Party of Nigeria (NPN). However, when he ran as a presidential can-

didate in 1982 he was bested by Shehu Shagari for the party’s nomination, and he resigned from the party altogether. Babangida, meanwhile, established a June 1993 deadline for new elections, but he reserved the right to choose the two parties that would be allowed to run, as well as their candidates. He selected Bashir Tofa, a northerner and a Muslim, to stand as the government-sponsored candidate of the National Republican Convention (NRC), while Abiola headed the new Social Democratic Party ticket. As such he was the first southern Nigerian to run for national office. This proved quite symbolic, as the nation suffered from political tensions between the Muslim North and the Christian South. Abiola, himself a Muslim, garnered considerable support from the Christian community, and when elections were held on June 15, 1993, he won an unexpected victory with 58.4 percent of votes cast. This outcome angered Babangida, and on June 17, 1993, the general unilaterally annulled the election. The population found this incredulous, especially the Southerners, who rioted for several days. Abiola himself traveled abroad to Europe and the United States, decrying the stolen election and demanding implementation of international sanctions. Nonetheless, Babangida ignored rising protests and substituted a new man, Ernest Shonekan, as Nigeria’s legitimate president. Nigeria’s return to democracy had been thwarted once again. Shonekan’s presidency lasted only a few months for, on November 17, 1993, he was ousted by a new strongman, General SANI ABACHA. Abiola, previously on good terms with Abacha, interpreted this as an opportunity to reclaim the mandate stolen by Babangida. In June 1994 he campaigned through Nigeria, demanding that the presidency was rightfully his. Abacha, unfortunately, responded with an arrest warrant, and Abiola was detained and charged with treason. He was then held in close confinement in a small cell, without visitors or medical personnel allowed to see him. Abiola languished in jail for four years while rumors of mistreatment, beatings, and torture abounded. On June 4, 1996, Kudirat Abiola, one of his four wives and an outspoken critic of the government, was apparently assassinated. Yet the sudden death of Abacha on June 9, 1998, heightened public expectations of Abiola’s release as a new leader, General Abdulsalem Abubakar, began to free political prisoners. International pressure then mounted on Nigeria for Abiola’s release, and United Nations SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan paid him a visit, along with several


ADAMKUS, VALDAS 5 leading American politicians. All this good will came to naught on July 7, 1998, when Abiola died of an apparent heart attack in the presence of foreign dignitaries. Public resentment over his death, seemingly brought on by government misconduct, exploded onto the streets and rioting continued for several days. But the wheels of justice continued rolling—if slowly. In February 2002 the family of Abiola and other detainees sued General Abubakar in U.S. courts for his wrongful death and millions of dollars in damages. The case is still pending but the former tycoon remains a symbol of Nigeria’s determination to achieve true democracy. Further Reading Aborisade, Oladimeji, and Robert J. Mundt. Politics in Nigeria. New York: Longman, 2002. Edozie, Rtia K. People Power and Democracy: The Popular Movement against Military Despotism in Nigeria, 1989–1999. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2002. Mimiko, Nahzeem O. “Between Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia: The Abacha Coup, the National Conference, and Prospects for Peace and Democracy in Nigeria.” Social Justice 22 (Fall 1995): 129–143. Momoh, Abukar, and Said Adejumobi. The National Question in Nigeria: Comparative Perspectives. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2002. Olukotun, Ayo. “Traditional Protest Media and AntiMilitary Struggle in Nigeria, 1988–1999.” African Affairs 101 (April 2002): 193–202.

Battle of Seda, and was forced to live in Germany when his country again suffered Soviet occupation. During the postwar period, he returned to school and received an advanced degree from the Faculty of Natural Science at Munich University. Adamkus then worked for the YMCA settling displaced refugees, and he also found time to win two medals at the Olympic Games of the Enslaved Nations in 1948. In 1949 Adamkus and his family relocated to the United States and settled in Chicago, Illinois, the site of a large and politically active Lithuanian community. In between bouts as an autoworker and engineering draftsman, Adamkus attended the Illinois Institute of Technology, where he received a civil engineering degree in 1960. He was also active in numerous Lithuanian social organizations that protested the continuing occupation of that country by Soviet forces. “I knew the day would come when my country would be free,” he subsequently reflected. In 1970 Adamkus gained employment with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, rising to the rank of deputy administrator of the Great Lakes region.

Adamkus, Valdas (1926– ) president of Lithuania Born in Kaunas, Lithuania, on November 3, 1926, Valdas Adamkus was the son of dedicated civil servants. His father was head of the Lithuanian Air Force School while his mother worked for the Ministry of Communications. In 1940 Soviet forces under Josef Stalin invaded and occupied Lithuania in anticipation of World War II. Adamkus joined an underground resistance movement and published a clandestine newspaper called Jaunime, budek! (Youth Be on Guard!) until the invaders were driven back by the German army in 1941. By July 1944 the fortunes of war had reversed, and the Red Army was once again at the gates of Kaunas. Adamkus then joined the Homeland Defense Team, fought in the

Valdas Adamkus (Embassy of the Republic of Lithuania)


6 ADAMS, GERRY Two years later, his dream of returning home was realized when he visited Lithuania to assist environmental institutions there. In this capacity he served as an important conduit for information and technology for hard-pressed Lithuanian ecologists, who were illequipped to combat rampant environmental damage caused by the Soviet Union. He also befriended many Lithuanian political dissidents, making a name for himself as a champion of political liberty. In light of his tireless work protecting the environment, Adamkus also received a gold medal from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and a letter of thanks from President BILL CLINTON. He then retired from the civil service with little ceremony in June 1997. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Adamkus returned to Lithuania repeatedly and dabbled in national politics. In 1993 he headed the presidential campaign of Stasys Lozoraitis and subsequently worked at uniting a diverse bloc of conservative forces. His efforts paid handsome dividends in 1997 when Adamkus was nominated for president of Lithuania, to which office he gained election on January 4, 1998. This was achieved only after four candidates failed to secure a clear majority, and then Adamkus squeaked through in a runoff by winning 50.4 percent of the vote. The former refugee and environmental engineer took his oath of office on February 26, 1998, and, consistent with Lithuanian law, resigned his American citizenship. Once in office, 71-year-old Adamkus began addressing the needs of his tiny nation of 3.8 million people, which rests upon the margins of northwestern Russia. Steeped in the American tradition of ethnic tolerance, he strongly argued for the civil rights of Russians and Poles still in residence and, consequently, in contrast to Estonia and Latvia, Lithuania enjoys good relations with both countries. He then moved energetically to address unemployment, economic reform, and public safety. Adamkus also strongly insisted on preserving and protecting the environment of his homeland, which suffered badly at the hands of Soviet occupiers. Mindful of the past, he eagerly solicits Lithuania’s full membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) as an added measure of protection. “For us, the enlargement of NATO is not just another technical foreign policy issue,” he declared. “It is an opportunity to come home and a chance to regain our place in the Western Community of nations whose values and spirit we have always shared.” Never-

theless, Adamkus is eager to court good relations with his giant neighbor and on December 19, 2001, he cordially welcomed Russian president VLADIMIR PUTIN to the capital of Vilnius. Despite Russia’s edginess over the presence of NATO on its western border, Adamkus also advocates Russian membership in that organization to ensure peace and stability throughout Europe. Further Reading Donskis, Leonidas. Identity and Freedom: Mapping Nationalism and Social Criticism in Twentieth-Century Lithuania. New York: Routledge, 2002. Krickus, Richard J. Showdown: The Lithuanian Rebellion and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. London: Brassey’s, 1997. Lane, A. T. Lithuania: Stepping Westward. London: Routledge, 2001. Steen, Anton. Between Past and Future: Elites, Democracy, and the State in Post-Communist Countries: A Comparison of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1997.

Adams, Gerry (1948– ) Northern Ireland politician Gerry Adams was born on October 6, 1948, in Belfast, Northern Ireland, the son of a laborer. He belonged to a staunchly Roman Catholic family with a long tradition of fighting with the outlawed Irish Republican Army (IRA) against the British army and Protestant extremists. Adams worked as a barkeeper for many years until 1964, when street riots against the British—followed by a severe police crackdown—induced him to join Sinn Féin (“By Ourselves” in Gaelic), the political wing of the IRA. Like its more violent counterpart, membership of which Adams always denied, Sinn Féin was dedicated to the eventual unification of the six largely Protestant counties with the overwhelmingly Catholic Republic of Ireland to the south. Inspired by the ongoing Civil Rights movement in the United States, Adams became an active organizer of peace marches, protests, and sit-ins on behalf of better treatment for Catholics. However, by 1972 the onset of sectarian warfare between the IRA, the British-controlled constabulary, and militant Protestant loyalists resulted in suspension of the Northern Ireland constitution. On two occasions, Adams was summarily arrested and detained without being charged, although he partook in secret negotiations to end the violence. His repeated incarcerations


AFWERKI, ISAIAS 7 also made him a folk hero and, following his release in 1977, he was elected vice president of Sinn Féin. A year later he became its president and the most vocal proponent of political resistance to Protestant domination. Britain restored home rule to Northern Ireland by 1982 and the following year Adams was elected to parliament from West Belfast. However, he refused to be seated in London as this required taking an oath of loyalty to the Queen. He continued as a pro-Irish activist, and in 1984 was nearly killed in an assassination attempt. However, he kept his lines of communication to the British government open and maintained a continuing dialogue whenever possible. By December 1993, and thanks to heroic efforts by British prime minister TONY BLAIR and Irish prime minister ALBERT REYNOLDS, the Downing Street Declaration emerged as an initial step toward peace in Northern Ireland. This enabled Catholics to enjoy a measure of self-rule and representation, so the IRA declared a cease-fire in August 1994. At best, only an uneasy truce prevailed. Adams bore a full measure in the secret proceedings, but afterward he refused to denounce IRA violence as long as Catholics suffered at the hands of Protestant Unionists. Violence resumed in February 1996, at which point former U.S. senator George Mitchell arrived to orchestrate the first face-to-face negotiations between the warring factions. Adams was again closely engaged, but communication proved difficult as ranking Protestants like DAVID TRIMBLE refused to deal with him in person. Negotiations dragged on fruitlessly until Prime Minister Blair, in a fit of exasperation, declared that April 9, 1998, would end the process—whether it succeeded or not. Intense deliberations followed and were only concluded several hours after the deadline. But the ensuing Good Friday Agreement was a historic first for the beleaguered region, granting Northern Ireland self-rule without changing its political status. Furthermore, the Irish constitution was altered to renounce the republic’s claim upon the territory, and joint institutions were founded for mutual interest. The agreement was subsequently ratified by voters in the republic and Northern Ireland in May 1998 and elections were held for the new Northern Ireland Assembly. Adams ran for office and won, as did 18 other members of Sinn Féin. And, although he was not nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize as Trimble and Catholic leader David Hume were, he is acknowledged as having played a decisive, behind-the-scenes role.

Despite this most promising start, the peace process has since floundered over the issue of IRA disarmament. Protestant Unionists demand this as a precondition to a multiparty cabinet but Adams, though acknowledging the obligation to disarm, does not link the two processes together. The impasse has all but killed the Good Friday Agreement and violence has flared anew between armed bands of Catholics and Protestants. Blair has since threatened to reintroduce British troops and crack down upon IRA operatives to curtail their use of terror. In July 2002 Adams pronounced the British declaration “a surreal sideshow,” and he further noted that Catholics “will find it crazy that the prime minister is zeroing in on republicans when they are the victims of a loyalist campaign.” Many Protestant leaders also demand Sinn Féin’s ejection from the coalition government. Moreover, Unionists have refused to disarm until the IRA does likewise, and extremists like IAN PAISLEY call for wholesale rejection of the entire peace process. Adams and Sinn Féin, meanwhile, continue walking the tight rope of restraining sectarian violence while advancing their ultimate goal of Irish reunification. It remains a dangerous game. Further Reading Adams, Gerry. Before the Dawn: An Autobiography. Dingle: Brandon, 2001. Coogan, Tim Pat. The IRA. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002. MacGinty, Roger. Guns and Government: The Management of the Northern Ireland Peace Process. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Nic Creath, Mairead. Culture and Identity Politics in Northern Ireland. New York: Palgrave, 2003. O’Brien, Brendan. The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin, 1985 to Today. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1999. Sharrock, David. Man of War, Man of Peace? The Unauthorized Biography of Gerry Adams. London: Pan, 1998.

Afwerki, Isaias (1946– ) president of Eritrea Isaias Afwerki was born in Asmara, the capital of Eritrea, on February 2, 1946. Eritrea at that time was a British-controlled UN mandate, but in 1962 Emperor Haile Selassie forcibly annexed it to neighboring Ethiopia. After graduating from the Prince Mekonnen


8 AHERN, BERTIE Secondary School in his home town, Afwerki ventured to Ethiopia and studied engineering at the University of Addis Ababa. Like many Eritreans, he resented the forced takeover of his country. In 1966 he dropped out of school to join the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) and fought as a guerrilla. He rose rapidly through the ranks of the ELF, becoming a deputy divisional commander by 1967. However, dissatisfaction with ELF leadership prompted that movement to fracture by 1970, and Afwerki became as a rising star within a new movement, the Eritrean Popular Liberation Front (EPLF). And, unlike many senior political figures, Afwerki did not base himself in Europe for political exposure, but rather remained at home to fight. Consequently, he gained a reputation as an inspirational leader and was sent to China to receive advanced military training. Combat was internecine and relentless with Ethiopian forces, and the rebels were further stymied by frequent pitched battles between ELF and EPLF factions. Nonetheless, in May 1991, Ethiopia withdrew from the disputed region and Eritrea finally regained its independence. In April 1993, a referendum was held on the question of Eritrean sovereignty, and it received overwhelming support. Afwerki, the new country’s most visible and popular wartime leader, was ushered in as its first president by the National Assembly on May 24 of that year. Immediately, Afwerki was confronted with the task of reconstructing a nation ravaged by 30 years of war. Eritrea, on the strategic Horn of Africa, was previously a food exporter of considerable wealth. However, the damage wrought proved so extensive that, for the first time in its history, the region became dependent upon outside food sources to survive. Discomfiture has also been compounded by periodic droughts that have devastated agriculture. Fortunately, Afwerki, despite his Marxist background, proved himself remarkably pragmatic and not given to dogmatic responses. He worked swiftly to stamp out corruption and embarked on pursuing a mixed economy that features government control, but also elements of free market, foreign investment, and joint ventures. Moreover, this Christian president extended his hand in friendship to the sizable Muslim community and appointed several Muslims as ministers. Presently, Afwerki’s biggest challenge is the resettlement of an estimated 750,000 war refugees and securing the wherewithal to feed them. Given the growing but underdeveloped economy, Eritrea will undoubtedly be

depend upon foreign aid and technical assistance for several decades to come. When he first swept to power in 1993, Afwerki pledged himself to the growth of democracy, but with the caveat that it should be accompanied by stability. In a country almost completely lacking infrastructure and continually threatened by famine, this proved a very tall order. Events were further complicated by border fighting with neighboring Sudan in 1994, which continued sporadically up through 1998. Elections were initially promised for May of that year, but these were then suspended because of deteriorating relations with Ethiopia’s new leader, MELES ZENAWI. Fighting flared up along the border that month, with Eritrean forces giving up considerable ground before the invaders. Hostilities were finally concluded by June 2000, but at the cost of nearly 100,000 dead and half a million new refugees. Peace and secure border arrangements have finally been secured with Ethiopia and Sudan. The Eritrean people, moreover, seem solidly behind Afwerki, which can only facilitate endeavors to lead his nation on a path to economic self-sufficiency. Further Reading Fessehatzion, Tekic. Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Cooperation to Conflict. Lawrenceville, N.J.: Red Sea Press, 1999. Gilkes, Patrick, and Martin Plant. War in the Horn: The Conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia. London: Royal Institute for International Affairs, 1999. Jacquin-Berdal, Dominique. Nationalism and Ethnicity in the Horn of Africa: A Critique of the Ethnic Interpretation. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003. Negash, Tekeste. Brothers at War: Making Sense of the Eritrea-Ethiopia War. Oxford: James Currey, 2000. Pool, David. From Guerrillas to Government: The Eritrean People’s Liberation Front. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2001.

Ahern, Bertie (1951– ) prime minister of Ireland Bartholomew (Bertie) Patrick Ahern was born in Dublin, Ireland, on September 12, 1951, to parents of working-class backgrounds. His father, a farmer, had previously fought with the Irish Republican Army against Britain in the 1920s, and he was a strong supporter of the Fianna Fáil party. This enthusiasm for pol-


AHERN, BERTIE 9 itics carried over to his son for, having trained as an accountant at the Rathmines College of Commerce and University College, Dublin, Ahern commenced organizing hospital workers. A charismatic figure with a common touch, he became a frequent sight in the working-class districts north of Dublin, and residents there elected him to the lower house of the Irish Parliament (the Dail) in 1977. Ahern proved himself an astute party player, and up through the 1980s he filled a number of posts within both Fianna Fáil and the national government. By 1983 he had risen to party vice president, a position he occupied for 10 years. However, Ahern’s political stock vastly improved in 1986 when he gained appointment as lord mayor of Dublin, which greatly increased his national visibility. He then capitalized on his rising popularity by successively serving as minister of labor and minister of finance, 1989–91, in the Charles Haughey administration. It was while functioning as finance minister that Ahern made a positive and dramatic impact upon Ireland’s economic well-being. The country, strapped by four decades of semi-socialist policies, was in debt and on the brink of economic collapse. But Ahern moved swiftly to jettison outmoded practices by cutting personal and corporate taxes, trimming governmental expenditures, and campaigning vigorously for foreign investment. Within months, nearly 500 American and European corporations had settled in Ireland to take advantage of an available, well-educated workforce. Ahern also established policies to keep the country competitive by investing in infrastructure, high technology, and pharmaceuticals. Through this bold expedient, Ireland was slowly transformed from a traditional agrarian exporter to an industrial and technological powerhouse. The net result of this “Irish Economic Miracle” was a growth rate and level of prosperity surpassing all other countries in the European Union (EU). In 1994, a scandal forced Taoisech (Prime Minister) ALBERT REYNOLDS from office, and Ahern was a natural selection to fill the void. However, some interparty coalition squabbling between Fianna Fáil and the Labour Party resulted in the election of JOHN BRUTON, from the opposition Fine Gael, to succeed him. Ahern lost, but he assumed the mantle of president of his party. By 1997 the country was beset by rising crime, inflation, and a new government scandal, so Bruton called for a general election. By dint of hard campaigning, Fianna Fáil won 77 seats in the Dail, which, once combined those of the

Bertie Ahern (Department of Foreign Affairs, Dublin)

allied Progressive Democrats, ousted Bruton as prime minister on an 85 to 78 vote. When Ahern finally became taoiseach on June 26, 1997, he was also the youngest politician ever to lead the country. Ahern’s primary concern as prime minister was to achieve peace in Northern Ireland, which was rocked by religious violence and remained a Protestant-dominated region controlled by Great Britain. His efforts paid off on April 10, 1998, when Ahern and British prime minister TONY BLAIR signed the so-called Good Friday Agreement, whereby both leaders agreed to establish a new form of government for Northern Ireland. As part of the deal, the militant Irish Republican Army would be required to disarm, something they had previously been loath to do. “We have seized the initiative from the men of violence,” he trumpeted, “let’s not relinquish it, now or ever.” Sporadic fighting continues in Northern Ireland to this day, but the two sides have never been closer to resolving this ongoing, bloody struggle between Roman Catholics and Protestants. Ahern was also active in keeping Ireland in the forefront of continental affairs by attempting to alter Ireland’s traditional neutrality in aligning its policies closely with the European Union (EU). In 2001 European leaders hammered out the Nice Treaty, which


10 AIDID, MOHAMMAD FARAH aimed to integrate the Irish economy and currency into the fold. Ahern campaigned strongly for Irish passage of the agreement in a public referendum held on June 15, 2001, but he was singularly rebuffed. The resolution, attacked by a unique coalition of the Green Party, neutralists, and Ahern’s political opponents, went down to defeat by a margin of 54 to 46 percent. It was a particularly stinging defeat for Ahern, who enjoyed the support of his government, the main opposition parties, and employer and trade unions. Defeat also entails that a new treaty must now be hammered out in a fashion more palatable to Irish tastes and voted on again. However, Ahern remains cautiously optimistic and waxes confident that Ireland will align itself with fellow EU members when the next opportunity arises. His hand was greatly strengthened by elections held in May 2002, whereby Fianna Fáil captured 70 seats in parliament. On June 6, 2002, Ahern was resounding reelected by a parliamentary vote of 93 to 68. His hand considerably strengthened, the taoisech then recommitted himself to reaching a peace agreement in Northern Ireland. “Building a lasting and a just peace on this island is my great political goal,” he declared, “the priority that I have and will continue to put above all else.” Further Reading “Ahern, Bertie.” Current Biography (July 1998): 7–10. Collins, Neil, and Terry Cradden. Irish Politics Today. New York: Manchester University Press, 2001. Hanifin, Will. De Little Book of Bertie. Dublin: Merlin, 2001. Kavanagh, Ray. Spring, Summer & Fall: The Rise and Fall of the Labour Party, 1986–99. Dublin: Blackwater Press, 2001. Taylor, George, ed. Issues in Irish Public Policy. Portland, Oreg.: Irish Academic Press, 2002. Whelan, Ken. Bertie Ahern: Taoiseach and Peacemaker. Edinburgh: Mainstream Pub. Co., 1998.

Aidid, Mohammad Farah (c. 1930–1996) president of Somalia Mohammad Farah Aidid was born in Italian Somaliland around 1930, a member of Habar Gedir subclan of the larger Hawiye clan, the country’s largest grouping. His family was poor and he worked many years as a laborer before joining the Italian gendarmes in 1950. Aidid

proved himself a competent soldier and underwent advanced training in Europe at the NATO infantry school. When Somalia acquired its independence in July 1960, Aidid’s unit hoisted the national flag for the first time. He remained in the army throughout the 1960s and subsequently attended various military schools in the Soviet Union. However, in 1969 the Somali government was overthrown by General Mohammad Siad Barre, who imprisoned Aidid for six years. He was then released, promoted to brigadier general, and sent south to fight in the Ogaden war against Soviet-backed Ethiopia. Aidid performed well, and after 1980 Siad Barre determined to rid himself of a potential competitor by appointing him ambassador to India. Aidid remained in New Delhi until 1989, when he returned home to help found a resistance movement, the United Somali Congress (USC). This group was dedicated to the overthrow of Siad Barre, a ruthless dictator, and the USC also appointed Aidid its chairman. He waged a successful campaign against his opponent’s forces and evicted them from the capital of Mogadishu by January 1991. Aidid then hounded Siad Barre out of the country until he took refuge in Kenya. Unfortunately, in his absence, factions with the USC appointed Mohammad Ali Mahdi, a member of the competing Agbal subclan, to serve as interim president of Somalia. This move angered Aidid, for he had not been consulted and it was his men who had done all the fighting, and, as head of the Hebr Gadir clan, he felt the presidency rightfully belonged to him. Aidid, commanding the biggest armies in Somalia, then declared himself president. He proceeded to back that claim with force. Ali Mahdi enjoyed little influence outside of Mogadishu, but he controlled part of the national capital and his faction was strongly entrenched. Commencing in 1992, large-scale urban warfare broke out between competing gangs, which basically flattened the city. Worse, as violence and anarchy fanned out into the countryside, farmers were unable to either plant or harvest their crops and widespread famine ensued. Both sides eagerly employed food as a weapon but Aidid, by virtue of his vast holdings, enjoyed greater success. The chaos soon garnered international attention, and the images of starving children prompted President George H. W. Bush to deploy troops on a humanitarian mission in December 1991. Ironically, one of the U.S. Marines dispatched was Hussein Aidid, the president’s son, who was


AKAYEV, ASKAR 11 also an American citizen. They were followed by thousands of United Nations peacekeeping forces and, for a while, it appeared that stability might be restored to Somalia’s fractured polity. Aidid did not interfere with the UN’s humanitarian efforts until they began concerted efforts to disarm competing factions. He ordered his men to fight back and in June 1993 they ambushed and killed 24 Pakistani peacekeepers and wounded 59. He was then branded a war criminal by UN authorities, and a new U.S. president, BILL CLINTON, decided to up the ante by capturing him. “The UN and the U.S. are trying to impose colonial rule on us,” he declared, “God will destroy Washington as surely as they have destroyed Mogadishu.” Several attempts to snare the elusive warlord failed, and on October 3, 1999, Somali militiamen downed several American helicopters in Aidid-controlled territory. A tremendous firefight erupted during rescue attempts and a further 18 U.S. servicemen and 500 to 1,000 Somalis died in action. The defeat so rattled the United States that it summarily withdrew its forces, and the UN followed suite in 1994. The war in Somalia, waged between rag-tag bands of heavily-armed thugs for mere parcels of land, continued without interruption. Aidid’s defeat of the Americans rendered him a national hero and enhanced his political status. In March 1994 the United States managed to bring all the warring factions to a peace conference in Nairobi, Kenya, where Aidid convinced several breakaway republics that they were best served by remaining within a united Somalia. Unfortunately, fighting flared anew and in one skirmish Aidid was severely wounded. He died from complications on August 1, 1996, the most notorious— and successful—warlord of the Somali civil war. He was succeeded by his son Hussein, who still commands the largest and best-trained paramilitary forces in the capital. For this and similar reasons, a peaceful solution to ongoing factional violence remains elusive. Further Reading Ahmed, Ali Jimale. The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, N.J.: Red Sea Press, 1995. Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999. Clarke, Walter, and Jeffrey Herbst. Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997.

Jacquin-Berdal, Dominique. Nationalism and Ethnicity in the Horn of Africa: A Critique of the Ethnic Interpretation. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003. Knigge, Timothy M. Operation Casablanca: Nine Hours in Hell. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Professional Press, 1995. Samatar, Ahmed I., ed. The Somali Challenge: From Catastrophe to Renewal? Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994.

Akayev, Askar (1944– ) president of Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayevich Akayev was born in the village of KyzylBairak, Kyrgyzstan, on November 10, 1944, into an ethnic Kyrgz family. At that time his country was a republic within the Soviet Union. An accomplished student, he was educated at the Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) Institute of Precision Mechanics and Optics, where he obtained a doctorate in optical physics. He returned home to teach at the Funze Polytechnic Institute, where he excelled as a scientist and was appointed departmental chair. Akayev’s accomplishments led to his admission into the Communist Party and advancement as head of the Central Committee’s Department of Scientific and Educational Institutions. By 1989 he was also functioning as president of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences. Commencing in 1991 Soviet chairman Mikhail Gorbachev began experimenting with liberal reforms in an attempt to stimulate the moribund Soviet economy and to make society less repressive. However, the hardline Communist leader of Kyrgyzstan, Absamat Masaliev, strongly opposed such change, which induced Akayev, a dedicated reformer, to challenge him in the legislature. In a surprise vote, Akayev trounced Masaliev handily and became the republic’s new president. Like Gorbachev, he championed broad liberalization in economic and political affairs, which greatly endeared him to the populace. Moreover, once the tottering Soviet Union collapsed after August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared its independence and held free elections to determine the new president. Not surprisingly, the popular Akayev won by a resounding 95 percent of the vote, and he reaffirmed his commitment to a pluralistic political system and a free-market economy. The transition to independence and freedom was so smooth and peaceful that it has since been hailed as the “Silk Revolution.” Consequently, Kyrgystan enjoys the only free press in Central Asia and a modestly expanding national economy.


12 ALEMÁN, ARNOLDO The new country suddenly faced problems never experienced under communism. With Soviet controls lifted from religious activities, Kyrgyzstan experienced a surge of of Muslim fundamentalism in the form of terrorism. Religious extremists and Arab fighters began routinely slipping through the porous border with Uzbekistan, taking hostages, and fomenting an uprising against the government. Akayev, though nominally Muslim himself, was completely against religious extremism, and he took vigorous measures to disarm and arrest all provocateurs. He also had to confront the problem of mass Russian immigration from Kyrgyzstan, as members of this ethnic group held key positions in government and industry. He accomplished this by granting the Russian language equal status with the native tongue in regions where Russians constitute the majority. This apparently deterred many would-be emigrants from leaving, and thus Kyrgyzstan maintains this valuable pool of skilled foreign labor. In 1993 Akayev encouraged passage of a new state constitution, which established a democratic presidential system, separation of powers, and guarantees of human rights. Despite traversing an oftentimes bumpy road, Akayev maintained his high standing among voters, and

in December 1995 they returned him to office with 72 percent of the vote. In July 1998, a Constitutional Court decision allowed him to run for office a third time in the year 2000. That May he won another convincing victory, garnering 74.5 percent of the vote against three other candidates. The former scientist was inaugurated for a third time on December 9, 2000, and he continued along his proven path of political liberalization and economic growth. His stance against militant Islam also acquired greater urgency after the September 11, 2001, destruction of the World Trade Center in New York, and he subsequently pledged use of several airfields to U.S. forces operating against Afghanistan. He also permitted South Korean and Australian troops to be deployed in Kyrgyzstan in conjunction with the war against terrorism. To the extent that Kyrgyzstan, a tiny landlocked nation, needs peaceful neighbors and good relations with its giant neighbors Russia and China to survive, Akayev has placed special emphasis on demilitarizing both borders, and he encourages the expansion of trade. He has similarly cultivated closer ties to nearby Muslim states to control the expansion of religious fanaticism. The culmination of Akayev’s progressive reforms was Kyrgyzstan’s admission to the World Trade Organization in 1998. Further Reading Anderson, John. Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia’s Island of Democracy? Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999. Eshingkanov, Melis. A. Akayev: The First President of Independent Kyrgyzstan. Bishbek: Asaaba, 1995. Handrahan, Lori. Gendering Ethnicity: Implications for Democracy Assistance. New York: Routledge, 2002. Hyman, Anthony. Power and Politics in Central Asia’s New Republics. London: Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 1994. Kumar, Narendra. President Akayev of Kyrgyzstan: A Political Biography. New Delhi: Har-Annand, 1998. Meyer, Karl E. The Dust of Empire: The Race for Mastery in the Asian Heartland. New York: Public Affairs, 2003.

Alemán, Arnoldo (1946– ) president of Nicaragua

Askar Akayev (Embassy of Kyrgyzstan)

Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo was born in Managua, Nicaragua, on January 23, 1946, the son of an education minister. He studied law at the Universidad Autónoma


ALEMÁN, ARNOLDO 13 de León in 1961 and maintained a legal practice up through 1979. That year Alemán became politically active on behalf of the Somoza dictatorship and in opposition to the mounting Sandinista revolution. Over the next decade he established politically conservative credentials by forging links with the Cuban exile community in Miami, and he served as the vice president of the National Farmers Union and president of the Nicaraguan Coffee Growers Union. In 1990 Alemán took advantage of mounting dissatisfaction with the Marxist regime of Daniel Ortega by defeating the Sandinista candidate for mayor of Managua. He also lent his political support to VIOLETA CHAMORRO of the umbrella UNO party when she decisively defeated Ortega in the 1991 presidential elections. Over the next five years Alemán continued consolidating his political base through the country, using as his platform the very conservative Liberal Party. Through this expedient he outmaneuvered Minister of State Antonio Lacayo, Chamorro’s son-in-law, to become the presidential candidate. This move was viewed as essential to prevent Ortega and the Sandinistas from returning to power. On October 20, 1996, he did exactly that, winning 51 percent of the vote amidst charges of irregularities. Ortega, after several days of stalling, finally conceded defeat. This event seemed to confirm the extinction of the Sandinistas as a viable national party. Like Chamorro, Alemán continued the trend of rolling back Sandinista policies of centralized economic planning and encouraging a free-market economy. This was a daunting task for any Nicaraguan leader, for the country is the hemisphere’s second-poorest after Haiti. In 2000, after a decade of reform, the country was still saddled with huge debts and unemployment rates approaching 70 percent, while around 40 percent of the population subsists on a daily income of $1. For this reason, Alemán has courted technocrats, the business and religious communities, and conservative politicians committed to promoting free trade, especially with the country’s largest trading partner and benefactor, the United States. Initially, he was thwarted by Ortega and the Sandinistas, who orchestrated a transportation strike in 1998 that all but paralyzed the country. Alemán was also stung by allegations of corruption, and by the charge that his presidential plane had been stolen from the United States and was being employed to smuggle cocaine from Colombia. Alemán denied the charges and the issue was dropped, but lingering suspicions remained.

Arnoldo Alemán (Embassy of Nicaragua)

On the international front, Alemán weathered a military crisis when, in March 2000, the Honduran navy accosted several Nicaraguan fishing vessels on the grounds of having violating Honduran territorial waters. The Nicaraguan government made official protests and solicited the support of neighboring Costa Rica, but as yet control of the Gulf of Fonseca remains disputed. Another unresolved issue in Nicaraguan politics is that of returning the land appropriated by the Sandinistas and given to their supporters. This process continues on a graduated basis, but amid much protest from adherents of the former Marxist regime. But the biggest crisis facing Alemán was the familiar charge of corruption. In August 1998 the state comptroller, Agustín Jarquín, formally accused him of increasing his personal wealth by 900 percent while he held public office. The president responded by having him arrested on similar charges, tried, and jailed, but pressure from the international community forced his release. Alemán then forced through a restructuring of the comptroller’s office with a view to restraining its inquiries, but the new head, Luis Angel Montenegro, has accused Alemán of building an expensive helicopter pad on his property at public expense. Newspapers have also asserted that Alemán acquired an expensive American-built helicopter for his


14 ALIA, RAMIZ personal use, but registered it to a nonexistent company to avoid paying taxes. Alemán weathered all these charges and remained in office until November 4, 2000, when Vice President Enrique Bolanos defeated Daniel Ortega for a third time to succeed him. It remained to be seen if the former Nicaraguan president would confront these irregularities, and their concomitant penalties, in a court of law. On December 12, 2002, the Nicaraguan National Assembly stripped him of his congressional immunity, and he was placed under house arrest. The attorney general has charged Alemán with misappropriation of up to $100 million in public funds. If tried and convicted, he faces a maximum of 30 years in prison. Appearing in court the following day, Alemán waxed defiant, insisting that his immunity “has not been removed from me, so no judge or tribunal in the republic can have jurisdiction to prosecute me.” Further Reading Brown, Timothy C. When the AK-47s Fall Silent: Revolutionaries, Guerrillas, and the Dangers of Peace. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institute Press, 2000. Dye, David R., Jack Spence, and George Vickers. Patchwork Democracy: Nicaraguan Politics Ten Years after the Fall. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemisphere Initiatives, 2000. Kodrich, Ken. Tradition and Change in the Nicaraguan Press: Newspapers and Journalists in a New Democratic Era. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2001. Paige, Jeffrey M. Coffee and Power: Revolution and the Rise of Democracy in Central America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Alia, Ramiz (1925– ) president of Albania Ramiz Alia was born in Shkodër, Albania, on October 18, 1925, the son of poor Muslim parents. His family subsequently relocated to the capital of Tirana, and he was educated at the city gymnasium. Following the Italian occupation of Albania in April 1939, Alia enrolled in the fascist-oriented Lictor Youth Group, but later dropped out to join the Communist Youth Organization. In this capacity he entered guerrilla forces under Enver Hoxha, a hard-line Stalinist, and distinguished himself in combat in World War II. By war’s end he had risen to the rank of lieutenant colonel and had also

struck up cordial relations with Hoxha, who emerged as Albania’s leader. In the immediate postwar period, Hoxha steered Albania on a decidedly pro-Soviet course and Alia was sent to study in Moscow. He obtained his advanced degree in political science by 1954, and he returned home to serve as minister of education and culture. Like his mentor, Hoxha, Alia was a doctrinaire Stalinist by inclination, and he rose steadily through the ranks of the Albanian Party of Labor (ALP, or Communist). He supported Hoxha’s break with the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia over ideological issues after 1956, and he moved to embrace the stridently ideological Red China of Mao Zedong. Following the death of Mao in 1976, Hoxha and Alia broke off relations with China, thereby increasing Albania’s diplomatic isolation. Alia remained a doctrinaire Marxist-Leninist up to the time of Hoxha’s own demise in 1985, and he managed to engineer his appointment as the party’s first secretary and heir apparent. He accomplished this by outmaneuvering another longtime Hoxha ally, Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu, whose supporters were also purged. Though in undisputed control of the political apparatus, Alia could do little to improve the failing socialist system he had inherited. By 1985 the collectivized agricultural system was breaking down and proved unable to feed the nation. Hunger and mounting economic shortcomings led to increasing social unrest, even in this tightly controlled, one-party state. In 1988 Alia felt he had little recourse but to distance himself from his communist indoctrination and to begin experimenting with varying degrees of decentralization. He also sought to gradually break Albania’s traditional isolation by making diplomatic overtures to both the Soviet Union and the United States. However, the Albanian political and economic infrastructure proved so tottering that conditions only worsened. By January 1990 Alia felt he had no choice but to implement a 25-point reform program intended to liberalize the economy in line with more capitalist practices, encourage private enterprise and foreign investment, and enhance long-suppressed civil liberties. These changes were largely welcomed by the populace, but the 1989 execution of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu served as a catalyst for greater change. Bowing 5 to the inevitable, in 1991, Alia authorized a new constitution that, for the first time in Albanian history, allowed for multiparty elections. Surprisingly, in March 1991 the communist-inspired Albanian Party of Labor won the first round of


ALIYEV, HEYDAR 15 elections by defeating four, divided opposition parties. Alia himself had lost his seat in Tiranë, but the following month the parliament reappointed him president. This, however, forced him to relinquish his post as party first secretary and other positions held in the Politburo and central committee. But Alia was unwilling to approve of additional reforms to assist the sagging economy and, in elections held that June, the Communists were finally defeated by a four-party coalition. Alia at that point seemed resigned to the inevitable and, after a multiparty coalition won an outright majority in parliament in March 1992, he resigned from office the following April in favor of SALI BERISHA of the Democratic Party. He became reviled as the second and last communist ruler of Albania, but he did manage to steer his nation toward democracy and political pluralism. The legacy of Albanian political oppression engendered considerable resentment among the polity, and in September 1992 Alia was arrested and charged with abuse of power during his five-year reign. He was put on trial in April 1994, found guilty, and sentenced to nine years in prison. However, he only served a year before being released for humanitarian reasons. However, in 1996, Alia was arrested again and charged with crimes against humanity while in power. During his trial, a riot erupted and Alia escaped to Sweden with his family. He remained there for several years before the charges were dropped against him, and in 1998 Alia returned to the former Stalinist stronghold, now basking in the light of freedom and democracy. The former leader remains an unpopular figure at home, but he has made his mark on history for overseeing a peaceful transition from totalitarianism to freedom. Further Reading Artisien, P. “Albania at the Crossroads.” Journal of Communist Studies 3 (September 1987): 231–49. Biberaj, Elez. Albania in Transition: The Rocky Road to Democracy. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998. Kadare, Ismail. Albanian Spring: The Anatomy of Tyranny. London: Saqi Books, 1994. Murati, Teuta. “The Emergence of the Albanian Nation: The Effect of Nationalism on Politics and Society.” Unpublished master’s thesis, East Stroudsburg University, 2000. Vickers, Miranda, and James Pettifer. Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan Tragedy. London: Hurst, 1999.

