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September 17th, 2019

Vol. 03

Toll Free Number: 18001-200-1818

NO 96



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September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

CSIR NET Dec 2019 Official NTA Notification – Online Applications Open The National Testing Agency (NTA) has been established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) as an independent/autonomous, self-reliant and self-sustained premier testing organization. THE CONDUCT OF THE CSIR- UGC NET EXAMINATION HAS BEEN ENTRUSTED TO THE NTA BY CSIR, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. By Diluxi Arya

CSIR Dec 2019 Notification – Online NTA Applications Open CSIR-UGC NATIONAL ELIGIBILITY TEST (CSIR-UGC NET) DECEMBER, 2019 The National Testing Agency (NTA) has been established by the Ministry on 15 December 2019 for of Human Resource Development following subjects – CSIR Dec 2019 (MHRD) as an independent/autono- Notification. mous, self-reliant and self-sustained premier testing organization. The 1. Life Sciences conduct of the CSIR- UGC NET Ex- 2. Physical Sciences amination has been entrusted to the 3. Chemical Sciences NTA by CSIR, Government of India. 4. Earth Sciences 5. Mathematical Sciences The NTA will conduct the next CSIR-UGC NET for Junior Research The Test will be conducted in two Fellowship and eligibility for Lectur- different shifts as given below: ership (LS)/Assistant Professorship

and Services Tax (GST) are to Step-1: Apply for Online Registrabe paid by the candidate, as ap- tion using unique Email Id and Moplicable bile No. Step-2: Fill in the Online Applica2. Candidates can apply for CSIR- tion Form and note down the system UGC NET December 2019 through generated Application No. Step-3: Upload scanned images of “Online” mode only. Candidate’s Photograph (file size: 10 3. Submission of Online Application kb – 200 kb) and Candidate’s SignaForm may be done by accessing NTA ture (file size: 4kb – 30kb) in JPG/ website the Applica- JPEG format. tion Form in any other mode will not Step-4: Pay fee using SBI/Syndicate/HDFC/ICICI/Paytm Payment be accepted. Gateway through Debit Card/Cred4. Only one application is to be sub- it Card/Net Banking/UPI and keep Shift Timing Duration mitted by a candidate. (CSIR Dec proof of fee paid. In case the Confirmation Page is not generated after 2019 Notification) *Shift – 1 (Morning) 09:30 am to 12:30 pm (IST) 03 hours (180 mins) payment of fee then the transaction is 5. Candidates must follow the in- cancelled, and amount will be refund*Shift – 2 (Afternoon) 02:30 pm to 05:30 pm (IST) 03 hours (180 mins) structions strictly as given in the In- ed to the candidate’s account. Howevformation Bulletin and on NTA web- er, the candidate has to make another *Subject(s) in a shift will be decided based on number of students site. Candidates not complying with transaction, in case the Confirmation the instructions shall be summarily Page is not generated. disqualified. The Test will be conducted in the 1. FEE DETAILS – CSIR Dec • Download, save and print copComputer Based Test (CBT) mode 2019 Notification ies of Confirmation Page after 6. Candidates must ensure that only. successful remittance of fee and E-mail Address and Mobile Number • Online Submission of Applica- provided in the Online Application keep copies safely for future reftion Form: 09 September – 09 Form are their own as all informaThe candidates who desire to appear erence. October 2019 (upto 11:50 pm) in the Test may see the details in the tion/ communication will be sent by • All the 4 Steps can be done to• Last date of successful transac- NTA through e-mail on the registered Information gether or at separate times. tion of fee through Credit/Debit e-mail address or SMS on registered Bulletin for CSIR-UGC NET DeCard/Net-Banking/UPI General/ Mobile Number only. cember 2019, which will be available 8. Candidates are advised to visit the General-EWS: 10 October 2019 on the website NTA website and check their e-mails (upto 11:50 pm) and 7. Instructions for filling Online Ap- regularly for latest updates. (CSIR w.e.f. 09 September 2019. Dec 2019 Notification) plication Form: Fee Payable: 9. The candidate shall appear at their The candidates are required to apply • Download Information Bulle- own cost at the Examination Centre Rs. online during the period from 09 Sep- • General/General-EWS: tin and Replica of Application on Date and Shift indicated on their 1000/tember 2019 to 09 October 2019. The Form. Read these carefully to Application Fees can be paid up to 10 • OBC-NCL*: Rs. 500/ensure your eligibility. • SC/ST/PwD: Rs. 250/October 2019. • Follow the steps given below to • Processing charges & Goods Apply Online: Next Page>>>>


September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

Admit Card issued by the NTA. 10. Any request to change the Examination Centre, Date, Shift and NET Subject provided on the Admit Card shall not be considered under any circumstances. Note: 1. The final submission of the Online Application Form will remain incomplete if Step-3 and step-4 are not complete. Such forms will stand rejected and no correspondence on this account will be entertained. 2. No request for refund of fee once remitted by the candidate will be entertained by NTA under any circumstances. 3. The entire application process of CSIR-UGC NET December 2019 is online, including uploading of scanned images, Payment of Fees, and Printing of Confirmation Page. Therefore, candidates are not required to send/submit any document(s) including Confirmation Page to NTA through Post/ Fax/ by Hand/E-mail.

candidates like name of candidate, contact/ address details, category, PwD status, educational qualification details, date of birth, etc will be treated as correct/final. Any request for changes in information after the closure of correction period will not be considered by NTA under any circumstances. • NTA disclaims any liability that may arise to a candidate(s) due to incorrect information provided by the candidate(s) during application process. • NTA does not edit /modify/alter any information entered by the candidates after completion of application process under any circumstances. Any request for change in information thereafter will not be entertained. Therefore, candidates are advised to exercise utmost caution for filling up correct details in the Application Form. Usage of Data and Information: CSIR Dec 2019 Notification

Candidates are NOT allowed to carry Instrument, Geometry or Pencil box, Handbag, Purse, any kind of Paper/ Stationery/ Textual material (printed or written material), Eatables and Water (loose or packed), Mobile Phone/ Ear Phone/ Microphone/ Pager, Calculator, DocuPen, Slide Rules, Log Tables, Camera, Tape Recorder, Electronic Watches with facilities of calculator, any metallic item or electronic gadgets/ devices in the Examination Hall/Room.

NTA can use the data provided by the End User (test taker in this case) for internal purpose(s) including training, research and development, analysis and other permissible purpose(s).

Diabetic students are allowed to carry eatables like sugar tablets/ fruits (like banana/apple/orange) and transparent water bottle to the Examination Hall. However, they will not be allowed to carry packed foods like chocolates/candy/sandwich etc.

1. Introduction

DISCLAIMER – CSIR Dec 2019 Notification • Candidates are advised to read the Information Bulletin carefully and go through the instructions regarding filling of Online Application Form given on CSIR-UGC NET December 2019 website, before starting online registration. • Candidate should ensure that all information entered during the online registration process is correct. • Online information provided by

INFORMATION BULLETIN Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-University Grant Commission National Eligibility Test (CSIRUGC NET) DECEMBER 2019 CSIR Dec 2019 Notification

1.1 About National Testing Agency (NTA) The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India (GOI), has established National Testing Agency (NTA) as an independent, autonomous and self-sustained premier organization under the Societies RegistrationAct, 1860, registered as a self-reliant and self-sustained premier testing organization. Some of the objectives include: (i) To conduct efficient, transparent and international standard tests in order to assess the competency of candidates for admission. (ii) To undertake research on educational, professional and testing system to identify gaps in the knowledge systems and take steps for bridging them.


(iii) To produce and disseminate in- the test. formation and research on education and professional development stand- The award of CSIR-UGC NET Felards. lowship is for a fixed tenure and does not imply any assurance or guarantee 1.2 About CSIR-UGC Fellowship for subsequent employment by CSIRUGC NET to the beneficiary. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has entrust- CSIR Dec 2019 Notification ed the responsibility of conducting CSIR-UGC NET in CBT mode to 1.3 Junior Research Fellowship NTA. CSIR-UGC NET is a test being Stipend conducted to determine the eligibility ‘for Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) The stipend of a JRF selected and for Lectureship (LS) /Assistant through CSIR- National Eligibility Professorship’ in Indian universities Test (NET) will be Rs.31,000/- p.m and colleges subject to fulfilling the (under revision) for the first two years. eligibility criteria laid down by UGC. In addition, annual contingent grant Online applications for JRF/NET are of Rs.20,000/- per Fellow will be proinvited twice a year on all India basis vided to the University / Institution. through Press Notification of CSIR- The Fellowship will be governed by UGC NET for JRF and LS/AP terms and conditions of CSIR, UGC or Research Scheme, as applicable. CSIR and UGC provide Research Fellowships for training in methods On completion of two years as JRF of research under expert guidance of and if the Fellow is registered for faculty members/scientists working Ph.D, the Fellowship will be upgradin University Department/ National ed to SRF (NET) and the stipend Laboratories and Institutions in var- will be increased to Rs.35,000/- p.m ious fields of Science. CSIR-UGC (under revision) for the 3rd and subNET Fellowships are tenable in Uni- sequent years, on the basis of assessversities/IITs/Post Graduate Colleg- ment of Fellows’ research progress/ es/Govt. Research Establishments in- achievements through interview by cluding those of the CSIR, Research an Expert Committee consisting of & Development establishments of the Guide, Head of the Department recognized public or private sector and External Member from outside industrial firms and other recognized the University/ Institution who is an institutions. Only bonafide Indi- expert in the relevant field, not below an Citizens are eligible for the test. the rank of Professor/ Associate ProCSIR-UGC NET Fellowship is tena- fessor. As far as possible, the Exterble in India. The programme is aimed nal Member should be the chairman at National Science & Technology of three members Committee. Where Human Resource Development. the guide happens to be the Head of A large number of JRFs are award- the Department, the Dean, Faculty of ed each year by CSIR to candidates Science or any senior member of the holding BS-4 years program/ BE/B. Department may be associated as the Tech./B. Pharma/MBBS/ Integrat- third member of the Committee. In ed BS-MS/M.Sc. or Equivalent de- the event of the Committee not recgree/B.Sc. (Hons) or equivalent de- ommending up-gradation or the felgree holders or students enrolled in low has not registered for Ph.D, the integrated MS-Ph.D. program with candidate will continue as JRF with at least 55% marks for General/Gen- a stipend of Rs.31,000/- p.m. for the eral-EWS & OBC (50% for SC/ST 3rd year or his/her fellowship may be candidates and Persons with Disabil- terminated depending upon the recity) after qualifying the Test conduct- ommendation of the Committee and ed by CSIR twice a year in June and the decision of CSIR in this regard December. (CSIR Dec 2019 Notifica- shall be final. The progress of the retion) search work of JRF will be assessed by duly constituted three-member asThis Test also determines the eligi- sessment committee again at the end bility of candidates (i.e it is eligibility of 3rd year for such up-gradation. criteria only) for Lectureship/Assistant Professorship in Indian Univer- The number of fellowship for each sity/Colleges. Those who qualify for subject is limited. JRF are eligible for Lectureship/Assistant Professorship also, subject to 2. CSIR-UGC NET Examination, fulfilling the eligibility criteria laid December 2019 down by UGC. Some aspirants are declared successful in eligibility for Lectureship/Assistant Professorship only based on their performance in Next Page>>>>



