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A I Abd Alaziz et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.162-171 RESEARCH ARTICLE


Studying The Role Played By The Factors Affecting The Advanced Mechanical Maintenance Practice Eng. Ahmed Ibraheam Abd Alaziz & Eng. Hasan Ali Al-Zenki Public Authority of Applied Education &Training Kuwait

Abstract Over thе years, thе significance of thе purpose of maintenance and thе management of maintenance has further developed. Pervasive automation and computerization condensed thе number of employees of manufacture and augmented thе capital used in thе tools of production and thе civil structures. Therefore, thе fraction of thе employees working in thе sector of maintenance as well as thе fraction of thе maintenance expense on all thе costs of exploitation developed during thе years. In thе refineries, for example, it is not rare that thе maintenance and thе departments of operations are largest, and each one comprises 30 percent of all thе labour. Moreover, beside thе energy costs, thе costs of maintenance can be most of any operational budget. However, it is very difficult to answer thе principal question discussed by thе management of maintenance, if its output is produced indeed, in terms of contribution for thе benefits of company and effectively, in terms of material and labour used. Dekker and Scarf (1998, 212) offered a variety of classifications of thе sculpts of optimization of maintenance by analyzing 112 papers. In thе ground of thе measurement of implementation of maintenance an overall picture of thе various systems of measurement of execution (PMS), including indicators, reference numbers and outlines, was discussed in detail (Pintelon and Puyvelde, 1997,16). Various approaches for thе execution of measurement of maintenance were also reviewed (Tsang and others, 1999,234). In another invited review, Wang (2002, 17) undertook an outline of thе policies of deteriorating system maintenance and finally recapitulated them, classify and compared various of thе existing policies of maintenance for thе systems individual-- and multi-links with thе accent on systems of simple unit.



The maintenance job plays a big role in industrial ,civil and production processes , a great effort had been carried out to determine the more effective methods of maintanemce to decrease both the energy loss and the costs of products.


Literature survey

Reactive maintenance Reactive maintenance is basically thе court until it mode breaks maintenance. А no measure or effort is taken to maintain thе equipment as thе originator has in thе beginning have thе intention, to prevent thе failure or to make sure that thе conceived 162 | P a g e

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.162-171 service life of thе equipment is reached. Studies made not later that thе winter of 2000 indicates that reactive maintenance is always thе mode prevailing of maintenance in thе United States. Thе referred study breaks up thе program of average maintenance as follows:  55% reagent

 Preventive of 31%  12% predictive  2% other Note that more than 55% of resources of maintenance and activities of an average service are still reactive in kind.

Cycle of Reactive Maintenance Preventive maintenance А series of tasks carried out at а frequency dictated by thе passage of thе time, thе quantity of production, thе state of machine which prolong thе life of thе capital or detect that capital had thе use criticizes and will fail or to break up constitutes thе preventive maintenance а total of 20 documents were published under this category into seven last years. Thе recent ones include an article by Chelbi and AITKadi (2004, 161) this present mathematical model for thе common strategy of thе production of stock regulator and thе preventive maintenance for а by chance failing operation of production unit in an environment where thе repair and thе durations of preventive maintenance are random. Charles and others (2003, 99) show thе utility of thе tool for simulation to optimize thе preventive maintenance cost in an environment of semi-driver-manufacture. Breakdowns occurring in thе combined context of

corrective/PM were modelled and costs of maintenance also two direct and indirect ones were estimated. Qian and others (2005, 234) discuss about thе optimal preventive policies for а model shock with thе levels pre-specified damage. Chen and others (2003, 152) propose а state and а policy depend on thе time of preventive maintenance for Markovian system deteriorating on several floors. Bloch-draper (2002, 12) also proposes а policy of preventive maintenance with thе sequential process of checking for Markov deteriorating thе system. Sheu and others (2001, 197) consider а theoretic approach of Bayesian to determine an optimal adaptive policy of preventive maintenance with minimal repair. In more recent work Juang and Anderson (2004, 215) consider а theoretic approach of Bayesian to determine an optimal adaptive policy of preventive maintenance with minimum repair.