Aliyev, Heydar (1923– ) president of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev was born in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, then part of the Soviet Union, on May 10, 1923, to working-class parents. Intelligent and aspiring, he joined the All Union People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD, the dreaded secret police) in 1941 and was allowed to join the Communist Party four years later. Over the next 20 years he filled a number of state security positions throughout Russia and Azerbaijan, taking time off only to obtain a degree in history from Azerbaijan State University in 1957. After 1964 he formed a close working relationship with Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev, who continually advanced his political career. Aliyev’s fortunes crested in 1982 when he became a full member of the Politburo, the Soviet Union’s governing body. In 1985 Aliyev supported the rise of reformist Mikhail Gorbachev as general secretary of the Communist Party, although two years later he was stripped of his party posts over charges of corruption. For the next six years Aliyev lived in relative obscurity in Moscow and Azerbaijan until 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed. Azerbaijan quickly declared its independence from Moscow and installed Abulfaz Elchibey as its first democratically elected president in June 1992. However, the economy soured and, worse, fighting broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia over the disputed NagornoKarabakh region. Azerbaijan subsequently lost 20 percent of its territory and faced an influx of over 1 million refugees. Aliyev, judging the moment right, then overthrew the ineffective Elchibey to popular acclaim. Azerbaijanis clearly desired a firmer hand at the tiller, and this is exactly what they received. After a sham election held on October 3, 1993, Aliyev, the former secret policeman, quickly reverted to a style of governance that was both autocratic and authoritarian. The population overlooked these tendencies initially, as the need for order and security became pressing. Aliyev reached an accord with Armenia in 1993 and, although territorial disputes remain, the cease-fire has held. He also easily crushed a police-supported coup against him in 1994, and he further clamped down with a mass arrest of perceived political opponents. Again moving swiftly and decisively to consolidate his control, Aliyev drafted a new constitution that was officially ratified by 90 percent of voters in a nationwide referendum. It proclaimed, among other things, freedom of religion in this Muslim-dominated state, a national language (Azeri), and allowances for


16 AMARJARGAL, RINCHINNYAMIIN token opposition in the form of small parties. He also pledged to develop a viable market economy and stamp out corruption, which had become a staple of political life. These changes are largely cosmetic, however, and he continues to run Azerbaijan like a personal fiefdom. But Aliyev’s goal has always been the pursuit of stability in the quest for national survival, and to the extent that he has succeeded, his fellow countrymen concur. One reason for Aliyev’s apparent success is oil. Azerbaijan is one of the world’s richest petroleum-producing regions and he has unhesitatingly offered it to the outside world. He cleverly—if cynically—deduced that criticism of his heavy-handed regime would be muted once oil and natural gas starting flowing through European and American pipelines. Consequently, the influx of revenues have shored up Azerbaijan’s shaky economy and raised otherwise marginal standards of living. Moreover, in July 1997, Aliyev became the first Azerbaijan head of state to visit the United States, where he was cordially received by President BILL CLINTON, and he signed several lucrative treaties. However, this seeming subservience to the West has generated resentment in Russia and Iran, who also have vested interests in and around the Caspian Sea. Iran, in particular, has a sizable Azeri population within its boundaries, and its treatment of them remains a point of contention with the nationalistic Aliyev. Russia has also applied pressure on Azerbaijan to insure that its oil flows in pipes through Russia, and not Turkey, as the United States desires. Nonetheless, throughout 2000, the 78-year-old leader mounted state visits to both nations to smooth out differences and enhance trade. Russian president VLADIMIR PUTIN, himself a former KGB agent, was quite conciliatory in negotiating with Aliyev, praising him for his treatment of ethnic Russians residing in Azerbaijan. Putin also received assurances that Azerbaijan was not aiding separatist rebels in the breakaway republic of Chechnya. Though ailing in recent years, Aliyev has indicated that he has no intention of relinquishing power. In fact, he hopes to perpetuate his legacy by grooming his son to succeed him. “No one was born a democrat in this country, including myself,” he declared. “Maybe if we establish conditions of democracy, my grandson will have democracy.” However, many Azerbaijanis fear that his political heirs will lack the sheer will and dynamism of Heydar Aliyev, and that the country might slip back into the chaotic state that occasioned his rise.

Further Reading Atabaki, Touraj. Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran. New York; I. B. Tauris, 2000. Croissant, Cynthia. Azerbaijan, Oil, and Geopolitics. Commack, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, 1998. Dragadze, Tamara. Azerbaijan. London: Melisende, 2000. Shaffer, Branda. Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijan Identity. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002. Thomas, Paul. Azerbaijan: The Next Big Oil Play. London: Financial Times Energy Pubs., 1998.

Amarjargal, Rinchinnyamiin (1961– ) prime minister of Mongolia Rinchinnyamiin Amarjargal was born in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, on February 27, 1961. His country was then a republic aligned with the Soviet Union and he was educated in state-sponsored schools at home and in Moscow. In 1982 Amarjargal received a degree in finance from the Plekhanov Economics Institute before securing work at the Central Council of Mongolian Trade Unions. In 1990 Amarjargal was selected to lecture at the Mongolian Technical University, where he became an early advocate of free-market economics. This came at a time when the Soviet Union collapsed and splintered in August 1991, whereupon Mongolia declared its independence. However, Amarjargal continued on as head of the college until 1996, when he earned an advanced degree in economics from the University of Bradford, England. Despite his preoccupation with teaching, he became active in politics and joined the Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP) in 1992. Four years later he tested the political waters by gaining election to the Great Khural (parliament) as the party’s leading economic reformer. Amarjargal took readily to politics with an aptitude that belied his relative youth. From April to December 1998 he functioned as minister of external relations within the government and was spoken of as a possible contender for prime minister. This move was quashed by opponents that year, but another opportunity arose in July 1999 when the government of Prime Minister Janlavyn Narantsatsralt became ensnared in a scandal involving the privatization of copper mines. He resigned after only seven months in office and the Democratic Alliance, to which the MNDP belonged, nominated


AMATO, GIULIANO 17 Amarjargal to succeed him. After some internal wrangling, the Great Khural elected him to the post of prime minister in July 1999. That November he also assumed the mantle of chairman of the MNDP. Once in office, Amarjargal focused upon his trademark specialty, the formation and development of a free-market economy. Another priority was the privatization of inefficient state-run industries, which comprised 80 percent of the country’s economy. “I firmly believe that liberalism throughout every segment of society is the engine of prosperity for Mongolia,” he declared. Unfortunately, Mongolia’s break with the Soviet Union meant a loss of subsidies to keep the economy afloat, and there was a corresponding increase in social dislocation and hardship. Amarjargal therefore directed several campaigns to address issues such as homelessness, hunger, and crime, which only deflected his attention from other priorities. To regain funding in the form of foreign aid, Amarjargal took the unprecedented step of visiting both China and South Korea in the quest for investment. He was also diplomatic in his dealing with the new Russian Federation, and careful not to display favoritism toward China, for Mongolian security and survival depends on peaceful relations with both its giant neighbors. The decisive point in Amarjargal’s tenure as prime minister occurred during the winter of 1999–2000 when the entire country was hit by a “zud,” the Mongolian term for a severe storm. Snow and intense cold wiped out millions of heads of cattle, which are essential to the survival of this largely pastoral nation. Intense suffering resulted, particularly among nomadic herdsmen residing in remote locations. Amarjargal mobilized scanty government resources to help alleviate the disaster, but the magnitude proved overwhelming. “No doubt, it will be very painful, demanding a lot of human resources,” he told a BBC reporter, “But I don’t expect this will force my fellow countrymen, even those from the territories under trouble, to leave their country en masse.” Unfortunately, Amarjargal underestimated the suffering of his people and their impatience to receive timely assistance. When new elections were held on July 2, 2000, both he and his entire cabinet were swept from office. His replacement as prime minister, Nambaryn Enkhbayar, pledged to forgo economic reforms in favor of placing increased emphasis on social welfare and poverty reduction.

Further Reading Akaha, Tsuneo. Politics and Economics in Northeast Asia: Nationalism and Regionalism in Contention. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999. Badarch, Dendiviia, and Raymond A. Zilinskas. Mongolia Today: Science, Culture, Environment, and Development. Richmond, Va.: Curzon, 2001. Bulag, Uradyn E. The Mongols at China’s Edge: History and the Politics of National Unity. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. Namjin, Tumurin. The Economy of Mongolia: From Traditional Times to the Present. Bloomington, Ind.: Mongolia Society, 2000. Kotkin, Stephen. Mongolia in the Twentieth Century: Landlocked Cosmopolitan. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Amato, Giuliano (1938– ) prime minister of Italy Giuliano Amato was born on May 13, 1938, in Turin, Italy, and he majored in law at the Normale University in Pisa. In 1962 he pursued an advanced degree in law from Columbia University in New York City before returning home to teach at the prestigious University of Rome. He is the author of several highly regarded books on constitutional and international law and speaks fluent English. Amato joined the Socialist Party in 1958, becoming a lifelong adherent. He first gained election to parliament in 1983 and struck up a close working relationship with Socialist Bettino Craxi. From 1983 to 1987, Amato was chosen to serve as cabinet chief, and from 1987 to 1989 he functioned as treasury minister. Part of his success lay in Craxi’s determination to rid the Socialist Party of its Marxist inheritance and all the ideological baggage that alienated most middle-class voters. Amato, a political realist, heartily concurred, and the two embarked on the twin goals of both party and national reform. He then gained renown as a Socialist willing to break with failed policies of the past, and he initiated cuts in government spending and a reduction in overall bureaucracy. These efforts were also undertaken to enhance Italy’s chances of joining the European Monetary Union in 1999. In the course of gaining greater public exposure, Amato received high marks for intelligence, wit, and personal honesty from the Italian people. As a degree of affection, they nicknamed the diminutive


18 ANDREOTTI, GIULIO politician “Topolino”—the Italian version of Mickey Mouse. Although Amato basked in popularity during his days in office, Craxi was indicted as one of Italy’s most corrupt politicians and was forced from office in 1992. The Socialist Party consequently fell into immediate disarray, and many questioned Amato’s integrity over his silence during a long and fruitful association with the disgraced prime minister. However, he was cleared of any wrongdoing and apologized publicly for not doing more to stop party corruption. Craxi, then a fugitive from justice in Tunisia, allegedly never forgave Amato for his remarks, but the public did. In 1992 he was asked to serve as prime minister, and he remained in office for a tempestuous 10 months. Italy was then in the grip of a sagging economy, a resurgent Mafia in political life, and public disgust over rampant corruption. On April 22, 1993, Amato subsequently resigned after another scandal involving his cabinet, but he again emerged with his personal reputation unscathed. He then resumed teaching for several years before returning to politics as reform minister in the government of MASSIMO D’ALEMA in 1998, and as his treasury minister, 1999–2000. On April 21, 2000, Amato was himself appointed prime minister under some of the most unusual circumstances in Italian political history. Since the collapse of the Socialist Party, Amato basically served as a freelance opportunist, bereft of party alignment. For this reason, he came to power under the aegis of a crazy-quilt center-left coalition of no less than 12 disparate parties. He had no allegiance to any of them, nor they to him, other than that they collectively wielded a slim majority in parliament—and he was the only candidate they backed. Consequently, this proved an unholy alliance among the Green Party, Socialists, Catholics, Communists, and other malcontents who, more often than not, were at cross purposes with each other. However, the smooth-talking, urbane Amato was perhaps the only politician in Italy who could keep such discordant allies from splitting apart. Amato’s control of events was tenuous, and he was singularly unable to pass major legislation, including a long-overdue reform of the Italian electoral system. He also toyed with the necessity of updating the outdated pension system: Italy, with one of the lowest birth rates in Europe, can no longer support its rapidly aging population. Unfortunately, the Italian polity is one of Europe’s most volatile, and it quickly tired of Amato’s

inability to promote change. He called for elections on May 13, 2001, in an effort to thwart conservative media magnate SILVIO BERLUSCONI from taking power. The result was a debacle for Amato’s coalition as the Conservatives won a clear majority of seats in both houses of parliament. Accordingly, Amato tendered his resignation on June 8, 2001, having unsuccessfully served as the 58th Italian prime minister since 1945. Further Reading Agnew, John A. Place and Politics in Modern Italy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Bedani, Gino, and B. A. Haddock. The Politics of Italian National Identity: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000. Bufacci, Vittorio, and Simon Burgess. Italy since 1989: Events and Interpretations. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001. Gilbert, Mark, and Gianfranco Pasquino. Italian Politics: The Faltering Transition. New York: Berghahn Books, 2000. Ginsburg, Paul. Italy and Its Discontents. London: Allen Lane, 2001.

Andreotti, Giulio (1919– ) prime minister of Italy Giulio Andreotti was born in Rome on January 14, 1919, the son of a schoolteacher. He obtained a law degree from the University of Rome in 1940 and thereafter became closely associated with Catholic student associations. Toward the end of the World War II he joined forces with Alcide De Gaspari to help found a new political party, the Christian Democrats (DC), and in 1946 he was part of a political convention tasked with drafting a new constitution. His relationship with De Gaspari held him in good stead afterward and, despite his youth, he was always at the center of DC politics. He also held an appointment as undersecretary of the presidency of ministers until De Gaspari’s death in 1954. Andreotti was first elected to the Constituent Assembly from his district in Rome in 1947 and remained in office, one way or another, up through 1992. Furthermore, he served as prime minister no less than seven times—in 1972, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1989–91, and 1991–92. He was also defense minister eight times and foreign minister five times in various governments. Andreotti has


ANNAN, KOFI 19 since become renowned as the quintessential postwar Italian politician, a figure of both impressive longevity and legendary bargaining abilities. Andreotti’s most important national service occurred during the late 1970s, when the nation was wracked by left-wing inspired terrorism and the ascent of the Italian Communist Party (PCI). For many months, the conservative-minded Christian Democrats feared that they might actually be supplanted as Italy’s largest party by the Communists, with detrimental effects upon relations with the United States and NATO. However, Andreotti diffused the crisis with a typical admixture of pragmatism and guile. Rather than face a political showdown with the surging Communists, during his 1978 tenure as prime minister he invited them to serve as part of his administration in a government of national unity. This was done with the understanding that it was a first step toward a formal alliance between the two feuding parties, whereby Communists would be appointed to ministerial posts. However, Andreotti carefully crafted a minority cabinet that excluded any Communist members, while at the same time cementing their support in the assembly. It was an unholy alliance between two staunch adversaries, but the arrangement is witness to Andreotti’s ability to strike a bargain. In this manner the Christian Democrats retained power with Communist support, and they never made but token efforts to secure a formal political alliance. Consequently, the PCI lost the confidence of its own voters, and they supported the party with dwindling numbers over the years. As Andreotti, a literary wit, dryly remarked, “power corrodes those who do not have it.” Andreotti’s style of leadership was firmly in the Western camp, and he established close relationships with a number of American presidents. He also demonstrated, despite his working relationship with Communists, that Italy was a reliable NATO ally in its dealings with the Soviet Union. Ever a popular politician, he was also tapped to serve as foreign minister in the Socialist administration of Bettino Craxi during the 1980s. However, following the collapse of European communism in the late 1990s, Andreotti weathered the most controversial storm in his lengthy career. After his last tenure as prime minister in 1992, the Italian senate voted to remove his immunity from prosecution stemming from charges of complicity with the Mafia. Apparently, Andreotti was viewed as having close political ties to Toto Riina, a leading Sicilian mob boss. Worse, rumors began

circulating that in 1979 Andreotti ordered the murder of Mino Pecorelli, a Roman journalist, to prevent investigations into his financial dealings. At length the weight of scandal began impacting the political fortunes of the DC, and in 1993 they suffered their worse political showing ever. Though forced to resign from office and politics, Andreotti strenuously maintained his innocence. He insisted that, because he had conducted one of the biggest anticrime sweeps in Italian history, the numerous criminal kingpins indicted were simply tarring him to get even. He went on trial in September 1995 for corruption and murder in what was billed as the most sensational trial of Italian political history. After six years of testimony from witnesses, intense deliberations, and cross-examinations, a three-judge panel finally acquitted the former prime minister of any underworld connections. Earlier, he had also been cleared of complicity in the death of Pecorelli. ���Obviously, I’m delighted,” Andreotti proclaimed. “It wasn’t so great to have to wait so many years. I consider the case closed now.” The former prime minister still continues to enjoy his reputation as one of his nation’s most legendary senior statesmen. His reputation as “Mr. Italy” also remains intact. In July 2000 state prosecutors called for his retrial but, in light of Andreotti’s age and ill health, no further actions have been taken. Further Reading Andreotti, Giulio. The U.S.A. Up Close: From the Atlantic Pact to Bush. New York: New York University Press, 1992. “Foreign Policy in the Italian Democracy.” Political Science Quarterly 109 (Summer 1999): 529–38. Gilbert, Mark. The Italian Revolution: The End of Politics, Italian Style? Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995. Orlando, Leoluca. Fighting the Mafia and Renewing Sicilian Culture. San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2001. Robb, Peter. Midnight in Sicily: On Art, Food, History, Travel, and the Cosa Nostra. Boston: Faber and Faber, 1998.

Annan, Kofi (1938– United Nations

) secretary-general of the

Kofi Atta Annan was born on April 8, 1938, in Kumasi, Gold Coast (now Ghana), the son of a Fante tribal chief. After receiving an economics degree from Macalester


20 ANNAN, KOFI College, Minnesota, in 1961, he conducted advanced studies at the Institut Universitaire des Hautes Etudes Internationales in Geneva, Switzerland. By 1971 Annan had joined the United Nations as part of the World Health Organization. He then pursued a master’s degree in management from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1980 he advanced to serve as deputy director of administration of the office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, winning plaudits for efficiency and personal diplomacy. He then spent a decade in planning, budgeting, and finance, all of which he fulfilled with consummate skill and honesty. By 1993 Annan’s reputation was such that he became undersecretary general for peacekeeping operations by SecretaryGeneral BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI, a high-visibility posting. In the wake of the cold war, ethnic fighting was rife in such diverse regions as Somalia, the Balkans, and Rwanda. Boutros-Ghali strove mightily to have UN forces deployed as peacekeepers but the results, owing to a lack of money and troops, were far from uniform. In Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina, where peacekeeping forces failed to halt the slaughter of unarmed civilians, the UN was criticized for burgeoning bureaucracy and incompetence. Annan, however, continued distinguishing himself in difficult ventures abroad, including negotiating the safe removal of 500,000 Asian workers from Kuwait in 1990 and arranging the arrival of 50,000 peacekeepers to Balkan states. In light of UN disasters elsewhere, Annan’s genteel persona belied a steely resolve that the organization badly needed. His star was on the ascent. Dissatisfaction with UN operations crested in 1996 when the United States, paying an annual $2 billion in dues, opposed a second term for Boutros-Ghali. However, the African bloc, which remained entitled to nominate a candidate from their region, selected Annan as his replacement that December. His credentials as a modest, objective, and determined bureaucrat had been well established in two decades of work for the United Nations, and he gained easy approval by the General Assembly. Annan thus became the seventh secretary-general and the first black African from south of the Sahara. He was also the first leader to rise entirely through the organization’s bureaucracy. “There is no lack of ideas or debate,” he addressed the session. “Our task now is to find common ground, to shape together the changes that will move this organization forward.”

Kofi Annan (United Nations)

From the onset, Annan faced formidable if not impossible tasks of providing humanitarian assistance to the world’s poor, intervening to stop wars, and providing troops to maintain the peace. He set about his work dutifully, while trying to achieve the paradoxical goals of streamlining bureaucracy and reducing costs. BoutrosGhali’s failure to implement change resulted in U.S. suspension of annual dues to the UN but Annan, with deliberation and tact, convinced the United States to resume funding. Throughout 1998 he was busily employed in the Middle East, restraining violence between the United States and Iraq and between Israel and the Palestinians. The following year he proved instrumental in hammering out an agreement allowing UN troops to patrol Serbia’s strife-torn province of Kosovo. By 2000, UN operations had been active in East Timor, Sierra Leone, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, all of which suffered from sectarian violence. And, in contrast to his predecessor, the smooth-talking Ghanaian enjoyed uniform success and international popularity. His efforts culminated in June 2001 when the UN unanimously approved a second five-year term as


ANTALL, JOZSEF 21 secretary-general. That October Annan received the Nobel Peace Prize. Despite Annan’s best efforts, the world continues to be a very dangerous place, especially following the 2001 destruction of New York’s World Trade Center. “If today, after the horror of 11 September, we can see better and we see further, we will realize that humanity is indivisible,” he declared. “New threats make no distinction between races, nations, or regions.” Annan unflinchingly endorsed the U.S. war against international terrorists in Afghanistan, while simultaneously working to increase humanitarian assistance to beleaguered civilians. But his chores, while onerous, are not without their rewards. On May 7, 2002, Annan accompanied XANANA GUSMÃO to Dili, capital of East Timor, to commemorate celebrations marking the independence of that land from Indonesia. It also joined the UN, becoming its 190th member. “As Secretary-General, I am proud of the part the United Nations has played in that struggle, and especially in its last phase,” he affirmed, “I pledge that this will mark not an end, but a new beginning.” The affable Annan will remain secretary-general until 2006, at which point his mandate concludes. Further Reading Emmerij, Levis. Ahead of the Curve? UN Ideas and Global Challenges. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2001. Gareau, Frederick H. The United Nations and Other Institutions: A Critical Analysis. Chicago: Burnham, 2001. Kille, Kent J. “Leadership and Influence in the United Nations: A Comparative Analysis of the Secretaries General.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 2001. Loescher, Gil. The UNCHR and World Politics: A Perilous Path. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Ryan, Stephen. The United Nations and International Politics. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Antall, Jozsef (1932–1993) prime minister of Hungary Jozsef Antall, Jr., was born in Hungary on April 8, 1932, the son of a government interior minister, Jozsef Antall, Sr., who was also a member of the conservative Independent Smallholders Party. During World War II Hun-

gary was occupied by Nazi forces, yet the elder Antall distinguished himself by saving the lives of thousands of Jews and East European refugees. Antall witnessed his father being arrested for his humanity, and the experience indelibly impressed him. Thereafter he became personally committed to liberal political traditions and joined the Smallholders Party youth organization. Unfortunately, the end of World War II witnessed the Soviet occupation of Hungary, and, by 1948, the Soviet Union had installed a communist puppet regime. Antall, meanwhile, attended Eitvos University in Budapest, where he eventually obtained a doctorate in history. Thereafter he sought work as a historian with the National Archives and also taught at the Eitvos secondary school. When Hungarian dissatisfaction with communism erupted in a major uprising in 1956, Antall actively participated in antigovernment demonstrations and was jailed. The revolt was subsequently crushed by Russian tanks and, following a brief imprisonment, he was forbidden to teach or publish until 1963. Antall eventually became attracted to medical history, which did not entail an ideological slant, and so for many years he served as director of the Semmelweis Museum for the History of Medicine. By 1972 he had risen to director and was allowed to travel outside of the country. During these forays Antall became closely acquainted with the Christian Democratic parties of Austria and Hungary, and he wished to impart their religion-based principles to the Hungarian polity. His quest was abetted by the slow disintegration of the Soviet bloc in the late 1980s, whereby entrenched economic failures stimulated massive public clamoring for change. In 1988 Antall became a co-founder and chairman of a new movement, the Hungarian Freedom Forum (MDF), which called for Western-style multiparty democracy and liberalized economics. Following the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Eastern Europe in 1989, the Hungarian Communist Party had little recourse but to accede to demands for greater political freedom, and the nation’s first multiparty elections were scheduled for the spring of 1990. In two rounds of elections the MDF gathered the most seats and, in concert with two other center-right parties, Antall became Hungary’s first democratically elected prime minister in 40 years. “I always have had an interest in politics,” he declared, “but only in a democracy with parliament and freedom.” However, success was only achieved by


22 ANTHONY, KENNY making the head of the opposition Alliance of Free Democrats, Árpád Göncz, president of Hungary. Once installed, the two leaders skirmished frequently. Antall did not have long to savor his victory, for the nation was in desperate economic straits, needing drastic reform. Still, to mitigate the social shock of liberalization, the prime minister insisted on a slower, more gradual pace of privatization. This approach surprised many conservatives within the MDF, but Antall determined to avoid the social dislocation caused by radical reform plans, such as those adopted by Poland. However, the government nevertheless clearly reoriented itself toward Western Europe, both politically and economically, so foreign investors were also invited in. Antall then oversaw the drafting of a new constitution that enshrined the principles of freedom and democracy after four decades of brutal Soviet oppression. During a 1991 trip to the Soviet Union, whose days were also numbered, Antall also advocated dissolving the Warsaw Pact, an outdated military alliance bent upon preserving communist rule in Eastern Europe. As a student of Hungarian history, Antall was acutely aware that two-thirds of his nation’s land had been stripped away thanks to the Trianon Treaty, signed in the wake of World War I. He also knew that large numbers of Hungarians were forced to reside in neighboring Romania, where they suffered discrimination. Therefore, in many speeches to the national assembly, he dropped veiled hints about an emergence of a “greater Hungary,” which to many suggested that force might be used to regain traditional lands. Antall never publicly advocated such a position, but it was a long-suppressed notion, and popular among nationalists. By 1993 Antall had become Eastern Europe’s longest-serving prime minister and Hungary was well on its way to becoming an economic powerhouse in its own right. However, he did not live long enough to witness the fruits of his labors. On December 12, 1993, Antall died of cancer and was succeeded by Peter Boross, the interior minister. He is fondly remembered as the bookish historian who helped his country make the difficult transition from tyranny to freedom and a market economy. His MDF party did not fare as well in public opinion, and, in the 1994 elections, they were removed from power by former Communists, now posing as reform Socialists. Further Reading Anderson, Ruth M., and J. M. Anderson. Barbed Wire for Sale: The Hungarian Transition to Democracy,

1988–1991. Graham, Wash.: Poetic License, 1999. Masat, Melissa. “The Social Agenda of the New Hungarian Government: The Reconstruction of A PostCommunist Society.” Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies 15 (Winter 1990): 423–35. Renwick, John. “Combining Rational Choice and Political Culture: The Case of Institutional Choice in Hungary, 1989–1990.” Unpublished M. Phil., Oxford University, 2000. Schatz, Sara. “The Consideration of an Imagined National Identity in Post-Communist Hungary: The Jozsef Antall Cabinet.” Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism 25, nos. 1, 2 (1998): 63–68. Schmidt, Maria, and Laszlo G. Toth. From Totalitarianism to Democratic Hungary: Evolution and Transformation, 1990–2000. Highlands, N.J.: Atlantic Research and Publications, 2000.

Anthony, Kenny (1951– ) prime minister of St. Lucia Kenny Anthony was born on St. Lucia, a small Caribbean Island, on January 8, 1951. He received his education at the Vieux Fort Senior Secondary School before attending the St. Lucia’s Teacher’s School. Anthony subsequently received a degree in law at the University of the West Indies and a doctorate in law at the University of Birmingham, England. After several years of teaching and tutoring at the University of the West Indies, Anthony gained appointment as department head of the Caribbean Justice Improvement Department Project in 1993, and he also served as a consultant with the United Nations Development Program. In 1996 he first tested the political waters of St. Lucia by winning election as a leader within the St. Lucia Labour Party (SLP), which was established shortly after the island’s independence in 1946. But since 1964, the island had been ruled by the conservative United Worker’s Party (UWP). In May 1997, the urbane, articulate Anthony was nominated to run for prime minister against the sitting UWP candidate, Vaughn Lewis. Lewis, a stiff, colorless technocrat, was unprepared for Anthony’s brand of populist politics. The election held in May 1996 proved a resounding triumph for the Labour Party, which carried 60 percent of votes cast and now held 16 to 17 seats in the national assembly. This vic-


ARAFAT, YASSER 23 tory elevated Anthony to prime minister and also ended for the SLP an 18-year spell as the minority opposition. “I solemnly pledge that we will effectively and fearlessly attack all those problems which today remain unsolved,” he declared. “We promise you a better, richer, and more satisfied St. Lucia.” Once in office, Anthony followed through on several of his campaign pledges. These included fiscal reform with tighter accountability, a reduction in government portfolios to reduce expenditures, and appointment of new leaders to head the state corporations. His greatest challenge, however, was the sagging economy which, like many islands in the Caribbean, is contingent upon tourism. To combat unemployment, which had risen to 29 percent in 1996, he expanded public sector jobs and implemented high-tech training and education. These endeavors helped to reduce the jobless rate by 10 points by 1999, which would pay political dividends in the upcoming election. Anthony was also mindful of the importance of agriculture to the island economy, particularly the export of bananas, its principal cash crop. For this reason the government has proved willing to help absorb the mounting debts of the St. Lucia Banana Growers Association, and it has modified the tax code to encourage cultivation of nontraditional crops. Anthony has also been active on the international scene. He made several high-visibility trips to Japan and Cuba seeking foreign investment, and he established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. He also sought to deepen cultural and economic ties with neighboring Guadeloupe and Martinique, islands that share St. Lucia’s heritage, which is partly French. Unlike his predecessors, Anthony has also maintained a squeaky-clean image by not courting Libyan money and scrupulously steering clear of embarrassing off-shore banking scandals. The inhabitants of St. Lucia gladly welcomed the changes wrought by the prime minister and his Labour Party. When elections were held again on December 3, 2001, the SLP again carried the day with 14 seats. The youngish, well-educated Anthony is thus slated to lead his island until elections in 2005. Further Reading Francois, Martinus. Reforming Government: Connecting Social Justice to Economic Vision. Castries, St. Lucia: Freedom Publications, 1999.

Molloy, Linda. Saint Lucia Past: A Pictorial History. Swanage, England: Linda Molloy, 1996. Theodore, Percita M. The Politics of Constituency Development: Challenge and Perspectives. Ottawa: Tamari Books, 1998.

Arafat, Yasser (1929– ) president of the Palestinian Authority Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat was born in Cairo, Egypt, on August 24, 1929, the son of a successful merchant who was also Palestinian by birth. At some point in his life he adopted the nickname Yasser (“Easy”). Following the death of his mother in 1933, Arafat resided with an uncle in the Palestinian city of Jerusalem, then ruled as a British protectorate. It was here that he first became exposed to Jewish immigrants arriving in the Holy Land, Zionists intent upon reclaiming the biblical state of Israel from the Arabs. Arafat subsequently returned to Egypt to study engineering at the University of Fuad I (now Cairo University), but when war was erupted between Arabs and Jews in 1948 he quickly lent his support to the Egyptian military. However, the Jewish settlers were completely successful, and the new state of Israel added additional Arab lands, displacing nearly 1 million Palestinians. The experience of defeat only hardened Arafat’s stance toward the Jews and, like many contemporaries, he became a strident Palestinian nationalist. He swore to destroy Israel. Throughout the 1950s, Arafat’s growing militancy coalesced around the creation of Fatah, a Palestinian guerrilla group dedicated to the creation of a Palestinian state. After 1964 this faction became part of a larger umbrella association, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Arafat, who despite his short stature, was a charismatic, forceful leader, emerged as the head of the PLO, and by 1965 he was directing guerrilla raids and terrorism against Israel. In 1967 Israeli forces were brilliantly successful in the Six-Day War, and they conquered the Golan Heights from Syria, and, from Jordan, the West Bank of the Jordan River and the holy city of East Jerusalem, sacred to Jews and Muslims alike. Arafat was forced to relocate operations to Jordan, with some success, although his growing military strength induced King Hussein to evict the Palestinians after a brief war in 1971. Thereafter the PLO staged its attacks from neighboring Lebanon with the tacit support of President


24 ARAFAT, YASSER HAFEZ AL - ASSAD of Syria. It also became stigmatized for the brutal murder of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics, which brought world condemnation. Thereafter, Arafat sought to soften and moderate his image, and, in 1974, he addressed the United Nations in New York, which voted the PLO observer status and declared that the Palestinian people merited rights to self-determination. Arafat also began hinting at his willingness to negotiate with the Israelis to reach a political settlement over a Palestinian homeland. However, little progress was made toward founding a Palestinian state, and the homeless refugees, povertystricken and lacking hope, turned to increasingly desperate measures. By 1982 a renewed spate of bloody guerrilla attacks against Israel brought a sharp military response, and the PLO was forcibly evicted from Lebanon. Arafat survived the onslaught, however, and he reestablished his headquarters in Tunisia. A few years later he also miraculously survived a plane crash. Meanwhile, in 1988 the PLO leadership declared an independent Palestinian state on the West Bank and Gaza Strip, although hinting at recognizing Israel’s right to exist. Arafat took the process a step further at the United Nations by formally renouncing terrorism and supporting the right for all contenders to live in peace, including the Jews. Secret negotiations between both sides continued and in 1990 the PLO formally recognized Israel’s right to exist. Progress on future bargaining received a setback during the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait that same year, which Arafat supported. This stance cost him the support of the moderate Arab Gulf states and the loss of considerable financial support. It was not until three years later that talks culminated in a formal agreement, the Oslo peace accords, signed by Arafat and Israeli prime minister YITZHAK RABIN. By the terms of this settlement, Israel agreed to withdraw its military forces from the Gaza Strip and part of the West Bank, with the exception of Jewish settlements already extant. The Palestinians were also allowed to create their own homeland government, the Palestinian Authority, to govern the newly freed territories. The breakthrough and the prospects for peace were lauded worldwide, and, in 1994, Arafat, Rabin, and SHIMON PERES all shared the Nobel Peace Prize. On January 20, 1996, the first elections were held for the 88-seat Palestinian Council, and Arafat won 83 percent of the popular vote to serve as its president. Expectations for a Palestinian state were at an all-time high.

Despite this glimmering start, the prospects for genuine peace and accommodation remain bleak. The notion of peaceful coexistence did not sit well among more radical elements of the PLO, notably Hamas, and guerrilla attacks continued. Arafat condemned the killing but was in turn condemned for his inability or unwillingness to stop such actions. Worse, after Rabin was assassinated by a Jewish fanatic in November 1995, a period of conservative Likud governments began in Israel under BINYAMIN NETANYAHU and ARIEL SHARON, who steadfastly refuse to surrender occupied lands in the West Bank. Israeli intransigence, in turn, led to new rounds of deadly guerrilla attacks and a sustained popular uprising, the intifada. Again, Arafat condemned the violence on both sides but could not stem the course of events. In turn, he was loudly criticized by Israelis and Palestinians alike for corruption and an increasingly autocratic demeanor. Events crested in the spring of 2002 when a wave of suicidal bombings killed scores of Israelis and prompted Prime Minister Sharon to invade the West Bank with military forces. For 34 days Arafat was surrounded in his Ramallah headquarters and virtually held hostage, while the Israelis extracted a stiff toll upon the settlement of Jenin, home of many suicide extremists. The attackers finally withdrew in late May, but Arafat defiantly postponed reforming the Palestinian Authority and refused to hold new elections until the Israelis completely withdrew from Arab territory. This caused considerable unrest among the Palestinians themselves, who had grown restive under Arafat’s seemingly ineffectual leadership, and he promised new elections by 2003 whether the Israelis withdrew or not. The need for reform received additional impetus when the Israeli government declared that elections were a precondition for further peace talks. Meanwhile, a bloody impasse has been reached in which suicide attacks and military retaliation continue unabated. Hamas, in particular, has sworn to continue such tactics, even in defiance of the Palestinian Authority. It is unknown if Arafat can fully rein in the terror machine he is partly responsible for creating, or if he has finally painted himself into the corner of political irrelevance. His historical legacy as the father of a Palestinian homeland, even at this late juncture, remains problematic at best. Further Reading Aburish, Said K. Arafat: From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury, 1999.


