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Index climates and weather, 22–25 desert zone, 24, ­28 plants, soils and, ­26 precipitation, 23–25 “rain shadows,” ­25 rainiest spot, mainland, ­97 seasonal variations, 23–24 temperatures, 22–23 wet-­and-­dry seasons, 18, 24–25, 27, 59, ­98 wind patterns, 23–24 zones, mountainous tropics, ­23 coastal zones, 15–18 coca plant, 34, 74, 75, 90, ­93 cocaine, 9, 72–73 trading of, 34, 64, 84, ­95 coffee cultivation, 17, 75–77, 90, ­92 “Coffee Zone,” ­28 Columbus, Christopher, 13, ­40 communications, 59, 82–83 conflicts, 94, ­103 civil wars, 45, 78, ­94 displacement and, ­69 economy and, ­103 conquistadors, Spanish, 39–41 Cordillera Central. See Central ­Range Cordillera Occidental. See Western ­Range Cordillera Oriental. See Eastern ­Range crime, 70, 73–74, 93. See also drug ­ trafficking crops in Chibcha civilization, ­39 cinchona, ­90 of Cordillera Oriental region, ­88 for export, 93, ­97 legal vs. illegal, 17, ­74 Old World, ­57 sugarcane, 93–94 in tropical rainforest area, ­26 “Zone of Grains,” ­29 culture, 47–57 ethnicity and, 51–52 language and, 52–53 religion and, 53–55 settlement, 49–51 society and, 55–57 See also population; regional ­sectionalism Darien Gap, ­36 de Paula Santander, Francisco, 44–45 de Quesada, Gonzalo Jiménez, ­41 deforestation, 26–27, 34, ­79 demographics, ­47 fertility rate, ­48 life expectancy, ­49 See also ­population desert zone, 24, ­28

diet and dining, 56–57 droughts, ­11 drug trafficking, 13, 101, ­105 cartels, 11, 59, 60, 63–64, 74, 93, ­95 locations, 17, 58, ­98 “Narco-­Democracy,” ­74 taxation and, 68, ­73 violence and, 46, 63–64 drugs. See cocaine; ­heroin earliest peoples, 36–37 earthquakes, 11, 19, ­94 eastern lowlands, 49, 79, ­83 Eastern Plains. See Oriente, ­the Eastern Range (Cordillera Oriental), 19–20, 88–91 high basins of, 88–89 lower valleys in, 89–91 Eastern Tropical Lowlands. See Oriente, ­the economy, “legal,” 13, 71–84 in Antioquia region, 92–93 cash economy, ­66 diversification of, ­9 energy resources and, ­22 global economy, 83–84 growth rate, 48, ­72 industrialization and, 50–51 mining economy, ­43 primary industries, 74–79, ­99 secondary industries, 79–81, 89, 93, ­94 subsistence, early, 65–66 system, ­68 tertiary industries and, 81–82, ­95 unemployment rate, ­72 See also drug ­trafficking Ecuador, 23, 45, 93, 95, ­96 education, ­82 El Dorado legend, 39–40, ­77 elevation, 15, ­22 emeralds, 77–78 energy resources, 22, 34, ­78 environment, 101–102 deforestation, 26–27 global warming, ­21 wetlands, draining of, ­34 epiphytes, ­28 Equator, ­22 “eternal spring,” ­9 ethnicity, 12–13, 51–52, 64–66. See also specific racial ­group Europeans, 66, 90, 94, 102. See also ­Spaniards farming. See ­agriculture fauna. See birds; ­wildlife fincas (coffee farms), 77, ­90 fishing, ­79

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Colombia  
Colombia  

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