CSIR Dec 2019 Notification Joint CSIR-UGC NET Examination would be conducted by NTA on Sunday, 15 December, 2019 for determining the eligibility of Indian Nationals for the award of Junior Research Fellowships (JRF) and for determining eligibility for Lectureship (LS)/Assistant Professorship in certain subject areas falling under the faculty of Science & Technology. CSIR-UGC NET December, 2019 shall be conducted by NTA on 15 December, 2019 in the enlisted subjects (Annexure- III) based on syllabus(available at www. ), at selected Cities of Examination centres spread across the country given at Annexure- I. 2.1 Option to be exercised by the candidate: A candidate may apply either for ‘Junior Research Fellowship (JRF)’ OR ‘Lectureship/Assistant Professorship’. (CSIR Dec 2019 Notification). He/she may indicate his/her preference in the Online Application, as the case may be. If a candidate applies for JRF and fulfills the laid down eligibility criteria for Lectureship/ Assistant Professorship also, such a candidate will be considered for both JRF & LS/Assistant Professorship.

Chemical Sciences: The candidate is required to answer a maximum of 15, 35 and 25 questions from Part-A, Part-B and Part-C respectively. If more than required number of questions are answered, only first 15, 35 and 25 questions in Part A, Part B and Part C respectively will be taken up for evaluation. Below each question in Part A, Part B and Part C, four alternatives or responses are given. Only one of these alternatives is the “correct” option to the question. The candidate has to find, for each question, the correct or the best answer. Earth Sciences: The candidate is required to answer a maximum of 15, 35 and 25 questions from Part-A, Part-B and Part-C respectively. If

Option/preference given by the candidate in his/her application form is final and request for change will not be entertained at any later stage. The total number of candidates who will qualify depends on the number of fellowships available and performance in the test, subject to the condition that they fulfill the laid down eligibility criteria. If a candidate is found to be over-age for JRF (NET), he/she will be automatically considered for Lectureship/Assistant Professorship (NET) only. Candidates with M.Sc. qualification OR under M.Sc. Result Awaited (RA) category shall be eligible for Lectureship (LS)/Assistant Professorship subject to fulfilling the eligibility criteria as laid down by the UGC 2.2 Mode of Examination: CSIR Dec 2019 Notification The Examination shall be conducted as Computer Based Test (CBT) only. 2.3 Pattern of Examination: The Test will consist of three parts. All the parts will consist of objective type, multiple choice questions. There will be no break between papers. The subject-wise scheme of examination is as per details below:

more than required number of questions are answered, only first 15, 35 and 25 questions in Part A, Part B and Part C respectively will be taken up for evaluation. Below each question in Part A, Part B and Part C, four alternatives or responses are given. Only one of these alternatives is the “correct” option to the question. The candidate has to find, for each question, the correct or the best answer. Life Sciences: The candidate is required to answer a maximum of 15, 35 and 25 questions from Part-A, Part-B and Part-C respectively. If more than required number of questions are answered, only first 15, 35 and 25 questions in Part A, Part B and Part C respectively will be taken up for eval-

September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

uation. Below each question in Part A, Part B and Part C, four alternatives or responses are given. Only one of these alternatives is the “correct” option to the question. The candidate has to find, for each question, the correct or the best answer. Mathematical Sciences: The candidate is required to answer a maximum of 15, 25 and 20 questions from Part-A, Part-B and Part-C respectively. If more than required number of questions are answered, only first 15, 25 and 20 questions in Part A, Part B and Part C respectively will be taken up for evaluation. Below each question in Part A, Part B, four alternatives or responses are given. Only one of these alternatives is the “correct” option to the question. The candidate has to find, for each question, the correct or the best answer. In Part C each question may have “ONE” or “MORE” correct options. Credit in a question shall be given only on identification of “ALL” the correct options in Part C.

lish version. In case of any ambiguity between Hindi and English version due to translation, English version would be treated as final. • If a candidate attempts more than the required no. of questions then only the First Set of required questions will be considered for scoring. 2.4 Examination Centres -Cities: The City of Examination Centres where the test shall be conducted are given at Annexure-I. It is mandatory for candidates to select four cities of their choice while filling Online Application Form of CSIR-UGC NET December 2019. Effort will be made to allot Centre of examination to the candidates in order of the City choice opted by them in their Application Form. However, due to administrative reasons, a different city of nearby area may be allotted. 2.5 Subjects of the Test: The Test will be held in the subjects mentioned below:

Physical Sciences: The candidate is required to answer a maximum of Subject Code Subjects of the Test 15, 20 and 20 questions from Part-A, 701 Chemical Sciences Part-B and Part-C respectively. If 702 Earth, Atmospheric, Ocean and more than required number of ques- Planetary Sciences tions are answered, only first 15, 20 703 Life Sciences and 20 questions in Part A, Part B 704 Mathematical Sciences and Part C respectively will be taken 705 Physical Sciences up for evaluation. Below each question in Part A, Part B and Part C, four 2.6 Syllabus of the Test: alternatives or responses are given. Only one of these alternatives is the Syllabus & Scheme of Examination “correct” option to the question. The of the MCQ Paper may be seen at candidate has to find, for each ques- CSIR HRDG website: tion, the correct or the best answer. Note: National Testing Agency will Part ‘A’ shall be common to all not provide the copy of syllabus to insubjects. This part shall contain dividual candidates. questions pertaining to General Aptitude with emphasis on logical reasoning, graphical analysis, analytical and numerical ability, quantitative comparison, series formation, puzzles etc. Part ‘B’ shall contain subject-related conventional Multiple Choice questions (MCQs), generally covering the topics given in the syllabus. Part ‘C’ shall contain higher order questions that may test the candidate’s knowledge of scientific concepts and/or application of the scientific concepts. The questions shall be of analytical nature where a candidate is expected to apply scientific knowledge to arrive at the solution to the given scientific problem. • The test will be in Hindi and Eng-

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September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

2.7 Important Timing of Examination: CSIR Dec 2019 Notification


3. Eligibility Criteria: 3.1 Essential Educational Qualifications: ( CSIR Dec 2019 Notification)

Date of Examination (Exact shift of examination will be made available on the NTA website)

First Shift

Second Shift

Timing of Examination

09:30 am- 12:30 pm

02:30 pm- 5:30 pm

Duration of Examination

03 hours without break

Entry into the Examination Centre*

7:30 am- 8:30 am

12:30 pm -1:30 pm

Entry in the Examination Hall/Room

8:45 am- 9:00 am

1:45 pm- 2:00 pm

Checking of Admit Cards by the invigilator

9:00 am- 9:15 am

2:00 pm – 2:15 pm

Sitting on the seat in the Examination Hall

9:15 am

2:15 pm

Instructions by the invigilators

9:15 am -9:25 am

2:15 pm- 2:25 pm

Display of Recorded Responses and To be announced later on Answer Keys website Test Commences

9:30 am

2:30 pm

Test Concludes

12:30 pm

5:30 pm

M.Sc. or equivalent degree/ Integrated BS-MS/BS-4 years/BE/B. Tech/B. Pharma/MBBS with at least 55% marks for General (UR)/General-EWS and OBC candidates and 50% for SC/ST, Persons with Disability (PwD) candidates. Candidates enrolled for M.Sc or having completed 10+2+3 years of the above qualifying examination as on the closing date of online submission of Application Form, are also eligible to apply in the above subject under the Result Awaited (RA) category on the condition that they complete the qualifying degree with requisite percentage of marks within the validity period of two years to avail the fellowship. Such candidates will have to submit the attestation form duly certified by the Head of the Department/Institute from where the candidate is appearing or has appeared. B.Sc (Hons) or equivalent degree holders or students enrolled in Integrated MS-PhD program with at least 55% marks for General (UR)/General-EWS and OBC candidates; 50% marks for SC/ST, Persons with Disability (PwD) candidates are also eligible to apply. Candidates with Bachelor’s degree will be eligible for CSIR fellowship only after getting registered/enrolled for Ph.D/Integrated Ph.D program within the validity period of two years. Candidates possessing only Bachelor’s degree are eligible to apply only for Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) and not for Lectureship (LS)/ Associate Professorship.

*Candidates are advised to report at the Examination Centre, at least 2 Specification of degrees (whether Bachelor’s or Master’s) as notified by UGC hours before the commencement of the examination. Candidates will not in its Gazette Notification No. F. 5-1/2013 (CPP-II) dated 5th July, 2014 and be permitted to enter into the Examination Centre after 8.30 am in first as amended from time to time, shall apply. Shift and 01.30 pm in second shift. Also, the candidates will not be permitted to leave the examination hall before the expiry of 3 hrs. from the The eligibility for lectureship/ Assistant Professorship of NET qualified candidates will be subject to fulfilling the criteria laid down by UGC. Ph.D degree start of the exam. holders who have passed Master’s degree prior to 19th September, 1991 with In case any candidate furnishes false information, appears in Computer Based at least 50% marks are eligible to apply for Lectureship/ Assistant ProfessorExamination, the candidature is likely to be cancelled and the result will not be ship only. declared in such a case.