ARISTIDE, JEAN-BERTRAND 25 Brown, Nathan J. Palestinian Politics After the Oslo Accords: Resuming Arab Palestine. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. Gowers, Andrew, and Tony Walker. Arafat: The Biography. London: Virgin, 1994. Hart, Alan. Arafat: A Political Biography. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1994. Minton, Tony S. Yasir Arafat in His Own Words: Prospects for a Mideast Peace. Virginia Beach, Va.: Regent University, 1994. Nehme, Michel G. Fear and Anxiety in the Arab World. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. Wallach, Janet, and John Wallach. Arafat: In the Eyes of the Beholder. Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Publishing Group, 1997.

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand (1953– ) president of Haiti Jean-Bertrand Aristide was born in Douyon, Haiti, on July 15, 1953, into a poor working-class family. His father died during his childhood, and his mother relocated the family to the capital of Port-au-Prince. There Aristide was educated at numerous Catholic schools run by the Society of St. Francis de Sales and he subsequently attended the University of Haiti. He emerged as an excellent student, fluent in several languages, and was sent to Israel and the University of Montreal to further his religious studies. Quite independently, and personally cognizant of Haiti’s grinding poverty and political oppression, he also inculcated the tenets of “liberation theology,” the notion that clergymen ought to become directly involved in the struggle for social justice. Aristide was finally ordained a priest and member of the Salesian Order in 1982 and received his first assignment to preach and serve the poor community of the slum of St-Jean Bosco. From his pulpit, Aristide became a vocal opponent of the brutal regime of Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier, and his radical rhetoric accorded him great popularity among poor parishioners. His verbal attacks drew the ire of the Duvalier regime and on January 31, 1986, Aristide survived the first of three assassination attempts. Undeterred, the young clergyman continue assailing the regime and agitating for mass political activity to oust it. He was partly successful, for in February 1986 “Baby Doc” fled the country for France while a military gov-

ernment under General Henri Namphy seized control. This did little to mitigate Aristide’s strident attacks upon the extremes of poverty and privilege in Haiti, and at length the military branded him a “radical firebrand.” After two more failed assassination attempts, in which several parishioners were killed, a representative from the Vatican instructed Aristide to tone down his criticism. When he refused, Aristide was dropped from the Salesian order, although not defrocked. Thereafter, he confined his activities to helping the poor of Port-au-Prince and serving the needs of street children. But he had also acquired a legendary reputation among Haiti’s desperately poor. By 1989, international pressure on Haiti convinced the military to hold free and open democratic elections. In an unexpected move at the last moment, Aristide decided to toss his hat into the political arena and run for president. Little was expected to result from his campaign, but to everybody’s surprise, he won the presidency with an overwhelming 67 percent of the vote, mostly from the poor. Furthermore, his rise seemed to confirm the return of democracy to Haiti. But despite his popular impulses, Aristide could do very

Jean-Bertrand Aristide (Embassy of Haiti)


26 ARTHUR, OWEN little to affect the course of poverty in his country, for his Lavalas (Landslide) Party failed to secure a majority in parliament. Furthermore, his radical rhetoric only alarmed the commercial and landowning elites of Haiti, and he alienated the military by promising a violent crackdown against secret Duvallierists still in the country. Events crested on September 30, 1991, when military forces under General RAOUL CÉDRAS overthrew Aristide, forcing him to flee to Venezuela. He eventually made his way to the United States, previously one of the objects of his rhetorical wrath, and he continued railing against the poverty and injustice of his homeland. These charges, President BILL CLINTON realized, might engender a wave of illegal immigrants landing by the boatload in Florida. To circumvent this potential situation, which might prove politically embarrassing, Clinton and the United Nations brought increasing diplomatic and economic pressure to bear upon the Cédras regime. Negotiations were successful, and in September 1993 the United States deployed 27,000 troops in “Operation Restore Democracy,” whereby Cédras departed for Panama and Aristide was restored to office. He finished the remaining 27 months of his single, nonrenewable term, without further incident, then resigned following the election of his hand-picked successor, RENÉ PRÉVAL. Apparently, Aristide and Préval experienced a falling out while the latter was still in office. The former president then used his influence to stymie Prévals’s attempts to pass a budget through the legislature, which lasted for several years. The sitting president’s decision to rule by decree thereafter also did little to enhance either his popularity or his international standing. Riding the tide of political unrest, Aristide then announced his candidacy for the next presidential campaign, and on November 26, 2000, he was swept back into power with 91.7 percent of votes cast. Detractors immediately claimed wholesale fraud prior to the vote and largely boycotted the process. Nonetheless, Aristide was both exultant and magnanimous, inviting several opposition leaders to serve in his administration. He continues in office, very popular with the poor and sworn to alleviate appalling poverty, rampant drug-trafficking, and rising crime that render Haiti the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere. However, genuine results have yet to materialize, and realistic solutions undoubtedly lie beyond the realm of populist rhetoric. In June 2001 opposition leaders rejected Aristide’s offer to hold new

elections to end the ongoing political crisis. They thus far refuse to recognize the legitimacy of his victory, which, in turn, does little to strengthen Haiti’s fledgling democratic process. Further Reading Aristide, Jean-Bernard. Dignity. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1996. ———. Aristide: A Biography. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1993. Chin, Pat. Haiti: The People Rise. New York: World View Forum, 1993. Clements, Christopher I. “Returning Aristide: The Contradictions of U.S. Foreign Policy in Haiti.” Race and Class 39, no. 2 (1997): 21–36. Griffiths, Leslie. The Aristide Factor. Oxford: Lion, 2000.

Arthur, Owen (1949– ) prime minister of Barbados Owen Arthur was born on the Caribbean island of Barbados on October 17, 1949. He received his primary education at the All Saints Boys School before obtaining a bachelor’s degree in economics at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica. Having acquired a reputation as a highly competent technocrat, he remained in Jamaica several years working for the Planning Agency, as director of economics at the Jamaican Bauxite Institute, and on the board of directors of the Jamaican Scientific Research Council. Arthur returned to Barbados armed with an impressive resumé and quickly found work as chief analyst in the ministry of finance and planning, and he also served as a lecturer at the University of the West Indies Cave Hill campus, Barbados. At this point he decided to enter politics by joining the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) in 1983, and the following year he was elected to the island parliament. However, the party suffered badly in 1986 and 1994 at the hands of the Democratic Labour Party (DLP), and Arthur was elevated to head of his party and opposition leader in parliament. His smooth style of campaigning and populist appeal reversed Labor’s fortunes on September 6, 1994, when they won an impressive 26 seats in parliament while the DLP held on to only two. Consistent with his philosophy of inclusion, he stated: “No country can ever truly develop unless it finds the means of engrossing everyone


ASSAD, BASHAR AL- 27 in the task of nation building, whatever their class, creed, color, or political persuasion.” Despite his socialist background, Arthur, a trained economist, has approached economic affairs with considerable restraint. Nonetheless, his first priority was to break the recession gripping the island’s economy by promoting tourism, encouraging more diversified agriculture for export, and engendering greater employment through construction and the service sector. Consequently, the jobless rate dwindled from a high of 23 percent in 1992 to 15.9 percent in 1997. Arthur was also determined to carry through on his policy of inclusion. High on his list of priorities was the creation of a computer-based information system that would afford equal access to Barbadians of any race or class. Furthermore, the prime minister is pledged to enhance free, universal education by spending $100 million on updating schools and the University of the West Indies campus. The government also embarked on a strategy to develop human resources through extensive job training, and it aspires to enact minimum wage legislation to insure a satisfactory standard of living. This can be achieved only when every citizen has access to proper training from adequate schools. Arthur is also committed to creation of a single Caribbean economy, which would ease competition between Barbados and other small islands. To this end he works assiduously to cultivate closer economic ties with the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Commonwealth, and he is seeking preferential trading arrangements with the European Union and other free trade organizations. He hopes that by 2005 Barbados will be transformed into the most competitive country in the Caribbean. He also aspires to transform his tiny nation into a republic. The inhabitants of Barbados appreciate Arthur’s political vision and the positive impact it has exuded thus far. During elections held in January 1999, the Barbados Labour Party won 26 seats while opposition forces were able to maintain only two. Under Arthur’s continuing tutelage, Barbados will undoubtedly be a leading force in the future Caribbean economy. Further Reading Beckles, Hilary. A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Nation State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Foster, Cecil. Island Wings: A Memoir. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1994.

Howe, Glenford D., and Don D. Marshall. The Empowering Impulse: The Nationalist Tradition of Barbados. Barbados: Canoe Press, 2001. Sandiford, L. Erksine. Politics and Society in Barbados and the Caribbean: An Introduction. Barbados: Cassia Pub., 2000.

Assad, Bashar al- (1965– ) president of Syria Bashar al-Assad was born in Damascus, Syria, on September 11, 1965, a son of one of the Middle East’s most intractable dictators, HAFEZ AL-ASSAD . He received his primary education at the al-Houria Institute before attending Damascus University to study ophthalmology. After graduating in 1988 al-Assad joined the Syrian military as an eye doctor, and, four years, later he ventured to England for additional medical training. There he favorably impressed many contemporaries with his good humor and easy-going demeanor. However, in February 1994 he was summoned home following the death of his brother Basil in a car crash. This loss was completely unanticipated, for Bashar was never really intended as a potential successor. Unlike his iron-fisted father, the younger Assad displayed a relaxed and friendly personality. Fluent in French and English, he is very open to Western technology and helped introduce the first Internet service to Syria, over the objections of state security forces. Once home, Assad resumed his military career commanding an armored division, and he distinguished himself by removing old and incompetent officers from positions of authority. By 1999 he had advanced in rank to colonel, although he remained a bachelor and highly interested in computers and programming. However, when Hafez alAssad died on June 10, 2000, he was immediately selected to succeed him by the People’s Assembly, which altered the national constitution by lowering the minimum age from 40 to 34 years of age. On July 10, 2000, Bashar al-Assad was formally sworn in as president of the Syrian Republic. No one in this previously authoritarian state knew what to expect from this easy-going eye doctor, although it was popularly anticipated he would eventually move against the political and military old guard that allowed him to rule. However, Assad has yet to directly challenge his power base and appears to promote change and reform through osmosis. For example, his ascension was marked by a general relaxation of press censorship and


28 ASSAD, HAFEZ ALgreater freedom of speech. When new newspapers and hundreds of previously suppressed discussion groups emerged overnight, he did nothing to interfere. This may have grated upon traditionalists in the ruling Baath Party, but Assad, a man whose Western education has tempered his political beliefs, was determined to place Syria on the path of modernization. As a further indication of this, he made the eradication of traditional political corruption a centerpiece of his administration. “No one would be above the law,” he insisted. The young leader has also staffed his new cabinet with members who are not part of the Baath Party, indicating that expertise in a given field is far more important than political credentials. And, unlike his megalomanic father, he studiously avoided promoting a cult of personality for himself, for his portrait is rarely displayed outside of state functions. Regardless of his domestic reforms, the younger Assad seems outwardly intent upon pursuing the hardline foreign policies of his father. He remains “officially” hostile to Israel and refuses any peace settlement that does not return lands seized in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. For Syria this entails acquisition of the strategic Golan Heights overlooking the Sea of Galilee. Assad reiterated this anti-Israeli stance during an audience with Pope JOHN PAUL II, and he was widely condemned by the Vatican and the U.S. government for it. However, it is not known to what extent Assad actually endorses such extreme views: it is more likely he is parroting his father’s line to placate traditionalists at home. In fact, Assad has been far more accommodating toward his neighbors Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey than was his father, and in many instances he has opened rail and commercial air routes that have been closed for 20 years. Since coming to power, Assad’s emphasis on openness and press freedom has slowed somewhat, possibly as a concession to the entrenched establishment. Political prisoners continued to be freed and moves toward a freemarket economy continue, but nothing has been done to promote greater democracy or modify the one-party state that has controlled Syrian politics for four decades. It is also unclear if Assad will adopt more pragmatic attitudes toward peace in the Middle East, or continue his father’s uncompromising line against the Jewish state. In the interest of his own political survival, this well-intentioned neophyte will most likely place expedience ahead of idealism and pursue economic and political liberalization at a slower pace.

Further Reading George, Alan. Syria: Neither Grand nor Freedom. New York: Zed Books, 2003. Ghadbian, Najib. “The New Assad: Dynamics of Continuity and Change in Syria.” Middle East Journal 55 (Autumn 2000): 624–42. Moaddel, Mansoor. Jordanian Exceptionalism: A Comparative Analysis of State-Religion Relationships in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Syria. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Israel, Syria, Lebanon. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 2003. Quilliam, Neill. Syria and the New World Order. Reading, England: Ithaca Press, 1999. Ziser, Etal. Assad’s Legacy: Syria in Transition. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Assad, Hafez al- (1930–2000) president of Syria Hafez al-Assad was born in Qardaha, Syria, on October 6, 1930, the son of a farmer. He was also a member of the minority Alawite sect of the Shiite branch of Islam, which distinguishes him from the resident, majority Sunni Islamic community. Assad proved adept as a pupil and was allowed to attend the Homs Military Academy in 1952. Three years later he also graduated from the air academy as a pilot and went to the Soviet Union for further military training. Assad arrived in Cairo, Egypt, in 1959 as a squadron leader, and at a time when the governments of that country and Syria were temporarily joined to form the United Arab Republic. Assad, a staunch pan-Arabist, opposed Syria’s break from the UAR in 1961, and he was immediately demoted to a civilian post by pro-secessionist superiors. Undeterred, he then joined the clandestine Military Committee of the ruling Baath (Socialist) Party and helped engineer the March 8, 1963, coup that ousted the government. Assad subsequently supported a second coup that removed the Baath moderates from power, and the radicals now in charge promoted him to minister of defense and air force chief. However, during the ill-fated Six-Day War with Israel in 1967, the Syrian air force was severely pummeled, and Assad assumed responsibility for the disaster. Syria also lost the strategic Golan Heights, the return of which subsequently became a lynchpin of national foreign policy. But Assad’s candor and overall competence as a military leader elevated his standing among fellow nationalists, and on


ASSAD, HAFEZ AL- 29 November 13, 1970, he toppled the civilian faction of the Baath Party from power. He then installed himself as president of the Republic of Syria, a fact confirmed in 1971 when he was elected to fill the first of four sevenyear terms. Syria is a relatively small country with a weak, socialist economy, but Assad proved himself to be a master diplomat and power broker. Unable to wage war against Israel alone, he solidified his nationalist credentials by joining Egypt’s Anwar Sadat during the bloody Yom Kippur War of October 1973. Syrian forces were again defeated, but Assad emerged with his pan-Arab reputation enhanced. And, at the urging of U.S. secretary of state Henry Kissinger, he also consented to resumption of diplomatic relations with the United States, which had been severed in 1967. Realizing he could not confront the Israelis alone, Assad next turned to secure allies from among the violent, unpredictable factions fighting for supremacy in the Middle East. Assad had earlier struck up a working relationship with Palestinian leader YASSER ARAFAT, and he supported the latter’s efforts to destabilize the kingdom of Jordan in 1970. However, Arafat refused to submit to Syrian control, and Assad did nothing to prevent Jordanian forces from driving the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) into neighboring Lebanon. This move only complicated an already explosive situation, and Assad masterfully played the PLO off against Maronite Christians, the Shiite majority, and new, Islamic fundamentalist militant groups like Hezbollah. Their infighting gave Syria a pretext for intervening directly in the civil war, and eventually Assad wielded control over the northern half of the country. From here, and with his tactic support, Hezbollah guerrillas launched repeated attacks against Israel settlements. In 1982 the Israelis invaded and managed to drive the PLO to Tunisia, but the occupation quickly became a military quagmire. As usual, Assad kept the guerrillas fed and supplied, and he also allowed religious and material support from revolutionary Iran to arrive. At length the Israelis were forced to withdrew from Lebanon while Syria reexerted its control over the entire country. It was a masterful play from a position of weakness, and the de facto Syrian “protectorate” over Lebanon remains intact to this day. Nor was Assad hesitant to fight fellow Arabs when it suited his purpose. He engaged in a long and bloody row with neighboring Iraqi dictator SADDAM HUSSEIN,

and throughout the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s he assisted the Iranians against his fellow Arabs. In 1990, Assad also confounded his critics by lending 20,000 troops in the Gulf War to drive Hussein from Kuwait. This brought him praise and aid from both the moderate Arabic Gulf states, along with friendly overtures from the United States and Great Britain. However, it did nothing to resolve the issue of the Golan Heights, and in the 1990s a succession of right-wing Israeli governments flatly refused to return the land for peace. Assad, in turn, snubbed any peace overtures or negotiated settlement pending unfettered return of all Syrian territories. The impasse only fueled Assad’s desire to fight a proxy war through use of Hezbollah and other militant groups, and they struck repeatedly at Israel’s northern border. The contest was never settled during his lifetime and it remains a hotly disputed issue. Assad may have converted Syria into a regional power of note, but this was done by clamping down severely on dissent. In fact, his authoritarian regime enjoyed a terrible human rights record. At one point, during a rebellion by the Sunni-based Muslim Brotherhood, Assad’s troops reputedly killed 20,000 rebels without mercy. Other dissidents have been routine arrested, tortured or executed. Syria was also branded by the United States and Great Britain as one of five countries that openly sponsor terrorist organizations. But Assad’s willingness to act as Israel’s most implacable adversary enhanced his standing in the Arab world and generated widespread sympathy for his cause. Through such carefully Machiavellian means, Assad fully lived up to his name, which means “Lion” in Arabic. He displayed singular determination to keep the Arab agenda in the world’s headlines, sometimes at great cost to Israel but at relatively little cost to himself. More often than not he succeeded. This fearsome and capable political survivor succumbed suddenly to a heart attack on January 10, 2000. He was immediately succeeded by his youngest son BASHIR AL-ASSAD, upon whom hopes for a peaceful resolution with Israel rest. Further Reading Dam, Nikolas van. The Struggle for Power in Syria: Politics and Society under Assad and the Ba’th Party. New York: I. B. Tauris, 1996. Kedar, Mordecal. Assad in Search of Legitimacy: Messages and Rhetoric in the Syrian Press, 1970–2000. Portland, Oreg.: Sussex Academic Press, 2002.


30 AUNG SAN SUU KYI Moubayed, Sami M. Damascus between Democracy and Dictatorship. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2000. Patterson, Charles. Hafiz Al-Assad of Syria. Lincoln, Nebr.: iUniverse.com, 1991. Talhami, Ghada H. Syria and the Palestinians: The Clash of Nationalisms. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Aung San Suu Kyi (1945– ) Burmese politician Aung San Suu Kyi was born in Rangoon, Burma, on June 19, 1945. Her father, General Aung San, was a leading figure in the Burmese fight for independence from Great Britain. However, he was assassinated in 1947 before his dream could be realized. Suu Kyi was then raised by her mother, a career diplomat, who was posted as ambassador to India. She subsequently attended Oxford University and obtained her master’s degree in political science in 1967. Suu Kyi then circulated among academic circles, worked for the United Nations in New York, and lectured at the University of Kyoto, Japan. In 1972 she also married Michael V. Aris, a respected authority on Central Asia, and continued living and studying abroad until April 1988. That year her mother suffered a stroke, and Suu Kyi returned to Burma to assist her. Unexpectedly, this slender unassuming woman was suddenly thrust into the role of an international dissident. Suu Kyi’s decision to visit Burma proved a watershed in her life. That nation, now called Myanmar, had been ruled by General Ne Win for more than two decades. He installed a socialist-oriented military regime that stifled political opposition and drove the country into poverty. This left Burma’s population in desperation, and for the first time massed public demonstrations against the regime arose. Suu Kyi was quickly drawn into the protest movement, and she began making public appearances, denouncing the military. Moreover, she called for the establishment of human rights and political pluralism, something that the government was unwilling to concede. Suu Kyi soon gained recognition as a dissident leader of note, and that year she founded the National League for Democracy (NLD). However, once Ne Win stepped down from power he was replaced by a collective leadership, the State Law and Order Council (SLORC), which had no intention of surrendering power. Elections were promised by the government, but in July 1989 Suu

Kyi was arrested and placed under house arrest. Nonetheless, when elections transpired in 1990, they were overwhelmingly won by the NLD, which garnered 80 percent of the vote. The military, whose rule was now directly threatened, simply annulled the results amid talk of a new constitution. This act triggered widespread protests and led to the death of several hundred demonstrators, but the SLORC remained firmly in control. Suu Kyi’s efforts at peacefully spreading democracy did not go unnoticed, fortunately, and in 1991 she received the Nobel Peace Prize. Suu Kyi remained under house arrest until 1995, becoming one of the world’s most celebrated dissidents. She was only freed after Western powers applied economic sanctions for her release. All the while the SLORC held talks with various political opposition groups, giving the impression that progress was being made toward a new constitution. Suu Kyi immediately resumed her role as head of the NLD, and she railed against government attempts at legitimizing their dictatorship. She also recommenced her impassioned prodemocracy speeches, calling for peaceful resistance to the regime, and denouncing political oppression in Myanmar. “The struggle for democracy and human rights in Burma is a struggle for life and dignity,” she affirmed. “It is a struggle that encompasses our political, social, and economic aspirations.” Her message resonated with thousands of people who gathered to hear her, and by January 1997 Prime Minister Than Shwe felt sufficiently threatened to restrain her under “unofficial” house arrest. Suu Kyi was then routinely harassed whenever she tried to travel, and, while trying to depart Rangoon, she was forced to spend a week in her car. Throughout all her ordeals, the frail Burmese dissident adamantly insists that the military respect the will of the people—and abide by the 1990 elections. The junta vindictively countered by restricting all public access to her, and in March 1999 her husband died of cancer after they refused him an entrance visa. The impasse over Burma’s budding democratic movement continued for many years, but a corner was turned on May 6, 2002, when Suu Kyi was finally released from house arrest. This apparently occurred after 18 months of negotiations between the dissident and the government, along with a pressing need to have economic sanctions lifted. She then immediately drove to various parts of the country, flaunting her newfound freedom, and was greeted by adoring throngs as she


AYLWIN, PATRICIO 31 drove by. “Nothing is permanent, so if you are faced with defeat just keep working toward the goal,” she declared to supporters at a rally in Moulmein. “With the support and strength of the people, the NLD will be able to achieve its goal toward democracy faster.” Aung San Suu Kyi remains a potent symbol of Burma’s quest for political freedom through nonviolent struggle. Her fate and that of her country remain closely intertwined. Further Reading Ang, Chin Geok. Aung San Suu Kyi: Towards a New Freedom. London: Prentice Hall, 1998. Aung San Suu Ki. The Voice of Hope. New York: Seven Stories Press, 1997. Ling, Bettina. Aung San Suu Kyi: Standing Up for Democracy in Burma. New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1999. Steinberg, David I. Burma: The State of Myanmar. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2001. Victor, Barbara. The Lady: Aung San Suu Kyi, Nobel Laureate and Burma’s Prisoner. Boston: Farber and Farber, 1998.

Aylwin, Patricio (1918– ) president of Chile Patricio Aylwin Azocar was born in Viña del Mar, Chile, on November 26, 1918, the son of a prominent lawyer and president of the Supreme Court. Like his father, Aylwin decided to pursue a legal career, and in 1943 he graduated from the University of Chile law school. Aylwin was a conservative, and by 1946 he was writing and speaking on behalf of the Falange Nacional, a Christianoriented group seeking social change without the violence espoused by the Communists. At length these conservative interests coalesced into a new association, the Christian Democratic Party, in the 1950s, of which Aylwin was repeatedly elected president. His political career commenced in 1965 when he was elected to the Senate. At that time Chile was governed by Eduardo Frei Montalva, the country’s first Christian Democratic president, who remained in office until 1970. However, national fortunes took a dramatic turn that year when Salvador Allende Gossens, an avowed Socialist, was elected president with a slim plurality of votes. His rise proved a dramatic turning point in Chile’s political history. Once in power, Allende initiated sweeping programs of economic nationalization that destabilized the entire country. Aylwin, now a leading opposition figure,

met repeatedly with the president in a failed attempt to mitigate the excesses of his policies. Social discontent resulted in a wave of strikes against the administration, and in 1973 Allende declared martial law to preserve order. At this juncture the military intervened on September 11, 1973, to save the country. They overthrew Allende, killing him in the process, and installed a military regime under General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. Aylwin, like many Christian Democrats, initially supported both the coup and the military, for they promised to quickly restore order and democracy. However, Pinochet evinced no inclination to relinquish power and, in fact, initiated a brutally repressive administration lasting 17 years. As before, Aylwin emerged as a leading opposition figure and a champion of democratic rights. In 1987 he skillfully managed to have Pinochet consider a national plebiscite over his continuance in power and the general, anticipating an easy victory, agreed. Surprisingly, on October 5, 1988, Chilean voters rejected government by military rule by a wide margin, and the general gracefully consented to free multiparty elections the following year. The ensuing contest was not even close. On December 14, 1989, Aylwin won a resounding victory with 55 percent of the vote, becoming Chile’s first democratically elected leader in nearly two decades. He accomplished this by presiding over a broad-based coalition of 17 disparate parties, all united in their hatred for Pinochet. Aylwin was formally sworn into office in March 1990. The Christian Democrats were clearly not revolutionaries, but they were determined to address longstanding human rights abuses committed in Chile. Once empowered, Aylwin quickly released thousands of political prisoners and initiated official investigations into the disappearance of thousands more. His most notable success was in obtaining guilty verdicts against two of Pinochet’s henchmen, Generals Manuel Contreras and Pedro Espinoza, for the assassination of Chilean foreign minister Orlando Letelier in Washington, D.C. However, the Christian Democrats enjoyed less success in confronting Pinochet himself, and he remained the titular head of the military while many officers continued enjoying political amnesty. He continued to loom in the background of Chilean national politics for many years thereafter. Equally pressing to the Aylwin administration was the issue of poverty and social injustice. The Christian Democrats were committed to obviating poverty


32 AZALI, ASSOUMANI through economic growth, and the government quickly enacted a wide-ranging stimulus package. Within three years, the national economy rebounded to a 7.5 percent annual growth rate, which lifted 1.3 million Chileans out of poverty. Aylwin also orchestrated a 40 percent increase in social spending to further assist the needy, while the minimum wage was increased by 36 percent. All told, his single term in office was a startling success and a tribute to long-held political convictions. In 1992 he became the first Chilean leader to visit Washington, D.C., in 30 years and he was hailed by President George H. W. Bush as proof of democracy’s resiliency. “We are not asking for help,” Aylwin declared to his audience, “but for help and understanding.” A temporary constitutional provision limited Aylwin’s tenure in office to four years, although his successor, EDUARDO FREI, son of the former president, succeeded him with a six-year term on March 1, 1994. Aylwin’s rise to power, and his peaceful transfer out of it, signaled the successful return of true democracy to Chile. Further Reading Fuentes, Claudio A. “After Pinochet: Civilian Policies towards the Military in the 1990s Chilean Democracy.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 42 (Fall 2000): 111–142. Londregan, John B. Legislative and Institutional Ideology in Chile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Loveman, Brian. “?Mission complida? Civil-military Relations and the Chilean Political Transition.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 33 (Fall 1991): 35–40. Oppenheim, L. H. Politics in Chile: Democracy, Authoritarianism, and the Search for Development. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993. Rabkin, Rhoda. “The Aylwin Government and Tutelary Democracy: A Concept in Search of a Case?” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 34 (Winter 1992–1993): 199–94.

Azali, Assoumani (ca. 1959– ) president of Comoros Assoumani Azali was born on Great Comoro Island around 1959, although little is known about him. He received military training in France and Morocco and had risen to the rank of chief of staff by 1998. The Comoros

are a group of three small islands off the coast of Mozambique: Great Comoro, the largest, followed by Anjouan and Mohéli, the smallest. The population is part African and part Muslim in terms of culture and religion, and they were ruled as a French colony since 1843. The islands obtained political independence in 1975 and that July received their first appointed president, Ahmed Abdallah. However, Abdallah was overthrown the following month by Ali Soilih, who recruited a force of white mercenaries under the notorious French soldier of fortune, Bob Denard. In 1978 Soilih was himself toppled by Denard, who subsequently ran the Comoros as his personal fiefdom for the next 11 years. In 1984 Abdallah reemerged as president, although Denard really directed affairs until 1989. That year Abdallah was assassinated by Denard, who continued ruling the three islands more or less on his own until new elections were held in March 1996. The winner was Mohamed Taki Abdulkarim, who also presided over the nation’s first peaceful transition of power. However, a declining economy and social strife among the three islands, fiercely independent from each other, led to violence and disorder. Worse, Taki died of a heart attack in November 1998, and his successor, Tadjiddine Ben Massonde, failed to restore stability when the islands of Anjouan and Mohéli threatened to secede from Great Comoro. It was at this juncture, on April 30, 1998, that Colonel Azali stepped in and overthrew Massonde in a bloodless coup. “I have seized power,” he declared, “to save the Comoros from falling into chaos and anarchy.” His was the fifth successful putsch since the islands gained their independence in 1975. Once ensconced in power, Azali was formally sworn in as president on May 5, 1999. He thereupon assumed the portfolios of premier and defense minister, summarily dissolved all elected institutions, and suspended the constitution. Moreover, the blunt-talking chief of staff announced that he would form a 12-person executive body, the Committee of State, that would conduct national affairs. Azali pledged himself to reinstate democratic institutions once a new constitution was drawn up and agreed upon by all three islands, but he remains firmly in control of the archipelago. He has since subscribed to an accord put forth by the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which encouraged more independence for the islands, but also an end to secession. It has not been agreed to by the island rebels, and, hence, Azali’s dominance remains unchallenged. However, his coup


AZNAR, JOSÉ MARÍA 33 was strongly denounced by the OAU, France, and South Africa, which responded with an economic boycott. Nor is the military regime recognized by any government, with a corresponding decline in foreign aid. This is unfortunate, as the Comoros is one of the poorest nations on earth, and its living standards have deteriorated even more since the upheaval. Matters were further complicated when soldiers under Captain Abderamane Abdallah, the former president’s son, failed to overthrow Azali in March 2000. An OAU-brokered agreement was thereupon cemented that granted the islands greater autonomy, but soldiers on the island of Anjouan attempted a coup against their own leader, Colonel Said Abeid in August 2001. Azali remains in power for the foreseeable future. Further Reading Alphers, Edward A. “A Complex Relationship: Mozambique and the Comoro Islands in the 19th and 20th Centuries.” Cahiers d’études Africaines 41, no. 161 (2000): 73–93. Ostheimer, John M., ed. The Politics of the Western Indian Ocean Islands. New York: Praeger, 1975. Ottenheimer, Martin, and Harriet Otterheimer. Historical Dictionary of the Comoros Islands. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1994. Weinberg, Samantha. Last of the Pirates: The Search for Bob Denard. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.

Aznar, José María (1953– ) prime minister of Spain José María Aznar López was born in Madrid, Spain, on February 25, 1953, the scion of a politically conservative household. Both his father and grandfather were closely associated with the right-wing fascist regime of dictator Francisco Franco, who ruled Spain with an iron fist from 1939 to 1975. Aznar was educated at the University of Madrid, where he studied law, and shortly after he entered politics. After a brief tenure as inspector in Madrid, he joined a conservative party, the Popular Alliance (PA). Spain at that time was firmly under the control of the Socialist Party of Felipe González since 1983, but that party was then experiencing a decline in popularity. Aznar, meanwhile, first came to national prominence by winning election to parliament in 1982, which also occasioned his rise within the ranks of the

PA. He was foremost among party leaders who urged a clean break with the past, and he denounced the extreme right-wing policies of Franco. His message resonated with the new generation of conservatives, who in 1989 appointed Aznar head of the party, now renamed the Popular Party (PP). Still, the bulk of Spanish voters did not trust the right wing, despite mounting disenchantment with Socialist policies and a lackluster economy. In 1989 and 1993, the PP under Aznar’s direction tried and failed to topple the entrenched leftists. However, as the popularity of the Socialists tumbled in the wake of numerous scandals, Aznar made ethics a vociferous campaign issue. The tactic worked, for in the elections of March 3, 1993, the Socialists took a pounding at the polls, losing 156 seats to the Popular Party. They were still 20 seats short of a complete majority in the Congress of Deputies, but González nonetheless resigned. Aznar was subsequently sworn in as prime minister. His rise marked a historic occasion, signaling only the second time in 60 years that political power passed from one party to the other in Spain. True to his conservative credentials, Aznar embarked on a scheme to trim government expenditures, cut taxes, and reform the bloated welfare state erected by the Socialists. In this he was helped by Jordi Puljol of the Catalan Convergence and Union (CiU) Party, who provide the margin of seats necessary to control the government. He undertook these austerity measures for the sole purpose of preparing for Spain’s entry into the common European currency. Moreover, these deficit-reduction policies also served to spur the economy and reduce the 25 percent unemployment rate to 15 percent by 2000. Meanwhile, the Socialist party was unable to mount meaningful opposition to Aznar’s reform and, worse, suffered from continuing revelations about corruption. Consequently, during the elections held in March 2000, the Conservative Popular Alliance captured 183 seats in the Congress of Deputies, enough to formulate an outright majority. Aznar, buoyed by his successes, has since continued on his avowed course of fiscal restraint, privatization of stateowned assets, and economic reform. And, by distancing himself from the excesses of the Franco regime, he has relegitimized conservative politics in the eyes of many Spaniards. One conspicuous failure of the Aznar administration, and those before it, was the question of Basque separatism. Militants in this non-Spanish region of


34 AZNAR, JOSÉ MARÍA northern Spain are seeking an independent state and have resorted to violence to achieve it. During Aznar’s tenure they renounced a cease-fire and commenced a campaign of kidnaping, murder, and bombing. The prime minister, however, refused to negotiate with the terrorists, and he stepped up the police campaign against them. But by September 1998, the ETA rebels announced a new cease-fire, and the government reciprocated by transferring all Basque prisoners from the Balearic and Canary Islands back to the mainland. The overarching issue of Basque independence re-mains unresolved for, in Aznar’s words, “Spain is one nation.” Troubles of a different sort arose in October 1988, when Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón requested British authorities to extradite aged Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet to Spain, where he was wanted for murdering Spanish citizens. There was much fury on the right for Aznar’s eventual decision to allow the process to continue, but ultimately Pinochet was released from England for humanitarian reasons. However, more international trouble looms, as the Spanish judiciary has declared its intentions to investigate human-rights abuses in Central and South America. Through it all,

Aznar’s political fortunes seemed tied more to the booming Spanish economy than to foreign affairs. With his policies in place, a majority in the government, and much popularity at home, he is poised to guide Spain’s restoration as a credible European power. Further Reading Anderson, Wayne. The ETA: Spain’s Basque Terrorists. New York: Rosen Group, 2003. Gibbons, John. Spanish Politics Today. Manchester, England: University of Manchester Press, 1999. Granell, Francisco. “Europe’s Evolving Identity: Spain’s Role.” Mediterranean Politics 5 (Summer 2000): 64–75. Jones, Benjamin. “Aznar Stuns Socialists: Popular Party Victory Marks a Turning Point in Spanish Politics.” Europe, no. 396 (2000): 22–25. Mangen, Stephen P. Spanish Society after Franco: Regime Transition and the Welfare State. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Romero Salvado, Francisco J. Twentieth-Century Spain: Politics and Society, 1989–1998. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 1999.