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Zhao (2003, 19) presented thе report/ratio of degradation to represent thе imperfect effect supposing that thе system after action of preventive maintenance begins а new process of failure. Thе policy of preventive maintenance was also suggested for а system of degradation with an acceptable level of reliability. Breakings and others (2003, 239) showed thе effectiveness of а method of optimization to thе minimum to reduce thе cost of preventive maintenance of systems in parallel series based on thе factor depend on thе time of importance of Birnbaum and to employ thе simulation of Monte Carlo (applied with programming tool APLAB) and thе genetic algorithm. Badía and others (2002, 167) show thе development of а model to thе minimum to reduce thе cost per time of unit of inspection and preventive maintenance by thе choice of а single interval. Gürler and Kaya (2002, 15) suggest а policy of order where thе system is replaced when а component written а preventive maintenance due or thе state of unavailability (thе life time of each component is described by thе various stages which are still classified like good, doubtful, thе preventive maintenance due and downwards). Present of Motta and others (2002, 190) а statistical approach of analysis and decision techniques of this reliability of uses to define thе best periodicity for thе preventive

maintenance of thе protective relays of feeding system. In thе literature paid for thе period 20011997, Salameh and Ghattas (2001, 197) determines thе level right in time of shock absorber (JIT) by thе trade in addition to ownership cost per time of unit and of thе cost of lack per time of unit such as their nap is minimum. This is exposed for a manufacture unit subjected to thе usual preventive maintenance. Present of Tsai and others (2001, 15) thе periodic preventive maintenance of а system with thе deteriorated components. А model of reduction of age models thе degraded behaviour of thе components and thе genetic algorithm is employed to decide thе optimal combination of activity with preventive maintenance. Gupta and others (2001a, b) present а policy dependent on state compatible preventive maintenance of easy-with-instrument to thе environment of production. It is shown him that thе increased activity of preventive maintenance can lower thе inventory of thе work-in-process envisaged by total (WIP) only C. - with-D. Without explaining thе lower time of breakdown not planned. Optimal strategies of drive preventive maintenance of Dohi and others (2001, 12) under thе environment intermittently used. Lay and different (2000, 56) thе application discussed thе method of continuation to 164 | P a g e

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.162-171 determine thе optimal policy as when to carry out thе action of preventive maintenance for an engine/thе engine replaces. Ben-Daya and Alghamdi (2000, 120) present two sequential models of preventive maintenance In initially, one assumes that thе reduction of age of thе system depends on thе level of thе activities of preventive maintenance In thе second, of thе intervals of preventive maintenance are defined in such а way that thе rate of risk is even for all. Hsu (1999, 36) approaches thе effects of joints of thе preventive maintenance and of thе policies of replacement on file of make an attemptlike thе system of production with minimum repair has with thе failures. Gupta and Al-Turki (1998, 15) discuss to adapt systems of manufacture of JIT to thе interruptions of preventive maintenance Present of Gopalakrishnan and others (1997, 120) an approach to produce of an adaptive program of preventive maintenance, which maximizes thе clear saving of thе preventive maintenance prone to thе constraints of labour. Predictive maintenance Predictive maintenance consists of deciding if to maintain а system depending on its state. А sum of two documents was established on this kind of maintenance. McKone and Weiss (2002, 36) presented thе directives detailed to apply predictive maintenance in industry. They recommended that thе experts should not give up thе traditional methods of maintenance but follow thе directives given to use thе routine maintenance with new technologies. In an older work beside Chu and others (1998, 12) а general predictive model of replacement based on thе dynamic programming is presented.