3.2 Upper Age limit:


(a) JRF: Maximum 28 years as on 01.07.2019 {upper age limit may be relaxable up to 5 years in case of SC/ST/Persons with Disability(PwD)/ female 1. Candidate shall appear at their own cost at the Centre on Date, Shift applicants and 03 years in case of OBC (Non Creamy Layer) applicants}. and in Subject as indicated in their Admit Card issued by the NTA. 2. Any request to change the Examination Centre, Date, Shift and NET (b) Lectureship (LS)/ Assistant Professorship: No upper age limit. Subject provided on the Admit Card shall not be considered under any 4. Schedule for Submission of Application Form – CSIR Dec 2019 Noticircumstances. fication

CRISPR Technology Basics Certification Course


Online Submission of Application Form

09 September – 09 October 2019 (upto 11:50 pm)

Last date of successful transaction of fee through Credit/Debit Card/Net-Banking/ Paytm

10 October 2019 (upto 11:50 pm)

Correction in Particulars of Application Form 18 October to 25 October 2019 on website only Downloading of Admit Cards from NTA website

09 November, 2019

Date of Examination

15 December, 2019

Duration of Examination

180 minutes (03 hours)

Timing of Examination

First Shift: 9.30 am to 12.30 pm & Second Shift: 02.30 pm to 05.30 pm

Centre, Date and Shift of CSIR-UGC NET Examination

As indicated on Admit Card

Display of Recorded Responses and Answer Keys

To be announced later on website


Declaration of Result on NTA website

31 December, 2019



(i) Details of how to remit fee are given at Annexure- IV. (ii) After completing Step-2 and Step-3 of Online Application Form, candidates may remit the examination fee (Step-4). (iii) Print the Confirmation Page of Online Application Form after completion of Step-4 of fee payment. (iv) Candidates must keep with them as proof of remittance of fee – transaction slip in case of payment through Debit/Credit Card and Net Banking/ Paytm. (v) No fee will be accepted by NTA in any other mode i.e. Demand Draft / Cheque/Cash/ IPO/Money Order etc. (vi) Without completing Step-3 of Online Application Form and further payment of fee details as per Step-4, final submission of Online Application Form will remain incomplete and unsuccessful. Such an Online Application Form would stand rejected and no correspondence on this account will be entertained. (vii) No request for refund of fee once remitted by the candidate will be entertained by NTA under any circumstances. (viii)The entire application process of CSIR-UGC NET December, 2019 is online, including uploading of scanned images, Payment of Fees, and Printing of Confirmation Page. Therefore, candidates are NOT REQUIRED TO SEND/SUBMIT any document(s) including Confirmation Page to NTA through Post/ Fax/ By Hand/E-mail. 5. Fee Concession Candidates may be asked to upload a self-attested copy of his/her category certificate as proof of his/her claim when instructed. Claims/requests for any concession/relaxation in fee, age and/or educational qualification not accompanied by a self-attested copy of a valid SC/ST/OBC (NCL) /PwD (40% or more disability) certificate from a competent authority and in prescribed format, will be summarily rejected. OBC candidates, who are not covered under the provision of Non Creamy Layer (NCL) as per the provisions of Govt. of India shall not be eligible to get the benefit of relaxation in age, fee concession etc. Candidate must note that for availing OBC category benefit, CSIR follows only Central Govt. list and not the State Govt. lists. Similarly, candidate applying under PwD category may note that Govt. of India rules will be applicable in this regard, otherwise they shall not be eligible for any concession. 6. Provision for Persons with Dis-

ability (PwD) having 40% or more Disability

September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

will not be responsible for network problems or any other problem of this nature in submission of online application during the last day.

(i) Candidates with disabilities having 40% or more disability in upper limbs, visual impairment, low vision, 7.1 Ready Reckoner: cerebral palsy who have physical limitation to write with that of speed, will Before beginning the process of be provided the services of a scribe if filling the Online Application Form, they indicate requirement in their on- read Information Bulletin carefully, line application. keep ready required documents and follow the following instructions: (ii) Candidates with benchmark dis- • abilities in the category of blindness, • Copy of Board/ University Cerlocomotor disability (both arms aftificate for Candidate’s Name, fected-BA) and cerebral palsy, the faMother’s Name, Father’s Name cility of scribe shall be provided, if so and Date of Birth requested by the candidate in their • Type of Identification – Bank online application. A/c passbook with photograph/ Passport Number/ Ration Card/ (iii) Other category of persons with Aadhaar Card Number/Voter ID benchmark disabilities who requestCard Number/ Other Govt ID ed for scribe in their online applica- • Qualifying Degree Certificate or tion will be provided scribe only on last semester marks sheet production of a certificate in the pre- • Your Mailing Address as well scribed proforma (Annexure- XI) to as Permanent Address with Pin the effect that the person has physiCode (Refer Annexure-II for cal limitation to write, and scribe is State Code) essential to write examination on his • Four cities for Centres of your behalf, from the Chief Medical Ofchoice (Refer Annexure-I for ficer/Civil Surgeon/Medical SuperinCodes) tendent of a Government health care • Code of CSIR-UGC NET SubInstitution. ject (Refer Annexure-III for Code) (iv) Candidates covered under para • Category Certificate, if applica(i) and (ii) above will be allowed to ble (Refer Annexure-IX or X for meet the scribe a day before the date Format) of examination so as to verify wheth- • Self-Declaration Minority Comer the scribe is suitable or not, after munity Certificate, if applicable getting confirmation from the respec(Refer Annexure-XVI for Fortive Centre Superintendent. mat) • Result Awaited Certificate, if ap(v) The qualification of the scribe to plicable (Refer Annexure-XIV be brought by the candidate should for Format) be one step below the qualification of • Economically Weaker Section the candidate taking the examination. (EWS) Certificate, if applicable The candidate with benchmark disa(Refer Annexure-XV for Forbilities opting for own scribe should mat) submit details of the own scribe in • A person with Disability (PwD) the prescribed proforma (Annexure Certificate, if applicable (Refer – XIII). The original copy should be Annexure-XI for Format) the submitted to Centre Superintendent at e-mail address and Mobile Numthe exam venue on the day of examber of candidate ination. • Scanned images in JPG/JPEG format only (vi) PwD candidates will also be • Candidate’s Photograph – File given compensatory time of 60 minsize must be between 10 kb to utes in addition to the 3 200 kb. hours duration of the Exam. • Candidate’s Signature in running hand – File size must be between 7. How to Apply Online (Applica04 kb to 30 kb. tion Procedure) 7.2 Instructions for filling Online (Please see Replica of Application Application Form: Form at Annexure- VI) • Log on to NTA website csirnet. To avoid any kind of inconvenience and click on the “Apor last-minute rush or unforeseen ply Online” button under CSIRdifficulties, candidates are advised UGC NET December 2019. to submit Online Application Form • Download Information Bullewithout waiting for the last date. NTA tin and Replica of Application

Form. • Read these carefully to ensure your eligibility and acquaint yourself with the requirements for submission of Online Application Form. Step-1: Apply for Online Registration using unique Email Id and Mobile No. Step-2: Complete Online Application Form and note down the system generated Application No. Step-3: Upload scanned images of Candidate’s Photograph and Candidate’s Signature in JPG/JPEG format. Step-4: Make a payment of fee through SBI/Syndicate/ HDFC/ ICICI/ Paytm Payment Gateway (Debit/ Credit Card or Net Banking/UPI) and keep proof of fee paid. Download save and print copy of Confirmation Page after successful remittance of fee for your record and future reference. • For submission of Online Application Form, Steps 1 to 4 must be completed. All Steps are mandatory. • The final submission of the Online Application Form will remain incomplete if step 2 and step 3 are not followed through. Such Online Application Forms would stand rejected and no correspondence on this account will be entertained. • The candidate will get Application Number and One Time Password (OTP) message through e-mail and SMS for submission of Online Application Form. (Future Login will be allowed only with the Application Number and Password, so these must be preserved) • Download, save and print four copies of the Confirmation Page for your record and future reference. Step I: Registration Page Fill in the basic information and note down the system generated Application No. (i) Candidate’s Name/ Mother’s Name/ Father’s Name as given in the Secondary School Examination or equivalent Board/ University Certifi-

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September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

cate in capital letters

tral List) must choose General.

(ii) Date of Birth in dd/mm/yyyy for- 8. Gender- Provide Candidate’s genmat as recorded in Secondary School der as recorded in the Type of IdenExamination or equivalent Board/ tification viz. Bank A/c Number/ University certificate. Passport Number/ Ration Card/ Other Govt ID. (iii) Mobile Number and e-mail Address – Candidates must provide own 9. Single Girl Child- This option will Mobile Number and e-mail address. be visible only if the candidate has selected the option “Female” in gender Note: Only one e-mail address and column. Single Girl Child in the famione Mobile Number are valid for one ly without brother or sister may select application this option. Twin Daughter/Fraternal Daughter of the family may also seStep II: Fill in the complete Appli- lect this option. (Annexure- XVII) cation 10. Minority – The candidate should Form Fill in the complete Applica- select any one of the Minority Comtion Form munity viz. Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain and Parsi which is noti1. The application particulars en- fied under minority community as per tered can be edited before final sub- Section 2 (c) of National Commission mission of the Application Form. for Minorities Act, 1992. The Self Declaration of Minority Community 2. Once finally submitted, particu- by Candidate for support for Minority lars in certain specific fields may be Students given at Annexure-XVI. changed only during correction window. After that no communication in 11. Provide complete postal address this regard would be entertained. with PIN Code (Mailing Address as well as Permanent Address) for fur3. All the steps for submission of ther correspondence. PIN code of Online Application Form, Uploading Correspondence Address should be of Candidate’s photograph, Candi- given in the space provided for this date’s signature, Payment of fee and purpose. Printing of Confirmation Page can also be done separately. (Note: The NTA shall not be responsible for any delay/loss in postal tran4. Facility of submission of Online sit or for an incorrect Correspondence Application Form, uploading of pho- address given by the Applicant in the tograph, signatures, payment of fee Application Form.) and printing of the Confirmation Page will be deactivated as per schedule 12. Choice of Cities for Examination for submission of Application Form. Centres: The candidate should select Hence, candidates are required to any four cities of their choice for excomplete the process within the pre- amination of CSIR-UGC NET Described schedule. cember 2019 given at Annexure-I. ‘

• • •

• •

cap or goggles. Spectacles are allowed only if being used regularly. Polaroid and Computer-generated photos are not acceptable. Applications not complying with these instructions or with unclear photographs are liable to be rejected. Application without photograph shall be rejected. The photograph need not be attested. Candidates are advised to take 6 to 8 passport size colored photographs with white background. Candidates may please note that if it is found that photograph uploaded is fabricated i.e. de-shaped or seems to be hand-made or computer made, the form of the candidate will be rejected and the same would be considered as using Unfair means and the candidate would be dealt with accordingly.


not be considered for the examination. In case the candidate has paid the fee but is still not able to download the Confirmation Page, the candidate should approach the Help Line between 10.00 am to 5.00 pm from 18 October 2019 to 25 October 2019 with the following documents for correction and considering his/her candidature for the examination. (i) Proof of fee paid (Photocopy of transaction slip of fees paid through Debit/Credit Card and Net Banking/ Paytm). In case, the fee has not been remitted within the prescribed last date, the application would be treated as incomplete/unsuccessful and it shall not be considered. (ii) No request regarding non-receipt of Online Application Form/Fee would be entertained by the NTA after 25 October 2019. (iii) Candidates are advised to keep visiting the NTA website regularly for latest updates.