B Babangida, Ibrahim (1941– ) president of Nigeria Ibrahim Gbadamosi Babangida was born in the northern city of Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, on August 17, 1941. Like many young Nigerian men of Muslim origin, he sought to pursue a traditional military career, and after graduating from the government college at Bida, he attended the Nigerian Military Training College in Kaduna. An excellent student, Babangida was allowed to broaden his educational experience by studying abroad at the Indian Military Academy in 1964, the Royal Armoured Centre in Great Britain, and the U.S. Army Armor School. Once commissioned a lieutenant, he bore a conspicuous role in the Nigerian civil war, 1967–70, and emerged a national hero. Babangida then rose steadily through the ranks and, as a lieutenant colonel, helped thwart a military coup against the government in 1976. Good performance and a reputation for political reliability resulted in additional advancements, and by 1983 Babangida was functioning as army chief of staff in the civilian administration of Shehu Shagari. This placed him at the very center of national power. Ever since gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria had been wracked by successive military coups and revolts. One reason for this instability was the apparent corruption of many civilian leaders, including Shegari, whom Babangida helped oust in 1983. This move

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helped install a military leader, General Muhammadu Buhari, to power. However, Babangida, as chief of staff, clashed repeatedly with Buhari and his minions, principally over economic policy. Nigeria’s oil-based economy was in a tailspin owing to declining world prices, yet the generals did little or nothing to obviate the mounting social toll this engendered. A tense impasse between the two men lasted until August 27, 1985, when Babangida moved decisively against Buhari, bloodlessly disposing of him while the latter celebrated a Muslim festival in his distant hometown. Moreover, once in control, he appeared on national media to assure the populace of his intention to liberalize the economy, lift press restrictions, and enforce human rights. He also promised to return to democratic pluralism in a few months and symbolically relinquished his title as general in favor of president. Babangida’s most pressing obstacle to national harmony was the economy, which required major structural reforms. These were insisted upon by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as a precondition for securing additional loans. Babangida, however, cleverly put these changes up before the public in a referendum, where they were soundly rejected. Having demonstrated that he could stand up to the West, the general next introduced his own brand of austerity measures to curb inflation and rising national debt. The result was increasing deprivation suffered by an already poor populace, and


36 BALAGUER, JOAQUÍN the ensuing unrest led students and labor unions to wage mass protests. Babangida countered by closing all universities and dissolving the National Labor Council’s executive committee. It began to appear to most Nigerians that his regime was only slightly less repressive than its predecessor. Discontent also mounted among various cliques within the officer corps and Babangida ruthlessly crushed two coup attempts against him. However, the general’s greatest failure was his inability to restore Nigerian democracy as promised. Initially, he held open the possibility for multiparty opposition to be reestablished, then he promptly backtracked. He then determined that only two parties, designated by himself, would be allowed to function, provided that they fulfilled exceedingly high criteria. As a sop to the creation of a more open system, Babangida also forbade previous officeholders from running for the presidency. Delay, however, was heaped upon delay, and it was not until 1993 that the first civilian elections transpired—only after Babangida had personally picked the opposing candidates himself! The unexpected winner was Moshood Abiola, a noted businessman, and he was suddenly viewed as undesirable. Babangida then annulled the election and unilaterally installed another handpicked successor, Ernest Shonekan, to succeed him. The result was widespread strikes and civil unrest across Nigeria, and on November 17, 1993, Babangida was himself overthrown by his chief of staff, General SANI ABACHA. For many years, Babangida has lived quietly in selfimposed exile, and over the years he has steadfastly refused to appear before a human rights panel investigating charges against him. In November 2001 a Nigerian appeals court ruled that the panel lacks the ability to summon former rulers of the country. However, in April 2002, Babangida emerged from obscurity to confer with several former military associates at Langtang, Plateau State. At that time the general refused to confirm or deny if he intended to support the present ruler, OLUSEGUN OBASANJO, in the 2003 presidential election, or to run against him as a candidate. “I will only exercise my right to vote like any other Nigerian,” he insisted. Further Reading Adeoye, Oladimeiji. The Morning of a Coup: The Dictatorship of Nigeria; Ibrahim B. Babangida. Chicago: Spectrum Press, 1995.

Diamond, Larry, Anthony Kirk-Greene, and Oyeleye Oyedivan. Transition without End: Nigerian Politics and Civil Society under Babangida. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1997. Mabry, Marcus. “Africa’s Ailing Giant: Chaos Reigns in Nigeria.” Foreign Affairs 79, no. 5 (2000): 123–27. Nzeribe, Francis A. Nigeria: Seven Years after Sheshushagari. London: Kilimanjaro Publications, 1990. Ojo, Emmanuel O. “The Military and Democratic Transition in Nigeria: An In-depth Analysis of General Babangida’s Transition Program (1985–1993).” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 20, no. 1 (2000): 1–26.

Balaguer, Joaquín (1907–2002) president of the Dominican Republic Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo was born in Villa Bisono, the Dominican Republic, on September 1, 1907, into a well-to-do middle-class family. He excelled as a student and published a volume on poetry at the age of 16. Balaguer chose to pursue a legal career, and he received advanced degrees from the University of Santo Domingo in 1929 and the University of Paris in 1932. In addition to being a man of letters, Balaguer was also a talented linguist, becoming fluent in Spanish, French, and English. He served as a public servant until 1930, when the noted dictator Rafael Trujillo came to power in a coup. Balaguer promptly allied himself with the new regime, and he was rewarded with several ambassadorial and ministerial posts over the next three decades. In 1957 Balaguer was appointed vice president of the Dominican Republic and three years later he succeeded Trujillo as president. Following Trujillo’s assassination in 1961, Balaguer proved instrumental in having sanctions imposed by the Organization of American States lifted, although he himself entered self-imposed exile in New York City. This move came after he himself was ousted by air force chief Rodriguez Echeverria in January 1962. Over the next three years, the Dominican Republic was ruled by Balaguer’s main rival, Juan Bosch, until his overthrow in 1965, and the nation was plunged into chaos and civil war. Balaguer, meanwhile, had been busy organizing a new entity, the Reformist Party (PR) in exile, and in 1966 he returned home with the aid of U.S. troops to run for president. He won a resounding victory over Bosch with 57 percent of votes cast, initiating a 12year period of uninterrupted success. Once in charge,


BALKENENDE, JAN 37 of $700 million in public funds. However, the charges were never proven, and the elder statesman lost little of his popularity. In April 2000 he declared his candidacy for the next round of presidential elections, which, had he succeeded, would have left him in office until the age of 99! Fortunately, Balaguer received only 24 percent of the vote and he has since retired to private life. For four decades, he was the most influential politician of the Dominican Republic since the dictator Trujillo. Beyond politics, Balaguer also gained repute as the author of a number of books on Dominican law, literature, and history. He died in July 2002.

Balaguer took immediate steps to boost the economy, aided in large part by a massive influx of American aid and a rise in sugar prices. Consequently, the national economy grew at a rate of 10 percent a year, and Balaguer initiated several grand building programs to restore the capital of Santo Domingo. Staunchly conservative, he remained friendly and cooperative with the United States and maintained an anticommunist foreign policy. However, he also proved despotic in outlook and during this period hundreds of political opponents were either arrested by the police or killed by paramilitary forces loyal to his administration. However, by 1978, the bottom dropped out of the national economy, and Balaguer, seeking a fourth consecutive term, was defeated by Antonio Guzmán of the Dominican Revolutionary Party (DRP). Noticeably, he voluntarily stepped down despite an ardent wish by military officials that he remain in power. The DRP managed to remain in control of the country until 1982 when the aged Balaguer decided to return to politics. Balaguer’s initial attempt to regain the presidency was unsuccessful, but economic fumbling by the DRP left the country in dire straits, and in 1986 Balaguer won his fourth term in office. This time he was associated with a new organization, the Reformist Social Christian Party, which had been resurrected from his earlier Reformist Party. Again, a leading hallmark of his administration remained large-scale public construction works, especially an expensive, ornate lighthouse dedicated to Christopher Columbus on the 500th anniversary of his landing on Hispaniola. But, as an indication of his enduring popularity, in 1990 he was reelected again at the age of 90, despite vocal allegations of fraud. He was victorious again in 1994, although the results this time proved so marred by fraudulence that international pressure forced him to conclude his administration in 1996. By that time Balaguer was in poor health and nearly blind from cataracts. The 1996 election was also characterized by its acute racial tone. The PRD candidate, José Francisco Peña Gómez, was of African descent, and Balaguer openly campaigned against what he deemed the “Haitianization” of the Dominican Republic. Consequently, Lionel Fernandez, his hand-picked successor, won the presidency. Once out of office, Balaguer became the object of several notorious lawsuits, alleging his complicity in the murder of several opposition journalists between 1975 and 1994 and his connivance in the misappropriation

Further Reading Chester, Eric T. Rag-tags, Riff-raff, and Commies: The U.S. Intervention in the Dominican Republic, 1965–1966. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001. Espinal, Rosario. “Classes, Power, and Political Change in the Dominican Republic.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1985. Gutierrez, Carlos M. The Dominican Republic: Rebellion and Repression. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1996. Hartlyn, Jonathan. The Struggle for Democratic Politics in the Dominican Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. Kryzanek, Michael J. “Political Party Opposition in Latin America: The PRD, Joaquín Balaguer, and the Politics of the Dominican Republic, 1966–1973.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1975.

Balkenende, Jan (1956– ) prime minister of the Netherlands Jan Peter Balkenende was born on May 7, 1956 in Kapelle, Zeeland, the Netherlands, the son of a grain trader. In 1992 he received his doctorate in philosophy from the Free University of Amsterdam, and he subsequently taught philosophy courses there. Between 1982 and 1984 he also served as a legal affairs policy officer with the Netherlands Universities Council. Balkenende concurrently developed a conservative bent in politics and eventually joined the Christian Democrats (CDA), a party that had formed part of every Dutch government since 1917. However, in August 1994 the Labor Party under WIM KOK swept the CDA from power and formed a coalition without them for the first time. The party

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38 BALKENENDE, JAN subsequently lost two more elections over the next eight years and seemed on the verge of becoming marginalized altogether. Party elders then looked for younger, more attractive candidates to lead them out of the political wilderness. At first glance, Balkenende seemed an unlikely candidate to head the CDA, being a philosophy professor with minimal political experience who had been seated in parliament only since 1998. In fact, with his owlish glasses and moppish head of hair, he bore a striking resemblance to the fictional children’s hero Harry Potter. Balkenende was publicly derided by opponents as such, but, once becoming CDA chairman in October 2001, he demonstrated a political wizardry all his own. By the spring of 2002 Wim Kok announced his resignation as head of a successful Labor coalition government. His administration had run affairs much as it liked over the past eight years and the Netherlands prospered under his tutelage, but to placate extreme leftwing allies, Kok allowed certain radical legislation to be passed. These includes measures to legalize soft drugs and gay marriages and facilitate increased immigration in the form of both migrants and refugees. The Netherlands is probably one of the most permissive, tolerant societies in Europe but Labor, long accustomed to power, had grown smug and deaf to rising discontent. The major issue was crime, which, according to public perception, could be traced to the recent influx of Muslim immigrants. This group also appeared to many people as disproportionally represented on welfare rolls. However, as elections approached, the ruling center-left coalition ignored public clamoring and focused upon more traditional issues such as worker’s rights. Nobody could have anticipated what would happen next. In February 2002 a new party, the Pim Fortuyn List (LPF), suddenly exploded on the scene. It was headed by charismatic Pim Fortuyn, a gay record executive and millionaire who had assumed the mantle of anti-immigrant leadership. In sum, he found his niche broadcasting what everyone else was only thinking. Fortuyn was denounced as a right-wing extremist for demanding an end to immigration, expulsion of welfare cases, and mandatory assimilation by newcomers, but his xenophobic populism resonated with voters at large. Had he lived, Fortuyn might have amassed as much as a third of the popular vote. However, on May 6, 2002, he was assassinated by an animal-rights activist, which shocked the Dutch public and brought inordinate sympathy to his

cause. Balkenende was well positioned to benefit from such a backlash, for Fortuyn’s positions on immigration neatly mirrored his own. Moreover, he strongly opposed legalized drugs and euthanasia, which Labor had not only supported but also signed into law. “Citizens want a different kind of politics,” he insisted. At the election held on May 16, 2002, more than 80 percent of voters turned out and their verdict was unmistakable. Kok’s Labor Party was swept from office while the Christian Democrats returned with 43 seats in the 150-seat parliament—making them the biggest single voting bloc. Intense negotiations followed with the LPF, which finished a strong second, and the Liberal Party (VVD) to form a viable coalition. On July 22, 2002, Balkenende, a 46-year-old philosophy professor, was sworn in as the first CDA prime minister in eight years. Considering his amateur standing as a politician, “Harry Potter” had indeed worked a miracle. True to his pledge, Balkenende determined to sponsor legislation ending free access to soft drugs. He also sought to tighten immigration policies by making assimilation into Dutch culture and language mandatory. Furthermore, prospective migrants were now required to post a large deposit before bringing a spouse into the Netherlands, which would only be refunded once the newcomer passed assimilation courses. The government also intends to hire more police officers and commence a thorough crackdown on crime. Balkenende’s victory seems to have capped a trend in Western Europe toward conservative anti-immigration sentiment, which has seen similar successes in Portugal, Norway, Denmark, Italy, and France. He also seems to have slipped easily into the role as head of state: In July 2002 Balkenende appeared in Beijing, China, to meet with Prime Minister ZHU RONGJI. The Chinese premier warmly toasted his guest, and he wished him well in his leadership post. Further Reading Andeweg, R. B. Governance and Politics of the Netherlands. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Hendriks, Frank, and Thomas A. J. Toomen. Polder Politics: The Re-invention of Consensus of Democracy in the Netherlands. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2001. Mudde, Cas. The Ideology of the Extreme Right. New York: Manchester University Press, 2000. Phalet, Karen, and Antal Orkeny. Ethnic Minorities and Inter-ethnic Realities in Context: A Dutch-Hungarian Comparison. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2001.


BALLADUR, EDOUARD 39 Rochon, Thomas R. The Netherlands: Negotiating Sovereignty in an Independent World. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1999. Timmermans, Arco. High Politics in the Law Countries: Functions and Effects of Coalition Agreements in Belgium and the Netherlands. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2003.

Balladur, Edouard (1929– ) prime minister of France Edouard Balladur was born in Smyrna (Izmir) Turkey, on May 2, 1929, the son of successful French merchants. His family resettled in Marseilles in 1934 and Balladur was raised in a strictly Catholic, highly conservative setting. He excelled in school and gained admittance to the prestigious Institut d’Etudes Politiques, receiving his law degree in 1950. After completing military service in North Africa, Balladur next attended the Ecole Nationale d’Administration, the training ground for future civil servants. He was sidelined by recurring bouts of tuberculosis while studying, but Balladur finally graduated in 1957 and found work in the French radio and television organization. It was while working at this post that he came to the attention of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou, who appointed him as a policy adviser on social and industrial relations in 1962. Over the next decade, the two men struck up an affable and constructive relationship, and Balladur’s political star began its ascent. As an adviser, Balladur convinced Pompidou to enact increasingly conservative social and economic policies that were friendly to business. After the public tumult of May 1968, he backtracked somewhat and advocated raising salaries, shortening the work week, and adopting a minimum wage. The following year Pompidou succeeded Charles de Gaulle as president of France, and Balladur followed him into his cabinet as secretarygeneral. Over the next five years Balladur introduced new policies that not only shored up the working class but also stimulated economic growth. However, following Pompidou’s death in 1974, Balladur declined a position within the administration of Valéry Giscard d’Estaing and withdrew from politics altogether. For the next several years he successfully headed several large corporations, and he also struck up a working relationship with a new conservative force in French politics, JACQUES CHIRAC . Balladur, sensing that the French polity was shifting left, warned Chirac not to run for

the presidency in 1981, but Chirac disregarded his advice and was totally defeated by FRANÇOIS MITTERRAND ’s Socialists. The leftists engaged in a spate of nationalization of key sectors of the economy and by 1986 had nearly ruined it. At that point Balladur reentered politics by winning a seat in parliament, at a time when right-wing forces obtained a majority. Socialist Mitterrand, wishing to put the best face possible on the reality of a stinging reverse, asked conservative Balladur to serve as prime minister of France through an arrangement known as “cohabitation.” As prime minister, Balladur continued his established practice of initiating conservative economic policies at the expense of the Socialists’ agenda. These included liberalizing the stock market and privatizing state assets, and considerable economic growth ensued. However, the Socialists were the immediate beneficiaries of such good results, and in 1988 Mitterrand again defeated Chirac in the race for president. Balladur stepped down as prime minister and returned as an opposition leader in parliament. The Socialists, however, enjoying a complete majority in that body, again embarked on reckless big-spending social programs that increased unemployment until it reached 10 percent of the workforce. The tide turned strongly against them in the elections of March 1993, when conservatives under Chirac won an absolute majority, and once again Mitterrand approached Balladur to serve as prime minister. France was then embroiled in one of its worse economic recessions ever. He wasted no time in addressing the spiraling national debt, and he introduced a severe austerity budget, new taxes, and additional privatization schemes to fuel economic growth. This strong dose of medicine brought the economy back from the brink, and by 1995 Balladur was easily the most popular politician in France. By now it seemed inevitable that he would finally seek the presidency in the 1995 elections. Balladur’s impending election hopes were dashed by several factors. Foremost among these was rivalry with his erstwhile ally, Jacques Chirac, who also coveted the highest office. Both men posited themselves as the best candidate to represent conservative interests, and their infighting only boosted the Socialist candidate, LIONEL JOSPIN , in the polls. But the decisive factor was the whiff of scandal. Previously, Balladur projected himself as a dull, scrupulously honest candidate, devoted to his job and beyond reproach. However, once it was revealed in 1995 that his office was responsible for illegally


40 BANDA, HASTINGS wiretapping phones of political opponents, his fortunes began to wane. In the first round of elections he came in third behind Chirac and Jospin, and he was compelled to drop out of the race. Since then, Balladur resigned as prime minister and returned to the National Assembly, where he continues to serve as an effective spokesman for the conservative Rally for the Republic Party (RTF) and as an ally of Chirac when it suits him. In April 1998 the former prime minister also testified before a parliamentary committee about French inactivity in Rwanda during the massacres there in the 1990s, and he stated that he considered recent criticism of that role as “biased and hateful” toward France. Further Reading Bell, David S. French Politics Today. Manchester, England: University of Manchester Press, 2002. Forbes, Jill, and Nick Hewett. Contemporary France: Essays and Texts on Politics, Economics, and Society. New York: Longman, 2001. Guyomarch, Alain. Developments in French Politics 2. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Levy, Jonah D. “Partisan Politics and Welfare Adjustment: The Case of France.” Journal of European Public Policy 8 (April 2001): 265–85. Raymond, Gino. Structures of Power in Modern France. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Banda, Hastings (1906?–1997) president of Malawi Ngwazi Kamazu Banda was born in Kasungu, Nyasaland, on May 14, 1906 (although other records suggest 1898), to an impoverished family of the Chewa tribe. His homeland was then a British colonial protectorate. Banda was educated at a missionary school run by the Church of Scotland, where he adopted the Christian name Hastings. He was intent upon furthering his education and reputedly walked over 1,000 miles with his uncle to the mines of Dundee, Natal. There he worked as a clerk while attending night school. A few years later, missionaries made it possible for him to visit the United States and attend Wilberforce University, Ohio, in 1925. Intent upon a medical career, he graduated three years later before attending Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1937. Banda then ventured to Scotland the following year for additional training, and throughout World War II he maintained a successful

practice in London and Liverpool. In this capacity he became acquainted with Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah, and many other future African independence leaders. Banda himself was aware of the racist state of affairs in his homeland, but he declined to become politically active. Instead, he corresponded with the nationalist Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) and provided financial contributions. Banda finally adopted political activism in the wake of Britain’s decision to combine Nyasaland and Rhodesia into the ill-fated Central African Federation. In 1953 he relocated to the Gold Coast (Ghana) at the invitation of Nkrumah, where he practiced medicine until 1958. That year Banda returned to his homeland for the first time in 30 years and began agitating for political independence from Britain. Being a medical doctor who had practiced many years among Europeans made him something of a homegrown celebrity, and Banda’s fiery oratory landed him a prison sentence in March 1959. He was released a year later to become head of the newly formed Malawi Congress Party (MCP), which was pressing Great Britain for complete independence. This became a reality in 1964, and the short, smartly dressed Banda became the nation’s first prime minister. Later, when Malawi became a republic within the British Commonwealth, he was elected to the presidency on July 6, 1966. Once in office, Banda quickly established himself as a despotic leader. As the unquestioned head of a oneparty state, the conservative-minded leader had to quell a left-wing mutiny within the MCP ranks when younger, leftist leaders contested his policies. Many were either jailed or died under mysterious circumstances. However, his popularity among Malawi inhabitants remained undiminished, and during a 1967 coup attempt, many residents assisted police in rounding up conspirators. Banda’s influence over the day-to-day life of average citizens was far-reaching. Finding that many Western standards in clothing and fashion were offensive, he personally banned long hair and bell-bottomed jeans from men, while censors busily covered the arms and legs of women in magazine ads. Banda himself was very fond of conservative-style Western clothing, and he was always impeccably dressed in a jacket, tie, and homburg hat. Furthermore, he could not converse in his own native tongue after so long an absence from home, and many Malawians began viewing him as little different from the Europeans whom they had dis-


BANDARANAIKE, SIRIMAVO 41 placed. As if to confirm this fact, in 1971 Banda had the constitution altered to have him retitled “president for life.” For all his autocratic methods, Banda was a firm believer in the market economy, and he did much to liberalize trade and privatize government industries. Under his leadership, Malawi adhered closely to guidelines established by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), achieved a high credit rating and, with it, considerable financial assistance. Hence, in contrast to many neighboring states, Malawi enjoyed a degree of affluence not usually associated with Central Africa. The president was also a pragmatist in terms of his foreign policy. Staunchly anticommunist, he readily established close economic links to the apartheid regime in South Africa, but he also opened up diplomatic channels to the socialist-oriented administration of Angola. For 30 years Banda ran Malawi like a personal fiefdom, quashing dissent mercilessly, but willing to undertake new steps to enhance living standards for average citizens. However, the bulk of these remained poor while Banda and his cronies amassed private fortunes. It was not until 1993, after he suffered a stroke, that political conditions changed. The nation was by then under increasing international pressure to allow multiparty elections. When these transpired in 1994, Banda was defeated by BAKILI MULUZI of the United Democratic Front (UDF) and withdrew from public life. Arrested for human rights abuses, he was declared senile and unfit for trial, and he spent his remaining days in quiet retirement. Banda died in a Johannesburg hospital on November 25, 1997, one of the longest-serving African heads of state from his generation of independence leaders. Further Reading Baker, C. A. Revolt of the Ministers: The Malawi Cabinet Crisis, 1964–1965. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2001. Forster, Peter. “Law and Society under a Democratic Dictatorship: Dr. Banda and Malawi.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 36 (August 2001): 275–294. Lwanda, John L. Kamuzu Banda of Malawi: A Study in Promise and Paralysis. Glasgow: Dudu Nsomba Publications, 1993. Mwalilino, Walusako A. The Making and Dethronement of the Ngonde Kings in Malawi: A Study in the Conflict between the Presidency and the Monarchy, 1964–1973. Silver Spring, Md.: Institute of Nyakyusa-Ngonde Studies, 1998.

Muyebe, Stanislaus C., and Alexander Muyebe. The Religious Factor within the Body of Political Symbolism in Malawi, 1964–1994: A Bibliographic Essay. Parkland, Fla.: Universal Publishers, 1999.

Bandaranaike, Sirimavo (1916–2000) prime minister of Sri Lanka Sirimavo Ratwatte was born on April 17, 1916, at Ratnapura, Ceylon, then a British Crown colony. She belonged to an illustrious family of Sinhalese aristocrats, and her father had served in the island senate. Though a practicing Buddhist, Ratwatte was educated at a Roman Catholic convent and she worked for several years among poor communities. In 1940 she accepted an arranged marriage with Soloman W. R. D. Bandaranaike, an older politician, and she settled into the traditional role of housewife and mother. By 1951 Ceylon had been granted independence within the British Commonwealth and her husband founded the Sri Lankan Freedom Party (SLFP), a socialist organization. However, when he was assassinated by a Buddhist fanatic in 1959, Bandaranaike was encouraged to take up the party’s banner. She did so with considerable guile, delivering tearfilled speeches and winning sympathy as the “weeping widow.” The outpouring of emotion catapulted her into office in July 1960 as the world’s first female prime minister. Like her husband, Bandaranaike was a cultural nationalist, and she deliberately invoked policies favoring the Sinhalese language. This, however, was done arbitrarily and at the expense of the Tamil minority, which constitutes 20 percent of Ceylon’s population. When further steps were enacted giving preferential treatment to Sinhalese natives in hiring and college admissions, Tamil resentment exploded into violence. Bandaranaike proved equally unrelenting and responded with force. By 1964 her army had failed to squelch the rebellion, but the economy sank under the imposition of hard-line socialist policies. Bandaranaike was then forced into a coalition with Trotskyite factions, suffered a vote of ‘no confidence’ in March 1965, and was forced to resign. Bandaranaike stayed on as opposition leader until May 1970, when the SLFP regained power and she resumed the premiership. Previously, she had melded together the United Front, an alliance between her party and numerous left-wing organizations, to enhance the coalition. The Tamils were still waging their guerrilla warfare, but the government suddenly faced a bigger


42 BANZER, HUGO military threat from an armed, left-wing insurgency, the People’s Liberation Front. Fortunately the revolt was crushed, with much bloodshed, by 1972. Bandaranaike then determined to change Ceylon’s status from a parliamentary government within the British Commonwealth to an independent republic. A new constitution was adopted calling for a president to share power with the prime minister. Significantly, it also bequeathed a new name to the nation, Sri Lanka, or “resplendent island” in Sinhalese. She then furthered her progressive agenda by nationalizing the business sector and instituting massive land reform. Bandaranaike also demonstrated her commitment to the nonaligned movement by expelling the Americansponsored Peace Corps and closing down the Israeli embassy. But, her personal popularity notwithstanding, Bandaranaike was unable to improve the economy. Her second term in office was plagued by low productivity, high unemployment, and grinding poverty. New elections held in July 1977 removed her from office a second time, and in October 1980 a presidential commission found her guilty of abusing power. She was consequently expelled from parliament and forbidden to run in upcoming elections. Bandaranaike regained her rights in 1988 and, as a measure of her amazing political resilience, she finished second in presidential elections held that year. By 1993 Bandaranaike’s daughter, Prime Minister CHANDRIKA KUMARATUNGA, had displaced her as head of the SLFP. The following year, continuing the island’s tradition of strong female leadership, Kumaratunga was elected president of Sri Lanka and she appointed her aged mother as prime minister. By now this was more of a ceremonial position, but it constituted the only time in history whereby one female head of state peacefully succeeded another through elections. It also represents the sole instance whereby a nation’s two highest offices were occupied by mother and daughter. Curiously, the new executive spent much effort overturning her mother’s outdated socialist policies in favor of privatization and neoliberal economics. But Kumaratunga enjoyed little success in taming the Tamil Tigers and their protracted terrorism continued. Bandaranaike held office until August 10, 2000, when she concluded four decades of public service by stepping down for health reasons. She died three months later in Gampha, Sri Lanka, mourned by the Sinhalese majority to which she devoted her life. However, the Tamil War, which her strident policies fo-

mented, continues, with a current death toll estimated at 80,000. Further Reading Goonevatne, Yasmine. Relative Merits: A Personal Memoir of the Bandaranaike Family of Sri Lanka. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986. Lakshman, W. D. Sri Lanka’s Development since Independence. Huntington, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, 2000. Sabaratnam, Lakshmanan. Ethnic Attachments in Sri Lanka: Social Change and Cultural Continuity. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Sivarajah, Ambalavanar. Politics of Tamil Nationalism in Sri Lanka. Denver, Colo.: iAcademic Books, 2000. Werake, Mahinda, and P. V. J. Jayasekera. Security Dilemmas of a Small State. Denver, Colo.: iAcademic Books, 2000.

Banzer, Hugo (1926–2002) president of Bolivia Hugo Banzer was born in Concepción, Bolivia, on May 10, 1926, into a family of pure Spanish ancestry. This set him apart from the bulk of his fellow citizens, 80 percent of whom are Indians. After receiving his education, Banzer attended the Bolivian Military College and graduated a cavalry lieutenant. He completed several years of routine assignments before passing through the U.S. Army School in Panama, and he subsequently received additional training at the Armored Cavalry School, Fort Hood, Texas. Banzer proved himself to be an excellent officer, and he acquired additional prestige by serving as the Bolivian military attaché in Washington, D.C. He returned home in 1969 to serve as director of the military academy. The short, nondescript Banzer also became known as “El Petiso” owing to his short stature. Bolivia, one of the poorest nations in South America, is also one of the most unstable. Since its independence from Spain in 1825, it has weathered an average of one military coup attempt every other year. In 1970 General Juan José Torres, a strident leftist, deposed the sitting president and took over. He then embarked on a policy of nationalizing foreign companies and properties, and he invited droves of Soviet and Cuban advisers into the country. Banzer, strongly anticommunist by persuasion, attempted a failed coup against Torres and fled to exile in Argentina. However, reforms initiated by


BARAK, EHUD 43 the Torres regime threw the country into social and economic chaos, which only further alienated the conservative military establishment. Banzer, meanwhile, made several clandestine visits back to Bolivia to rally political and military forces against Torres. He was captured on one occasion and this led to a successful, if bloody, military coup against the government on August 22, 1971. Banzer was then installed as head of the government. In practice, Banzer wielded an iron fist over Bolivia to restore order, stability, and root out leftist adversaries. This entailed the arrest of 15,000 dissidents, while a similar number sought refuge in neighboring countries. He also reversed the trend toward nationalization and expelled Soviet and Cuban diplomats en masse. This had the effect of winning support from the United States and other conservative governments in the region, and the flow of badly needed foreign aid resumed. Despite the crackdown and his authoritarian style, within four years Banzer had succeeded in checking inflation, fostering economic growth and ushering in a period—at least by Bolivian standards—of prolonged political stability. He also initiated education and welfare reforms aimed at assisting poor Indians, Bolivia’s majority population. By July 1978 he stepped aside in favor of free elections, although his chosen candidate, General Juan Pereda, was declared the winner. When these results were nullified by an electoral commission, Pereda led a successful coup against Banzer in 1979, who voluntarily stepped down to avoid violence. Eager to resume his political career, Banzer founded the National Democratic Alliance (AND) in 1980 and ran five successive times for the presidency. The former dictator finally triumphed in 1997 at the age of 71. “I have fought and will fight for Bolivia,” he crowed. “I will lead a political force that will consolidate the democratization process initiated in my previous government.” In office Banzer has proven himself both a populist and a nationalist, which appeals to a wide spectrum of Bolivian voters. And despite his conservative instincts, he was careful to implement social welfare reforms to shore up sagging standards of living. Banzer proved himself unique among recent Bolivian politicians by championing economic growth, but not at the expense of working-class citizens. Hence the privatization of state industries proceeded apace to placate the international financial community, but it went hand in hand with programs for mitigating the displacement that such reforms produce. It was a difficult

balancing act but Banzer, a highly disciplined figure, conducted himself with both boldness and restraint. Consequently, Bolivia has enjoyed one of the most sustained periods of growth and stability in its history. Banzer garnered considerable popularity among a wide spectrum of voters, but on August 6, 2000, he resigned as president after being diagnosed with cancer. His successor, Vice President José Quiroga served the remainder of his term in office, which expired in 2002. Meanwhile, Banzer’s past came back to haunt him. In 2000 a court in Argentina formally requested his extradition to stand charges for alleged involvement in “Plan Condor,” a scheme to eliminate leftists and labor opponents during the 1970s. Banzer died on May 5, 2002 before he could be prosecuted for these charges. Further Reading “Bolivian President Banzer Steps Down, Vice President Quiroga Sworn in.” Facts On File 61, no. 3166 (2000): 612–614. Crabtree, John, and Laurence Whitehead. Towards Democratic Viability: The Bolivian Experience. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001. Urioste, Miguel. Bolivia: Reform and Resistance in the Countryside, 1982–2000. London: University of London Press, 2001. Van Colt, Donna L. The Friendly Liquidation of the Past: The Politics of Diversity in Latin America. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2000.

Barak, Ehud (1942– ) prime minister of Israel Ehud Barak (born Brog) was born at Kibbutz Mishmar Hasharon, British-controlled Palestine, on February 12, 1943, the son of eastern European Jewish immigrants. As a youth, he gained a reputation for unruliness and belligerence, whose only interests were classical piano and picking locks. The state of Israel won its independence in 1948, and 11 years later Brog changed his last name to Barak (Hebrew for “lightning”). The short, restless young man then joined the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) as part of the elite sayeret matkal (“border reconnaissance”) units. He quickly established himself as a leading exponent of clandestine special forces missions, including the assassination of several ranking Palestinian terrorists. Barak rose quickly through the ranks, becoming a unit commander, head of military intelligence, and


44 BARAK, EHUD army chief of staff by 1991. He also found time to obtain a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from Hebrew University and a master’s degree in systems analysis from Stanford University. Prior to retiring from the army in 1994 as Israel’s youngest lieutenant general and most decorated solider, Barak helped orchestrate critical negotiations with Syria and Jordan over the return of Arab lands seized in the 1967 Six-Day War. These talks have since remained at an impasse, but they did succeed in establishing Barak as a “hawkish dove,” tough on defense issues but realistic enough to compromise on the issue of territory. In July 1995 Barak entered politics by joining the Labor Party under Prime Minister YITZHAK RABIN, another conspicuous veteran, who appointed him minister of the interior. Four months later Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli extremist, and he was succeeded by the more dovish SHIMON PERES. However, in 1996 a jittery Israeli polity turned Labor out of office in favor of BINYAMIN NETANYAHU of the right-leaning Likud Party. Barak’s star was nonetheless on the ascent and by 1997 he was voted head of the Labor Party. He used his pulpit to roundly criticize Netanyahu, a former military subordinate, for strident inflexibility in dealing with the Palestinian issue. Moreover, increasing U.S. pressure forced Likud to sign the Wye Memorandum, which stipulated increasing Palestinian control over the West Bank region. This, in turn, undermined the stability of Likud, which depended upon extreme religious parties to govern as a majority. The government was also being buffeted politically by a lackluster economy. In 1999 it was clear that his coalition was no longer viable, and Prime Minister Netanyahu called for national elections. Barak was chosen as the candidate of a new association, the One Israel Party, and he soundly trounced the incumbent on May 17, 1999. Barak served as prime minister of a country in one of the most violent, unpredictable, and dangerous regions in the world. The Middle East has been a cauldron churning with resentment against the Jewish state of Israel, and many Palestinians, either dispossessed of property and living in Jordan or residing in Israel as citizens, are increasingly motivated by terrorism. Barak, given his military background, unflinchingly ordered retaliation for each attack, but retribution undermines the prospect of negotiations with neighboring countries like Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. The latter, an object of Israeli occupation since the 1980s, was formally abandoned by

Barak after the loss of 900 Israeli soldiers. This was done in an attempt to placate Syria, which is also demanding immediate return of the strategic Golan Heights, lost in 1967. Barak also walked a fine line in dealing with YASSER ARAFAT, chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and nominal head of the Palestinian Authority, which governs Arab-controlled sections of the West Bank. In 2002, Muslim extremist groups such as Hamas unleashed a series of suicide bombings within Israel proper and even managed to assassinate the minister of tourism. Barak brooked no delays in launching retaliatory strikes against Arafat, whom he held responsible, while also holding out a chance for further negotiations. However, he was roundly criticized by Arabs and left-wing parties for allowing resumption of Israeli settlements in the occupied West Bank. The current Arab-Israeli struggle is internecine and with apparently no end in sight. Barak had a reputation as a hard-eyed pragmatist who was willing to concede land for peace, but the Jewish state has been reluctant to proceed, given no assurance that the Palestinian Authority is in actual control of its people. It is hoped that with the accession of newer, younger Arab leaders, such as ABDULLAH II of Jordan and BASHAR AL-ASSAD of Syria, the stalled peace talks can recommence. But the violence shows little sign of abatement and seems to be forever extending its grasp into the body politic. As late as November 2001, Barak was forced to testify before a judicial commission investigating the violent deaths of 13 Israeli Arabs by the army. “The overall responsibility is that of the government,” he explained. “The government needs to set policy and take responsibility.” It was hoped that Barak’s carrot-and-stick approach to negotiating could have ushered in a period of general peace or, at the very least, stop the escalating spiral of violence threatening Israel’s survival and, with it, Middle Eastern stability. In any event, on February 6, 2002, he lost the general election to hard-liner ARIEL SHARON, who promised to take an ever harder stance against Arab extremism. Further Reading Chapman, Colin. Whose Promised Land? The Continuing Crisis over Israel and Palestine. Oxford: Lion, 2002. Diskin, Abraham. The Last Days in Israel: Understanding the New Israeli Democracy. Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 2003. Hazony, Yoram. The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel’s Soul. New York: Basic Books, 2001.


BASHIR, OMAR HASSAN AHMED AL- 45 Jones, Clive, and Emma C. Murphy. Israel: Challenges to Identity, Democracy, and the State. New York: Routledge, 2002. Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, Lebanon. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003. Shakak, Israel. Jewish History, Jewish Religion: The Weight of Three Thousand Years. London: Pluto, 2000.

Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmed al- (1944– ) president of Sudan Omar Hassan Ahmen Al-Bashir was born in Sudan in 1944. A career military officer, he received his initial training in the Soviet Union before returning to the Sudanese military as a paratrooper. In this capacity, he fought with Egyptian forces against Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and he was highly decorated. Bashir then rotated back to Sudan, where he rose to the position of brigadier general of airborne forces. He spent several years in the southern part of the country fighting a long-standing struggle against Christian and animist forces who stridently resist the advance of Islam in their region. At length, an Islamic movement arose in the north which vocally agitated for the imposition of the sharia, or Islamic law, on the entire country. Bashir was apparently in sympathy with this aspiration for, when Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi tried to restrain the growth of Islam, he was overthrown in a bloodless coup on June 30, 1989. Upon assuming the reins of power, Colonel Bashir declared to his countrymen: “As soon as we feel that the Sudanese people are capable of making good decisions free from sectarian considerations and party politics, we will relinquish power.” Once in charge, Bashir took immediate steps to consolidate his position. He dissolved the parliament, abolished the constitution, and declared a national state of emergency. He also simultaneously promoted himself to brigadier general, prime minister, and commander in chief. Thus situated, Bashir embarked on a personal, quixotic, and—for Sudan—disastrous course to transform that impoverished nation into a model Islamic state. In concert with a 15-man Command Council of National Salvation, he ordered the sharia officially adopted as a state-sponsored creed. This only stiffened the resolve of Christian forces in the south to resist. Bashir also struck up a cordial alliance with the National Islamic Front of Hassan al-Turabi, who more or less

functioned as the government’s spiritual adviser. The net result of their efforts was a litany of human rights violations, political repression, and a return of the slave trade. The government began a concerted effort to kidnap Christian children, forcibly convert them to Islam, and have them combat their former cohorts. However, Christian forces under Colonel John Garang have resisted gamely and fought superior forces of the Sudanese government to a standoff. In return, Bashir resorted to a complete economic blockade of the south, aided by periodic drought, to starve the opposition out. Since 1980 it is estimated that at least 2 million people have died and another 4 million have been displaced by these efforts. The Bashir regime, however, was roundly condemned by the international community for not allowing humanitarian relief flights to enter the afflicted regions. Bashir originally inherited a weak economy burdened by large foreign debt, and his continual warfare has only made a bad situation worse. He has since embarked on a program to promote economic growth and cultivate outside investors, but the attempt has enjoyed little success. This is primarily because of Bashir’s radical pan-Islamic foreign policy. He supported the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, has visited Iran and Iraq for weapons and credit, and allowed terrorist cells under Osama bin Laden to flourish on his soil. In August 1998 this sparked an angry response from the United States, which bombed a so-called pharmaceutical factory in Sudan in response to terrorist attacks. The country remains on the U.S. list of countries that sponsor terrorism, and, in the wake of the September 11, 2001, destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City, President GEORGE W. BUSH may yet schedule retaliatory attacks upon terrorist training facilities. On December 29, 2001, Bashir won reelection as president with 86 percent of the vote, but the voting was boycotted by all the opposition parties. Given the grave economic and military situation in which he finds himself, Bashir is apparently moderating his stance on several fronts. To begin with, in December 1999 he had a falling out with al-Turabi and ordered his arrest. Next, he announced that henceforth his foreign policy would be officially “indifferent” to the Jewish state of Israel, which further distances himself from more radical regimes. Finally, he has made several attempts to negotiate a cease-fire agreement to the two-decade old Sudanese civil war that consumes most government


46 BATLLE IBÁÑEZ, JORGE LUIS revenues. Negotiations are continuing to this date in Eritrea, although it remains to be seen if Bashir will consent to a separation of church and state. Undoubtedly, his erratic and unpredictable leadership style, coupled with unworkable religious notions of government, have rendered Bashir one of the most ineffective leaders in Sudanese history. Further Reading Jendia, Catherine. The Sudanese Civil Conflict, 1969–1985. New York: Peter Lang, 2001. Jok, Jok Madut. War and Slavery in Sudan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. O’Ballance, Edgar. Sudan, Civil War, and Terrorism, 1956–99. New York: Macmillan Press, 2000. Peterson, Scott. Me against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda. New York: Routledge, 2001. Salam, A. H. Abdel., and Alexander De Waal. The Phoenix State: Civil Society and the Future of Sudan. Lawrenceville, N.J.: Red Sea, 2001. Warburg, Gabriel. Sudan: Islam, Secularism, and Politics since the Mahdiyya. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

Batlle Ibáñez, Jorge Luis (1927– ) president of Uruguay Jorge Luis Batlle Ibáñez was born in Uruguay on October 25, 1927, into an illustrious political family. His great uncle, José Batlle y Ordóñez, was a former twoterm president (1903–07, 1911–15) who helped lift the nation out of poverty by establishing the comprehensive welfare system still in operation. The younger Batlle began working as a radio journalist before joining the moderately conservative Colorado Party in 1945. Their traditional opposition was the National, or Blanco, Party. In 1956 Batlle attended the University of Montevideo, received a degree in law, and resumed his career in journalism. He then tested the political waters by being elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1958. Spurred on by success, Batlle next ran unsuccessfully for president in 1966 and 1971. However, from 1973–84, Uruguay was ruled by an oppressive military junta, which closed Batlle’s newspapers and frequently arrested him for questioning. The country then returned to civilian rule and Batlle began seeking political office. He was elected sen-

ator in November 1984, and, wishing to capitalize upon his famous name, he again ran unsuccessfully for president in 1989 and 1994. In 1999, Batlle was once more nominated as his party’s candidate for the presidency. However, the traditional rivalry between the Colorado Party and the National Party was complicated by the sudden rise and surprising strength of the Broad Front, a coalition of various center-left groupings under Tabaré Vázquez. The two established parties were somewhat stunned by the preliminary election results of October 31, 1999, when Vázquez garnered 39 percent of the vote. The 72-year-old Batlle won only 31 percent by comparison. Because neither side could claim a majority, a run-off election was scheduled for November. Both the Colorados and Nationals feared a leftist takeover, for Vázquez vowed to slow down or stop the trend toward liberalizing (privatizing) state assets. To prevent this from happening, Batlle then cut a deal with the National Party for their support. He also campaigned against Vázquez’s intention to institute an income tax for the first time in Uruguayan history. By siphoning off National Party support, Batlle went on to defeat the Broad Front candidate, while also securing slim majorities in the upper and lower houses. He was sworn in on March 1, 2000, and, in return, five National Party ministers were granted portfolios within his cabinet. Batlle inherited a reasonably sound economy, but future prospects were grim. Uruguay’s major trading partners, Brazil and Argentina, were both in economic disarray, and it was only a matter of time before the reverberations were felt at home. Therefore, the president moved quickly to update antiquated ways of doing business, capped governmental spending, and made the country’s products more competitive for export. He also began promoting computers and the Internet, and he pledged to help all of Uruguay’s students become computer literate. “Only those societies with open economies and with a high level of technology have acceptable levels of unemployment,” he declared, “Uruguay can and should transform itself into one of these nations.” Batlle also reiterated his support for Mercosur, a trade pact among Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. In a recent meeting with heads of states from those nations, he pushed for the expansion of free trade by the admittance of Chile and Bolivia to the pact. Batlle also summoned the courage to confront Uruguay’s recent past. During the period of military rule


BÉDIÉ, HENRI-KONAN 47 between 1973 and 1984, the country was wracked by civil unrest abetted by an armed left-wing guerrilla movement, the Tupamaros. The generals responded with a crackdown on freedom, with thousands of people arrested, tortured, and, in some instances, murdered. Batlle cordially met with the families of 159 unresolved disappearances to seek closure—a formal amnesty prevents the prosecution of offending officers. Batlle thereupon announced formation of a commission, culled from the government, the opposition, the church, and families of missing persons, to investigate the fate of each. Moreover, he dismissed a ranking general who suggested that armed conflict with leftists is inevitable and ought to be resumed. Batlle enjoys considerable political popularity and is confident that the economy will rebound by 2002. Furthermore, he earnestly hopes that the movement for free trade initiated by Mercosur will expand its reach to encompass markets from Argentina in the south to the farthest reaches of North America. Further Reading Davis, William C. Warnings from the South: Democracy versus Dictatorship in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995. Gillespie, Charles. Negotiating Democracy: Politicians and Generals in Uruguay. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Panizza, F. “Late Institutionalization and Early Modernization: The Emergence of Uruguay’s Liberal Democratic Order.” Journal of Latin American Studies 29 (October 1997): 667–691. Stubbs, Richard. Political Economy and the Changing Global Order. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Uggla, Fredrik. Disillusioned in Democracy: Labor and State in Post-transitional Chile and Uruguay. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 2000.

Bédié, Henri-Konan (1934– ) president of Côte d’Ivoire Henri-Konan Bédié was born in Dadiekro, Ivory Coast, on May 15, 1934, a member of the Baoule ethnic group. At that time his country was administered as a French colonial possession. Bédié completed his secondary education before training as a teacher, but he subsequently opted for a legal career instead. He ventured to France and

attended law school in Poitiers, graduating there in 1958. That year he also befriended FÉLIX HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY, the future president of the Côte d’Ivoire, and the two struck up cordial relations. Bédié then returned home to work as a civil servant, and was later sent to Washington, D.C., to train as a diplomat. Once the Ivory Coast gained its independence in 1960 as the Côte d’Ivoire, Bédié served as his country’s first ambassador to the United States at the age of 27. Like all government officials, he was part of his nation’s only official organization, the Democratic Party of Côte d’Ivoire (PDCI). He remained on station for six years before coming home in 1966 to serve in Houphouët-Boigny’s cabinet as minister of economy and finances. These were boom times for Côte d’Ivoire, and for the next 11 years the nation experienced great prosperity. However, rumors began circulating that Bédié had profited considerably at the public’s expense, so in 1977 President Houphouët-Boigny removed him, along with eight other ministers. However, Bédié subsequently found work with the World Bank in Washington, D.C., where he made many useful contacts among the international business community. By 1980 conditions were ripe for his return to Côte d’Ivoire, and he won a seat in the National Assembly. Soon after he demonstrated his mastery of parliamentary politics by gaining appointment as president of the assembly, where he remained for 13 years. In 1990, when multiparty democracy was finally authorized, Bédié astutely added provisions to the constitution stipulating that the president of the National Assembly would assume the presidency in the event of the incumbent’s death or resignation. When Houphouët-Boigny died suddenly on December 7, 1993, Bédié went on national television and announced his succession to the presidency. However, he did this before the Supreme Court voted on the assumption of power and while the prime minister, Alassane Ouattara, also maneuvered to secure the highest office. Fortunately, two days later the court voted in favor of Bédié and Outtara conceded the contest. Côte d’Ivoire, in addition to being one of West Africa’s wealthiest nations, was thus far unique for never having endured political coups of any kind. Bédié moved swiftly to consolidate his power within the government and it appeared that a peaceful transfer of power—the nation’s first—had been effected. Once in office, Bédié continued the economic policies of his predecessor and, given the success Côte


48 BEN ALI, ZINE EL ABIDINE d’Ivoire enjoyed in that field, suggested nicknaming his country the “Elephant of Africa.” Unfortunately, the eve of the 1995 elections proved violent, and the president overreacted by ordering the police and army into the streets to suppress all protesters. This did little to enhance his national image or popularity. But Bédié further strengthened his political dominance by having the National Assembly pass strict residency laws stipulating that presidential candidates must have two parents who are citizens of Côte d’Ivoire. His leading rival, Ouattara, was thus rendered ineligible. In light of these none-toosubtle machinations, the opposition largely boycotted the elections of 1995, which Bédié won resoundingly— if unopposed. Three years later, to further consolidate his grip, Bédié had the assembly pass a law extending his term in office from five to seven years and also allowing him to postpone future elections if political instability threatened. Finally, the president authorized additional changes to the constitution by creating an upper chamber, or senate, to function alongside the National Assembly. Not surprisingly, Bédié reserved to himself the right to appoint one-third of its members. The course of Côte d’Ivoire governance seemed irrevocably destined for dictatorship until December 25, 1999, when Bédié was overthrown by General Robert Guei. The former president escaped by airplane to Togo and thence to France. Citizens of Côte d’Ivoire welcomed the change and celebrated with a frenzied threeday looting spree in the capital of Abidjan. Guei cited his reason for overthrowing Bédié as increasing corruption, unpaid salaries for troops and civil servants, and allaround “bad governance.” In 2000 Guei himself was forced out of office after losing an election to Laurent Gbagbo, annulling the results, and stepping down in the face of national protests. Bédié, meanwhile, remained in France until October 2001, when a reconciliation panel invited both Bédié and Guei back to Côte d’Ivoire. His arrival was greeted by thousands of former PDCI supporters and he unapologetically declared his intention “to take up new battles.” Further Reading Bassett, Thomas J. The Peasant Cotton Rebellion in West Africa: Côte d’Ivoire, 1880–1995. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. “Côte d’Ivoire.” The Courier, no. 133 (May–June 1992): 5–25.

Mendt, Robert J. Historical Dictionary of Côte d’Ivoire. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1995. N’Diaye, Boubacar. “A Comparative Analysis of Civilian Control Strategies: Botswana, Ivory Coast, and Kenya.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Northern Illinois University, 1998. Nnedu, Uguchukwe. “The Impact of African Institutions and Economic Policy Traditions on Economic Growth: The Colonial and Post-colonial Experience in Nigeria and Côte d’Ivoire.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Auburn University, 2001.

Ben Ali, Zine el Abidine (1936– ) president of Tunisia Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was born in the coastal town of Hammam Sousse, Tunisia, on September 3, 1936. Having received his primary education, like many youths his age he became caught up in revolutionary activities against French forces occupying his country. After independence was won in 1956, Ben Ali was allowed to visit France to attend the prestigious military academy at St.Cyr and the artillery school at Châlons-sur-Marne. Adept in military matters, he subsequently took courses at Fort Bliss, Texas, and Fort Holabird, Maryland, in the United States. Ben Ali returned home in 1958 and, though a young man, was appointed director of military security, under President Habib Bourguiba, and as part of the Destourian Socialist Party. His main responsibility was controlling and directing state security forces and suppressing political dissent. This he accomplished skillfully and ruthlessly until 1974 when, following a disagreement with Bourguiba, he found himself reassigned as military attaché to Morocco. Ben Ali remained in disfavor six years later when he was appointed ambassador to Poland. However, mounting civil unrest in Tunisia culminated in bread riots throughout 1983–84, and he was summoned home as head of national security. With his usual promptness and efficiency, Ben Ali restored order and won favor with President Bourguiba, who successively appointed him minister of the interior, prime minister, and party general secretary. Public dissatisfaction with the aged Bourguiba induced Ben Ali to mount a bloodless coup against the tottering incumbent on November 7, 1987. Once installed, he energetically moved to confront two rising specters stalking Tunisia’s internal security. The first and most


BEN ALI, ZINE EL ABIDINE 49 ominous was the rise of an Islamic fundamentalist party, Ennahdha, which sought to overthrow the secular government in favor of a theocracy. Sensing a real threat, Ben Ali vigorously crushed its adherents, jailing thousands and outlawing any political activity with a religious slant. This, in turn, led to riots, police brutality, and a general abuse of human rights, but also insured the government’s survival. This rigid stance won him plaudits from Western governments, who overlooked Ben Ali’s abuses in favor of the stability he brought the country. The second problem confronting Tunisia was the economy. Ben Ali, who boasts an electrical engineering background, paid careful attention to economic growth, private investment, and expanded industry. His success here may be gauged by the fact that Tunisia has received more World Bank loans than any other African or Arab country in recent history. Ben Ali also encouraged fellow Tunisians to work abroad in Europe and the Persian Gulf states, thereby relieving the stress of unemployment at home. His emphasis on advanced technology, computers, active petroleum exploration and exportation, coupled with responsible fiscal discipline, has given Tunisia the most prosperous and stable government in the Arab world. The overall sense of satisfaction has also largely muted domestic criticism against him, which in any case is only vocal among religious factions. And, while seeking close economic ties to Western Europe, Ben Ali demonstrated his independence by supporting SADDAM HUSSEIN’s invasion of Kuwait in 1991 and, earlier, supporting the Palestine Liberation Organization by allowing its headquarters to be based in Tunisia. He was also one of the first Arab countries to restore diplomatic relations with Egypt following that country’s peace treaty with Israel. Tunisian troops, meanwhile, have been dispatched abroad to Somalia and Bosnia under the aegis of the United Nations, which further enhanced his country’s international standing. When Ben Ali first came to power in 1987, he vowed to expand democratization and political pluralism. However, he has continually reneged on the issue of political reform and, in fact, has contrived a system that virtually guarantees his monopoly on power. The government remains intolerant of any contrary group or individual views, secular or religious, which it sees as a threat to its continuation. Moreover, Ben Ali promoted the façade of democracy and popular will in 1989 and 1994 by running unopposed and emerged with an un-

Zine el Abidine Ben Ali (Embassy of Tunisia)

surprising 99 percent of the vote. In 1999 he allowed representatives from two minor parties to oppose him, and both he and his party, renamed the Democratic Constitutional Rally, won decisively. He has since allowed other, minor parties to flourish. Provided they parrot his antireligious views, they are granted state subsidies and time on television. But Tunisia remains, for all intents and purposes, a one-party state. Ben Ali proved himself a master at juggling national priorities, especially in his ability to determine when and to what degree to crack down on the opposition. Unlike many contemporaries in the Arab world, he has successfully weathered the challenge of Islamic extremism and remains firmly ensconced in power. This far-sighted, highly disciplined pragmatist is likely to lead Tunisia into the 21st century for some time to come.


50 BEREGOVOY, PIERRE Further Reading Borowiec, Andrew. Modern Tunisia: A Democratic Apprenticeship. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998. Chaabane, Sadok. Ben Ali on the Road to Pluralism in Tunisia. Washington, D.C.: American Educational Trust, 1997. Geyer, Georgie A. “Tunisia: A Country That Works.” Washington Quarterly 21 (Autumn 1998): 93–107. Murphy, Emma. Economic and Political Change in Tunisia: From Bourguiba to Ben Ali. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999. Sorkin, Jerry. “The Tunisian Model.” Middle East Quarterly 8 (Fall 2001): 25–30.

Beregovoy, Pierre (1925–1993) prime minister of France Pierre Eugène Beregovoy was born in Deville-les-Rouen, France, on December 23, 1925, the son of working-class parents. His family was poor, so in 1941 he quit school to help support the family as a textile worker and railroad ticket agent. During World War II he fought the German occupation as part of the underground resistance, and he acquired a taste for left-wing politics. After the war he joined Gaz de France, the national gas company, where he remained for 31 years. Beregovoy was self-educated and displayed an endless appetite for learning. Having risen to the rank of company executive, he attended the Labor Institute of the University of Strasbourg and obtained his diploma in scientific management. Politically, Beregovoy became closely associated with the Socialist Party throughout its ongoing evolution. In 1958 he helped found the Autonomous Socialist Party before merging three years later with a new group, the Unified Socialist Party. Like many other moderates in his group, Beregovoy felt that the only way socialism could prevail in France would be under the aegis of a noncommunist left wing. He subsequently joined the newly reorganized Socialist Party in 1969, and he served many years as its national secretary for social affairs. It was while acting in this capacity that he befriended FRANÇOIS MITTERRAND, becoming one of his most trusted advisers. His political fortunes greatly accelerated in 1981 following the election of Mitterrand as France’s first socialist executive. The self-taught Beregovoy found himself successively appointed secretarygeneral of the presidential staff and minister of social affairs in June 1982.

As a cabinet minister, Beregovoy displayed a consistent mixture of personal loyalty to Mitterand together with an unswerving, moderate approach to governmental policies. This placed him at odds with more ideological members of his party, but Beregovoy determined not to squander an opportunity for building French socialism by kowtowing to extremists. As minister, he fully embraced a decidedly conservative approach to economics, including higher social security taxes, co-payments by beneficiaries when possible, and cost-cutting measures to balance the budget. In 1983 he also enjoyed his first election success by becoming mayor of Nevers, a post that he held for a decade. In July 1984 Mitterrand rewarded his friend with a cabinet post as minister of finance. As such he became the only member of Mitterrand’s inner circle to possess a bona fide workingclass background. Probably for this reason, and his own life experience, Beregovoy was much more beholden to practicality than ideology. He was therefore determined to win the confidence of the business community by enacting sound economic policies such as reductions in government spending and pursuit of a tight monetary policy to buoy up the franc. Over the objection of party stalwarts, he also overhauled the stock exchange to make it more competitive, initiated a futures exchange, and launched banking deregulation. In 1986 the Socialists were rebuffed at the polls and Beregovoy left the cabinet, but he gained election to parliament from Nevers, and he also served as the party’s national secretary. In this capacity he helped engineer Mitterrand’s surprising comeback victory of 1988, and he was reinstated as his finance minister. Beregovoy fully expected to be made prime minister of France, second in command after the president but, strangely, this did not materialize. Nonetheless, he was one of the few senior Socialist leaders to enjoy public popularity in a period of mounting skepticism. Despite his best efforts, the French economy began sliding precipitously and Mitterrand’s administration was also increasingly criticized for a series of scandals. In April 1992 Beregovoy was finally tapped to replace the unpopular EDITH CRESSON as prime minister. It was widely anticipated that this appointment would revitalize the sagging fortunes of the Socialists and he pledged to “lance the abscess of corruption.” However, rising unemployment continued to dog the administration and, worse, Beregovoy found himself enmeshed in a scandal involving his acceptance of an interest-free loan. Despite earnest denials of wrong-


BERISHA, SALI 51 doing, the public apparently refused to believe him and in March and April 1993, the Socialists took a pounding at the polls. Consequently, Beregovoy resigned as prime minister and was replaced by the conservative EDOUARD BALLADUR under a “cohabitation” agreement with Mitterrand. Beregovoy was clearly distraught by his recent defeat and alarmed by the allegations of political impropriety against him. His friend and mentor, Mitterand, was sympathetic but offered no public support for the disgraced minister. Deeply depressed, and rather than face continuing hounding by investigation, Beregovoy committed suicide at Nevers on May 1, 1993. His passing has since been compared to the fate of Roger Salengro, a French politician who was falsely accused of collaborating with the enemy during World War I before taking his own life in 1936. His death also prompted President Mitterrand to speak up on behalf of his old friend, declaring that nothing “could justify throwing a man’s honor and ultimately his life to the dogs.” Further Reading Bell, David S. French Politics Today. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 2002. Cook, Linda J., and Mitchell R. Crenstein. Left Parties and Social Policy in Post-communist Europe. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1999. Elgie, Robert. The Changing French Political System. Ilford, England: Frank Cass, 1999. Gildea, Robert. France since 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Guyomarch, A. “The 1993 Parliamentary Elections in France.” Parliamentary Affairs 46 (October 1993): 605–626.

Berisha, Sali (1944– ) president of Albania Sali Berisha was born in the Tropoja district of northern Albania on July 1, 1944, the son of a peasant Muslim family. At that time his country was on the verge of becoming a hard-line Stalinist state run by Communist dictator Enver Hoxha—one of the most quixotic in Europe. Berisha was educated locally before attending the University of Tiranë, from which he graduated with honors in 1967. Intent upon a medical career, Berisha next studied cardiology at the Tiranë General Hospital. By 1978 he had established himself as a leading researcher in his field and subsequently served as a medical

lecturer at the university. His reputation as an intellectual notwithstanding, he was also allowed to join the Albanian Party of Labor (ALP–Communist) in 1971, despite its ingrained distrust toward such professionals. As Berisha’s medical reputation continued to grow, he received numerous awards and invitations to study abroad, including a UNESCO fellowship. He also joined the Copenhagen-based European Committee for Research in the Medical Sciences. Berisha continued working in his field, and with little fanfare until 1989, the year when the removal of Soviet troops from Eastern Europe signaled the coming collapse of communism. In time, Berisha became an outspoken proponent of political reform and liberalization in Albania. The government, then under President Ramiz Alia, began a series of tepid reforms but the public responded with mounting impatience. Foremost among malcontents was Berisha, who, at a convention of intellectuals, directly challenged Alia to open the country up. To underscore his determination to break with the past, Berisha resigned from the Communist Party and helped found a new opposition group, the Democratic Party (DP). By December 1990, public impatience with the Alia regime spilled over onto the streets. Demonstrations and riots erupted. Sensing the inevitable, the government finally authorized Albania’s first multiparty elections in four decades, whereupon Berisha was formally appointed president of the DP in February 1991. During the first round of elections held the following March, the ALP defeated the reformers and Alia was able to remain in power, although in a coalition with the DP. However, as the country began sliding into economic chaos, new elections were scheduled for March 1992. At that time, the DP was swept to power by capturing 62 percent of the popular vote and 92 of 140 seats in the National Assembly. Alia promptly resigned in consequence and on April 8, 1992, the legislature elected Berisha president. He was the first Albanian head of state who was not a Communist in 40 years. For a country with Albania’s repressive past, an important political crossroads had been reached. Berisha had little time for celebrations as, thanks to the communist tradition of state controls and centralized planning, Albania was on the verge of collapse. Immediately he responded with a scheme of economic liberalization and privatization. This produced the usual period of social dislocation and hardships, but within two years the national economy rebounded at a brisk 8 percent growth rate a year. Berisha was also committed to ending


52 BERLUSCONI, SILVIO Albania’s long tradition of political and diplomatic isolation. He therefore took deliberate steps to strengthen economic and political ties with Western Europe and the United States, all the while seeking additional economic investment. By 1994 Berisha had met or exceeded most of his political objectives; the economy was in better shape than when he had inherited it, and Albania was securely ensconced among the community of nations. These successes rendered him the most popular and influential politician of his day. Things began to go awry for Berisha commencing in 1995. That year he endorsed vindictive legislation designed to exclude former Communists from running in the 1996 elections, an act that, to many, smacked of the very authoritarianism he had campaigned against. Worse, the country became wracked by a large-scale and fraudulent pyramid investment scheme that cost Albanian citizens upwards of $2 billion. This represented the life savings of most citizens, and they responded with violence and rioting. Unrest continued into 1997 as voters became convinced that Berisha had personally profited from the scam, a fact underscored by legislative elections held in June of that year, when the Democratic Party was trounced and the Socialist (renamed Communist) Party took control. Berisha felt he had no recourse but to resign, which he did on June 29, 1997. “Though I have been elected from a fairer and more honest parliament than this present one,” he maintained, “I declare my irrevocable resignation to return to the post of a deputy for the Democratic Party.” Socialist Party secretary-general Rexhep Mejdani succeeded him to the presidency. Since his resignation, Berisha continues to enjoy considerable popularity in the ranks of the DP, to which he has been elected president twice, but his national ambitions have been stymied. In July 2001 he accused Socialist president Ilir Meta of rigging a runoff vote in the general election. Further Reading Biberaj, Elez. Albania in Transition: The Rocky Road to Democracy. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998. Kaser, Michael C. Albania’s Muscular Socialism. London: Contemporary Review Co., 1983. Destani, Bejtullah. The Albanian Question. London: Albanian Community Centre “Faik Konica,” 1996. Tarifa, Fatos. “Albania’s Exit From Communism in the East European Context.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1998.

Vickers, Miranda, and James Pettifer. Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan Tragedy. London: Hurst, 1999.

Berlusconi, Silvio (1936– ) prime minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi was born in Milan on September 29, 1936, the son of a banker. As a young man, he exuded entrepreneurial spirit by writing essays for fellow students in high school and charging them in proportion to the grades they received. Having attended the University of Milan for a law degree, Berlusconi characteristically dove headfirst into the business world by establishing Edilnord, a construction company, in 1962. He was widely successful and in 1974 directed his attention to the media market by creating his own television station. By cleverly acquiring smaller, independent stations to compete with the three state-owned channels, Berlusconi quickly established a media empire for himself, becoming one of Italy’s richest tycoons in the process. He further established himself in the popular press industry by acquiring no less than 30 magazines and newspapers as well as a leading publishing house. He also bought his own soccer team. By now, the handsome, dynamic Berlusconi was popularly viewed as an icon of success. At a time when Italian politics was becoming hopelessly mired in corruption and scandal, he became widely touted as a candidate for the next prime minister of Italy. His rising popularity and ability to accomplish difficult goals led the Italian media to dub him “Il Cavaliere” (the Knight). Berlusconi had, in fact, political aspirations, but he was dissatisfied with the existing political atmosphere. He was no friend of the many leftist parties extant. However, the logical choice, the Christian Democrats, were losing popularity owing to repeated corruption charges. Displaying the boldness that characterized his business leadership, Berlusconi decided to found and finance his own party, Forza Italia (Go Italy!) in 1994. It was a decidedly pro-business, free-market, free-enterprise organization and represented a clean break with past political traditions. Berlusconi then announced his campaign for prime minister, stating: “I have decided to enter the fray of public affairs because I do not want to live in an unfree country governed by immature forces and men tied to past political and economic failure.” With a net worth estimated at $10 billion, Berlusconi utilized his media assets to enact a slick, very Americanstyle political campaign. The Italian polity had never


BHUTTO, BENAZIR 53 before witnessed such style and confidence and, anxious for change, voted for the new party in droves on March 28, 1994. It was a feat that forever altered the Italian political landscape. The four-month-old Forza Italia Party enjoyed a clear majority in the Chamber of Deputies, so Berlusconi was sworn into office on May 11, 1994. A revolution of some kind seemed in the offing, as the new leader promised to transform the Italian economy and political scene. However, Berlusconi’s plans were derailed within months when Umberto Bossi of the Northern League, disenchanted with growing allegations of scandal against Berlusconi, pulled out of the coalition. Magistrates also began questioning him about his business practices, which were vast and seemingly byzantine. Rather than face a vote of no confidence in parliament, Berlusconi resigned his premiership after only seven months in office. Within months power shifted back to the left-wing Socialists under MASSIMO D’ALEMA and GIULIANO AMATO. The latter came to office only in April 2000 in the wake of another party scandal, and the public was appreciably angry. Berlusconi judged the moment right and announced his candidacy for a second time. This was despite a 1997 conviction investment fraud and a 1998 conviction for bribing tax officials. On the latter he was sentenced to two years’ imprisonment, which was never served, and in October 1998 Berlusconi was able to rally over 1 million supporters in Rome against the Socialists. Amato, in contrast, was beholden to a shaky coalition of 12 bickering leftist parties. On May 14, 2001, the irrepressible entrepreneur decisively defeated the Socialists, taking 168 seats in the upper chamber and 330 in the lower. This assured Forza Italia clear majorities and on June 10, 2001, Berlusconi was sworn in a second time. The most pressing issue facing the Berlusconi administration is its hostility to the introduction of a new, standard currency, the euro. This resistance, coming after carefully negotiated agreements had been signed by prior administrations, threatened the entire deal. Nonetheless, Berlusconi posits himself as a “Europe-First” politician, provided that Italy has greater say in monetary matters. He also hosted the G-8 meeting at Genoa in July 2001, which witnessed the death of a young protester by police. Berlusconi was roundly criticized for police behavior, and then compounded his difficulties in Berlin that fall by declaring his belief in the superiority of Western

civilization over Islam. This caused a strident protest from Islamic countries, and he apologized for the remark. However, the government’s contentious resistance to the euro convinced Foreign Minister Renato Ruggerio to resign from the cabinet in January 2002. Berlusconi has since assumed the twin posts of prime minister and foreign minister for at least six months. Freewheeling and unflappable as ever, he purportedly declared, “I like the job.” It remains to be seen if Berlusconi, this politician who melds business acumen, personal ambition, and political naivete, can succeed. Further Reading Bogart, Leo. Media Moguls & Megalomania: Berlusconi, Murdoch and Turner. London: Writers and Scholars International, 1994. Bufacchi, Vittorio. Italy since 1989: Events and Interpretations. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Gold, Thomas W. The Legal World and Contemporary Politics in Italy New York: Palgrave, 2003. Katz, Richard, and Piero Ignazi. Italian Politics: The Year of the Tycoon. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996. McCarthy, Patrick. The Crisis of the Italian State: From the Origins of the Cold War to the Fall of Berlusconi. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. Russo, Pipo. “Berlusconi and Other Matters: The Era of ‘Football Politics.’” Journal of Modern Italian Studies. 5, no. 3 (2000): 348–370.

Bhutto, Benazir (1953– ) prime minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto was born on June 21, 1953, in Karachi, Pakistan, the daughter of a noted political activist. Her father, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was founder of the Pakistan People’s Party in the late 1940s, and then became a noted member of the left-wing opposition. He became prime minister of Pakistan in 1971. The product of an affluent upbringing, Bhutto was raised by an English governess before attending Harvard’s Radcliffe College in 1969. She graduated cum laude with a bachelor’s degree in comparative politics in 1973 before receiving similar honors from Oxford University in 1977. She returned home that same year intent upon entering the civil service, but the military under General Mohammad Zia ul-Haq overthrew the government and imprisoned her father on charges of corruption and treason. Two years later he was hung in consequence, and Bhutto became the sworn enemy of


54 BHUTTO, BENAZIR Zia’s regime. Both she and her mother endured intermittent prison sentences before being exiled to London in January 1984. Thereafter Bhutto worked assiduously to enhance the Pakistan People’s Party from afar, and she stridently attacked the government for gross violations of civil and human rights. When martial law was finally lifted, she returned home in January 1986 to an adoring crowd of thousands. It being politically inexpedient to remain a single woman in a conservative Muslim nation, she accepted a traditional arranged marriage to businessman Asif Ali Zardari in December 1987. Bhutto also remained an outspoken adversary of Zia until August 1988, when he died in a plane crash. Immediately thereafter she declared her candidacy for the prime ministership. That November the Pakistan People’s Party won a slim majority in parliament, and Bhutto gained appointment as the first female prime minister of an Islamic country in the 20th century. As a woman and as a leftist, Bhutto was forced to tread carefully through the internecine labyrinth of Pakistani politics. To most Muslim fundamentalists, her success was an affront to Islam, and her positions in favor of repealing traditional laws deemed degrading to women proved another source of friction. Worse, her party was committed to a platform of providing greater aid to the poverty-stricken throngs of Pakistan, as well as other tenets of social justice. But, unlike her father, who was given to nationalizing key sectors of the economy, Bhutto believed in the free market and privatization to stimulate economic growth. Some gains had been made along political, social, and economic fronts when suddenly, on August 6, 1990, President Ghulam Ishaq Khah—backed by the military—dismissed Bhutto’s government. Officially, she was charged with corruption, nepotism, and abuse of power (which may in fact have been aimed at her husband) and the following October the Pakistan People’s Party suffered a humiliating defeat at the polls. Her strident conservative adversary, Mohammed NAWAZ SHARIF, became the new prime minister. Bhutto spent the next three years attempting to rehabilitate her reputation and political fortunes. Sharif proved unable to resolve Pakistan’s long-standing economic woes and, himself tainted by corruption, his administration was likewise dismissed. Bhutto again tossed her hat into the political arena, and in October 1993 she won a small majority in parliament to become prime minister again. Her second tenure in office proved as

tumultuous as the first. Pakistan remained saddled by a sluggish economy and fundamentalist unease over being led by a woman. Worse, Bhutto experienced a falling-out with her brother, who went on to found a rival political movement before he was gunned down by police. The prime minister claimed to have no role in his death, but the nation erupted with widespread street protests and calls for her resignation. Amid increasing chaos, President Farooq Leghari dismissed Bhutto from office for a second time on November 5, 1996. Her husband was also arrested for taking bribes and pocketing government money. In February 1997 Sharif again won a landslide victory over the Pakistan People’s Party, which was reduced to a mere 19 seats in parliament. In April 1999 a court convicted Bhutto and her husband on corruption charges, although the pair escaped and took up residence in London rather than face trial. Bhutto remains in self-imposed exile to this day. On June 10, 2001, a judge sentenced her in absentia to three years in jail for failing to appear in court to face corruption charges. Nonetheless, she continues to watch events on the subcontinent closely and, like many outside observers, was horrified by the prospect of a possible nuclear war between India and Pakistan over the contested region of Kashmir. In November 2001 she ventured to New Delhi to confer with Indian prime minister ATAL BEHARI VAJPAYEE and opposition leader Sonia Gandhi. “We owe it to our children to build a world free of the threat of nuclear annihilation,” she said, “Too much is at stake here; I want to play a role.” However, she remains less than welcome in her own nation, and presiding leader General PERVEZ MUSHARRAF declared that neither Bhutto nor her rival Sharif will have a place in any future Pakistani government. Further Reading Akhund, Iqbal. Trial and Error: The Advent and Eclipse of Benazir Bhutto. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Bhutto, Benazir. Daughter of the East. London: Arrow Books, 1988. Hughes, Libby. Benazir Bhutto: From Prison to Prime Minister. Lincoln, Nebr.: iUniverse.com, 2000. Lamb, Christina. Waiting for Allah: Pakistan’s Struggle for Democracy. London: Penguin, 1992. Shaqaf, Saeed. Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan from Zulfikar to Benazir Bhutto. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997.