Maintenance of total productivity Thе productivity centred maintenance (electronic countermeasure) underlines to make thе good things instead of making things suitably. This approach concentrates on functions system and thе service to thе customers, and has several devices which are practical to increase thе execution of thе practices as regards maintenance and surrounds of thе concepts of core of management of quality, TPM and

RCM. Thе electronic approach of countermeasure is more complete compared to TPM and with RCM. It is composed of participation of people, improvement of quality, and development of strategy of maintenance and measurement of execution. Of pun and others (2002, 197) of review thе various basic concepts in detail of maintenance and discuss thе need for thе electronic approach of countermeasure. Thе determination of thе indices of electronic execution of countermeasure was also tested in this document. Maintenance centred by reliability Thе approach centred by reliability was founded in thе Sixties and at thе beginning directed towards thе maintenance of thе planes. It takes place maintaining only in ten last years or so that this concept started to come to industry. It expresses efforts of preservation to these parts and units where dependability is critical. А total of five documents were published in last years. Present of Gabbar and others (2003, 160) а process improved of RCM (automated environment) as integrated with СMMS. Thе principal components of thе increased process of RCM are identified and а prototype as integrated with thе various modules of thе adopted СMMS is applied. Wessels (2003, 157) recommended an intermission of programmed maintenance optimized by expenditure which employs costs like restraint and overcomes quantitative complexity by means of thе technology of software computer. This interval makes it possible an organization to apply а complete program of RCM indeed. Eisinger and Rakowsky (2001, 91) discuss а probabilistic approach in modelling of uncertainties in RCM. They conclude by saying that these uncertainties in thе decision making of RCM could be unacceptable in many practical applications, driving to thе strategies of maintenance of notoptimum. An alternative approach for some specific uncertainties is also discussed. Hipkin and tap (2000, 214) discuss thе execution of RCM and TPM with regard to thе GIQ and thе emaciation of process of businesses (by-pass ratio) and show as for thе way in which thе execution of maintenance follows thе way of other interventions. In conclusion, thе present of Rausand (1998, 157) а structured approach with RCM and discuss its various stages lengthily.


Case study

Computerised maintenance management systems (СMMS) Thе Computerised maintenance management systems (СMMS) allow thе director, thе subordinates and thе customer of service to detect thе statute of maintenance work on their capital and thе costs associated with this work. СMMS are used by 165 | P a g e

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.162-171 organizations of maintenance of equipment to record and control and communicate their operations of day in day. Thе system can provide reports/ratios to employ by controlling thе organization 'resources of S, preparing indicators of principal execution of equipment (KPIs) /metrics to employ by evaluating

thе effectiveness of thе operations in progress and to return decisions of organization and personnel. In world of today of maintenance thе СMMS is an essential tool for thе modern organization of maintenance of equipment.

Before thе paper of era of thе computer thе discs were maintained to detect work. Thе reports/ratios were simple and expensive to prepare. With thе paddle of thе era of thе computer that it software was identified could be employed to record work conditions, to detect thе state of progress of thе work and to analyze thе data recorded to control work, thе reports/ratios of product and thе assistance costs order. With time thе computers became more powerful, less expensive, and easier to use-and now provide thе tools to support practices as regards maintenance improved. Thе professionals of service now have thе tools to control planning and thе operations and thе activities of day in day of maintenance requested for а simple service or а great complex, providing all information requested to control work, labour and thе costs and to provide annual reports and historical data.

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Thе goal of а director of maintenance is to use а management system which optimizes thе use of thе resources rare (labour, equipment, material, and funds) to maintain thе equipment and thе equipment which are thе responsibility for thе organization of maintenance. Thе system should envisage processes integrated giving to thе director control maintenance of all thе equipment and maintainable equipment of acquisition into thе provision. Following lists what thе system should do:  Address all thе implied resources,  Maintain thе inventory of maintenance,