Note: Same Passport size photograph is to be used for uploading with Online Application Form and Candidates should check their mailfor pasting on Attendance Sheet at the box for the given email ids and SMS Examination Centre. in their registered Mobile Number for latest updates and information. The candidate should scan his/her passport size photograph for uploading. File size must be between 10 kb 7.3 Check List for filling the Onto 200 kb. line Application Form:

(ii) Candidate’s Signature: to be up- The candidates are advised to ensure loaded the following points before submitting the Online Application Forms: • The candidate should put his full signature in running handwriting (i) Whether they fulfill the eligibility on white paper with Black Ink conditions for the Test as prescribed pen and scan for uploading. under the heading ‘Conditions of Eli• File size must be between 4 kb gibility’ and ‘Age Limit’. to 30 kb. (ii) That they have selected their • Writing full name in the Box in category viz General/General-EWS/ 5. Candidates are not required to 13. CSIR-UGC NET Subject: The Capital letters would not be ac- OBC (Non-Creamy Layer)/SC/ST/ send/ submit hard copy of Confirma- candidate should select the CSIRcepted as the signature and the PwD/ Transgender and Minority option page to NTA office. However, the UGC NET subject to appear from the Application Form would be re- tion, in the relevant column correctly. candidates are advised to retain the list of CSIR-UGC NET December jected. (iii) That they have filled their Subhard copy of the Confirmation Page, 2019 Subjects given at Annexure-III. • Further, unsigned Online Appli- ject and City of examination and code and a proof of fee submitted for future cation Forms will also be reject- in the relevant column correctly. need. 14. Under no circumstances, the ed. (iv) That the Person with Disability choice of cities for Centre and NET • Note: Candidate must ensure (PwD) candidate has filled the rel6. Registration will be treated as subject filled in the Application Form that the uploaded images are evant column in the Online Applicomplete only if the fee has been shall be changed by the NTA. clear and focused on the face. cation Form. Only PwD candidates transacted successfully, else the form have to fill this column and the others will be cancelled. Step III: Uploading of scanned Step IV: Payment of Fee and Sta- have to leave it blank. images tus of receipt of Online Application (v) Whether they have kept a Print7. Other Backward Classes (OBC)Form with Fee: out of Application Form (ConfirmaNon Creamy Layer as per the cen- (i) Candidate’s Photograph: to be tion Page) for their own record. tral list of Other Backward Classes uploaded The final Confirmation of payment available on National Commission of Fee and the receipt of the online for Backward Classes (NCBC), Gov- • The photograph must be taken transaction will be displayed in the ernment of India website (www.ncbc. on or after 02.09.2019 prefera- Confirmation Page of CSIR-UGC Thus, the candidates falling in bly indicating clearly the name NET December 2019. The candidathis list may mention OBC in the Catof the candidate along with the ture of the candidate, whose fees has egory Column. State list OBC Candidate of taking the photograph. not been received upto the prescribed dates who are not in OBC-NCL (CenPhotograph should not be with last date (i.e. 10 October 2019), will Next Page>>>>



7.4 Important Points to Note:

retain the following documents with them as reference for future corre(i) The candidates, before submit- spondence: ting the Online Application Form, shall ensure their eligibility to appear • Print Out of the Confirmation in the test. Page of Online Application (ii) The Candidates should fill their Form. complete postal address with PIN • Proof of fee paid Code for further correspondence. The • Photographs (same as uploaded NTA shall not be held responsible for on the Online Application Form) any loss due to an incorrect address –6 to 8 passport size photographs given by the applicant in the Online need to be kept aside. Application Form. • The name on the valid photo (iii) The Candidate must ensure that identification card must match e-mail address and Mobile Number with the name as shown on the provided in the Online Application Admit Card. If the name has Form are their own (which cannot been changed due to events such be changed later) as communication as marriage, candidate must may be sent by NTA through e-mail show the relevant document at or SMS. the time of exam. Marriage Cer(iv) The Candidate should not give tificate/Divorce/Decree/Legal the postal address, Mobile Number or Name Change Document/Gae-mail ID of Coaching Centre in the zette Notification. Online Application Form. In order to appear in CSIR-UGC NET December (xiii) In case of any technical issue 2019, the candidates are required to or due to a natural disaster, if an exam apply ‘online’. The Application Form in a particular shift/subject has to be other than online mode shall not be rescheduled, NTA may follow the accepted. No change will be accepted process of normalization of the two through offline mode i.e. through fax/ test forms as per policy (Annexureapplication including e-mail etc. XVIII). (v) Online submission of application (xiv) Provision of Reservation for may be done by accessing the NTA candidates belonging to EWS/OBC/ official website: SC/ST/PwD will be as per GoI in(vi) Online Application Form can- structions issued from time to time. not be withdrawn once it is submitted successfully. 7.5 Provision of Aadhaar: (vii) Application Form of candidates who do not fulfill the eligibility crite- The Aadhaar number is only one of ria shall be rejected. (viii) A candidate the types of identification and is not is allowed to submit only one Appli- mandatory. Candidates may also enter cation Form. If a candidate submits Passport number, Ration Card nummore than one Application Form, the ber, Bank Account Number, Voter ID candidature is likely to be canceled. Card or any other valid Government (ix) Request for change in any par- identity number with a photograph. ticulars in the Application Form shall not be entertained under any circum- 8. e-Admit Card for CSIR-UGC stances. Note: However, a chance NET December 2019 may be given to the candidates to correct/modify/edit some of the particu- • The e-Admit Card is issued prolar(s) of the application form online visionally to the candidates, subonly, between 18 October to 25 Ocject to the fulfillment of the elitober 2019. gibility conditions. (x) The Centres (Cities) indicated • The candidate has to download for the entrance examination by a the Admit Card from the NTA candidate is only an option. The acwebsite w.e.f 09 November 2019 tual Centre and shift shall be allotted onwards and appear for the Exby NTA and it shall be final. No coramination at the given Centre on respondence in this regard shall be Date and Shift (Timing) as indientertained. It is mandatory for cancated in their e-Admit Card. didates to fill all four choices as op- • No candidate will be allowed to tions. appear at the examination center, (xi) In case a candidate is found proon Date and Timings other than viding incorrect information or the that allotted to them in their Adidentity is proved to be false at any mit card. time in the future, the candidate shall • In case candidates are unable to face penal action as per the law. download Admit Cards from the (xii) The Candidates are not required website, the candidate should to send/ submit the confirmation page approach the Help Line between of Online Application Form to the 10.00 am to 5.00 pm from 09 NTA. However he/she is advised to November 2019 to 16 Novem-

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ber 2019. • The candidates are advised to read the instructions on the Admit Card carefully and follow them during the conduct of the examination. • In case of any discrepancy in the particulars of the candidate or his/her photograph and signatures shown in the e-Admit Card and Confirmation Page, the candidate may immediately approach the Help Line between 10.00 am to 5.00 pm between 09 November 2019 to 16 November 2019. In such cases, candidates would appear in the examination with the already downloaded Admit Card. However, NTA will take necessary action to make correction in the record later.

his/her candidature will be treated as canceled and will also the debarred for future examination(s). The items/ material will be seized and the case treated as one of ‘unfair means’. (iv) No candidate, without the special permission of the Centre Superintendent or the Invigilator concerned, will leave their seat or Examination Room/Hall until the full duration of the paper is over. Candidates must follow the instructions strictly as instructed by the Centre Superintendent/Invigilators. Candidates should not leave the room/hall without handing over their rough sheets to the Invigilator on duty in the Room/Hall. • Smoking, chewing gutka, spitting etc. in the Examination Room/Hall is strictly prohibited. • Tea, coffee, cold drinks, snacks or eatables things are not allowed to be taken inside the examination room/hall during examination hours. • Candidates suffering from diabetes are allowed to carry into the examination hall the eatables like sugar tablets/fruits (like banana/apple/ orange) and transparent water bottle. However, they will not be allowed to carry packed foods like chocolate/ candy/sandwich, etc. • The Candidates, especially those who are carrying the barred items, including the metallic objects such as Kara and Kirpan, etc., should report at their respective Examination Centers one and a half hour before the gate closing time, for ensuring timely checking/frisking and entry to the Examination Hall.