BILDT, CARL 55

Bildt, Carl (1949– ) prime minister of Sweden Carl Bildt was born in Halmstad, Sweden, on July 15, 1949, into an aristocratic household. As a youth he visited Washington, D.C., on a school trip and was deeply impressed by the Lincoln Memorial. Thereafter he became indelibly pro-American in his personal and political outlook. Bildt attended the University of Stockholm in 1968 and that year he also joined the Moderate (Conservative) Party. After graduating in 1973, Bildt served on the staff of the Moderate Party chairman, and the following year he won election to the Stockholm county council at the age of 25. In 1976 the Social Democratic Party suffered a political loss and a conservative coalition took control of the country. Bildt thereupon became an adviser to the minister of economic affairs. In 1979 he also won a seat in the Riksdag, or national legislature, as a Moderate member. For the next three years Bildt fulfilled a number of minor bureaucratic positions until the Social Democrats returned to power in 1982, and he served as a member of the defense committee. Bildt was outspoken in his denunciation of the Soviet Union after one of its submarines ran aground in Swedish waters, and in 1983 he personally ventured to Washington, D.C., to brief members of the U.S. Navy over his committee findings. This led the leftish prime minister Olaf Palme to strongly question Bildt’s patriotism and dedication to Swedish neutrality, but it also boosted his national exposure. In June 1986 Bildt’s political fortunes accelerated when he was tapped to serve as head of the Moderate Party. His mission was nothing less than to topple the long-serving Social Democrats from power. The elections of 1991 were in many respects a turning point in Sweden’s modern political history. That nation had been renowned for its cradle-to-grave socialism, which gave its citizens low-cost health care, free education, and other benefits. However, this was achieved by raising tax rates to 60 percent, the highest in the industrialized world. But at the start of the decade Sweden’s economy was suffering a downturn, with inflation and unemployment both on the rise. Incumbent prime minister INGVAR CARLSSON began some moderate tampering with the so-called Swedish model to make it more competitive, but Bildt felt the time was right for a radical overhaul. He advocated deep cuts in taxes and social services, along with a much smaller role for government in the lives of average citizens. Bildt also vowed to bring the powerful Swedish labor unions into line, along with privatizing inefficient state-run businesses. As the econ-

omy continued its downward spiral, many Swedish voters felt that it was, in fact, time for a change. Despite ominous warnings from the Social Democrats, they were turned out of office in their worst showing in nearly 70 years. The four-power conservative coalition under Bildt won 171 seats, and he was installed as prime minister on September 17, 1991. He was also the youngest person to ever hold that office. Once in power, Bildt initiated sweeping changes in the Swedish national economy, including welfare cuts, tax cuts, and the sale of national industries. He proclaimed the end to the vaunted “Swedish model,” stating that “the age of collectivism is now at an end.” He also sought closer integration of Sweden with Western Europe. He aimed to achieve this even at the expense of the country’s cherished principles of neutrality, and he was determined to join the European Union. In 1995 Sweden finally accomplished that goal, which put the country on the center stage in European affairs. Bildt, unfortunately, was not on hand to celebrate the festivities. His enthusiasm for dismantling the welfare state alarmed many voters, and, in September 1994, they voted the Social Democrats back into power under Carlsson. But a corner had been turned, nonetheless. Hereafter, neither the welfare state nor rigid neutrality has held overarching sway over Swedish political culture, and both have been continually pared with each successive administration. Bildt has maintained an abiding interest in international affairs, no doubt buoyed by his fluency in English, French, and German. He is a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, and in 1992 he became chair of the International Democrat Union. In 1995 he was also tapped to serve as United Nations and EU representative in Bosnia during its war with Serbia, in which he roundly condemned the actions of v ´ . He continues as a UN member SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC of the Balkans peacekeeping force, and in January 2001 he called for a new and more permanent peace settlement for the Albanian-dominated province of Kosovo. Bildt strongly maintains that unless the international community constructs more durable political structures for the entire region, no lasting peace or stability will ensue. Further Reading Bildt, Carl. Peace Journey: The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia and the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1998.


56 BIRD, LESTER Einhorn, Eric S. Modern Welfare States: Scandinavian Politics and Policy in the Global Age. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003. Fulcher, James. “The Social Democratic Model in Sweden: Termination or Restoration?” Political Quarterly 65 (April–June, 1994): 203–214. Johnsson, Mats. “The House That Carl Bildt.” Scandinavian Review 97 (Spring–Summer 1997): 10–15. Malmberg, Mikael af. Neutrality and State-Building in Sweden. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Ruin, Olaf. “Managing Coalition Governments: The Swedish Experience.” Parliamentary Affairs 53 (October 2000): 710–720.

Bird, Lester (1938– Antigua and Barbuda

) prime minister of

Lester Bryant Bird was born on Antigua on February 21, 1938, the son of VERE BIRD. His father gained local renown by becoming that island’s first and longest-serving prime minister in 1981. The younger Bird was educated at the Antigua Grammar School and subsequently attended the University of Michigan to earn a law degree. While present he also distinguished himself in field and track, winning a bronze medal at the Pan American games. In 1969 Bird was admitted to the bar at Gray’s Inn, England, where he practiced several years. In 1971 he returned to Antigua, where his father was prime minister and head of the Antiguan Labour Party (ALP). That year Bird was nominated as a senator in the upper house, where he served as opposition leader for several years. In 1976 his political fortunes increased when he gained election to the parliament. A spate of government positions, including deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs, followed as his father groomed him for succession. After being reelected in 1989, Bird held the office of External Affairs, Planning, and Trade. In 1994 Vere Bird stepped down as nominal leader of the ALP and his son succeeded him. Nevertheless, his father cast a very big shadow over subsequent elections that year, which saw Lester Bird elected prime minister by a large and popular margin. In office, Bird perpetuated the Labour policies that had made his father so popular. These included particular attention to tourism and trade, which form a large segment of the island’s income. So aggressively did Bird pursue foreign investors that many opposition leaders accused him of putting the island up for sale. He coun-

tered by stating that “investors bring jobs and development that have made Antigua one of the most prosperous Caribbean nations.” However, the island was especially hard hit by hurricanes in 1995, with a corresponding decline in gross national product. Bird, fortunately, had attracted sufficient foreign investment to bail the economy out, and within a year it was back at previous levels, with a modest 5 percent unemployment rate. Since then he has been able to absorb refugees from the volcano-ridden island of Montserrat into the expanding jobs market. Overall contentment with Bird’s first administration may be gauged by the March 9, 1999, elections, where he was handily returned to power with 12 of 17 seats in the House of Representatives. Since then he has worked at improving tax collection procedures rather than impose new levies. “Our goal is not to take money away from the people’s pockets, but to put more money in them,” he said. The combination of modest tax rates, overseas investment, and efficient governance have rendered Antigua and neighboring Barbuda among the strongest economies in the region. As a sop to the politics of inclusion, Bird also regularly invites businessmen in to discuss public policy and discuss new strategies. In said manner, the prime minister feels the people will have greater say over the direction of their country. Unfortunately, there are a few distinct dark clouds on Antigua’s horizon. Part of this is family history. Earlier, Lester’s younger brother, Vere, Jr., had been accused of fraudulent behavior as minister of public works. This was compounded by his arrest for drug possession and arms smuggling. In 1990 Vere, Jr. had been declared “unfit for public office,” but Lester nonetheless appointed him minister of agriculture, lands and fisheries. In truth, happy little Antigua remains one of the world’s biggest centers of offshore money laundering, squarely connected to the Colombian cocaine trade. In February 1997 the government closed down several Russian and Ukrainian “offshore” banks on suspicion of criminal activity. Still, both the United States and Great Britain have advised its own banks to closely scrutinize all dealings with their Antiguan opposites. The government has since become the first Caribbean nation to sign a treaty with the United States over issues of extradition and mutual legal assistance. Further Reading Coram, Robert. Caribbean Time Bomb: The United States’ Complicity in the Corruption of Antigua. New York: Morrow, 1993.


BIRD, VERE 57 Dyde, Brian. A History of Antigua: The Unsuspected Isle. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 2000. Sanders, Ron, and Alan Aflak. Antigua and Barbuda: A Little Bit of Paradise. London: Hansib, 1994.

Bird, Vere (1909–1999) prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda Vere Cornwall Bird was born on December 9, 1909, in St. Johns, Antigua and Barbuda, into an impoverished working-class family. He had acquired only a primary education by the time he joined the Salvation Army as a teenager. Bird then trained on Grenada and acquired the rudiments of organizing and public speaking that guided him throughout his later life. He also returned home angered by the discriminatory racial policies encountered throughout the English-speaking Caribbean, and in January 1939 he found the Antigua Trades and Labour Union (ATLU). Bird was elected president in 1943, and he held that post for the next 24 years. Though poorly educated, he was charismatic and, at seven feet tall, an unmistakably island personality. He gained election to the island’s Legislative Council in 1945 and the following year also joined the Executive Council. In these capacities Bird emerged as the island’s most important labor spokesman, and he pushed hard for ending poverty among the sugarcane workers. Antigua and Barbuda was then a British colony, but in 1951 constitutional amendments were introduced granting universal suffrage. Bird capitalized on this by forming a political wing of the ATLU, the Antigua Labour Party (ALP), and he was again elected to the Executive Council. Here he criticized the white “plantocracy” monopolizing the sugar trade and demanded better wages and working conditions for their mostly black workers. By 1956 a ministerial system had also been adopted, and Bird became minister of trade and production. In 1960 the pace of movement toward self-governance and independence quickened. Bird served as chief minister and minister of planning, and elections that year brought all 10 seats on the Legislative Council under ALP control. Bird next pushed for associated statehood from Great Britain, which was achieved in 1967, and he became the island’s first premier. Under this arrangement, Antigua and Barbuda conducted their own internal affairs while Britain restricted itself to defense and foreign policy matters. That year Bird also stepped down as head of the ATLU and led the ALP as

a separate political organization. A rival organization, the Progressive Labour Movement (PLM) also took root and Bird experienced a reversal of fortunes in 1971 when the ALP was badly defeated in local elections. He remained out of power until 1976 but nevertheless bounced back, and he participated in intense negotiations with Great Britain for independence. This transpired on November 1, 1981, and Bird, in recognition of his status as the “father of the country,” became the first prime minister. Once empowered, Bird continued the economic policies that served the islands so well. He was determined to break their dependence upon the wildly fluctuating sugar market, and he went to great lengths diversifying the economy. His first priority was building up a profitable tourist trade, which remains the island’s greatest single source of revenue. Bird was also strongly committed to preserving and strengthening the freemarket atmosphere, and he advocated privatization and an influx of foreign investment. Bird was also one of the original architects of the Caribbean Free Trade Association, which in 1973 was renamed the Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM). And, mindful of his limited education, he initiated the founding of several secondary schools, and education remains free to the public. Through Bird’s economic foresight, Antigua and Barbuda have sustained growth rates of 7 percent annually, one of the highest in the region. They also enjoy one of the Caribbean’s best standards of living. Bird remained the country’s most popular politician, and he was reelected prime minister in 1984 and 1989. However, his attempts to establish a family dynasty proved more controversial. Both of his sons, Vere, Jr., and LESTER BIRD, were implicated in various corruption schemes, but their father refused to dismiss them from high office. A crisis was reached in April 1990 when Vere, Jr., was convicted of selling arms to the Colombian drug cartels and was banned for life from holding public office. Bird’s endless search for foreign investment also led to the rise of numerous “offshore” banks that the U.S. government has accused of routinely laundering drug money. Despite this criticism, the prime minister remained indelibly proAmerican and conservative in outlook, and in 1983 he supported President Ronald Reagan’s invasion of Grenada by supplying troops. By March 1994, “Papa Bird” was declining physically and he stepped aside in favor of his son, Lester. Vere Bird died on June 28, 1999, at the age of 89, a beloved national figure. His public funeral was attended


58 BIYA, PAUL by thousands of mourners, vying with each other to bid farewell to the father of their nation. At the time of his passing, Bird was also the longest-serving head of state in the English-speaking eastern Caribbean. Further Reading Coram, Robert. Caribbean Time Bomb: The United States’ Complicity in the Corruption of Antigua. New York: Morrow, 1993. Midgett, Douglas. Eastern Caribbean Elections, 1950– 1982. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1983. O’Marde, Dorbreve. A Decade of Development: Antigua and Barbuda Celebrate Its 10th Anniversary of Independence, 1981–1991. St. John’s, Antigua: I. Archibald and Associates, 1992. Payne, Douglas W. The 1994 Antigua and Barbuda Elections. Washington, D.C.: CSIS America’s Program, 1994. Sanders, Ronald. Antigua and Barbuda, 1966–1981: Transition, Trial, Triumph. St. John’s, Antigua: Archives Committee, 1984.

Biya, Paul (1933– ) president of Cameroon Paul Biya was born in the southern Cameroon village of Mvomeka’a on February 13, 1933, a member of the Boulou minority tribe residing there. At the age of seven he was enrolled at a Catholic mission at Ndem, where he excelled academically. Though originally trained for the priesthood, Biya elected to attend the Lycée General Leclerc in France, and he subsequently took advanced degrees in law and political science from the University of Paris in 1960. He then studied at the Institute of Overseas Studies before returning to Cameroon in 1962. There he was invited to join the government under President Ahmadou Ahidjo, the country’s first president. Cameroon, then and now, remains a country split along a north/south axis. The product of British and French colonialism, the two sections were joined together in 1961, with Christians dominating the south and Muslims predominant in the north. Cameroonians are further divided along linguistic lines, with English competing with French for political favor. Biya nonetheless held a succession of increasingly significant posts in the government, rising to prime minister in 1975. This made him the legal successor to the ailing Ahidjo. On November 6, 1982, Ahidjo stepped down for health reasons and Biya gained appointment as Cameroon’s second president. He

was distinguished from his immediate predecessor by being urbane, versed in Greek and Latin, and a devotee of classical music. It is not know what arrangement the two men worked out beforehand, for Ahidjo retained his post as head of the Cameroon National Union (CNU), the country’s only legal party. If through this expedient he intended to manipulate the scholarly, worldly Biya as his puppet, the scheme backfired completely. The new leader displayed an unpardonable degree of independence from his former mentor, and in 1983 and 1984, Ahidjo, now exiled to France, was implicated in two failed coup attempts against the president. Biya countered by abolishing the old CNU in favor of a new organization, the Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement (CDPM), which he tightly controlled. At first, Biya’s tenure was welcomed by his constituents, who reelected him by a large margin on January 14, 1984. However, having firmly ensconced himself in power, his regime quickly became an exercise in self-enrichment. In truth, Biya has ruled Cameroon with an iron fist for 14 years. He has cracked down on all political opposition and only grudgingly allowed the presence of other political parties. His reign also closely corresponds with a decline in Cameroon’s overall economic health. Commencing in 1984, when oil prices sank markedly, a strong recession hit the country. The prices of essential exports like cocoa, cotton, coffee, and palm oil also dropped precipitously and resulted in nine consecutive years of economic contraction. Part of the problem was the large and thoroughly corrupt Cameroonian government, overstuffed with Biya’s cronies, who skimmed 30 percent of business profits for their own use. Biya himself is estimated to be worth at least $75 million, and he owns, in additional to two Boeing 747 jumbo jets for his personal use, several large estates in France and Switzerland. Naturally, the people of Cameroon grew restive under such blatant corruption, and they commenced agitating for political pluralism and change. Biya allowed the first multiparty elections in 1990, but he also skillfully manipulated the mass media, which he by and large controls, to his own ends. Consequently, in 1997 he was reelected for a second seven-year term with little difficulty, owing to the fact that all opposition parties boycotted the process. Furthermore, protests and street demonstrations were brutally repressed by force, giving Cameroon one of the worst human rights records in Africa. A major sticking point in Cameroon politics is


BIZIMUNGU, PASTEUR 59 the schism between English- and French-speaking sections of the country. Biya, as a Francophone, does everything in his power to curry favor with the French-speaking parts of the country through patronage. Such favoritism promoted secessionist movements in predominately English-speaking parts of the nation, which were suppressed by force. Moreover, linguistic resentment crystallized in the presidential campaign of John Fru Ndi, an English speaker from the north, to run against him twice in national elections. He subsequently organized boycotts when Biya refused to have the process certified by an independent electoral commission. However, to lessen charges of favoritism toward adherents of French, Biya arranged for Cameroon to join the British Commonwealth. Meanwhile he continues to masterfully subvert the democratic process in Cameroon for his personal gain and to the detriment of his people. Further Reading Chiabi, Emmanuel. The Making of Modern Cameroon. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1997. Gwellem, Jerome F. Paul Biya: Hero of the New Deal. Limbe, Cameroon: Gwellem Publications, 1984. Takougang, Joseph, and Milton Krieger. African State and Society in the 1990s: Cameroon’s Political Crusade. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998. Walker, S. Tjip. “Both Pretense and Promise: The Political Economy of Privatization in Africa.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1998.

Bizimungu, Pasteur (1951– ) president of Rwanda Pasteur Bizimungu was born in Bushiri, Rwanda, in 1951, a member of the Hutu tribe. This is one of two major tribal divisions in Rwanda, the other being the minority Tutsi. In large measure, ethnic polarization between these two competing groups, along with occasional outbreaks of violence, has been the defining characteristic of Rwandan political life. Bizimungu was more fortunate than many of his impoverished brethren by attending the National University of Rwanda in 1973, and he subsequently received his master’s degree in France. He then returned home to function as a civil servant, and in 1990 he became a manager for the staterun utility, Electro-Gas. It was while working in this capacity that Bizimungu grew conscious of the need to change the corrupt, Hutu-dominated regime of General

JUVÉNAL HABYARIMANA,

who came to power in 1973. As astute businessman, Bizimungu pressed Habyarimana for sweeping changes at Electro-Gas, including raising rates, reducing the payroll, and cutting off debtors, but the general refused. This convinced him of the need for sweeping political reform, despite the fact that fellow Hutu tribesmen were the chief beneficiaries of Habyarimana’s rule. By 1990 angry Tutsis and disillusioned Hutus were pressing for multiparty democratic elections and they formed a dissenting group in exile, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). In 1990 Bizimungu denounced Habyarimana’s nepotism and ethnic discrimination, and he helped convince RPF leaders that his grip on power was tenuous. That same year the RPF began the first of a long series of protracted guerrilla attacks against government forces in an attempt to bring about badly needed reforms. On April 6, 1994, an unforeseen catalyst unleashed a human tragedy of unthinkable proportions. That month General Habyarimana and CYPRIEN NTARIYAMIRA , the president of neighboring Burundi (both Hutus) died in a plane crash. Their deaths were blamed upon the Tutsi-dominated RPF, and Hutu military and paramilitary forces went on a blood-spilling rampage. For three months they murdered thousands of Tutsis and moderate Hutus while the world looked on but did nothing. The death toll reached nearly 1 million before the RPF under General PAUL KAGAME managed to defeat government forces and subdue the countryside. Renegade Hutu, meanwhile, fled the country and sought refuge in the neighboring region of Congo. Peace was finally restored on June 15, 1994, and the killing subsided. The RPF was determined not to repeat past mistakes and installed a new government with an admixture of Hutus and Tutsis. Bizimungu, given his ethnic background and long association with the rebels, was then appointed president of Rwanda while Kagame, a Tutsi, became vice president and minister of defense. It was hoped such multiethnic, power-sharing arrangements would be a symbolic gesture of reconciliation, and encourage a more peaceful future. Bizimungu inherited a nation on the brink of collapse. Nearly 10 percent of its population had been brutally murdered while a quarter more were refugees scattered about Central Africa. “Our nation is in pieces,” he declared. “We must teach new values to the population, based on respect for universal rights.” Moreover, the fighting devastated what little infrastructure existed


60 BLAIR, TONY beforehand. The civil service, running water, electricity, and telecommunications all had to be restored quickly if Rwanda were to be running as a nation again. The country also faced a potentially destabilizing situation in the form of thousands of armed Hutu militiamen still residing in Congo, and who made occasional guerrilla attacks upon RPF forces at the behest of President LAURENT KABILA. Bizimungu, for his part, appealed to the international community for help, and, in December 1997, U.S. secretary of state Madeleine Albright arrived, pledging several million dollars in aid. President BILL CLINTON also toured Rwanda in March 1998, signifying Rwanda’s return to the fold of civilized nations. However, Bizimugu proved less successful addressing the issues of corruption and privilege. He skirmished continually with Vice President Paul Kagame and other senior leaders of the RPF until March 23, 2000, when he resigned in disgust over “the impunity of a powerful Tutsi clique, and unfair reprisals and corruption witch hunts against prominent Hutus.” Kagame then advanced to succeed him. The following June Bizimungu helped form a new political opposition at home, the Party for Democracy and Renewal, which was outlawed by the ruling regime. In April 2002 Bizimungu was arrested at his home on what authorities claim is illegal political activity. If convicted of such charges, he faces up to 10 years’ imprisonment. Further Reading Adelman, Howard, and Astri Suhrke. The Path of Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2000. Des Forges, Alison. “Leave None to Tell the Story;” Genocide in Rwanda. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999. Khan, Shaharyar M. The Shallow Graves of Rwanda. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2000. Kuperman, Alan J. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute Press, 2001. Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Blair, Tony (1953– ) prime minister of Great Britain Anthony Charles Lynton Blair was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on May 6, 1953. His father, a barrister

(lawyer) was a political activist within the Tory (Conservative) Party, and indelibly impressed upon his son the important of public service. Blair was subsequently educated at Durham Choristers before attending the elite Fetters College in Edinburgh. His fine academic performance landed him at St. John’s College, Oxford, where he pursued a law degree. When not studying, Blair also devoted inordinate amounts of time playing in a rock band, the Ugly Rumors. He was then admitted to the bar in London, where he met his wife, Cherie Booth, a fellow barrister, and the two married in 1980. He also became a committed Christian and joined the Labour Party out of a profound desire to help the disadvantaged. In 1982 Blair was defeated in his first election bid, but the following year he gained a seat in the House of Commons. His youth, intellect, and boyish good looks soon made him a party favorite and he commenced a stellar rise through the ranks. At this time the Labour Party was in the doldrums politically for, throughout the late 1970s and into the 1980s, they had been badly drubbed by Tories under Margaret Thatcher and her successor, John Major. On July 21, 1994, Blair replaced John Smith as the youngestever head of the party. Being by nature an astute political observer, he divined that his party was completely offmessage for the electorate of the times. Moreover, the centerpiece of his leadership campaign revolved around radically redefining both Labour and its approach to government. Taking on established interests like unions, Blair began arguing for a decidedly centrist approach to politics, a stance much closer to the average British voter. This entailed jettisoning some of Labour’s most cherish ideological assumptions about the welfare state. Foremost among these was the controversial Clause Four in the party constitution, which mandated a communist-style “collective ownership of the means of production.” Planks calling for full employment, welfare perks, and unilateral nuclear disarmament were also similarly discarded. Henceforth, Blair’s “New Labour” stood for free markets, privatization, low taxes, and responsible spending. And, having carefully studied and analyzed U.S. president BILL CLINTON’s 1992 win by co-opting Republican Party issues, Blair promised to be both “tough on crime and tough on the causes of crime.” Considering the ideological obstacles in his path, Blair’s remake of the Labour Party was one of the most impressive feats in modern British political history. Moreover, the country was ready for a change.


BLAIR, TONY 61

Tony Blair (Foreign and Commonwealth Office)

The ensuing election of 1997 was a resounding victory for the Labour Party, which had been in opposition for nearly two decades. Their candidates captured a record 165 seats in the House of Commons, which placed them in a firm majority. The well-heeled Conservatives, complacent after years of power, were also tainted by scandals and simply unable to fathom the nature of their opposition. In essence, Blair assured voters that Labour would be fiscally stringent and, in fact, would maintain the Tory monetary and spending policies already in place. This meant no new taxes, no increase in government programs, and utmost respect for values such as initiative and individual responsibility. Blair’s strict emphasis on fiscal discipline, coupled with a willingness to break with tradition, resulted in his election as Britain’s youngest prime minister of the 20th century on May 1, 1997. Once in office, Blair wrought no new changes, but he did alter the direction of government services in providing greater access to education and opportunity for health care for those less fortunate. “Power without principle is barren,” he affirmed, “but principle without

power is futile. This is a party of government, and I will lead it as a party of government.” But the emphasis now was on degree, not scope. He also followed through on a pledge to allow creation of parliaments in Scotland and Wales with limited taxing ability and a sense of regional sovereignty. In a major shift, the British government now took an activist role in promoting peace talks between Catholic and Protestant factions in Northern Ireland. Consequently, in December 1998, both Blair and his Irish counterpart, BERTIE AHERN, signed an accord that promoted a joint Catholic-Protestant governing arrangement in the six counties. The militant Irish Republican Army, however, refused to agree to disarm, although further negotiations in March 2000 prompted them to permit open inspections of their arms dumps. Finally, Blair as a politician is infinitely more receptive, but not totally committed, to the notion of integrating Britain’s economy and currency with its fellow European Union members. To this end he introduced the country’s first minimum wage law and a host of employees’ rights legislation to bring England up to par with other nations of Europe. Blair was also determined to maintain the “great” in Great Britain, at least on the international scene. Following the September 11, 2001, destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City, in which scores of British nationals died, he quickly and strongly announced complete support for an all-out war against international terrorism. In concert with U.S. president GEORGE W. BUSH, Blair committed air and special forces assets for the war in Afghanistan. With the Taliban regime toppled, he also pledged a sizable British contingent to be deployed for peacekeeping purposes. This stance has resurrected England’s visibility as a viable military power and reaffirmed its more traditional role as America’s most trusted strategic partner. Since the attack, he has constantly shuttled abroad seeking broad coalition support for Bush’s war on terror, while at the same time placating Arab allies by calling for creation of a Palestinian state. It was a bravura performance seldom equaled by British leaders of the past 50 years. His high-powered approach to leadership was also widely applauded in Europe, and imitated by GERHARD SCHROEDER of Germany and WIM KOK of the Netherlands. Having proven his credentials as a strong, decisive leader in times of adversity, and buoyed by the twin benefits of a sound economy and national popularity, Blair easily remained in office following elections in 2001.


62 BOLGER, JIM In the fall of 2002 Blair incurred considerable controversy in Labour circles for his unabashed support of President George Bush’s bellicosity towards Iraqi dictator SADDAM HUSSEIN. As war became more imminent, Robin Cook, Blair’s foreign secretary, resigned in protest on March 17, 2003. Nonetheless, and in spite of polls indicating 64 percent of public opinion opposed to war, British forces were in the forefront of Operation Iraqi Freedom when it commenced three days later. “In refusing to give up his weapons of mass destruction, Saddam gave us no choice,” Blair stated, “now that the war had begun, it will be seen through to the end.” Further Reading Abse, Leo. Tony Blair: The Man behind the Smile. London: Robson, 2001. Blair, Tony. New Britain: My Vision of a Young Country. London: Fourth Estate, 1996. Rentoul, John. Tony Blair: Prime Minister. London: Warner, 2001. Seyd, Patrick, and Paul Whitely. New Labour’s Grassroots: The Transformation of the Labour Party Membership. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Bolger, Jim (1935– ) prime minister of New Zealand James Brendan Bolger was born on May 31, 1935, in Taranaki, New Zealand, into a staunchly Roman Catholic family of Irish immigrants. He attended school until 15 before quitting to work on the family farm. He married and set up his own farm in 1963, becoming wealthy by breeding sheep and cattle. Given his naturally conservative outlook, Bolger joined the National Party, and in 1972 he successfully stood for a seat in parliament. The National Party took power in 1975, and Prime Minister Robert Muldoon appointed him to parliamentary undersecretary to various government ministries. Three years later Bolger joined the cabinet as minister of labor, in which he applied his conservative philosophy with a vengeance. His most lasting mark was in abolishing compulsory trade unionism, a hallmark of New Zealand labor law since the 1930s. However, the National Party was turned out of office by 1984, and he became deputy leader in opposition. The party then began looking for more effective leadership, and in 1986 Bolger was nominated party chairman. He served there until October 17, 1990, when voter discontent placed

the National Party back in power. Bolger was sworn in as prime minister the following day, becoming New Zealand’s first Catholic head of state in half a century. Prior to 1990, New Zealand boasted one of the world’s most extensive—and costly—welfare states. Bolger was pledged to a conservative platform promising deep cuts across the board in health, education, housing, and defense. In April 1991 he followed through with additional reductions in social security along with cutbacks in unemployment and sickness benefits. That July Bolger shepherded through the Employment Contract Act, which negated the ability of unions to negotiate wages and conditions and led to widespread strikes and protests. Bolger, however, continued with various and painful cost-cutting measures aimed at improving New Zealand’s competitiveness. Various politicians and ministers, alarmed at the prospects of their own political survival, changed parties or resigned from the cabinet. At one point Bolger sacked Winston Peters, minister of Maori affairs, because of his continual criticism. Undaunted, Peters subsequently founded his own New Zealand First Party. By December 1991, Bolger’s poll ratings were at 5.5 percent, the lowest ever recorded for a sitting prime minister. However, he remained stalwart in the face of public discontent throughout the 1993 elections. Surprisingly, the National Party retained power, although their majority in the House of Representatives was reduced to a single seat. Another unusual outcome of the 1993 elections was adoption of a German-style proportional representation system, which guaranteed seats for small parties such as Peters’s New Zealand First Party. After winning the 1996 elections, Bolger was forced to ally himself with Peters’s New Zealand First and small Christian Democratic parties to stay in power. This was the first coalition arrangement for New Zealand since 1935 and it placed additional strains upon the National Party to seize an outright majority. Happily, despite the rancor that Bolger’s austerity measures incurred, the national economy rebounded, growing at annual rates of 4 percent while unemployment dropped to 6 percent. Emboldened by success, Bolger expanded privatization efforts by offering more state-owned utilities to the marketplace. His administration further distinguished itself from Labour predecessors by seeking improved relations with the United States, a traditional ally. That alliance had been strained since 1985 when New Zealand withheld docking rights from warships if they carried nuclear weapons,


BOLKIAH, MUDA HASSANAL 63 something U.S. naval vessels neither confirmed nor denied. Bolger allowed the popular ban to remain, although he established better relations with President BILL CLINTON and high-level military contacts resumed. Bolger proved equally accommodating toward the conservative Australian government of JOHN HOWARD, and the two leaders struck up an amicable rapport. Unfortunately, many conservatives were unhappy about the National Party’s marriage to New Zealand First and, with poll numbers sinking, they resolved to right the matter. In November 1997 transport minister JENNY SHIPLEY waited until Bolger was out of the country for two weeks before circulating among fellow conservatives, collecting signatures of support. When Bolger returned, Shipley presented him with her list, promising a fight for the party leadership if he did not stand down. Sensing defeat, Bolger resigned from office on December 8, 1997, while Shipley went on to become the nation’s first female prime minister. After many years in retirement Bolger was appointed ambassador to the United States by Prime Minister HELEN CLARK of the Labour Party. He occupies this post at present. Further Reading Bolger, Jim. Bolger: A View from the Top: My Seven Years as Prime Minister. New York: Viking, 1998. Boston, Jonathan. From Campaign to Coalition: New Zealand’s First Grand Election under Proportional Representation. Palmerston North, N.Z.: Dunmore Press, 1997. Dawe, Rufus. From Hope to Glory: The New Zealand Economic Miracle, 1992–1995. Wellington, N.Z.: Fighting Cock Press, 1996. Miller, Raymond. New Zealand: Government and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Vowles, J. “New Zealand.” European Journal of Political Research 24 (December 1993): 505–513.

Bolkiah, Muda Hassanal (1946– ) sultan of Brunei Muda Hassanal Bolkiah was born on July 15, 1946, in Bandar Seri Begawan, capital of the Sultanate of Brunei. This tiny Islamic state has existed since the 13th century and has been ruled continuously under the same family. After 1844 it functioned as a protectorate of Great Britain, which lasted until the late 20th century when independence was finally achieved. It has since

been officially renamed Brunei Darussalam, or Brunei, Abode of Peace. Bolkiah was educated through private tutors at home before attending private schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He then returned home and was made crown prince in 1961, at the age of 15, to succeed his father, Sultan Muda Omar Ali Sifudden. At this time, Brunei was being pressured by Great Britain to become more democratic and to allow political activity. The sultan did so only reluctantly and for good reason. In 1962 the Brunei People’s Party was formed, which captured control of the new legislature and began agitating for the fall of the sultanate. An armed insurrection then commenced, which was only put down with the aid of British troops. A state of emergency was declared, forbidding all political activity, which is still enforced today. Meanwhile, Bolkiah was allowed to visit Britain where he enrolled at the elite military academy at Sandhurst. His studies were interrupted in 1966, however, when his father abdicated the throne. Bolkiah was then enthroned as the 29th sultan of Brunei on August 1, 1967, amid much national celebration. Brunei is a unique country and Bolkiah a unique leader. His nation, though small, is extremely wealthy owing to the great oil and natural gas resources it commands. Consequently, the sultan enjoys an estimated personal worth in excess of $40 billion and, on a scale commensurate with his title as the world’s third-richest man, has two wives, countless cars, horses, airplanes, and a 1,788-room mansion—the largest ever built. Despite his vast wealth and political power, he remains personable and on friendly terms with the inhabitants of his nation-state. The great wealth accumulated from oil has spilled over to the benefit the general populace, for they enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world. The per capita income averages over $20,000, and includes free access to health care, free education, no income taxes, and interest-free loans for consumers. This emphasis on material wealth and physical well-being has canceled out the public cry for greater political participation. Presently, there is none in the offing. Like his father, Bolkiah has resisted all attempts at democratization, which would spell the end of his family’s reign. In fact, he adheres to a closely prescribed Islamic governance of the country that discourages social change and enforces the status quo. However, he is intolerant of religious fundamentalism and will not allow militant, religious activity to flourish. His only flirtation with democracy occurred in 1985, when he allowed


64 BONDEVIK, KJELL creation of the Brunei National Democratic Party. This body no sooner came into being than it, too, agitated for the abolition of the sultanate, and it was dissolved in 1988. The only other source of potential social unrest is the sizable ethnic Chinese population, which are predominately merchants. These are not counted as citizens, however, and they receive none of the opulent benefits accorded native Malays. Individuals who make trouble and who are not citizens find themselves usually deported back to Taiwan or Hong Kong, and thus are dispensed with peacefully. For all its wealth, Brunei is a tiny, almost defenseless strip of territory. Since achieving its independence from Great Britain on January 1, 1984, it has depended on a small garrison of British troops to maintain security. Bolkiah has also extended his hand to neighboring countries such as Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia, and he has signed mutual defense alliances with them as well as cooperative economic agreements. These states, in return, have formally renounced any territorial ambitions at Brunei’s expense. The sultan is also aware that Brunei’s oil resources are likely to be exhausted within the next two decades, well within his lifetime. Therefore, he has embarked on a national course of diversification toward high technology and computers, thus converting Brunei into a center for banking, trade, and finance. His family has also endured greater public scrutiny after it was revealed that Jefri Bolkiah, the sultan’s younger brother, had embezzled several million dollars of public money in pursuit of an outlandish lifestyle. Thus Brunei, for better or worse, continues to be ruled by Bolkiah and his immediate family, who hold all key government positions. This last of the world’s absolute monarchs continues enjoying the respect and affection of his subjects, but the sultan performs a precarious balancing act between the need for innovation and the urge to preserve tradition. Further Reading Bartholomew, James. The Richest Man in the World. London: Viking, 1989. “Bolkiah, Sir Muda Hassanal.” Current Biography Yearbook (1989): 54–58. Bolkiah, Mohammed. Time and the River: Brunei Darussalam, 1947–2000: A Memoir. Begawan: Brunei Press, 2000. Chalfont, Arthur. By God’s Will: A Portrait of the Sultan of Brunei. New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989.

Gunn, Geofrey C. Language, Power, and Ideology in Brunei Darussalam. Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1997.

Bondevik, Kjell (1947– ) prime minister of Norway Kjell Magne Bondevik was born on September 3, 1947, in Molde, Norway. He matured in a rural area, inculcating the deeply held conservative values of the Norwegian countryside. Accordingly, Bondevik attended the Free Faculty of Theology at the University of Oslo, and in 1979 he became an ordained Lutheran minister. He also became interested in politics and, while still in school, served as chairman of the Norwegian Young Christian Democrats (KrF). Bondevik proved adept at politics and in 1973 he gained election to the Storting (parliament) at the age of 26. He rose rapidly through the party infrastructure, becoming vice chairman in 1975 and finally chairman by 1983. Three years later he served as deputy prime minister in a coalition government with Kare Willoch. However, at this time Norwegian politics were dominated by the Labor Party’s prime minister, GRO HARLEM BRUNDTLAND, one of the most successful figures in Norway’s history. For conservatives it spelled a decade in the wilderness as they vied among varying small parties to form an alternative government. Their opportunity arose when Brundtland unexpectedly stepped down in October 1996 and appointed JAGLAND THORBJOERN her successor. The national economy boomed under his stewardship, especially from the sale of oil and natural gas. However, many Norwegians felt that affluence and government spending were undermining traditional family values, a sentiment playing directly into conservative hands. Moreover, Thorbjoern declared his intention to resign if Labor did not do better than 39.6 percent in the 1997 elections. When, as expected, Labor voting totals declined slightly, he surrendered his office without ceremony. Bondevik, now viewed as one of the nations’ most promising leaders, was then invited to form a government. He did so skillfully, grafting a viable minority coalition among the Christian Democrats, Liberals, and Center Party. On October 17, 1997, he was sworn in as the first conservative prime minister in over a decade. “Just a short time ago, many people did not believe we would ever succeed in making a governmental declaration,” Bondevik stated, “now we are sitting here larger than life.”