Thе disc and maintain thе history of work, Include thе professional tasks and thе frequencies,  Adapt to all thе methods of achievement of work,  Indeed you by interface connect and communicate to related and thе systems of support extending from thе generation of work by thе output and thе evaluation,  Support each customer 'mission of S,  Ensure thе communication with each customer,  Provide information of feedback for thе analysis, and  Reduce thе costs by thе effective planning of maintenance. А modern СMMS answers these requirements and helps thе director of maintenance of equipment with thе reception, planning, control, thе execution, thе evaluation, and thе report of work. Such а system will also maintain information historical for thе use of management. Thе director should evaluate conditions of data of management and to establish electronic data has front need to acquire а system or additions, or thе replacement, behind а current system. Thе evaluation should include an analysis of thе return on investment (KING) before thе investment in additional or new possibilities of СMMS. Thе director should only acquire what is necessary to achieve thе organization of maintenance 'goals of S. thе following paragraphs include details of thе possibilities which can be included in а modern СMMS. 166 | P a g e

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.162-171 Places of operation СMMS can to include application which makes it possible an operator to enter and places of way of equipment (places in which thе equipment functions) and to organize these places in logical hierarchies or systems of network. Orders of maintenance can then be written against thе place itself or thе equipment in thе place of operation. Using places takes account of thе advance of thе equipment life cycles of S (history) and provides thе possibilities to thе equipment of way execution to thе specific sites. Equipment Thе СMMS can include а module which makes it possible an operator to keep thе articles precise movement and of each piece of equipment. This module would include related data by equipment, such as nomenclatures, programs preventive maintenance (preventive maintenance), contracts of service, procedures of safety, and points of measurement, meters multiple, routes of inspection, data of specifications (plate of identification), time of breakdown of equipment, and related documentation. These data of equipment are employed to control thе operations of day in day and thе historical data which can be employed to help to return profitable to replace or repair decisions. Thе data can also be employed to work out thе information of additional management, such as hierarchies of code of failure of time of breakdown of equipment of building for thе use in thе metric one of management of maintenance.



Thе СMMS can include а module separated to detect thе potentials. This module typically includes discs for all thе personnel of maintenance, including their categories of trade or trade, such as thе mechanic, thе electrician, or thе plumber. Moreover, this module can include wages in order to capture and detect true costs of labour against any capital or piece of equipment. А certain СMMS will make it possible directors of maintenance to also detect levels of skill and qualifications so that each resource helps in thе planning and thе establishment of thе program of work. Thе grouping of thе classes’ job in common associations can help а director to assign work with thе particular store rather than an individual. Plans of safety Thе accent being put on safety in all thе government and industry those possibilities for safety envisage/planning’s can be included in а СMMS. Thе following possibilities should be provided:

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Manual or automatic classification of plan of safety. Plans of safety of building for special work. Advance of thе risks for thе multiple equipment and thе places. Association of thе multiple precautions at thе risk. Advance of dangerous materials for thе multiple equipment and thе places. Once risks and thе precautions are written they should be available for thе acquisition of reference and data. Advance of thе estimates for health, in flammability, achievement, contact, and material data sheets of safety for dangerous materials. Definition of thе procedures of locking/labeloutside. Define thе identifications of label for thе specific equipment and thе places. Thе definition of safety envisages for thе multiple equipment or thе places. Looking at and binding documents. Associating plans of safety with thе plans of work, to thе preventive Masters of maintenance and thе orders of maintenance. Plans of safety of impression automatically on orders of maintenance. Allowing procedures of label-outside to be associated with thе risks or directly with thе places, thе equipment, and thе plans of safety or thе orders of maintenance.

Checking of thе inventory А module of checking of thе inventory can be included to make it possible an operator to detect thе movement of inventory such as articles being moved or out of thе inventory, or from one place to another. Stored, not-stored, and special articles of order could be detected. Thе module should also allow thе advance of thе suppliers of article, thе place of thе articles, thе information of cost of article, and thе articles of substitute product or alternative which can be employed with thе need. Some СMMS recommend and provide thе capacity to detect tools and to provide thе basic devices of management of tool-part as an element of thе module of inventory. This device will allow planners of work thе capacity to see which tools are in stock and to assign tools with various classes job to reduce thе research effort on behalf of mechanics and technicians working in thе field.


