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Index Panama Canal and, ­45 as trading partner, 78, ­84 United States of Colombia, ­45 urban areas, ­11 Uribe, Álvaro, ­95

Spanish galleon, ­44 Spanish settlements, ­86 tectonic plates, ­19 terrorists, 58, ­69 tierra caliente (“hot land”), 23, ­28 tierra firme (mainland), 17, ­40 tierra fria (“cold land”), 23, ­29 tierra templada (“temperate land”), 23, ­28 Tolima, Mount, ­91 tourism, 74, 86, 88, 101, ­105 trade winds, 24, ­25 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, ­103 transportation, 59, 68–69, 82–83 tropical rainforest, 21, 26–27, 68, 79, ­98 “Zone of Tropical Products,” ­26 See also ­deforestation Tunja, ­39

Venezuela, 17, 21, 45, 68, 84, ­88 vertical temperature zones, 22–23 Viceroyalty of New Granada, ­41 violence, 46, 62–64, 93, ­97 volcanic activity, 11, 19, 91, 95, ­101 von Humboldt, Alexander, 22–23

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 62–63 United ­Self-­Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), ­63 United States of ­America drug trafficking to, ­95 foreign aid, 11, ­74 military assistance, ­64

“War of a Thousand Days,” ­45 weather. See climates and ­weather Western Range (Cordillera Occidental), ­20 wetlands, draining of, ­34 “White City,” ­94 wildlife, 29–34 threatened species, 32–33, ­34 threats to, 33–34 World Heritage site, ­34 World War II, ­81 xerophytes, ­28 “Zone of Grains,” ­29 “Zone of Tropical Products,” ­26

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Colombia  
Colombia  

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