Note: a. The candidate may please note that Admit Cards will not be sent by post. b. In no case, the duplicate Admit Card for CSIR-UGC NET December 2019 would be issued at the Examination Centres. c. Candidate must not mutilate the Admit Card or change any entry made therein. d. Candidates are advised to preserve their Admit Cards in good condition for future reference. e. No Admit Card shall be issued to the candidates whose Applications are found to be incomplete for any reasons (including indistinct/ doubtful photographs/unsigned Applications) or who do not fulfil the eligibility criteria for the examination. f. Issue of Admit Cards, however, shall not necessarily mean acceptance of eligibility which shall be further scrutinized at subsequent stages of If upon screening at the Examinaadmission process. tion Centre, it is discovered that any candidate is actually carrying, within 9.2 Prohibited Materials at the the ‘Kara’ and ‘Kirpan’, a suspect deExamination Centre vice, he/she may be asked not to take it in the Examination Hall (as directed (i) Candidates are not allowed to by the Hon’ble Delhi High Court vide carry any baggage inside the Exam- its Order dated 03.05.2018). ination Centre. NTA will not be responsible for any belongings stolen 9.3 Reporting Time and other Imor lost at the premises. portant Instructions – CSIR Dec (ii) Candidates are not allowed to 2019 Notification carry any textual material, Calculators, Docu Pen, Slide Rules, Log (i) The candidates shall report at the Tables and Electronic Watches with Examination Centre two hours before facilities of calculator, printed or the commencement of the examinawritten material, bits of papers, mo- tion so as to complete the frisking and bile phone, Blue-tooth devices, pager registration formalities well before or any other electronic gadget/ device time. The registration desk will be etc. closed 30 minutes prior to the exam(iii) The candidates are prohibited to ination. bring any kind of electronic gadgets/ (ii) Candidates shall not be permitdevice in the examination room/hall. If any candidate is found to be in possession of any of the above item, Next Page>>>>


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ted to enter in the Examination Centre after 8.30 am in First Shift and after 1.30 pm in Second Shift. (iii) Candidates are also advised to report at the Examination Hall/Room in the Examination Centre by 8.45 am in the First Shift and by 1.45 pm in the Second Shift. (iv) The candidates are advised to read the instructions on the Admit Card carefully and follow them during the conduct of the examination. (v) Candidates should take their seat immediately after opening of the Examination Hall. If the candidates do not report in time due to any reason i.e. traffic jam, train/bus delay etc, they are likely to miss some of the general instructions to be announced in the Examination Rooms/Halls. The NTA shall not be responsible for any delay. (vi) The candidate must show, on demand, the Admit Card downloaded/ printed from the NTA website for admission in the examination room/hall. The Test Centre Staff on duty is authorized to verify the identity of candidates and may take steps to verify and confirm the identify credentials. Candidates are requested to extend their full cooperation. A candidate who does not possess the valid Admit Card shall not be permitted for the examination under any circumstances by the Centre Superintendent. (vii) A seat indicating Roll Number will be allotted to each candidate. Candidates should find and sit on their allocated seat only. In case of a candidate who changes room/hall or the seat on his/her own other than the one allotted, candidature shall be cancelled and no plea would be accepted for it. (viii) The candidate should ensure that the question paper available on the computer is as per his/her opted NET subject indicated in the Admit Card. In case, the subject of question paper is other than his/her opted subject, the same may be brought to the notice of the Invigilator concerned. (ix) Candidate may approach the Centre Superintendent/Invigilator in the room for any technical assistance, first aid emergency or any other information during the course of examination. For any queries or issues regarding Computer Based Test, the candidates may contact on Helpline Numbers available on CSIR-UGC NET website. (x) For those who are unable to appear on the scheduled date of test for any reason, re-test shall not be held by the NTA under any circumstances. 10. Display of Answer Key for Challenges

The NTA will display Provisional Answer Key of the questions on the NTA website to provide an opportunity to the candidates to challenge the Provisional Answer Key. The Answer Keys are likely to be displayed for two to three days. The Candidates will be given an opportunity to make a challenge online against the Provisional Answer Key on payment of Rs. 1000/- per question challenged as processing charges.

a Scheme/Project, if otherwise suitable. However, they will not be eligible for Regular JRFNET Fellowship. Candidates qualifying for the award of JRF (NET) will receive fellowship from CSIR as per their assignment or from the Schemes with which they may find association. The candidates declared eligible for Junior Research Fellowship under CSIR Scheme and Lectureship/ Assistant Professorship will be governed by CSIR Rules/Regulations in this regard.

The NTA decision on the challenges shall be final and the result will be 13. Re-Evaluation/Re-Checking of declared on the basis of final answer result keys. There shall be no re-evaluation/ Note: re-checking of the result. No correspondence in this regard shall be en• Negative marking for wrong an- tertained. swers, wherever required, shall be applicable as per the subject wise 14. Procedure for appearing in scheme of Exam. Computer Based Test (CBT) • If a question for any reason is found to be wrong, the benefit of marks will The process has been explained at be given to only those candidates who Annexure-VII of the application attempted the question. On examining of the representations by the subject 15. Test Practice Centres (TPCs) experts, if it is found that along with the original answer key one more op- The Ministry of Human Resource tion(s) is correct, then marks will be Development has mandated the NTA awarded to all those candidates who to set up, establish and create a nethave attempted any one of the correct work of Test Practice Centres for canoptions. didates, especially in remote and rural • No grievances/representation with areas to enable them to practice and regard to Answer Key(s) after the dec- be comfortable in taking a Computlaration of result will be entertained. er Based Test (CBT). This facility is completely free of cost. Candidates 11. Display of Recorded Responses can register online (on NTA website) where they are provided a convenient The NTA will display the record- TPC near their location to practice ed responses and Question Paper at- on a given computer node. This fatempted by the candidates on the NTA cilitates the process of being able to website prior to the take a Computer Based Test (CBT). declaration of result. The recorded re- The entire experience of using a comsponses are likely to be displayed for puter is close to the actual experience two to three days. of taking a CBT. All efforts are made to provide practice tests and ques12. Procedure and Criteria for tions so that candidates can familiardeclaration of result – CSIR Dec ize themselves with logging into the 2019 Notification system, go through the detailed instructions regarding the test, use the Two separate merit lists, one com- mouse or numeric keyboard on screen prising of the candidates qualifying (virtual) for attempting each question, for the award of Junior Research Fel- scroll down to the next question, navlowship (JRF-NET) and the second, igate between questions, review and of those candidates qualifying the edit their options and submit answers. Eligibility Test for Lectureship (LS- (Refer to Annexure VIII for details). NET)/Assistant Professorship, will be CSIR Dec 2019 Notification made on the basis 16 of their performance in the above Test. Candidates 16. Correspondence with NTA qualifying for JRF (NET), will also be eligible for Lectureship/ Assistant All the correspondence should prefProfessorship (NET) subject to fulfill- erably be addressed by e-mail. The ing the eligibility criteria laid down email query shall be addressed only by UGC. The candidates qualifying if it is not anonymous and contains for Lectureship/Assistant Professor- the name, postal address and conship will be eligible to be considered tact number of the sender. An email for recruitment as Lecturers as well containing vague or general queries as for Junior Research Fellowship in and other queries as contained in


the Information Bulletin shall not be entertained. Queries shall not be entertained from person claiming to be representatives, associates or officiates of the applicant candidate. The following information shall not be revealed by phone or email: a. Internal documentation/status. b. Internal decision-making process of NTA. Any claim/counter claim thereof. c. Dates & venue of internal meetings or name of the staff/officers dealing with it. d. Any information which cannot be revealed in the opinion of NTA. 17. Query Redressal System (QRS) National Testing Agency (NTA) has established a Query Redressal System (QRS), an online web-enabled system developed by NTA. QRS is the platform based on web technology which primarily aims to enable submission of queries/grievances by the Registered Candidate(s) of UGCNET December 2019 Examination with (24×7) facility for speedy and favourable redressal of the queries/ grievances. A Unique Registration Number will be generated for tracking the status of the queries/grievances. The Registered Candidate(s) are advised to use the online facility for speedy and favorable response before mailing their queries on the official email id of CSIR UGC-NET i.e. 18. Common Services Centres/Facilitation Centres Candidates who are not well conversant and submitting face difficulties in the online application due to various constraints, can use the services of Common Services Centre, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India under the Digital India initiatives of Hon’ble Prime Minister. The Common Services Centre (CSC) scheme is a part of the ambitious National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) of Government of India and is managed at each village panchayat level by a Village level Entrepreneur (VLE). There are more than 1.5 lakhs Common Services Centres (CSC) across the country which will provide the desired support to candidates from

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urban as well as rural areas in online 19. NTA Weeding Out Norms submission of application form and payment of fee through e-wallet. The The record of CSIR-UGC NET Delist of the Common Services Centre cember 2019 would be available up is available on website: to 90 days from the Date of Examination. in.

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20. Legal Jurisdiction

Examination shall be entertained only when raised within 30 days from the All disputes pertaining to the con- declaration of result. The Director duct of CSIR-UGC NET Examination (Admn) of the NTA shall be the ofincluding Results shall fall within the ficial by whose designation the NTA jurisdiction of Delhi only. Further, may sue or be sued. any legal question arising out of the


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India’s bioeconomy To Reach $100 billion by 2025 : BIRAC India’s biotechnology sector holds around 3 percent share of the global biotechnology industry, and it has more than six hundred companies along with more than 2,600 biotech startups. ACCORDING TO DR. MANISH DIWAN, THE HEAD OF STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP & ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT, BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY RESEARCH ASSISTANCE COUNCIL (BIRAC), INDIA’S BIOECONOMY OR BIOTECH-BASED ECONOMY MIGHT GROW UP TO $100 BILLION IN SIZE BY THE YEAR 2025 FROM $ 50 BILLION IN 2018 ON THE BACK OF INNOVATIONS IN BIOTECH AND EFFORTS MADE BY ALL STAKEHOLDERS. By Ria Roy

Diwan speaking at an event highlighted the role of women entrepreneurs in the biotech field and on BIRAC’s role. He said that more than 60 of women founders among its beneficiaries had shown great aptitude in converting their opportunities into value. BIRAC council functions as an industry-academia interface and mainly focuses on helping startups in this field and SMEs in the biotech space grow by fostering innovation and entrepreneurship. BIRAC offers incubation support to enterprises from idea to late-stage along with funding support.

is a progressive branch of social science that looks at integrating the disciplines of economics as well as biology for creating theories that could better explain the economic events using biological basis and vice versa. BIRAC has so far supported around 516 startups that have generated 767 jobs and created 166 intellectual properties.

The council had launched Bio-Nest program to support setting up of bio incubators for offering incubation space to biotech startups, enable inBio-economy, as per Investopedia, teractions with industry, mentorship,

etc. So far this program has set up 40 bio-incubators and has committed Rs. 213 crore for the Bio-Nest program and has a mentor pool of over 600 mentors, according to the details on its website.

the automatic route for brownfield pharma and beyond that under the government approval route, along with 100 percent under the automatic route for medical devices manufacturing as well.

India’s biotech sector holds around 3 percent share of the global biotech industry and has more than six hundred companies along with more than 2,600 biotech startups, according to Invest India platform. The government has allowed 100 percent FDI under the automatic route for greenfield pharma, up to 74 percent under

The global biotech market will grow at 9.9 percent CAGR to hit $775-billion mark by the end of 2024 according to research firm Global Market Insights. BIRAC predicts India’s bioeconomy to reach $100 billion by the end of 2025.