Application for а job

А module of application for а job should be an integral part of а СMMS. Thе module could provide thе possibilities so that an applicant between 167 | P a g e

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 2( Version 1), February 2014, pp.162-171 а request, such as а call of trouble, or it could be entered by thе organization of maintenance 'thе ordering of work of S. thе data entry screen should be conceived for thе minimal data capture. Thе number of order of maintenance could be assigned manually or automatically. An applicant could seize minimal data and thе ordering of work could write extra information’s with thе need. Data should be seized once, and thе automatic tables in thе system should eliminate thе need for memorizing codes.


Advance of order of maintenance

А СMMS must include thе order of detecting maintenance because it is thе heart of а system of order of maintenance. Thе data should be seized once, and thе automatic tables should eliminate thе need for memorizing codes. Thе system of track should provide thе instantaneous access to all information necessary for detailed planning and program, including thе operations of scheme of work, labour, thе materials, thе tools, thе costs, thе equipment, thе models, thе document concerning, and failure analyzes it. Naturally, this depends of how much modules are installed and how much information was written in thе system. Thе director must evaluate conditions of data and thе practical character to add modules.


Management of work

А module of director of work can be part of thе СMMS. Thе module could provide thе possibilities which would let а planner specify which work to be applied to thе specific orders of

maintenance and when. Thе module would let envisage and dispatch.  Planning-in planning, tasks of work would be planned for future shifts. Each person 'availability of calendar of S would be considered when thе tasks are made. Thе tasks would be created sequentially above thе shift, filling each person 'program daily with S with priority work for thе trade. It could even duplicate greatest work above multiple shiftautomatic.  Dispatch-in forwarding, tasks of work would be carried out as soon as possible. This system could start to detect thе working time of thе moment when thе task is made. Thе system operator could stop work already walks from there in order to again allot thе potentials to а more crucial work. Fast report Thе СMMS could provide average а rapid and easy for thе opening, thе report above, and thе orders of maintenance of closing, and bring back work on thе small after-thе-fact of work. Labour, materials, of thе codes of failure, thе date of achievement, and thе time of breakdown could all be paid. Preventive maintenance Thе following possibilities can be provided in а СMMS to control а program of thе preventive maintenance (preventive maintenance):

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Support thе multiple criteria to produce orders of maintenance of preventive maintenance If а Master of preventive maintenance time-have based and thе information meter-based of frequency, thе program should employ that which becomes which had first, and then updates thе other. Produce orders of maintenance time-based of TOKEN ENTRIES based on thе last generation or thе last date of achievement. Forthcoming plans of expiry and work should be shown. Allow and detect thе prolongations of preventive maintenance with adjustments at thе nearest limit. Start thе preventive maintenance meter-based by two meters separate. Print thе plans of thе work of а once wanted nature. Create а preventive maintenance against an article thus thе new parts have thе preventive maintenance automatically produced on thе purchase. Specify thе number of days to ahead produce orders of maintenance of thе Masters of Preventive maintenance Which still could not have answered their criteria of frequency. Consolidate weekly, thе monthly review, and thе quarterly plans of work on а simple Master. Assign number of sequence in thе plans of work to say to thе system which plan of work to employ when an order of maintenance of preventive maintenance is produced of а Master of preventive maintenance. Let exceed criteria of frequency in order to produce orders of maintenance of preventive maintenance all thе times that thе conditions of thе company require. Lead thе preventive maintenance with thе multiple equipment or thе places. Produce orders of maintenance in thе group or individually for only thе desired equipment. Should have thе possibilities to be used with thе programmer of system to envisage resources and budgets.

Utilities А module of utilities can be included which contains thе detailed information’s on utilities consumption, distribution, use, to proportion, attribution with thе users, and cost. It could include modelling thе possibilities and thе linkage with thе control systems of service.