BONGO, OMAR 65 Norway is one of the world’s wealthiest nations and, as the third-largest oil exporter after Russia and Saudi Arabia, can afford to sustain one of Europe’s most generous welfare states. Given the sound economy at home, Bondevik’s primary concern was events abroad. Many Scandinavian countries were in a heated rush to join the European Union (EU) for all the economic benefits it offered member states. However, Bondevik steadfastly opposed EU membership owing to the threat it posed to numerous fishing villages and small farms dotting the Norwegian political landscape. However, Norway is a member of the European Economic Area, which allows greater access to EU markets without subjecting the country to strict EU regulations. This arrangement suits the independent-minded Norwegian polity. The government also emphasized a more conservative, family-oriented agenda, including increased pensions for the elderly, better education, and a foreign policy predicated upon human rights. Bondevik was not shy about utilizing social benefits to his own advantage, and in 1998 he took over three weeks’ sick leave to mitigate a wellpublicized bout with depression. And, despite his conservative leanings, Bondevik evinced concerned over ecological issues. In March 2000 he argued against constructing several gas-fired power plants because of the pollution they spewed into the air. When the measure passed over his protests, he resigned from office and was replaced by Labor’s chairman, JENS STOLTENBERG. Bondevik served as head of the opposition for several months until new elections occurred on October 16, 2001. Labor, beset by criticism over high taxes and an indifferent civil service, suffered their biggest defeat in nearly a century, dropping from 65 to 43 seats in the 165-seat Storting. Bondevik was exultant and readily drew up another minority coalition as the new prime minister. “We have a good political platform,” he said. “We are going to work from a long-term perspective, but as a minority government we will always have to be ready to leave.” He then pledged to cut deeply into existing tax rates—among the highest in Europe—place greater emphasis on privatization, and pave the way for increased competition in the public sector. Moreover, Bondevik is determined to elevate Norway’s presence on the international scene. In January 2002 he visited Shanghai, China, to sign several measures for enhancing trade. The following month Norwegian representatives arrived in Sri Lanka, where they have played a crucial role arbitrating the bloody rebellion there by Tamil Tigers. “There

can be no misunderstanding about our reasons for being involved,” the priestly prime minister declared. “We only want to bring peace to the people of Sri Lanka.” But Bondevik, mindful that his political strength is based in the countryside and along the coasts, remains committed to keeping Norway out of the EU for the time being. He continually advises his Liberal Party and Center Party allies that their political survival depends on it. Further Reading Baldershim, Harold, and Jean Pascal Daloz, eds. Political Leadership in a Global Age: The Experience of Norway & France. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2003. Christensen, Tom, and Guy Peters. Structure, Culture, and Governance: A Comparison of Norway and the United States. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999. Einhorn, Eric S. Modern Welfare States: Scandinavian Politics & Policy in the Global Age. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003. Heidar, Knut. Norway: Center and Periphery. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2000. Matthews, Donald R., and Henry Valens. Parliamentary Representation: The Case of the Norwegian Storting. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999. Rommetveldt, Hilmar. The Rise of Parliament: Studies in Norwegian Parliamentary Government. Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 2003. Shaffer, William R. Politics, Parties, and Parliaments: Political Change in Norway. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998.

Bongo, Omar (1935– ) president of Gabon Albert Bernard Bongo was born in Lewal, HautOgoodué province, Gabon, on December 30, 1935. At that time his country, located on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, was a French colony. Bongo received his primary education at Brazzaville in neighboring Congo, and he was conscripted into the French air force as a lieutenant in 1958. He mustered out two years later and found work with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1962. This brought him to the attention of Leon Mba, the first elected president of Gabon, who subsequently appointed him to positions of authority in ministries dealing with tourism and national defense. Bongo favorably impressed Mba, who made him vice president in 1966, and he began grooming him for the succession.


66 BONGO, OMAR He was formally elected to this office in March 1967 and, after Mba died of illness on November 28, 1967, Bongo became the second president of Gabon. His uninterrupted reign of nearly 40 years establishes him as one of the longest-serving heads of state in recent times. Prior to Bongo’s ascension, Gabon had been established as one-party state after achieving independence from France in 1960. However, intent on securing better control of his charge, the new president formally dissolved the existing party and replaced it with a new organization, the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) in 1968. This facilitated domination of the national polity but, in Bongo’s view, also reduced the squabbling and tension between the 40 distinct language and ethnic groups comprising Gabon. Unlike most African nations, Gabon enjoys an abundance of natural resources, especially uranium and oil. Bongo, well versed in the intricacies of the free-market economy, allowed capitalism to flourish through free enterprise and foreign investment. The result was one of the continent’s highest per capita incomes, a relatively high standard of living, and, by African standards, an unusually peaceful regime. “Give me a sound economy,” Bongo declared, “and I will give you stable politics.” However, this was achieved by maintaining a strictly authoritarian state, which discouraged political pluralism and crushed dissent outright. Bongo’s control of state media, his great personal revenues, and his entrenched system of patronage have rendered him nearly immune from effective opposition. Not surprisingly, in 1973, 1979, 1986, and 1993, he was “reelected” to office despite claims of widespread voter fraud. In 1973, he also converted to Islam and adopted the name Omar. In the 1980s, the falling price of oil rocked the erstwhile thriving Gabon economy, and created a great deal of political unrest. Bongo responded to force, as usual, but spurred on by his two largest trading partners, France and the United States, he finally acquiesced to the inevitability of a multiparty system. Naturally, his control of national resources was directed at keeping the fractured opposition parties thoroughly divided, and in 1993 and 1998 the PDG easily retained power. His ability to keep the economy growing apparently muted most domestic unrest for strikes and protests, while common, were localized and never widespread. Furthermore, he is acutely aware that oil reserves, the mainstay of his economy, are running out. He is therefore very active in promoting and directing economic diversifica-

tion to wean Gabon from its dependence on oil and timber exports. The privatization of state-run agencies such as energy and water are also expected to increase revenues and, because Bongo owns controlling interests in both, he is expected to prosper and maintain his opulent lifestyle. With such a relatively stable and prosperous country to back him, Bongo emerged as a conspicuous player on the international scene. He forged close economic ties to France and allowed that country to help develop Gabon’s petroleum and mining industries. He was also firmly in the Western camp throughout the cold war, which brought him a favorable response—and financial aid—from the United States. Bongo also exerted influence as an arbiter during the internecine fighting in and around Central Africa. He has hosted numerous multinational conferences with a view to promoting regional peace and stability, particularly between the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This is essential to Gabon as the Congo River is a major commercial artery and sensitive to military interdiction. “Those who obstruct the river traffic are looking for war,” he warned the regime of LAURENT KABILA in October 2000. Bongo has consequently earned high praise from the Organization of African Unity, and he enjoys a measure of international respect and visibility not usually accorded despots ruling developing nations. Given the relative tranquillity of Gabon, his surprising suppression of tribalism and regionalism within its borders, and his tight control of its political machinery, Bongo seems destined to remain the head of his country for some time to come. Further Reading Barnes, James. Gabon: Beyond the Colonial Legacy. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1992. Decalo, Samuel. The Stable Minority: Civilian Rule in Africa, 1960–1990. Gainesville, Fla.: FAP Books, 1998. Ngolet, François. “Ideological Manipulation and Political Longevity—The Power of Omar Bongo since 1967.” African Studies Review 43 (September 2000): 55–73. Reed, Michael C., and James F. Barnes, eds. Culture, Ecology, & Politics in Gabon’s Rainforest. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 2003. Yates, Douglas A. The Rentier State in Gabon. Boston: African Studies Center, Boston University, 1995.


BORJA CEVALLOS, RODRIGO 67

Borja Cevallos, Rodrigo (1935– ) president of Ecuador Rodrigo Borja Cevallos was born on June 19, 1935, in Quito, Ecuador, the descendant of Spanish aristocrats. After completing his secondary education, he attended Ecuador’s Central University, majoring in law. He graduated in 1960 with honors and his dissertation reputedly became a standard text throughout Latin America. Borja then completed a stint of postgraduate work in Costa Rica, all the while developing an abiding interest in politics. This first manifested in his college days when he joined the Radical Liberal Party (PLR), one of Ecuador’s two traditional political organizations. He then gained election to the national congress in 1962 and was widely regarded as one of the most promising young politicians in the country. However, the military seized power in 1963, and Borja left Ecuador to work at the United Nations in New York. When democracy resurfaced three years later he returned home and joined the law school faculty of the Central University. The big change in Borja’s political destiny occurred in 1968, when the PLR candidate was defeated by José María Velasco. To achieve greater national unity, a powersharing agreement was reached between the conservatives and liberals, which outraged more leftist members like Borja. He then summarily broke all ties with the PLR and founded a new organization—the Izquierda Democrática (ID or Democratic Left) to counter what he perceived as a sellout. In 1970 Borja returned to congress as one of the first ID members before the military again took power. This latest coup kept Borja from taking office, and he traveled the length and breadth of Ecuador seeking to establish the ID as Ecuador’s first grassroots political party. By the time the military finally stepped aside in 1978, he had collected sufficient signatures to allow the ID to run in the upcoming national election. That year Borja finished a distant fourth, but his party had commenced its climb toward legitimacy in Ecuadorian politics. Borja was subsequently reelected and served as a national spokesman for the new “center-left” politics. In 1984 he again ran for the presidency, only to lose to the better-financed conservative, León Febres Cordero. Borja then spent four years touring the country and shoring up the strength of the ID, particularly in the coastal regions. In 1988 Borja again ran for president against Abdala Bucaram, a flamboyant populist, and he defeated him with 47 percent of votes cast.

Borja was formally sworn in as president of Ecuador in August 1988, amid great rejoicing by his left-wing compatriots. Borja’s festivities were short-lived, for the Ecuadorian economy was in deep recession. The problem was further compounded by high inflation, an escalating national debt, and declining oil prices. Though sworn to end poverty and fight injustice, the lack of revenue and the sputtering economy he inherited left the government cash-strapped and, hence, no new social programs could be initiated. Worse, from a leftist standpoint, Borja had little recourse but to enact distinctly neoliberal measures to restart the economy. These included a strict austerity budget, cutbacks in state programs, and close adherence to International Monetary Fund (IMF) guidelines for continuance of foreign aid. Results throughout his tenure were mixed at best. However, Borja had decidedly greater success in establishing the tenor of his administration. Intent upon a national and nonpartisan government, he negotiated with a wide spectrum of political interests, including Communists and Christian Democrats, and he endeavored to bring them into the fold. This was the first time in Ecuadorian history that the politics of inclusion had been practiced on so wide a scale. Once consensus had been achieved he concentrated on another hallmark policy of his administration: social justice and popular welfare, ideological lynchpins of the ID Party. For all his good intentions, Borja’s austerity measures did little to revive the moribund economy and the hardship it engendered. Consequently, in the 1990 congressional elections, the ID lost its majority in congress and with it Borja’s ability to formulate policy. He enjoyed better success abroad and struck cordial relationships with progressive leaders like CARLOS ANDRÉS PÉREZ of Venezuela and Alán García of Peru. In 1992 Borja honored the constitutional ban against second presidential terms, and he was replaced by Sixto Alfonso Durán Ballen. And, while he failed in his objectives, Borja’s administration was the first to make more than token efforts to mitigate the suffering of Ecuador’s poor and dispossessed. He continued for many years thereafter as a spokesman for the ID Party at home and abroad. In September 2000 Borja visited the People’s Republic of China at the behest of that country’s ruling Central Committee, and he hoped that closer relations between the two nations would develop.


68 BOUTEFLIKA, ABDELAZIZ Further Reading Conaghan, Catharine M. “Ecuador Swings towards Social Democracy.” Current History 88 (March 1989): 137–41, 154. Isaacs, Anita. Military Rule and Transition in Ecuador, 1972–1992. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993. Pallares, Amalia. From Peasant Struggles to Indian Resistance: The Ecuadorian Andes in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002. Roos, Wilma. Ecuador in Focus: People, Politics, and Culture. New York: Interlink Books, 2000. Selverston, Melina. The 1990 Indigenous Uprising in Ecuador: Politicized Ethnicity as Social Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Bouteflika, Abdelaziz (1937– ) president of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika was born in the border town of Oujda, Morocco, on March 2, 1937, and raised in Algeria. Like many youths of his generation, he took up arms against France in 1956 during the Algerian War for Independence. In the course of fierce fighting Bouteflika distinguished himself in several actions, and he rose to captain within the National Liberation Front (FLN). Fighting ceased in 1962 when French troops evacuated the country, and Bouteflika emerged as a national hero. Accordingly, President Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria’s first president, appointed him minister of youth, sports, and tourism. Within a year the intelligent, articulate young official gained appointment as foreign minister, and he remained in office after a 1965 coup installed Colonel Houari Boumedienne as president. For many years thereafter, Bouteflika became an official spokesman for Algeria’s left-leaning nationalism. He touted the nationalization of foreign assets in his country and, furthermore, expressed open sympathy for newly emerging developing countries attempting to do the same. His international reputation crested in 1974 when he chaired the United Nations special session on the new global economy. As usual, Bouteflika stridently promoted Third World interests at the expense of the established order. He was especially vocal on the issue of a Palestinian homeland and the return of Arab land captured by Israel in 1967. Under his aegis, Algeria also became highly touted as an international mediator, and he of-

fered its services to arbitrate running disputes among poorer nations. Despite his high visibility in the ranks of developing country diplomats, a cloud began forming over Bouteflika’s reputation over the issue of corruption. He was dismissed from office in 1980 and the following year was accused of embezzling $12 million while foreign minister. Bouteflika fled Algeria for Switzerland, where he lived in posh political exile. Ever eager to be associated with international diplomacy, he also lent his credentials and expertise to several Persian Gulf nations as a well-paid political consultant. The intervening 19 years proved difficult ones for his native homeland, however. Throughout the 1980s, plunging oil prices threw the Algerian economy into chaos, and the resulting recession led to mass unemployment, civil unrest, and the rise of militant Islamic movements. One group, the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), viewed the FLN-dominated Algerian government as hopelessly corrupt and agitated for creation of an Islamic state. Their message, rooted in the concept of sharia, or Islamic law, resonated with the populace, many of whom experienced genuine social distress. Accordingly, in the democratic elections held in December 1991, the FIS captured 188 seats out of 430 while the ruling FLN majority was pared back to a mere 15. This rising tide of fundamentalism greatly alarmed the Algerian military, unfortunately. In January 1992 they canceled upcoming elections—which FIS would have inevitably won—disposed of President Benjedid, and imposed rule through a High State Council. They also outlawed the FIS and began a campaign of repression that jailed thousands of its supporters. In turn, the disgruntled militants responded with a vicious, nationwide guerrilla war. It continued unabated and consumed the lives of 200,000 Algerians before new elections were scheduled in February 1999. Bouteflika was summoned from Switzerland by the military because military leaders felt he was the only civilian candidate they could support. In the ensuing election, however, all six other candidates boycotted the vote only two days before it was held to protest fraudulence. Consequently, Bouteflika ran unopposed on April 15, 1999, garnering 74 percent of the vote. He has since been considered by many Algerians as a pawn of the military. Since coming to power, though, he has spared no effort to negotiate with more reasonable elements of the Islamic movement. These have agreed to support a general cease-fire, although a more strident faction, the Is-


BOUTROS-GHALI, BOUTROS 69 lamic Armed Group (GIA) continues staging attacks. To further placate the opposition, Bouteflika promulgated a “civil concord” or general amnesty, which released large numbers of religious prisoners and reduced the sentences of others. He also pledged to attack corruption in government, modernize the economy, and improve social services. In the wake of the September 11, 2001, destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City, Bouteflika has conferred with U.S. president GEORGE W. BUSH on the issue of international terrorism, and he has pledged to help fight it. “Terrorism is one and indivisible,” he declared. “If we are going to combat terrorism, we must do it together, uniformly, with the same vigor, the same convictions, and the same financial means.” But, in light of small but continuing guerrilla attacks at home, Bouteflika has yet to bring about the lasting peace so desperately sought by his countrymen. His fate, and that of his nation, depend on it. Further Reading Graffenried, Michael von. Inside Algeria. New York: Aperture, 1998. Kiser, John W. The Monks of Tibhirine: Faith, Love, and Terror in Algeria. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002. Laremont, Ricardo R. Islam and the Politics of Resistence in Algeria, 1783–1992. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press, 2000. Martinez, Luis. The Algerian Civil War, 1990–1998. London: C. Hurst, 1999. Roberts, Hugh. Commanding Disorder: Military Power and Informal Politics in Algeria. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002. Rubin, Barry, ed. Revolutionaries and Reformers: Contemporary Islamist Movements in the Middle East. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros (1922– ) secretary-general of the United Nations Boutros Boutros-Ghali was born on November 14, 1922, in Cairo, Egypt, the son of a government minister. He belonged to a noted Coptic Christian family and was extremely well educated. In 1946 he received a degree in law from Cairo University before pursing advanced studies at the Sorbonne, Paris, obtaining a doctorate there in 1949. Thereafter, Boutros-Ghali served as a professor of international law at Cairo University, 1949–77, while also holding a Fulbright schol-

arship at Columbia University and receiving similar honors at the Hague University of International Law and the University of Paris. He soon became recognized as an authority on international law, a brilliant analyst, and fluent in French, English, and Arabic. However, his career in academe concluded in October 1977 when President Anwar Sadat tapped him to serve as Egypt’s minister of state. Apparently, his immediate predecessor resigned over peace efforts directed at the state of Israel. Boutros-Ghali subsequently accompanied Sadat on his famous visit to Jerusalem to initiate peace talks, and he was a key player in negotiating the 1978 Camp David accords. This established formal diplomatic relations between Egypt and Israel, in exchange for Israel’s returning the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. In 1990 he also helped negotiate the release of South African dissident Nelson Mandela from prison. Now a world-recognized diplomat, Boutros-Ghali represented Egyptian interests at the United Nations on several occasions, and he demonstrated his expertise on development issues affecting the Third World. In May 1991 President HOSNI MUBARAK appointed him deputy prime minister, a post traditionally reserved for Muslims, further heightening his international visibility. After 1991 the sitting secretary-general of the United Nations, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, declined to seek a third term. The African bloc of nations, feeling it was time to field a candidate to represent their interests, approached Boutros-Ghali to succeed him. Delighted, he became the first candidate to actively campaign for the post. On January 1, 1992, Boutros-Ghali became the sixth UN secretary-general, the first to originate from Africa, and also the first of Arab extraction. The cold war having ended in 1991, expectations were high for a new sense of internationalism, with the UN finally able to address development issues in depth. Boutros-Ghali brought with him, among other attributes, nearly 50 years of experience in diplomacy and international law and, more important, his vision as an activist secretarygeneral. Above all, he wished the agency to become directly involved in world affairs as its leading peacemaker and peacekeeper. These efforts would anticipate the mass influx of humanitarian aid to distressed regions of the globe. Boutros-Ghali assumed office at a difficult period in the UN’s history. As cold war boundaries began breaking down, ethnic fighting commenced in regions as diverse as Somalia, Rwanda, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The


70 BRUNDTLAND, GRO HARLEM secretary-general helped orchestrate large-scale peacekeeping missions with the United States, the sole remaining superpower and the UN’s biggest financial contributor, playing a prominent role. However, President BILL CLINTON felt increasing pressure from the Republican-controlled Congress for the UN to streamline its bureaucracy and cut waste and fraud. Boutros-Ghali complied in large measure, but he never satiated critics in the United States. Congress then stopped paying its annual dues, amounting to $2 billion per year. This retrenchment occurred as the UN expanded its peacekeeping efforts across the globe to such remote regions as Cambodia and East Timor. The lack of funding and close cooperation compromised its effectiveness. In certain instances, such as the NATO–backed bombing campaign against Serbians in Bosnia, Boutros-Ghali also opposed armed intervention in favor of lower-profile solutions. This further angered American critics, who by 1996 opposed his candidacy for a second term. Originally, Boutros-Ghali had pledged himself to a single term in office, but he later changed his mind. However, U.S. representative Madeleine Albright declared that unless Boutros-Ghali stepped down, no more funding could be expected. Moreover, the United States would veto his nomination in the Security Council. The secretary-general denounced his critics as vindictive and narrow-minded but he compiled, becoming the only secretary-general restricted to a single term. However, he had the satisfaction of seeing a fellow African, KOFI ANNAN, succeed him. After departing the United Nations, Boutros-Ghali resumed his academic career at Cairo University, and he was also elected to the Egyptian parliament in 1997. Despite his much-publicized row with the United States, or perhaps because of it, he has lost none of his popularity among the developing nations. In May 2002, Boutros-Ghali appeared at Nanjing University, China, to receive an honorary doctorate. He remains a major architect in the UN’s newfound attempts to bring greater harmony to a discordant world, intervening where possible to curtail human suffering. Further Reading Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. Unvanquished: A U.S.–U.N. Saga. New York: Random House, 1999. ———. Egypt’s Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomat’s Story of the Struggle for Peace. New York: Random House, 1997.

Burgess, Stephen F. The United Nations under Boutros Boutros-Ghali, 1992–1997. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2001. Meisler, Stanley. “Dateline U.N.: A New Hammerskjold?” Foreign Policy 98 (1995): 180–97. Morikawa, Yukiko. “Electing the Sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Oregon, 1992.

Brundtland, Gro Harlem (1939– ) prime minister of Norway Gro Harlem was born in Oslo, Norway, on April 20, 1939, the daughter of a Labor Party government minister. She was raised in an atmosphere of competitive equality with her brothers and encouraged to perform tasks traditionally assigned to boys her age. In 1960 she married conservative journalist Arne Olay Brundtland, and the couple raised four children. Intent upon a medical career, however, Brundtland obtained her degree from the University of Oslo in 1963, and two years later earned an advanced degree from Harvard University. She began her public career with the Board of Health in Oslo, but Labor Party connections resulted in an appointment as minister of environment in 1974. By 1979 Brundtland had expanded her political credentials by gaining election to the Norwegian Storting (parliament), where she served on committees dealing with finance, foreign policy, and constitutional matters. Early on, Brundtland established herself as a force to be reckoned with within the Labor Party by dint of her keen intellect and steely resolve. She was also a vocal advocate of equal rights for women, and in 1981 she rose to become head of the Labor Party. In this capacity she served a brief term as Norway’s first woman prime minister in 1981 following the resignation of Odvar Nordli. Brundtland at that time was also Norway’s youngest head of state, but the political novelty of her ascension ended seven months later when she was relegated to the post of leader of the opposition. However, the glass ceiling had finally been broken in Norwegian politics—thereafter, increasing numbers of women began serving in government. While out of office, in 1983 Brundtland had been approached by the United Nations to chair the World Commission on Environment and Development. Four years later she authored the famous report Our Common Future, also known as the “Brundtland Report,” which called for careful industrial development and


BRUTON, JOHN 71 greater respect for the earth’s fragile environment. It was widely hailed for its political vision and scientific relevance, and, in 1992, it served as the blueprint document for the UN Conference on Environment and Development at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Success on the international stage only heightened Brundtland’s popularity at home, and in 1986, following the collapse of a conservative coalition, she began her second term as prime minister. But her regular duties did little to temper her enthusiasm for environmentalism, and she also served as chairman of the World Commission of Environment from 1984 to 1987. Three years later Labor was upended again by the conservatives and Brundtland left office, still among Norway’s most visible and popular figures. Fortunes shifted again the following year, and in 1990 she assumed the highest office for a third time. In 1993 Brundtland was reelected to an unprecedented fourth term in office, making her one of the most influential politicians in recent Norwegian history. Ever independent-minded, however, she had her hopes pinned on other challenges, and so, in October 1992, she stepped down as party head in favor of her protégé, THORBJOERN JAGLAND. As a spokesperson for women’s rights, Brundtland was never shy about avoiding confrontation or controversy. During the 1994 UN Population Conference in Cairo, Egypt, she raised the ire of many Muslim and Catholic participants by demanding the decriminalization of abortion. She also appointed a record number of women to serve in her cabinet, nine out of 19. In 1996 Brundtland again surprised political pundits by announcing her resignation from office a year before elections were due. She was succeeded by Jagland and left behind a legacy of solid accomplishments. The most significant of these was an invigorated Social Democratic Party at a time when conservatism was sweeping most of Europe. Curiously, Brundtland’s biggest setback involved her failure to convince Norwegian voters to join the European Union (EU) in 1994—a referendum was soundly rejected. But in July 1998, she fulfilled a lifelong dream by being appointed head of the World Health Organization (WHO), a post in which she could act out her commitment to improving public health on a global scale. In this office she marshaled all her formidable personal qualities in a struggle against tobacco, malaria, and—above all—the worldwide scourge of AIDS. Brundtland considers herself a leader in the struggle against AIDS, which afflicts 40 million people world-

wide and infects an estimated 17,000 daily. Despite this alarming toll, money and lack of access to drugs continually hamper attempts to control the epidemic, especially in developing nations. Her cost-effective solution—widespread introduction of condoms—could effectively curtail and contain infection rates to acceptable levels, provided an intense educational awareness program accompanies the effort. “The world is now ready to turn back the epidemic, learning from those who have blazed a trail, scaling up the best practice and confronting AIDS systematically,” she insists. Brundtland is scheduled to remain as head of WHO until 2003. By the end of her tenure many anticipate that she will completely overhaul existing practices, rendering it, in her accepted fashion, a far more efficient organization than the one she inherited. Further Reading Breton, Mary Joy. Women Pioneers for the Environment. Boston: Northeastern University, 1998. Brundtland, Gro Harlem. Madam Prime Minister: A Life in Power and Politics. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 2002. Fukuyama, F. “Women and the Evolution of World Politics.” Foreign Affairs 77 (September–October 1998): 24–40. Graf, William. “From Brandt to Brundtland and Beyond: Hegemonic-Ideological Aspects of the North-South Dialogue in the 1990s.” History of European Ideas 15 (nos. 1–3, 1992): 399–406. Madeley, J. “Norway’s 1993 Election: The Road to Europe Blocked?” West European Politics 17 (April 1994): 197–203.

Bruton, John (1947– ) prime minister of Ireland John Gerard Bruton was born on May 18, 1947, in Dublin, to wealthy, farming landowners. He was welleducated locally, and he attended the University College, Dublin, where he obtained a bachelor’s degree in law. Around this time he joined Fine Gael, one of the two traditional Irish parties, and in 1969 he gained election to the Dail, or parliament. Bruton, aged but 22 years, was then the youngest member seated. He demonstrated a flair for public service over time, and in 1973 Bruton became parliamentary secretary to the minister of education. Four years later power shifted to the rival Fianna


72 BRUTON, JOHN Fáil Party, and he served as the opposition shadow minister on agriculture. In 1981 Bruton again demonstrated his public policy expertise by authoring Fine Gael’s policy statement for overhauling parliament’s committee system. The party then bounced back to power through the aegis of Garret Fitzgerald in June 1981, and Bruton found himself appointed minister of finance, his first cabinet posting. In this capacity he called for an increase in the European Union’s value added tax (VAT) to balance the budget, but public outcry against the measure brought Fianna Fáil back into power that year. However, within months Fine Gael’s fortunes had risen again, and Bruton became minister for industry and energy. In 1986 he resumed his post as finance minister and decided to devalue the Irish currency to revive the economy. His overall good performance propelled him up the party hierarchy, and in 1987 he assumed the mantle of deputy leader. In contrast to his frequently more flamboyant opponents, Bruton, known derisively as “the Brute,” was blunt, direct, and decidedly uncharismatic. However, this did not prevent him from becoming head of Fine Gael in 1990. In the spring of 1994 he strengthened his grip on party affairs by surviving a vote of no confidence, and he continued on as Fine Gael’s spokesman. Bruton’s political fortunes took a major upturn in 1994 when the administration of ALBERT REYNOLDS was rocked by the revelation that its appointee to the presidency of the High Court turned out to be an attorney who had mishandled a child molestation case. The public uproar caused the Labour Party leader Dick Spring to leave the government coalition, and the administration collapsed. Bruton, however, was waiting in the wings for such an event and, through deft negotiations with Labour and the Democratic Left Party, he formed a new coalition government on December 15, 1994. Bruton thus became the youngest-ever taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland. “We have joined forces now to confront and manage the changes that are reshaping our political culture,” he proclaimed. “To this end, we have committed ourselves to a government of renewal.” Once in office, Bruton established a blueprint for reducing the nation’s high unemployment rate, reforming the tax codes, and decreasing levies on the working poor. However, his greatest legacy was continuance of the Reynolds’s policy of promoting dialogue between and among Great Britain and warring elements in Northern Ireland. Bruton, a devout Catholic, considered

the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as terrorists and was loath to deal with them personally. However, in the interest of peace, he established a working rapport with the head of the IRA’s political wing, Sinn Féin’s GERRY ADAMS, and british prime minister JOHN MAJOR. In the course of these negotiations, he roundly denounced the IRA for its unwillingness to surrender its arms. Given the complexities and emotional forces driving the question of Northern Ireland’s possible unification with the Republic of Ireland, a resolution did not materialize during Bruton’s tenure in office. But his efforts were roundly praised, and in 1995 U.S. president BILL CLINTON publicly lauded the prime minister as a peacemaker. Fortunately, he enjoyed better success in narrowly passing a referendum lifting the ban on divorce in Ireland in November 1995. Earlier that year he enjoyed another controversial success by passing legislation that finally legalized abortion. Bruton continued serving competently as prime minister until the national elections of June 1997, when he narrowly lost to BERTIE AHERN of Fianna Fail. The latter managed to assemble a small coalition majority and Fine Gael passed to the opposition. Bruton managed to remain at the head of his party for several years until February 2001, when he finally succumbed to a 39-33 vote of no confidence. Apparently, the party suffered low ratings in national opinion polls, no doubt brought on by a succession of scandals involving bribery, nepotism, and incompetence. This ended his 11-year tenure as leader of Fine Gael after failing for four years to lead them back into power. “I fully accept this democratic decision,” he declared, “I am completely certain that Fine Gael will be in power after the next general election.” Party members agreed, and place their faith and hopes in finding new leaders. Further Reading Gallagher, Michael. Days of Blue Loyalty: The Politics of Membership of the Fine Gael Party. Dublin: PSAI Press, 2002. Guttman, Robert J. “Interview with John Bruton, Prime Minister of Ireland.” Europe 358 (July–August, 1996): 14–17. Kissane, Bill. Explaining Irish Democracy. Dublin: University College of Dublin, 2002. Mulholland, Marc. The Longest War: Northern Ireland’s Troubled History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.


BUSH, GEORGE W. 73 O’Malley, Desmond, and Tom Gavin. Redefining Southern Nationalism: A Political Perspective. Dublin: University College of Dublin, 2001.

Bush, George W. (1946– ) president of the United States George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of future president George Herbert Walker Bush. His father relocated to West Texas to pursue a career in the oil industry, and the younger Bush was initially educated at public schools and then at the elite Philips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. He then followed the family tradition by attending Yale University in 1964, which both his father and grandfather had attended. Bush obtained a bachelor’s degree in history and the reputation of a gregarious partygoer of modest intellectual means. In 1968 he joined the Texas National Guard, in which he trained as a pilot and flew F-102 jet fighters for four years. Having fulfilled his military obligations, Bush next attended prestigious Harvard University, and he received an M.B.A. in 1975. He then returned to Texas to start his own oil company, and he enjoyed mixed success. He also tested the political waters by running for the U.S. House or Representatives as a Republican in 1978, but he lost to a Democrat. After another long stint in the oil business, and a successful one, he became owner of the Texas Rangers baseball team, which he successfully managed. He also campaigned actively during the senior Bush’s 1988 run for the White House. Success here only whetted his appetite for more political activity. In 1994 Bush ran for governor against a popular incumbent, Democrat Ann Richards. Throughout their campaign, she lampooned him as a political lightweight and the child of privilege, but Bush determined to remain on message. Despite Richard’s acerbic taunting, he continually hammered away at the themes of decentralizing the poorly performing Texas school system, reforming the state juvenile justice system, and reducing the welfare rolls. Bush’s political message, while clearly Republican in tone, was not stridently conservative, and it appealed to many voters outside his core constituency. And, while Richards maintained her shrillness, Bush appeared jovial and convivial, increasing his public appeal. On election day, this son of a president became only the second Republican governor of Texas since Reconstruction, winning with 53 percent of the

vote, attracting the votes of many women, Hispanics, and younger people. Once in office, Bush strengthened his political credentials by demonstrating his ability to work with Democrats. He wooed the Democratic-controlled legislature with compromise and common sense, to the extent that nearly all of his campaign promises were fulfilled. Foremost of these was a pledge to cut taxes, which were reduced by $3 billion. The Texas economy soared in response and in 1998, Bush won reelection by a record 69 percent of the popular vote, including record numbers of blacks, Hispanics, and women who voted for him. The stage was now set for a rendezvous with destiny. In 1999 Bush announced his intention to run for the presidency of the United States as the Republican standard-bearer. He had no trouble raising a record $37

George Bush (Getty Images)


74 BUSH, GEORGE W. million initially, and it looked as though he would simply coast to the party’s nomination, until he ran afoul of Senator John McCain of Arizona. The tough-talking McCain, a decorated Vietnam war hero, scored heavily against Bush by portraying him as too inexperienced for the White House, especially in the realm of foreign affairs. The message resonated among some party members. During the New Hampshire primary, Bush lost to McCain by 20 percentage points. But, never losing a step in a well-oiled campaign, Bush quickly retooled his image to stress personal charm and to reemphasize familiar themes of tax cuts, school reform, and increased military spending. He took the process of image makeover a step further when, taking a leaf from incumbent President BILL CLINTON, he co-opted several distinctly Democratic themes into his own platform, including Social Security reform and better Medicare coverage for the elderly. Thus was born the notion of “compassionate conservatism,” which quickly became Bush’s campaign mantra. McCain was unable to adjust to such fancy political footwork and in the end he was overwhelmed in the “Super Tuesday” primaries of March 2000. In view of the heated nature of their contest, it took several months before the two were formerly reconciled, although McCain agreed on principle to work on Bush’s behalf in the general election. Bush next faced off with the Democratic nominee, sitting vice president ALBERT GORE, JR. Gore enjoyed the advantages of incumbency and a relatively robust economy, but he was tainted by the numerous scandals that had rocked the Clinton administration for eight years. In three televised debates with Bush, he came across to many as a wooden and devoid of original ideas. Not surprisingly, Bush gained and held a slight lead over Gore up through election day. On November 7, 2000, he did exactly that, but only after one of the biggest electionday imbroglios in American history. Bush and Gore split the electoral college evenly, save for the essential state of Florida (Gore, however, did accrue roughly half a million more votes in the national count). Earlier that evening, the networks awarded Florida and its crucial 25 electoral votes to Gore. They then retracted their prediction and gave it—along with the election—to Bush. Subsequent counting revealed Bush’s margin of victory to be a mere 327 votes out of 6 million cast, so an automated recount was in order. This he won without controversy. An angry Gore then convinced the Florida State Supreme Court, staffed entirely by Democrats, to order a manual

recount of four Democratic-leaning counties, which appeared to be undercounted. This was granted and took more time than the five days allotted by the court. Katherine Harris, the Republican secretary of state, refused an extension and ordered the results certified as a Bush win. Suspicions were also increased by the fact that Bush’s brother, Florida governor Jeb Bush, was in charge of the state’s political apparatus. Gore again appealed to the Democratic-controlled court for another manual recount, which was again granted over objections from the Bush campaign. The latter then appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court for redress. On a five-to-four vote, the Court sided with Bush and stopped the recount on December 12, 2000. Sensing the futility of further appeals (to which he was legally entitled) Gore formally and graciously conceded the contest. Almost by default Bush became the first son of a president to win the executive’s chair since John Quincy Adams in 1824. He is also the first president since 1876 to win the White House while losing the national popular vote. Bush was formally inaugurated on January 20, 2001, as the nation’s 47th president. “Together, we are changing the tone in our nation’s capital,” he said. “And this spirit of respect and cooperation is vital—because in the end, we will be judged not only by what we say or how we say it, but by what we are able to accomplish.” However, given the closeness and controversial nature of Bush’s victory, political pundits anticipated that any mandate for change was virtually nil. He was also expected to encounter resistance to passage of the most controversial of his campaign pledges, a massive tax cut, since the Republicans maintained but a razor-thin control over both houses of Congress. Bush surprised the establishment that May when the centerpiece of his legislative agenda passed. However, celebrations were cut short when Vermont senator Jim Jeffords left the Republican Party to become an Independent, thereby throwing control of the Senate over to the Democrats. Bush nevertheless prided himself in his ability to work cordially with the opposition and get the job done. Consequently, in the fall of 2001 Congress easily passed his sweeping educational reform bill, fulfilling another campaign pledge. Bush also scored another political triumph by securing fast-track authority to negotiate trade agreements. The new president also weathered his first international crisis that April when a Chinese jet accidentally rammed an American reconnaissance aircraft flying along the China coast. The damaged plane was forced


BUTHELEZI, GATSHA MANGOSUTHU 75 to land on Chinese soil and the 24-man crew was interned. This was an egregious act of aggression but Bush, realizing the value of China as a trading partner, calmly issued a statement that he was “very sorry” for the affair, and both the crew and plane were eventually released. Sadly and most unexpectedly, the defining moment of Bush’s presidency occurred not overseas, but on American soil. On September 11, 2001, two hijacked airliners flown by suicidal Arab terrorists struck and destroyed the World Trade Center buildings in New York City. Millions of viewers recoiled in horror over the televised images of the twin towers collapsing in ruin. Meanwhile, another hijacked craft hit the Pentagon, while a fourth crashed in Pennsylvania when passengers overwhelmed the terrorists. The ensuing destruction was so vast that it appeared surreal, and loss of life amounted to over 3,000 deaths. However, Bush quickly identified known Arab terrorist Osama bin Laden as the architect of the attack and ordered the U.S. military into action. He also cobbled together an international coalition of disparate nations to wage war on terrorist cells, wherever they reside. When the militant Islamic regime of Afghanistan, the Taliban, refused to hand over bin Laden, American carrier-based and strategic aircraft commenced a concerted bombing campaign that drove them from power within weeks. Special forces teams have also been committed to a ground search for the fugitive bin Laden, in concert with air and land assets committed by Great Britain’s prime minister TONY BLAIR. With the Taliban gone and a pro-Western government under HAMID KARZAI about to take power, Bush’s steely resolve eliminated a major haven for bin Laden’s international terrorist network. Bush currently enjoys a national popularity rating of 80 percent and reservations as to his ability to handle a foreign crisis have all but evaporated. However, with the economy entering a period of recession, he continues to push hard for a stimulus package over Democratic obstructionism. On November 5, 2002, he did exactly that, winning three additional seats in the House. More important, the Republicans upset the Democrats by taking two additional seats in the Senate for a total of 51, thereby securing control for Bush. Such gains also represent a historic reversal of political fortunes, for parties in power have traditionally lost seats in mid-term elections. Having consolidated his control over Congress, Bush forced his attention back toward Iraq and SADDAM HUSSEIN. He continued a military buildup in the

region, over the strident objections of China, France, Germany, and Russia, and on March 17, 2003, he issued a strongly worded ultimatum to the dictator. “All the decades of deceit and cruelty have now reached an end,” Bush solemnly declared on television, “Saddam Hussein and his sons must leave Iraq within 48 hours.” When the deadline had passed without compliance, Bush, along with a coalition of countries that included Great Britain and Australia, commenced Operation Iraqi Freedom. After three weeks of fighting Hussein’s troops, American tanks rumbled into Baghdad and effectively took control of Iraq. Further Reading Bruni, Frank. Ambling into History: The Unlikely Odyssey of George W. Bush. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Bush, George W. A Charge to Keep: My Journey to the White House. New York: Perennial, 2001. Ide, Arthur F. George W. Bush: Portrait of a Compassionate Conservative. Las Colinas, Tex.: Monument Press, 2000. Kellner, Douglas. 9/11 and the Terror War: The Dangers of the Bush Legacy. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Minutaglio, Bill. First Son: George W. Bush and the Bush Family Dynasty. New York: Times Books, 1999. Sabato, Larry. Overtime! The Election 2000 Thriller. New York: Longman, 2002. Williams, Mary E., ed. The Terrorist Attack on America. San Diego, Calif.: Green Haven Press, 2003.