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Top 25 Biotech Companies which got Funded in Last 7 Days – 4409 Crores Rs We analyzed the Biotech Startup World and found that the following Startups got funded to an excess of 615 Million USD ~ equivalent of 4409 Crores Rupees in the last 7 days. AMAZING ISN’T IT? SO LET’S FIND OUT WHICH COMPANIES GOT FUNDED AND THEY ARE WORKING ON WHICH IDEA. ANALYZE THE DATA GIVEN BELOW VERY CAREFULLY AND DO LET US KNOW WHAT YOU FIND OUT IN THE COMMENTS SECTION. By Ria Roy

1. Name of Startup: Repare Therapeutics • Categories: Biotechnology, Health Care, Pharmaceutical • Headquarters Location: Saint Laurent, Quebec, Canada • Founded Year: 2016 • Website: http://www.reparerx. com/ About Repare Therapeutics : Repare has developed and deployed a proprietary, high-throughput, genomic synthetic lethal screening platform that harnesses the precision and power of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, high-resolution protein crystallography and computational biology, and the unprecedented ability to exploit DNA Damage Repair (DDR) defects found across virtually all cancers. • Name of Founders: Agnel Sfeir, Daniel Durocher, Frank Sicheri • Date of Funding: 2019-09-04 • Last Funding Amount: 82500000 USD • Last Funding Type: Series B • Top 5 Investors in Repare Therapeutics: BVF Partners, Celgene, Fonds de solidarité FTQ, OrbiMed, Versant Ventures 2.Name of Startup: immatics biotechnologies • • Categories: Biotechnology, Manufacturing, Medical, Therapeutics • Headquarters Location: Tübingen, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany • Founded Year: 2000 • Website: About immatics biotechnologies : immatics is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of

immunotherapeutic substances for cancer therapy. immatics has a good track record of success: They are optimistic that they have found a way to develop drugs against cancer that might one day help many cancer patients. The product candidates are designed to have less severe side effects than currently available treatment options. immatics has developed peptide-based active immunotherapy with unprecedented speed and efficiency, setting new standards for discovery and development in this area of oncology drug development. Our technology can also lead to the development of novel immunotherapies based on antibodies and T-cell receptors. immatics is currently working on the development of new substances for a number of specific cancer types. Their most advanced product is currently being developed in a phase 3 clinical trial for kidney cancer. Final results for this trial are expected in 2015. A second product targeting colorectal cancer has just completed a large phase 1/2 clinical trial and a third cancer vaccine has entered several phase 1 clinical trial in brain cancer. They also have active earlier programs in several other tumor types including gastric cancer, non-smallcell lung cancer and prostate cancer which are being developed in collaboration with our partner Roche. • Name of Founders: Hans Rammensee, Harpreet Singh • Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 • Last Funding Amount: 75000000 USD • Last Funding Type: Venture –

Series Unknown • Top 5 Investors in immatics biotechnologies: 3i Group, Amgen, Celgene, KfW, Swisscom Ventures 3.Name of Startup: PolyPid • Categories: Biopharma, Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical • Headquarters Location: Petah Tiqva, HaMerkaz, Israel • Founded Year: 2008 • Website: http://www.polypid. com About PolyPid : Founded in 2008 and located in Israel, PolyPid is a privately held, development stage company that has developed a platform technology for the healthcare industry that enables a controlled and prolonged release of any active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). PolyPid’s technology combines polymers and lipids, enabling small-and-large API entrapment in degradation and hydration protected environments, regardless of their chemical or physical characteristics. PolyPid allows the release of the API from the reservoir at pre-determined rates of up to several months, with a constant release rate (zero-order kinetics). The flexibility of this innovative technology enables local administration of compounds across numerous therapeutic classes for several applications. PolyPid Ltd. is owned by the founders, private investors and Xenia Venture Capital. • Name of Founders: Noam Emanuel • Date of Funding: 2019-09-04

• Last Funding Amount: 50000000 USD • Last Funding Type: Series E • Top 5 Investors in PolyPid: Aurum Ventures, Chaim Hurvitz, Financière Saint James, GUIBOR, Shavit Capital 4.Name of Startup: Robocath • Categories: Biotechnology, Health Care, Medical, Robotics • Headquarters Location: Rouen, Haute-Normandie, France • Founded Year: 2009 • Website: http://www.robocath. com/en/ About Robocath : Our mission is to protect physicians from occupational hazards and ensure an efficient treatment for patients. We develop an innovative device to remotely operate catheters addressing interventional practices such as cardiology and radiology (peripheral, neuro). • Name of Founders: Bruno Fournier, Philippe Bencteux • Date of Funding: 2019-09-03 • Last Funding Amount: 5000000 EUR • Last Funding Type: Venture – Series Unknown • Top 5 Investors in Robocath: Caisse d’Epargne, GO CAPITAL, M Capital Partners, NCI, Supernova Invest

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5.Name of Startup: StratifiCare, Inc. • Categories: Biotechnology, Health Care, Information Technology • Headquarters Location: Singapore, Central Region, Singapore • Founded Year: 2015 • Website: About StratifiCare, Inc.: StratifiCare™ was founded in Singapore in 2015 with the vision of revolutionizing how patients are managed and treated in the world. Due to the lack of advanced medical technology, physicians find it hard to provide individualized treatment for patients. This may result in less optimal clinical outcomes and usage of healthcare resources. By developing technologically advanced in vitro diagnostic solutions, we transform the way patients are managed through personalized care and create value for all. In 2019, it opened its US HQ to pursue its FDA approval and LATAM Market access for its flagship product StratifiDen. StratifiCare develops quality, innovative diagnostic tests to enable healthcare providers in delivering personalized curative therapies to every patient. • Name of Founders: Anthony Chua, Keith Mun Keat Chong, Mary Mah Lee Ng, Tiffany Fan Lin • Date of Funding: 2019-08-31 • Last Funding Amount: 500000 USD • Last Funding Type: Seed • Top 5 Investors in StratifiCare, Inc.: Enterprise Singapore, Ministry of Health Singapore 6. Name of Startup: SkylineDx • Categories: Biotechnology, Health Care, Health Diagnostics • Headquarters Location: Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands • Founded Year: 2005 • Website: http://www.skylinedx. com/ About SkylineDx : SkylineDx is an emerging commercial-stage company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative gene signature-based diagnostic tests, which assist healthcare professionals in making personalized treatment decisions for individual patients. These tests are designed to accurately determine the type or status of the disease or to predict a patient’s response to a specific treatment.

• Name of Founders: Dharminder Chahal • Date of Funding: 2019-09-02 • Last Funding Amount: 20000000 EUR • Last Funding Type: Venture – Series Unknown • Top 5 Investors in SkylineDx: Van Herk Ventures

the data we produce.


company with a mission to develop a portfolio of five life-transforming • Date of Funding: 2019-09-03 AAV-delivered therapeutics for the • Last Funding Type: Grant treatment of rare monogenic central • Top 5 Investors in Perfectus nervous system diseases. The comBiomed: National Biofilms In- pany is based in Philadelphia, PA and novation Centre, The North has a research, collaboration and liWest Fund, UK Innovation & cense agreement with the University Science Seed Fund of Pennsylvania and its Gene Therapy Program (GTP) as well as the Orphan 7. Name of Startup: AAVogen 9. Name of Startup: PathoQuest Disease Center (ODC). Pursuant to the research collaboration, GTP • Categories: Biotechnology, Categories: Biotechnology, SaaS, conducts IND-enabling preclinical Health Care Therapeutics work, and Passage Bio is responsible • Headquarters Location: Headquarters Location: Paris, for clinical development, regulatory, Rockville, Maryland, United Ile-de-France, France manufacturing and commercializaStates Founded Year: 2010 tion of all product candidates. The • Founded Year: 2015 Website: https://www.pathoquest. ODC is responsible for natural histo• Website: http://www.aavogen. com/ ry studies, KOL engagement, and pacom About PathoQuest : PathoQuest tient advocacy outreach. About AAVogen : AAVogen is a bi- SAS operates as a biotechnology otech startup that develops gene ther- company which identifies pathogens • Name of Founders: James Wilapeutics for muscle-wasting diseases by means of High Throughput Seson like muscular dystrophy and cancer quencing (HTS). The company was • Date of Funding: 2019-09-04 cachexia. We make you stronger. founded in 2010 and is based in Paris, • Last Funding Amount: France. 110000000 USD • Name of Founders: Buel Rodg• Last Funding Type: Series B ers • Name of Founders: Luc Boblet, • Top 5 Investors in Passage Bio: • Date of Funding: 2019-09-01 Marc Eloit Frazier Healthcare Partners, • Last Funding Amount: 225000 • Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 Highline Capital Management, USD • Last Funding Amount: New Leaf Venture Partners, Or• Last Funding Type: Grant 8000000 EUR biMed, Versant Ventures • Top 5 Investors in AAVogen: • Last Funding Type: Debt FiKilpatrick Townsend, Nationnancing 12.Name of Startup: Novaremed al Cancer Institute SBIR De- • Top 5 Investors in PathoQuest: AG velopment Center, National Charles River Laboratories Categories: Biotechnology Institute of Arthritis and MusInternational, Fraser Finance, culoskeletal and Skin DiseasIdinvest Partners, investiere | • Headquarters Location: Basel, es (NIAMS), Washington ReVerve Capital Partners, KurBasel-Stadt, Switzerland search Foundation. ma Partners • Founded Year: 2017 • Website: http://www.no8.Name of Startup: Perfectus Bi- 10.Name of Startup: Quantificare omed • Categories: Artificial Intelli- About Novaremed AG : • Categories: Biotechnology, gence, Biotechnology, ManuHealth Care, Medical Device facturing • Name of Founders: • Headquarters Location: Ches- • Website: http://quantificare. • Date of Funding: 2019-09-02 ter, Cheshire, United Kingdom com • Last Funding Amount: • Founded Year: 2012 2600000 CHF • Website: http://perfectusbi- About Quantificare : • Last Funding Type: Venture – Series Unknown About Perfectus Biomed : They • Name of Founders: • Top 5 Investors in Novaremed are a microbiological services pro- • Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 AG: vider that provide our clients with a • Last Funding Amount: 5000000 research-based approach to microbioEUR 13.Name of Startup: Gyroscope logical testing, whilst recognizing the • Last Funding Type: Series A Therapeutics client’s need for a rapid turnaround • Top 5 Investors in Quantificare: and a personalized service. We speLBO France • Categories: Biotechnology, cialise in bespoke assays with a priTherapeutics mary focus on biofilm testing. They 11.Name of Startup: Passage Bio • Headquarters Location: Stevappreciate that not all products are enage, Herefordshire, United appropriate for standard testing as- • Categories: Biotechnology Kingdom says and therefore we work closely • Headquarters Location: Phila- • Founded Year: 2017 with our clients to develop methods delphia, Pennsylvania, United • Website: http://gyroscopetx. that are suitable for the testing of novStates com/ el products. They offer an extremely • Founded Year: 2018 About Gyroscope Therapeutics : customer-focused service that in- • Website: http://www.pas- Gyroscope is an ophthalmology comcludes regular feedback, consultancy, method development and report writaspx ing. In addition, we produce confer- About Passage Bio: Passage Bio ence abstracts and posters based on is a fully integrated gene therapy Next Page>>>>