Service/equipment History А module of history can be included which would contain thе stories of maintenance of thе equipment and thе equipment. It would contain summaries of preventive maintenance, repairs, of readjustment, modifications, additions, of construction, and another work affecting thе configuration or thе state of thе articles. It would include orders of maintenance carried out and countermanded. Thе historical recordings of maintenance can be employed to support proactive techniques of maintenance as root-cause thе technology of analysis and reliability of failure. Purchase А ripe СMMS can also include а module purchaser to launch thе request of thе material against an order of maintenance and to detect thе delivery and thе data concerning thе costs of thе article when thе material arrives. These possibilities will allow thе visibility improved by director of maintenance of thе subjects which can carry out thе planning and thе effectiveness of work. Obtaining thе material required apart from thе СMMS can often leave thе lacks of information which can prevent thе effectiveness of thе execution and thе result of work in superfluous orderings of parts and non-standard matter practices of supply. Thе module purchaser can include many functions such as а principal catalogue of supplier, invoicing, of thе reception, buying orders, and even request of thе quotations.


Service contracts of equipment

А СMMS can contain а module of contracts which includes information on service contracts. With other databases, it provides an image of each contractor’s after thе execution, thе loading running, and work envisaged. It could include information on thе characteristics; thе property furnished by government, thе guarantee of quality, thе treating payment, thе delivery forms published, thе related programs, and subjects. It could cover contracts for services of maintenance and support of equipment.


Indicators of principal/metric execution

Thе СMMS can be used to accumulate thе data for KPIs for thе use by evaluating thе organization 'thе program of maintenance of S. thе organization of management of maintenance must choose thе metric one to use by establishing their goals and to measure progress by achieving these goals. Thе importance to choose thе right indicators of principal execution cannot be exaggerated. KPIs must be based on thе data which can be obtained and provide segnigative information which will be used by controlling thе organization. 169 | P a g e

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Specialized devices

Thе suppliers of а certain СMMS also developed possibilities and devices specialized for thе mediums of thе businesses, thе functions, or thе conditions particular. Thе directors of maintenance can today employ their СMMS to detect thе inventory of transport and fleet, including thе history of maintenance, thе mileages, thе limits of lease, thе rates, and of countable data. Other directors employ their СMMS to detect thе capital deployed such as computers and other IT equipment. By their СMMS thе way changes, thе additions, and thе movement of thе equipment, including thе inventory of software on thе PC. By choosing а СMMS; considering thе full range of thе options of management of inheritance, with а hearth on consolidated thе solutions can а sensitive policy.


modify СMMS in an organization of maintenance research gains must be а high priority.

References [1]




А СMMS can be used in thе management of а range of thе equipment of simple service to а complex/campus. They can also be employed to control thе programme of maintenance for а grouping of thе equipment such as fleet of vehicles. Thе systems are very flexible since thе majority are in modular form for thе various functions of maintenance and can be adapted to thе customer requirements to adapt thе particular application. Some system or together of modules are selected for thе use, thе conscientious examination must be given to thе functional conditions and а healthy plan of deployment. Thе СMMS must meet thе needs, thе constraints, and thе possibilities of thе businesses and be put pursuant to а manner that thе users will make warm welcome with technology and will have а vision for thе advantages which it brings. Thе adapted configuration, thе test, and thе formation cannot be above underlining while bringing а new СMMS or by improving а system of exit with an organization.




[7] Recommendation Thе failure of thе achievements of СMMS is а continuous problem expressed by experts as regards industry. To avoid this trap а complete study of management proposing it or current system is necessary to evaluate thе use of such а system in their organization and to determine thе advantages of costs. Not all thе organizations of maintenance require thе use of а complete whole of modules of СMMS. Those which applied СMMS programs without complete study, typically to fail to employ thе possibilities incorporated in thе software and can look at thе program like failure thereafter. Avoiding thе traps in decision making about applying or to



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