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Facts at a Glance Physical ­Geography

Location Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and ­Panama Area 440,831 square miles (1,141,747 square kilometers), slightly smaller than combined area of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma; land: 401,044 square miles (1,038,700 square kilometers); water: 39,691 square miles (100,210 square kilometers) Boundaries 3,920 miles (6,309 kilometers) of land border; Venezuela, 1,274 miles (2,050 kilometers); Peru, 1,118 miles (1,800 kilometers); Brazil, 1,022 miles (1,644 kilometers); Panama, 140 miles (225 kilome-­ ters); and Ecuador, 367 miles (590 kilometers); borders Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, 1,218 miles (1,760 kilometers) and Pacific Ocean, 900 miles (1,448 ­kilometers) Climate Tropical lowlands and highlands; elevation is primary control of temperature; Pacific coastal and eastern lowlands experience humid tropical climatic conditions; portions of northern coast are seasonally wet and dry ­tropical Terrain Northern Andean highlands divided into several sepa-­ rate ranges separated by fertile river valleys; approxi-­ mately ­one-­half of territory composed of eastern lowland plains; narrow Pacific and Atlantic lowland ­plains Elevation Extremes Lowest point is the Pacific Ocean, sea level; highest point is Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar, both of which are believed to reach approximately 18,950 feet (5,776 meters) Land Use Arable land, 2.01%; permanent crops, 1.37%; other, 96.62% (2005) Irrigated Land 3,475 square miles (9,000 square kilometers) (2003) Natural Hazards Highlands subject to often devastating volcanic erup-­ tions and earthquakes; occasional ­droughts Natural Resources Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and hydropower; iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, and emeralds; tropical ­forests



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