pany developing gene therapies for the treatment of eye diseases linked to an unbalanced complement system. Gyroscope was founded to explore the convergence of advancements made in the understanding of the complement system’s impact on eye disease, the genetic basis of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and gene therapy as a mode of treatment delivery. • Name of Founders: • Date of Funding: 2019-09-03 • Last Funding Amount: 57700000 USD • Last Funding Type: Series B • Top 5 Investors in Gyroscope Therapeutics: Cambridge Innovation Capital, Syncona Partners LLP 14.Name of Startup: In Diagnostics • Categories: Biotechnology • Headquarters Location: Carlsbad, California, United States • Founded Year: 2018 • Website: About In Diagnostics: In Diagnostics is a Biotechnology company. They are developing next generation POC devices that rely on digital microchips to analyze biological samples. • Name of Founders: • Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 • Last Funding Amount: 3000000 USD • Last Funding Type: Seed • Top 5 Investors in In Diagnostics: 15.Name of Startup: Novan • Categories: Biotechnology, Health Care, Medical • Headquarters Location: Raleigh, North Carolina, United States • Founded Year: 2008 • Website: About Novan : Novan, Inc. develops products that tap the anti-bacterial properties of nitric oxide by encapsulating the compound in nano-particles that deliver therapeutic agents to desired body location. The company was incorporated in 2006 and is based in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. • Name of Founders: Nathan Stasko • Date of Funding: 2019-09-06 • Last Funding Amount: 25000000 USD

• Last Funding Type: Post-IPO Equity • Top 5 Investors in Novan: Aspire Capital Partners LLC, Malin Corporation 16.Name of Startup: My Intelligent Machines • Categories: Artificial Intelligence, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, Clinical Trials, CRM, Health Care, Information Technology, Life Science • Headquarters Location: Montréal, Quebec, Canada • Founded Year: 2016 • Website: About My Intelligent Machines : Competitive research carried out in the Pharma/Biotech industry, and in academia relies on massively produced omics data; the use of which requires bioinformatic expertise. Unfortunately, just a fraction of scientists have access to the expertise of bioinformaticians. Hiring a huge number of bioinformaticians is limited by the availability of qualified personnel and converting any scientist in bioinformaticians is unrealistic. They will address these critical problems by conceiving and implementing artificial intelligent systems, called MIMs (for My Intelligent Machines). MIMs will be accessible to non-specialists in bioinformatics and will also support the day-to-day work of bioinformatic groups. • Name of Founders: Abdoulaye Baniré Diallo, Mickaël Camus, Sarah Jenna • Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 • Last Funding Amount: 2600000 USD • Last Funding Type: Seed • Top 5 Investors in My Intelligent Machines: Anges Quebec, FounderFuel, Innovacorp, MEDTEQ, Real Ventures 17.Name of Startup: Polaris Biology • Categories: Biopharma, Biotechnology, Health Care, Medical • Headquarters Location: Shanghai, Shanghai, China • Founded Year: 2016 • Website: About Polaris Biology : Polaris Biology is a medical technology company specializing in the development and clinical application of cell-level precision diagnostic technology, is dedicated to exploring and studying individual and dynamic changes in tumors at the cellular level, and using

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this information to support clinical tumor diagnosis and treatment. • • • • •

Name of Founders: Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 Last Funding Amount: Last Funding Type: Series A Top 5 Investors in Polaris Biology: Baidu Ventures, Emerging Technology Partners, Morningside Venture Capital, Volcanics Venture

18.Name of Startup: Nkarta Therapeutics • Categories: Biotechnology, Health Care • Headquarters Location: South San Francisco, California, United States • Founded Year: 2015 • Website: About Nkarta Therapeutics : Nkarta seeks to improve upon the efficacy of cell therapy, making it more potent, better tolerated and more rapidly available to a broad population of patients with a variety of hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. While T-cell therapy, often known as CAR-T, has proven successful in certain cancer indications, its promise has been limited to a few hematologic malignancies and the side effects can be severe. Natural Killer cells are the immune system’s first responders against diseases and pathogens. Unlike T cells, they have an inherent ability to target tumor cells without genetic alteration, and therefore hold significant promise in the development of potent therapies that can be used more readily for diverse tumor types. Nkarta’s differentiated cell therapy approach is designed to boost and enhance the inherent power of Natural Killer cells to target and destroy tumor cells, while also offering a better tolerated safety profile.

inburgh, Edinburgh, City of, United Kingdom • Founded Year: 2009 • Website: About MedAnnex Ltd : Their patent-protected antibody approach has shown significant activity in experimental models of several serious autoimmune conditions. In most cases, autoimmune diseases are life-changing, with high medical, social and financial burdens. Patients often develop resistance to existing therapies, many of which have serious side-effects, so there is an urgent need for new treatments • Name of Founders: • Date of Funding: 2019-09-06 • Last Funding Amount: 11000000 GBP • Last Funding Type: Series B • Top 5 Investors in MedAnnex Ltd: Morningside Group, Scottish Investment Bank. 20.Name of Startup: Sprout Pharmaceuticals • Categories: Biotechnology, Medical, Pharmaceutical • Headquarters Location: Raleigh, North Carolina, United States • Founded Year: 2011 • Website: http://sproutpharma. com About Sprout Pharmaceuticals : Sprout Pharmaceuticals develops products for the treatment of female sexual health. The company was incorporated in 2011 and is based in Raleigh, North Carolina. • Name of Founders: Cindy Eckert, Robert Whitehead • Date of Funding: 2019-09-04 • Last Funding Amount: 20000000 USD • Last Funding Type: Venture – Series Unknown • Top 5 Investors in Sprout Pharmaceuticals:

• Name of Founders: Paul Hastings • Date of Funding: 2019-09-04 • Last Funding Amount: 21.Name of Startup: TreeFrog Therapeutics 114000000 USD • Last Funding Type: Series B Biotechnology, • Top 5 Investors in Nkarta • Categories: Therapeutics Therapeutics: Life Sciences Partners, New Enterprise • Headquarters Location: Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France Associates, Novo Holdings, RA Capital Management, • Website: About TreeFrog Therapeutics : Samsara BioCapital TreeFrog Therapeutics is a stem cell 19.Name of Startup: MedAnnex company that will enable millions of Ltd • Categories: Biotechnology, Clinical Trials • Headquarters Location: Ed-

Next Page>>>>

September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

patients to access the medical revolu- to promote a rapid optimal healing of tion of cell therapies by overcoming acute and chronic wounds. CollPlant current critical manufacturing issues. is based in Israel. TreeFrog Therapeutics has developed C-Stem® : a proprietary technology • Name of Founders: Oded platform that provides an end to end Shoseyov 3D scalable solution that will dramat- • Date of Funding: 2019-09-03 ically reduce treatment costs. • Last Funding Amount: 5500000 USD • Name of Founders: Erwan • Last Funding Type: Post-IPO Bezard, Jean-Luc Treillou, Debt Kevin Alessandri, Laurent • Top 5 Investors in Collplant: Cognet, Maxime Feyeux, Ami Sagi, Docor International Pierre Nassoy Management, Meitav Invest• Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 ment House, Meitav Under• Last Funding Amount: writing, Pontifax 3300000 EUR • Last Funding Type: Grant 23.Name of Startup: Strekin • Top 5 Investors in TreeFrog Therapeutics: AQUITI Ges- • Categories: Biotechnology, tion, Bpifrance, European Pharmaceutical Commission, Galia Gestion, • Headquarters Location: Basel, XAnge Basel-Stadt, Switzerland • Founded Year: 2014 22.Name of Startup: Collplant • Website: https://www.strekin. com/ • Categories: 3D Printing, 3D About Strekin : Strekin AG is a Technology, Biotechnology, clinical-stage biopharmaceutical Health Care, Medical, Medical company headquartered in Basel, Device, Wellness Switzerland. Strekin was founded in • Headquarters Location: Ness 2014 by Dr. Alexander Bausch, Prof. Ziona, HaMerkaz, Israel Dr. Daniel Bodmer, and Mr. Roger • Founded Year: 1981 Meier. • Website: http://www.collplant. com • Name of Founders: Alexander About Collplant : CollPlant is reBausch generative medicine company that fo- • Date of Funding: 2019-09-03 cuses on 3D bioprinting of tissues and • Last Funding Amount: organs and also develops and com2820000 CHF mercializes tissue repair products for • Last Funding Type: Series A orthobiologics. The company’s prod- • Top 5 Investors in Strekin: ucts are based on the rhCollagen that is produced with CollPlant’s proprie- 24.Name of Startup: CONTINUtary plant based genetic engineering US Pharmaceuticals technology. The rhCollagen BioInk is ideal for 3D bioprinting of tissues and • Categories: Biotechnology, organs, and the unique Vergenix line Medical, Pharmaceutical of rhCollagen products contains a soft • Headquarters Location: Bostissue repair matrix for treating tenditon, Massachusetts, United nopathy and a wound repair matrix States

HEADLINES • Founded Year: 2012 • Website: About CONTINUUS Pharmaceuticals : CONTINUUS Pharmaceuticals works with pharmaceutical and generic companies under a Build-Own-Operate model. We design, build, and run the manufacturing process directly at the client site. This novel business model provides our clients with an exceptional, ”oneshop solution” for their entire development and manufacturing cycle. Our success is based on the establishment of long term partnerships with our pharmaceutical clients • Name of Founders: Bayan Takizawa, Salvatore Mascia • Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 • Last Funding Amount: 5000000 USD • Last Funding Type: Series B • Top 5 Investors in CONTINUUS Pharmaceuticals: IMA Group, Mark Bamfoth, MassChallenge 25.Name of Startup: New Wave