Buthelezi, Gatsha Mangosuthu (1928– ) chief of Zulu tribe Gatsha Mangosuthu Buthelezi was born in Mahlabatini, South Africa, on August 27, 1928, the son of a Zulu chieftain. As such he received a better than average education by Zulu standards, including attendance at Fort Hare University. However, while there he engaged in political agitations against white minority rule in South Africa and temporarily joined the radical African National Congress (ANC). This was a socialist-oriented organization dedicated to the violent overthrow of the white regime. As such Buthelezi was expelled from college in 1951, but two years later he served as an interpreter with the Bantu Department of Durban. In 1957 he was also installed as the chief of the Buthelezi tribe in the Mahlabatini district. During the 1950s the white-


76 BUTHELEZI, GATSHA MANGOSUTHU ruled South African minority government adopted a formal policy of apartheid, or racial separation. To achieve this they divided the nation into 10 bantustans, or “homelands,” in which blacks could live and govern their own affairs but were allowed no influence over national affairs. Buthelezi strongly opposed the system initially but, displaying a degree of realism and pragmatism missing in many contemporaries, he eventually decided to cooperate with the whites. This brought charges of complicity with the apartheid regime from other African leaders, but it did give the Zulu king greater leverage in dealings with them. Patience and cooperation eventually paid dividends. In 1976 Buthelezi became chief minister of the KwaZulu homeland, which also served as his political power base. In fact the Zulu tribe, descended from a nation of famous warriors, held neighboring tribes in contempt and only reluctantly dealt with them as equals. Once the ANC commenced guerrilla activities against the South African government and began growing in numbers and popularity, Buthelezi felt pressured to found a political movement of his own. Thus emerged the Inkatha Freedom Party, which, although its origins are traced to a cultural movement of the 1920s, was in fact a miniature paramilitary group organized around ethnic lines. It soon numbered an estimated 200,000 members and became the dominant political force of the KwaZulu homeland. Buthelezi did not hesitate to unleash party members against the ANC whenever the latter threatened his authority, which, in turn, brought charges that he was fostering tribalism at the expense of black liberation. After 1985, fighting between the two black factions intensified as the end of the apartheid regime approached, and an estimated 18,000 people lost their lives. Nonetheless, backed by his army of fighters, Buthelezi was determined to be a major player in any post-apartheid settlement and he proffered Inkatha as a political counterweight to the more radical ANC. By the time ANC leader NELSON MANDELA was released from prison in February 1990, there was a growing sense that Buthelezi was preparing to use violence to advance his own political ends. Despite their mutual antipathy against white rule, the Zulu leader refused to cooperate fully with the ANC. Furthermore, in 1991 it was revealed that throughout the 1980s Inkatha had actually been subsidized by the white government, which made the chief minister seem duplicitous. But Buthelezi, a conservative-minded individual with little regard for

the ANC’s left-wing policies, remained unapologetic. In fact he initially refused to participate in the first-ever free elections of April 1994 unless KwaZulu were guaranteed a degree of autonomy. Furthermore, Buthelezi insisted that he himself be included in whatever government arrangement the ANC planned to adopt. After the elections Mandela was formally elected president of the new, racially inclusive South Africa, and the bantustan system was formally disbanded. But, in an effort to maintain the façade of national unity, Mandela appointed Buthelezi minister of home affairs. Since the end of apartheid, Buthelezi’s cooperation with the government has been based largely upon perpetuation of his own self-interest. His lack of cooperation in the post-apartheid era confounds many black leaders, who view him as either a traitor or an opportunist, but the presence of Inkatha allows the Zulu chief to bargain from a position of strength. In October 1998 a report issued by the government-sponsored Truth and Reconciliation Commission concluded that Buthelezi was in fact responsible for many atrocities committed against ANC members, although he denied any culpability. In June 1999 President THABO MBEKI tendered the office of deputy vice president to the Zulu chief, but he declined to accept. Then, in April 2002, Buthelezi warned the government that an impending immigration bill, revised with a command economy quota system, would threaten the traditional power base of local leaders. “I am talking about a very serious thing for our country,” he warned the ANC. Given his determination to maintain a visible profile in South African politics, Buthelezi remains a controversial figure, loved by some, hated others, but never underestimated by political opponents. Further Reading Berkeley, Bill. “The ‘New’ South Africa: Violence Works.” World Policy Journal 13, no. 4 (1996–1997): 73–80. Hamilton, Carolyn. Terrific Majesty: The Powers of Shaka Zulu and the Limits of Historical Invention. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998. Mare, Gerhard, and Georgiana Hamilton. An Appetite for Power: Buthelezi, Inkatha, and South Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. Mzala. Gatsha Buthelezi: Chief with a Double Agenda. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Zed Books, 1988. Temkin, Ben. Buthelezi: A Biography. Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 2002.


BUYOYA, PIERRE 77

Buyoya, Pierre (1949– ) president of Burundi Pierre Buyoya was born in Rutovu, Bururi province, Burundi, on November 24, 1949, into the minority Tutsi tribe. This small, landlocked country is the scene of some of the longest-lived and most horrific ethnic disputes on record. Burundi is shared by two major ethnic groups, the majority Hutu and the minority Tutsi, who have lived within close proximity of each other for centuries. However, an undercurrent of hostility between the two groups has long existed as the Tutsi have traditionally dominated civil and military affairs at the expense of the Hutu. The onset of Belgian colonial control in 1916 only served to exacerbate tensions, and outbreaks of violence became alarmingly frequent. Like many of his background, Buyoya was educated at home and sent to study military science abroad, in this instance the Royal Military Academy in Brussels. He returned to assume a succession of important command positions, although Buyoya was little known, even within his own country, before a coup against sitting president Jean-Baptiste Bagaza. At that time Bagaza had embarked on a crackdown against internal dissent, including attacks upon the Catholic Church, which made him highly unpopular in this highly Christianized nation. On September 3, 1987, a group of military officers bloodlessly overthrew Bagaza, then traveling abroad, and deposed him. They then appointed the trusted but little-known Buyoya to serve as interim president of Burundi. Once empowered, Buyoya displayed a surprising degree of moderation in his policies. He tried to placate the more numerous Hutu by bringing several into his government for the first time. He also pledged a return to democracy and initiated numerous political reforms. By June 1993, Burundi was ready for its first multiparty national elections, in which Tutsi Buyoya, with 32 percent of the vote, was soundly defeated by Melchior Ndadye, a Hutu. Surprisingly, the military leader peacefully surrendered power and urged his followers to support the new administration. Unfortunately, ethnic divisions ran strong, and the following October Ndadye was killed in a coup attempt. His successor, CYPRIEN NTARYAMIRA, restored order quickly, but he was also killed in a mysterious plane crash months later. A third candidate, Sylvestre Ntibantunganya, then rallied the country, but the rapid series of changes triggered a prolonged period of bloody civil war. By 1995 an estimated 200,000 Burundians, Hutu and Tutsi alike, were slaughtered by roving gangs of ethnic militias and the president declared to the world

that genocide was being committed against the Hutu of Burundi. When it became clear that Ntibantunganya could not restore order, he was overthrown by Buyoya in July 1996. Back in office, Buyoya took the unprecedented step of appointing the nation’s first Hutu prime minister, and he filled other cabinet posts with members of the same tribe. However, these measures were accomplished only after suspending the constitution, banning all political parties, and dissolving the national assembly. “We have to bring back democracy,” he affirmed, “but how long it will take, we don’t know; it could be 12 months, 18 months, or more.” By November, the assembly had been restored and the ban lifted. Buyoya also declared a three-year transitional period in which he hoped to restore order and promulgate a new constitution. Meanwhile, warring factions in the countryside continued fighting and killing civilians on both sides. Many in the Hutu fold blame Buyoya’s army for the violence, for he never appointed any high-ranking Hutu within its ranks. Buyoya, however, accuses rebels outside governmental control for continuing disturbances. An estimated 10,000 people were massacred within three months of the coup, which did little to enhance Buyoya’s reputation at home or abroad. In fact, the heads of neighboring countries were so upset by his overthrow of a democratically elected government that they imposed an economic boycott against Burundi. The boycott remained in place until 1999, which only added to the suffering of Burundi’s population. In November 2001, Buyoya was sworn in to head a three-year power-sharing agreement that, it was hoped, would end the eight-year-old civil war. However, the Hutu rebels refused to lay down their arms until further agreement could be reached. Accordingly, Buyoya’s representatives were dispatched to Pretoria, South Africa, to negotiate with former president Ntibantunganya for an end to the fighting. The peace deal was brokered by none other than NELSON MANDELA, and it hinges upon a release of political prisoners, restoration of the 1992 constitution, and creation of a national army with adequate Hutu representation. Further Reading “Buyoya: Bogeyman of Burundi.” New African, no. 345 (2000): 10–14. Evans, Glynne. Responding to Crises in the African Great Lakes. New York: Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1997.


78 BUYOYA, PIERRE Jennings, Christian. Across the River: Rwanda, Burundi, and the Heart of Darkness. London: Phoenix, 2000. Mwakikagile, Geoffrey. Civil Wars in Rwanda and Burundi: Conflict Resolution in Africa. Huntington, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, 2001.

Nyankanzi, Edward L. Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi. Rochester, Vt.: Schenkman Books, 1998. Schrrer, Christian P. Genocide and Crisis in Central Africa: Conflict Roots, Mass Violence, and Regional War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.


C Caldera, Rafael (1916– ) president of Venezuela Rafael Caldera Rodríguez was born on January 24, 1916, in San Felipe, Venezuela, the son of a physician. An exceptional student, he attended the Central University and obtained his doctorate in political science. For many years thereafter he taught at the university while also becoming active in numerous Catholic civic organizations. In 1936 Caldera commenced his political career by being elected to the Chamber of Deputies but, by 1946, he was sufficiently disillusioned by establishment politics to help found the Christian Democratic Party (COPEI). In this manner, he and his adherents hoped to find a “third way” between the tyranny of Marxism and the excesses of capitalism to address Venezuela’s social grievances. To underscore his belief in change, Caldera ran for the presidency in 1947 and lost to the newly founded, leftist Democratic Action Party (AD). A long interval of military rule then followed, and in 1958 Caldera was imprisoned and exiled for political agitation. He came home the following year and ran again for the presidency in 1958 and 1963, losing twice by increasingly smaller margins. Caldera then presided over the Chamber of Deputies as head of the opposition. In December 1968 he ran a fourth time for the presidency and acquired 29 percent of the vote in a multiparty election. He was sworn in on March 11, 1969, marking the first time in Venezuelan

79

history that power transferred peacefully from one party to another. While president, Caldera lacked a working majority in the legislature, so he had little recourse but to continue the economic and fiscal policies of his AD predecessor. Happily, Venezuela was experiencing a boom thanks to growth in the oil export industry. He embarked on only modest and gradual social reforms, all the while encouraging the growth of democracy through sponsorship of weekly television talks and press conferences. Caldera also took dramatic steps to nationalize the oil industry, which did little to endear him to the United States, but the additional revenue was channeled into helping the poor and middle classes. Furthermore, faced with a long-standing Marxist guerrilla movement, Caldera proved himself ideologically flexible enough to negotiate with them directly. To underscore his goodfaith effort, he relaxed relations with Fidel Castro’s Cuba, which enhanced his image with domestic leftists. By the time his first term in office ended in 1974, Venezuela was at peace and enjoyed a prosperous economy. Caldera was forbidden by the national constitution to run again for 10 years, so he left office to pursue scholarly pursuits. Several of his books were published worldwide. After a 20-year hiatus from politics, Caldera resurfaced in 1992 as a serious presidential candidate. Now in his 78th year, he had grown disillusioned by the


80 CALDERÓN, RAFAEL complacency of the Christian Democrats, and finally he broke ranks with them. Venezuela was then struggling with a deep economic crisis, one which engulfed the presidency of CARLOS ANDRÉS PÉREZ of the AD. Pérez left office after being impeached by the Senate and elections were held in December 1993. Caldera now ran as the candidate of the National Convergence Party, a crazy-quilt assemblage of 17 parties spanning the political spectrum. Opposition leaders openly derided it as the “cockroach coalition.” Nonetheless, he managed to scrape together a 30 percent plurality from the crowded field of candidates and was declared the winner. This victory also represented the first time in Venezuelan history that the two mainstream parties had been defeated. Voters initially felt reassured by Caldera’s victory, as he was the nation’s elder statesman and a respected figure. However, Venezuela’s woes read like a litany of grievances. The country’s overdependence on oil production was underscored when world prices toppled, leaving the government short of cash. Consequently, the national debt zoomed, interest rates skyrocketed, and cuts had to be made in social spending. But try as he may, Caldera’s attempts at fiscal reform and budgetary austerity wielded little impact. By 1997 inflation had risen to 31 percent, the worst in Latin America, and the currency had to be devaluated 40 percent. This distress only exacerbated the suffering of poor Venezuelans, the vast majority in a country in which only 10 percent of the population control nearly half the nation’s wealth. Even more inexplicable, Venezuela is the second-largest oil exporter in the world after Saudi Arabia and yet billions of dollars could not be accounted for. Caldera proved singularly unable to formulate a coherent economic strategy, hamstrung as he was by the lack of a working majority in Congress. To forestall further social unrest, he agreed to end his tenure in office a year early and call for early elections. Caldera’s political misfortunes crested in December 1998, when the contest was won by HUGO CHÁVEZ, a former soldier and coup leader, who promised dramatic reforms. The ensuing contest split the nation along class lines, pitting rich and middle class against the poor, and threatened to spill onto the streets. But Caldera was adamant that law and the will of the people prevail. “The government and armed forces have promised to respect the electoral results. That respect will be sacrosanct,” he lectured. “At the same time we de-

mand that the results be accepted in peace.” Caldera has lived in quiet retirement since leaving office. Further Reading Buxton, Julia. The Failure of Political Reform in Venezuela. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2001. Canache, Damarys. Venezuela: Public Opinion and Protest in a Fragile Democracy. Coral Gables, Fla.: NorthSouth Center Press at the University of Miami, 2002. Crisp, Brian F. Democratic Institutional Design: The Powers and Incentives of Venezuelan Politicians and Interest Groups. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000. Goodman, Louis W. Lesson of the Venezuelan Experience. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. Perry, William, and Norman A. Bailey. Venezuela, 1994: Challenges for the Caldera Administration. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1994.

Calderón, Rafael (1949– ) president of Costa Rica Rafael Angel Calderón Fournier was born in Diriamba, Nicaragua, on March 14, 1949, the son of Rafael Calderón Guardia, former president of Costa Rica (1940–44). At that time the senior Calderón had lost a civil war to opposition forces and was living in exile. Rafael Calderón was initially educated in Mexico City, but he returned home with his family to complete his education. In 1977 he graduated from the University of Costa Rica with a law degree and, like his father before him, became deeply wedded to the notion of public service. Furthermore, his father was a beloved figure in Costa Rican politics, and his name carried considerable political weight, which transferred to his son. Calderón was elected to the national legislature in 1974, where he remained four years. By 1978 he managed to convince his followers to help form the Unidad (Unity) Coalition that elected Rodrigo Carazo Odio president. Consequently, Calderón was rewarded with the post of foreign minister from 1978 to 1982, and he also served as the head of the social security system. Costa Rican politics now revolves around two traditional parties: the left-leaning National Liberation Party (PLN), and the more conservative Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC) formed by Calderón in 1982.


CALLEJAS, RAFAEL 81 There is usually very little to choose between the two, save for varying degrees of free enterprise and the role of government control in the economy. In 1982 Calderón ran for the presidency against PLN candidate Luis Alberto Monge and lost. Four years later he ran again against Oscar Arias Sánchez and lost again. It was not until 1990 that Calderón ran a third time and finally triumphed by beating PLN candidate Manuel Castillo, 52 percent to 48 percent. His victory was due to two main factors: By constantly evoking the memory of his father and the good work for the poor that he accomplished, Calderón secured more votes from impoverished individuals than he might have done otherwise. Second, after 20 years of uncontested PLN rule, many Costa Rican voters felt the need for change before entrenched success led to outright corruption. Calderón was also greatly assisted by his own moderate campaign platform, which called for greater privatization of the economy, while still upholding the elaborate welfare state for which Costa Rica was renowned. And, at the age of 40, Calderón was, next to his father, the youngest politician ever elected president. Once in office Calderón could do very little to set the national agenda, as the Costa Rican executive office is weak by design. He also had to contend with 130 autonomous institutions that are self-regulating and beyond presidential control. Nonetheless, Calderón had pledged to tinker with the economy while maintaining high benefit levels for the poor and middle class. In practice this was found to be increasingly impractical because of a global recession, which greatly impacted the Costa Rican economy. Declining revenues had to be accompanied by a corresponding cut in social services, which did little to enhance his political popularity. Furthermore, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) demanded imposition of strict austerity measures to shore up the country’s credit rating. Over the next three years, the PLN had a field day hammering away at Calderón’s economic measures, created by necessity but extracting an increasing social toll. In view of mounting political unrest, Calderón was forced to create a labor council in 1991 to investigate both labor and social issues. His austerity package, while unpopular, did managed to roll back inflation from 25 percent to 9 percent by 1994, his last year in office. But, despite his best efforts, the Costa Rican economy continued its downward spiral: growth fell from 7.7 percent in 1992 to 5.4 percent the following year and only 4.3 percent in 1994. Such lack-

luster performance naturally boded ill for the fortunes of the PUSC in upcoming national elections. Calderón was constitutionally forbidden from serving a second term in high office, so he stepped aside. On May 8, 1994, PLN candidate María Figuerres Olsen reclaimed the presidency for her party, while Calderón continued on as head of the PUSC. In November 1997 he created a minor stir when, angered by a television show that used puppets to mock him—and other politicians—he attempted to have a patent taken out on his face and name to prevent such satire. At that time the journalistic community feared that a legal decision on Calderón’s behalf would prove detrimental to the future of Costa Rican political coverage. The resolution of this issue remains unknown. Further Reading Booth, John A. Costa Rica: Quest for Democracy. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998. Hytrek, Gary J. “The Politics of Social Development in Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic: Social Agents, the State, and the International Political Economy.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1996. Lehovco, Fabrice E., and Ivan Molina. Stuffing the Ballot: Fraud, Elections Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Martinez, Louis U. Costa Rica’s Leadership Role in Economic Integration. Virginia Beach, Va.: Regent University, 1997. Wilson, Bruce M. Costa Rica: Politics, Economics, and Democracy. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998.

Callejas, Rafael (1943– ) president of Honduras Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero was born in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, on November 14, 1943, the son of well-to-do landowners. He attended several Americansponsored schools nearby and subsequently received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees at Mississippi State University in 1967. Afterward he enrolled at the Social Studies Institute in the Netherlands to study agricultural development. Once back in Honduras, Callejas was employed by the Higher Council for Economic Planning, where he remained until 1971. Success here proved a


82 CALLEJAS, RAFAEL springboard to other positions, and over the next decade he held positions at the Office of Agricultural Planning, the Department of Natural Resources, and various other commercial and governmental agencies. Callejas’s American-style background made him a fervent supporter of free-market economics, and in 1980 he joined the conservative National Party as its treasurer. The following year the Honduran military finally agreed to support free elections, and the fast-rising Callejas was tapped as his party’s presidential nominee. He lost to Roberto Suazo Córdova of the rival Liberal Party and spent the next four years enhancing his conservative credentials by heading the National Renovation Movement faction within the National Party. This group leaned heavily toward U.S. president Ronald Reagan’s Caribbean Basin Initiative, again with a view toward advancing free-market agendas. In 1985 Callejas waged a bitter campaign for the presidency, only to lose by a slight margin to Liberal Party candidate José Azcona Hoyo. The loss greatly angered the conservatives, who won an actual higher percentage of votes, but they acquiesced to a power-sharing agreement giving them five cabinet posts and five seats on the Supreme Court. This was a serious attempt at bipartisan reconciliation in a seriously polarized country, but it ultimately failed to address a sinking economy, rising crime, and ongoing friction with Sandinista-led Nicaragua. The Liberal Party’s inability to rectify many of Honduras’s problems existed well into the 1989 election. Here, Callejas ran against CARLOS FLORES and defeated him by a clear margin of 51 percent to 43 percent. This victory ushered in a new era of conservative politics, for the National Party had campaigned on a pledge to liberalize the economy, fight crime, and demilitarize the region. Thus, he became only the third civilian ruler since the military takeover of 1980. And, when Callejas was sworn into office on January 27, 1993, it marked the first peaceful transfer of party from one party to another since 1932. Once in office and enjoying a majority in Congress, Callejas pushed forward with badly needed reforms of the economic sector. Accordingly, governmental expenditures were reduced, the lempira (currency) devalued, and taxes and tariffs lowered. Government-held industries were also subject to wholesale privatization and put on the auction block. Wishing to maintain close economic ties with the United States, in 1993 Callejas spon-

sored an intellectual property law to curb widespread pirating of television and media products. In recognition of his free-trade and democratic stances, Callejas was hailed abroad for his efforts, and in 1989 he served as vice president of the International Democratic Association. He was also sternly anticommunist in his foreign policy outlook, and he harshly condemned the Nicaraguan Sandinistas for their oppression at home and acts of subversion in neighboring countries. However, following the Sandinista defeat at the polls in February 1990, Callejas worked to demilitarize Honduras by disbanding numerous contra (freedom fighter) camps along the Nicaraguan border. The government also disassociated itself from the National Investigation Directorate (DNI) of the Honduran military, which was known for human rights abuses. All told, the National Party fulfilled most of its campaign pledges to the letter, and posited itself as a legitimate alternative to the traditional, government-oriented policies of the Liberals. Unfortunately, Honduras was beset by a global economic recession that mitigated expected gains. Despite his best efforts, Callejas, like the Liberals before him, failed to stimulate national growth for any sustained period. In fact, many of his policies gained him the ire of the unions, who claimed that his free-market reforms had actually lowered the living standards of many Hondurans. Compounding his political problems was a growing shortage of staple foodstuffs, which, in turn, led to increasing social instability. In sum, the highly touted structural adjustment policies of the National Party failed to improve the plight of average Hondurans. Callejas was forbidden by the constitution to serve more than a single four-year term, but it was perhaps just as well. In the national elections of 1993, the Liberal Party was swept back into power under the aegis of Carlos Roberto Reina. In November 1997 elections Carlos Flores of the Liberal Party was elected president. Since that time Callejas has functioned as a senior spokesman for the National Party. Further Reading Hammond, Tony. “The Role of Honduran Armed Forces in the Transition to Democracy.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Florida, 1991. Karl, Terry L. Central America in the Twentieth-first Century: The Prospects for a Democratic Region. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.


CAMPBELL, KIM 83 Kelly, Joseph H. “The Strategy of Low-Intensity Conflict and Civic Actions in Honduras.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of New Mexico, 1990. Schulz, Donald E. The United States, Honduras, and the Crisis in Central America. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994. Waddell, Rick. In War’s Shadow: Waging Peace in Central America. New York: Ivy Books, 1997.

Campbell, Kim (1947– ) prime minister of Canada Avril Phaedra (“Kim”) Campbell was born in Port Alberni, British Columbia, Canada, on March 10, 1947, into a working-class family. Her parents divorced while she was a child, and the experience affected her profoundly. She became her high school valedictorian in 1964 and subsequently studied political science at the University of British Columbia. Campbell graduated with honors, and from 1975 to 1978 she served as a university lecturer. She also briefly pursued an advanced degree at the University of London School of Economics on a government fellowship. By 1981 Campbell decided to abandon academics in favor of law, and she found work with the prestigious firm of Ladner Downs. That same year she became politically active by gaining election to the Vancouver School Board, and she acquired a reputation as an outspoken, contentious individual. Campbell soon came to the attention of the Social Credit Party, and in 1985 William Bennett, the premier (governor) of British Columbia, appointed her to his cabinet. A year later, Campbell banked on her rising popularity to run for the head of the party, but she was badly defeated. However, in October 1986 she gained election to the provincial legislature as a Social Credit Party member, but she gradually grew dissatisfied with the leadership of Premier William Vander Zalm. She was a vocal proponent of abortion and, despite her otherwise conservative credentials, Campbell no longer felt at home in her party. Campbell then left the Social Credit Party, feeling strongly impelled to move onto the national scene. In 1988 she advanced her personal agenda by winning a seat in the House of Commons as a member of the Progressive Conservative Party. Campbell was not the first woman to serve in parliament but, by dint of rapier wit and articulate speech, she quickly gained national exposure. These attributes

undoubtedly inspired Prime Minister BRIAN MULRONEY to appoint her to his cabinet as the first woman minister of state and Indian affairs in 1989. The following year she again made headlines by becoming Canada’s first woman minister of justice and attorney general. Here she proved instrumental in forcing through a tough gun-control bill, while also enhancing the legal status of women involved in rape cases. However, by this time the Progressive Conservatives had been in power for nine consecutive years and were appearing politically spent. Mulroney’s popularity was plunging nationally so, in an attempt to regain favor, he appointed Campbell the nation’s first woman minister of defense on January 1993. Her tenure there proved brief and uneventful but she claimed that “It’s a matter of some pride and satisfaction for me that I happened to be the one that had the opportunity to at least put a dent in that particular glass ceiling.” Clearly, bigger things were looming on the horizon. In February 1993 Mulroney resigned as party head and prime minister and the scramble was on to succeed him. Campbell, by virtue of her gender and relatively novel status, was clearly favored to win, but she endured several runoff votes with Jean Charest of Quebec to do so. However, the Conservatives felt they needed a major facelift to stave off defeat in the upcoming fall elections, and so on June 25, 1993, Campbell was sworn in as Canada’s first woman prime minister. As hoped, the decision was favorably received by most Canadians, and she initially rode a wave of popularity. Young, photogenic, and eloquent, the forceful Campbell made her appearance on the world’s stage in representing Canada at the annual G7 economic conference in Tokyo, Japan. Here she stood shoulder-to-shoulder with such global luminaries as President BILL CLINTON and made a favorable impression. Within weeks of coming to power, however, the reservoir of public good will toward Campbell rapidly dissipated in the wake of the poor state of Canada’s economy. Unemployment hovered at 10 percent while many Canadians waxed resentful over Mulroney’s passage of the Free Trade Agreement with the United States, which, it was feared, would cost many more jobs. Worse, while on the campaign trail, Campbell made several well-publicized gaffes that enhanced her status as a political neophyte. Unable to distance herself from the unpopular Mulroney, she led her party into one of the biggest disasters in Canadian political history. The Progressive


84 CARDOSO, FERNANDO Conservatives, with the exception of two seats, were annihilated by the Liberal Party under JEAN CHRÉTIEN. She then resigned from office in December 1993, having completed Canada’s third-shortest tenure as prime minister. The experience of defeat so embittered Campbell that she withdrew from politics altogether. Jean Charest eventually succeeded her as party head. For several years thereafter, Campbell served as a lecturer at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government in Irvine, California. In September 1996, Prime Minister Chrétien magnanimously appointed her the Canadian consul general in Los Angeles, where she serves to the present day. Her tenure as prime minister may have been brief, but Campbell’s status stands for having blazed a new trail for Canadian women in national politics. Further Reading Bueckert, Dennis. Kim Campbell: Above the Shoulders. Hull, Quebec: Voyageur Publications, 1993. Campbell, Kim. Time and Chance: The Political Memoirs of Canada’s First Woman Prime Minister. Toronto: Seal Books, McClelland-Bantam, 1997. ———. Sayings of Kim Campbell. Montreal: Robert Davies Publishers, 1993. Dobbin, Murray. The Politics of Kim Campbell: From School Trustee to Prime Minister. Toronto: J. Lorimer, 1993. Fife, Robert. Kim Campbell: The Making of a Politician. Toronto: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993.

Cardoso, Fernando (1931– ) president of Brazil Fernando Henrique Cardoso was born at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on June 18, 1931, into a prominent military family. Intellectually inclined, however, he declined an army career in favor of pursuing academics. Having received degrees from both the University of São Paulo and the University of Paris, he accepted a teaching position at the former in 1964. That year, a military coup toppled the democratically elected presidency of João Goulart and ushered in an age of political repression. Cardoso, as an outspoken leftist intellectual, became the frequent target of harassment and threats. Rather than risk imprisonment, torture, and possibly death, he fled to Chile and took up teaching. Four years later he returned, anticipating resumption of his academic career, but he was

quickly arrested and banned from the campus. Cardoso then flaunted authorities by establishing the Brazilian Analysis and Planning Center, which became a prominent left-wing think tank. When it was bombed by right-wing extremists in the 1970s, he fled again and taught sociology as a visiting lecturer at prestigious universities, including Yale, Berkeley, Stanford, and Oxford. He also became celebrated in academe for the publication of several books that delineated Brazilian dependency upon foreign investment in Marxist terms. At length the military junta relaxed the atmosphere of repression in Brazil, and Cardoso returned home again to enter politics. Defeated in his run for the Brazilian Senate in 1978, he gained election the following year and also served as vice president of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB). He subsequently failed to become mayor of São Paulo in 1986, but, two years later, he was reelected to the upper house. As a senator, he proved instrumental in orchestrating creation of a new organization, the Brazilian Social Democratic Party. Cardoso by now had also become one of the best-known politicians in Brazil, and among the most respected. To many he combined formidable intellect, unquestioned honesty, and genuine concern for the nation’s innumerable poor. His fellow leftists certainly expected much of him. Cardoso’s career reached a turning point following the impeachment of President FERNANDO COLLOR DE MELLO for corruption in 1992. His successor, ITAMAR FRANCO, invited him aboard as his foreign minister. Brazil at that time was wracked by crippling inflation rates that approached 50 percent a month. Having lost three successive finance ministers, Itamar then appointed Cardoso, his fourth in eight months. The bookish professor was not well versed in economics, but he nonetheless fostered relief by drawing up a new currency for the country, the real, and pegging it to the U.S. dollar to contain inflation. This strategy, the so-called Real Plan, was enacted in July 1994 and worked marvelously. Within only three months inflation had dropped to only 1 percent, and the ensuing public acclaim induced Cardoso to seek the presidency of Brazil. On October 8, 1994, he defeated a major left-wing candidate, Luis Ignacio de Silva, with 52 percent of the vote. This was the largest majority won by any presidential candidate in Brazil since 1945. Over the next four years, this former leftist icon eschewed a radical plan to promote liberalization of the economy, greater foreign investment, and respect for free enterprise. Brazil’s economy responded resoundingly, and


CARLSSON, INGVAR 85 nomic fortunes. Nearby Argentina’s sagging fortunes had a dragging effect upon the Brazilian economy, as did the concurrent Asian currency crisis. Cardoso countered with greater emphasis on job creation. He sold off inefficient state-owned agencies to raise capital. The latter move greatly upset his former leftist allies in Congress, who regarded centralized control of the economy as an article of faith. The government was also forced to spend billions of dollars per month to prevent the real from being drastically devalued, an act that sparked hyperinflation. Despite his best efforts, the Brazilian economy remained sluggish and Cardoso was forced to ration energy sources, his most unpopular austerity measure to that date. Cardoso’s term ended on January 1, 2003, when he was replaced by the winner of the October 2002 election, LUIZ INÁCIO LULA DA SILVA of the Worker’s Party.

Fernando Cardoso (Embassy of Brazil)

growth placed that nation in the forefront among developing countries. Nor did Cardoso forsake Brazil’s vast disparities in income and the deep social gulf between rich and poor, and he undertook deliberate measures to increase vocational training and improve access to affordable education and housing. By 1998 Brazil seemed to have cemented its role as a major world player for the first time in its history. That same year a grateful electorate returned Cardoso to office for a second term by wide margins. As an indication of his soaring popularity, the state constitution was amended to allow presidents to serve consecutive terms. Cardoso was sworn in a second time in January 1999, becoming the first Brazilian executive of his generation to complete a full term in office. Unfortunately for Brazil, and South America in general, the entire region was rocked by declining eco-

Further Reading Ames, Barry. The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001. Black, Carina A. “Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Intellectual Evolution from Exile to Presidency.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nevada, 1997. Goertzel, Ted G. Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Reinventing Democracy in Brazil. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999. Kingstone, Peter R., and Timothy J. Power. Democratic Brazil: Action, Institutions, and Processes. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2000. Power, Timothy J. “Blairism, Brazilian Style? Cardoso and the ‘Third Way’ in Brazil.” Political Science Quarterly 116 (Winter 2001–2002): 611–636. Samuels, David. Ambassadors of the State: Federalism, Ambition, and Congressional Politics in Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Carlsson, Ingvar (1934– ) prime minister of Sweden Ingvar Gosta Carlsson was born on November 9, 1934, in Borâs, Sweden, the son of a textile worker. He was educated locally and briefly worked the mills before attending the University of Lund to obtain a degree in social science. He graduated in 1958 and became a secretary in the office of Prime Minister Tage Erlander of the Social Democratic Party. The Social Democrats are


86 CARLSSON, INGVAR Sweden’s largest party and they more or less have monopolized national politics since 1932. Erlander himself was a politician of note and an architect of Sweden’s famous “cradle to grave” welfare state that has offered the broadest social services—paid for by the highest taxes— in the world. Carlsson functioned well and in 1960 he took a sabbatical to study economics at Northwestern University, Illinois. He then returned home to enter party affairs, becoming head of the Social Democratic Youth League. In 1964 he became the youngest politician ever elected to the Riksdag (parliament) and three years later he advanced to undersecretary of state. In 1969 Erlander retired and was replaced by Olof Palme, a flamboyant, outspoken liberal, while Carlsson occupied his post as minister of education and cultural affairs. This made him, at 34, the youngest cabinet minister in Swedish history. In 1976 the Social Democrats were voted out of power, and Carlsson continued on as a member of the opposition. He also helped orchestrate the 1982 campaign that returned Palme to power, and Carlsson assumed the post of deputy prime minister. In contrast to his fiery superior, Carlsson had cemented his reputation as a calm, seemingly dull technocrat, more given to conciliation than confrontation. When Palme was assassinated on February 28, 1986, Sweden’s first political killing in two centuries, the unobtrusive Carlsson was unanimously endorsed by his party to become prime minister. By the time the new leader took power, the Swedish economy was floundering and he faced some difficult decisions, namely, how to impose austerity measures while maintaining high-benefit welfare policies. He also maintained established Social Democratic policies of strict neutrality and nuclear disarmament. This last point was underscored when several Soviet submarines intruded into Swedish waters and Carlsson, like Palme before him, strongly criticized the superpowers for their arms buildup. But he also championed Sweden’s admission to the European Union (EU), which transpired in 1995, as the end of the cold war deflated anxiety over loss of traditional neutrality. The Social Democrats managed to hang on to power in the elections of September 1988, although by reduced margins, and Carlsson tried balancing fiscal responsibility with welfare politics. He introduced stark austerity measures to shore up the economy, which were defeated in parliament, and he resigned from office on February 15, 1990. He resumed power two weeks later after a watered-down version of his plan

finally passed. However, the economy continued sinking, and, in September 1991, the Social Democrats experienced their worse defeated since 1928, winning just 38 percent of the popular vote. Carlsson resigned a second time in favor of CARL BILD