Foods • Categories: Advanced Materials, Biotechnology, Food and Beverage, Travel • Headquarters Location: San Francisco, California, United States • Founded Year: 2015 • Website: About New Wave Foods : New Wave Foods is the leader in sustainable seafood. It is their mission to create food that is healthier for us and better for the environment while providing ingredients for outstanding culinary experiences. • Name of Founders: Dominique Barnes, Michelle Wolf • Date of Funding: 2019-09-05 • Last Funding Type: Venture – Series Unknown • Top 5 Investors in New Wave Foods: IndieBio, New Crop Capital, Plug and Play, SOSV, Tyson Ventures



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Breakthrough Research – Biological Age of Humans May Be Reversed By Years! A recent research study shows that researchers might be able to not only slow down the process of aging but can reverse it, Benjamin Button-style. VOLUNTEERS IN A CALIFORNIA RESEARCH STUDY WERE GIVEN A COCKTAIL OF THREE COMMON DRUGS FOR ONE YEAR WHICH INCLUDED A GROWTH HORMONE AND TWO DIABETES MEDICATIONS. RESEARCHERS HAD BEEN TESTING THESE DRUGS IN THE HOPE OF REGENERATING THE THYMUS GLAND. By Ria Roy

But upon further analysis, researchers found that participants of the study had lost an average of 2.5 years on their epigenetic clock, which is measured by analyzing marks on a person’s genomes, according to the journal Nature. The study participants’ immune systems also showed signs of rejuvenation. Even the researchers who conducted the study were shocked by the results.UCLA researcher Steve Horvath told Nature that the research team had expected to see slowing down of the clock, but not a reversal which they felt kind of futuristic. Scientists warn the findings of the study, that accidentally revealed that the biological age of humans may be reversed by years, are preliminary:

the research study only included 9 participants and did not include a control group. But if further research confirms these findings of the study, the impact on health care and society’s relationship with aging as a whole could be a massive discovery. The epigenetic clock is measured by a record of a series of chemical changes that happens to an organism’s DNA. The study’s main purpose was to test whether growth hormone could be used to restore tissue in the thymus gland, which is actually crucial for immune function. The Thymus gland starts to shrink after puberty and it becomes clogged by fat. Former studies

had shown growth hormone stimulates regeneration in the thymus, but it can also cause diabetes, this is why the diabetes medications were included in the most recent study that accidentally revealed the biological age reversing. Researchers only even checked the epigenetic clocks in the study participants as an afterthought. Horvath looked at 4 different measures of the epigenetic clocks of each of the participants of the study. Hovarth found all of them had reversed significantly.

ological effect of the treatment was robust. said Horvath. 6 participants of the study provided their blood samples six months after the trial and the effect had remained the same in these participants. Given that the effect was so strong in each participant, Horvath is optimistic for future testing. The scientists are planning a larger study on biological age reversing with more diverse participants by age, gender and ethnicity and the three drugs are being tested independently to determine specific effects.

This helped him to find that the bi-

Artificial Leaf That Manufactures Medicines From Sunlight age, faux leaves take in the sunlight and use it to create something that is entirely new, only instead of generating fuel for a living plant, these mini-reactors can produce medicine for By Ria Roy humans.


On the other hand, plants are masters The scientist team has been working at exploiting the free energy delivered on this artificial leaf system for some from the sky, so it’s only natural that time, first presenting a prototype back researchers look them for inspiration. in the year 2016. Now, this technology has been refined and the scientists Now, in an ongoing effort from re- say that the colorful fake foliage can searchers with the Eindhoven Univer- be used to create just about any kind sity of Technology in the Netherlands of medicine imaginable. has yielded a promising new type of an artificial leaf which produce med- Taking cues from Mother Nature, icines from sunlight. Like actual foli- these tiny reactors utilize intricate

channels that flow like veins through the leaves. When sunlight hits certain liquids flowing through these leaves it sparks a chemical reaction which is a process that would normally require electric power, even harsh chemicals or both, but just by using sunlight to power the drug production, it becomes much more sustainable. The researchers envision such systems being used in places where medicines are in short supply and where producing it on-site is very difficult. The production of anti-malaria drugs in the jungle without a power grid could become much easier thanks to these advancements.

Timothy Noel who led the research on artificial leaf said in a statement that there are hardly any obstacles to putting this artificial leaf technology that produces medicines in practice, except for the fact that this only works during daylight. He added that these artificial leaves are perfectly scalable; and where there is the sun, it works. The tiny reactors can be easily scaled and its inexpensive and self-powered nature makes them ideally suitable for the cost-effective production of chemicals with solar light.


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Meet World’s First Cloned Kitten – Created by Chinese Scientists The sudden death of Huang Yu’s pet cat Garlic came as a shock to him. Thanks to the Chinese firm Sinogene, they created a Clone of Yu’s pet cat. HUANG, 23, WAS DELIGHTED SEEING GARLIC’S SECOND INCARNATION. HE SAID THAT THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE TWO CATS IS MORE THAN 90 PERCENT. By Rahul Mishra

The New Garlic- First Cloned Kitten- was Born on 21st July. Sinogene became the first Begin company in doing so. The pet-cloning company has made more than 40 pet dogs. This procedure costs a massive 380,000 yuan ($53,000), whereas the cost for a cat comes around 250,000 yuan Here is a video of the First Cloned Kitten: ($35,000). Mi Jidong, the company’s CEO, said that most of their clients are young people, even though the price of the procedure is on the higher side. He added that Owner’s see these cloned animals as a part of their family. Pet cloning meets the emotional needs of the young generations.

With a growing pet market in China and a massive appetite among their owners for spending, Mi Jidong thinks the market for pet cloning is also set to escalate. According to reports from Pet Fair Asia and pet website, pet-related expenditure in China reached around 170.8 bn yuan ($23.7 billion) in 2018.

The happy owner, Huang Yu, says he hopes the personality of the new China’s scientists have big aspiraGarlic is as similar to his old white- tions for their next cloning challenge. The researchers are working on the and-gray cat as its appearance.

theory that if cats can be cloned, so can pandas.

nounced last year she had cloned her dog.

Chen Dayuan, an expert at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, has been studying giant panda cloning for 20 years. He said that there could be scope for cats to give birth to cloned baby pandas. Baby pandas are smaller than baby cats despite their large size when fully grown.

The first significant success in animal cloning was Dolly, the sheep. She was born in Britain in 1996. Dolly is the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.

Pet cloning is banned in many countries but approved in some countries including the US and South Korea, where singer Barbra Streisand an-

In 2005, scientists from South Korea cloned the first dog. The Sooam Biotech Research Foundation in Seoul says it has cloned around 800 pets. They charge $100,000 each.



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Indian Scientists Develop Nano-chip from Laboratory Waste to Diagnose Diseases The scientists from IIT Guwahati have developed a nano-chip from laboratory waste which can detect Hydrogen peroxide, a toxic chemical produced in our body as resultant to various metabolic pathways. THIS CAN BE USED FOR DETECTING OVERPRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, WHICH IN TURN HELPS IN THE DISEASE DIAGNOSIS. By Ria Roy

Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly used disinfectant for cuts and burns. In the body, it is generated as a byproduct of the metabolic pathway and can be dangerous to the proteins. The overproduction in the body can be an indication of an imbalance in the metabolic process due to disorders like cancer, inflammation, neurogenerative diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and diabetes. Enzyme peroxidase based methods are commonly used to detect hydrogen peroxide in tissues, blood, urine, etc. These methods are expensive, lengthy, and requires a trained technician to handle the process. The short shelf life of the enzymes is another disadvantage.

for hydrogen peroxide detection. The chip was later tested under electron microscopy and its efficacy was assessed in detecting hydrogen peroxide in human blood samples. As explained by Dr.Pranjal Chandra, Leader of the research team- The sensor development process is speedy. The entire process of fabrication of the sensor chip from the raw materials will take up to 30 minutes and can be used multiple times without losing the efficiency.

The researchers from IIT Guwahati have come up with an enzyme-free nano-chip to detect hydrogen peroxide. The discarded Indium tin oxide plates used in scanning electron microscope were plated with gold, and The nano-chip can detect very low the peroxidase activity of gold was levels of hydrogen peroxide withexploited to detect hydrogen peroxin milliseconds. The presence of ide. substances like glucose, citric acid, ascorbic acid, uric acid, etc. do not The surface area of the gold plated affect the detection of hydrogen perchip was increased by the process of oxide. This chip remains stable for up sputtering to create more surface area

to 12 weeks. Hydrogen peroxide can also be detected in samples like tear, urine, serum, etc. The team plans to work towards developing handheld devices which can be integrated with an interface like a mobile phone-based on the same principle and protocol demonstrated in developing nano-chip.

This research on developing Nano-chip for disease diagnosis was supported by grants from the Department of science and technology. The research findings of Buddhadev Purohit, Kuldeep Mahato, and Ashutosh Kumar were published in journal Microchimica Acta.

Buddhadev Purohit, Dr. Pranjal Chandra, Kuldeep Mahato, Ashutosh Kumar (L to R)


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Zebrafish May Hold Key To Retina Regeneration in Humans! Vanderbilt University researchers reported that the tiny zebrafish might hold the secret to regenerating damaged retinas in humans. CURRENTLY, THERE ARE FEW EFFECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR RETINAL DEGENERATIVE DISEASES SUCH AS AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION. By Rahul Mishra

AMD is the most common cause of blindness in thousands of Americans over age 55. The same case may be observed in the case of other diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa. Many of them are blind by the age of 40. Mammals cannot regenerate retinal neurons that are lost or damaged by disease. Whereas in bony fishes like the 1-inch-long zebrafish, retinal damage triggers a spontaneous regenerative response that restores both retinal structure and function. Zebrafish is s widely used as a “model organism” in biological and medical research studies.

standing how zebrafish regenerate damaged retinas could lead to new ways to enhance retinal regeneration in people. Zebrafish Regenerate Damaged Retina- What is the Mechanism?

The cells and structure of the retina James Patton, Ph.D., and colleagues are highly conserved among the var- in the Department of Biological ious group of organisms right from Sciences at Vanderbilt University fish to humans. Therefore, under- found that microRNA- miR-216a is

a critical factor which regulates the induce MG reprogramming and proexpression of Dot1l, an enzyme in- liferation in mammals. volved in regulating gene expression. James Patton said that Müller glia The researchers demonstrated that constitutes an adult stem cell in the suppressing miR-216a initiates the zebrafish retina. The goal of his team differentiation and proliferation of is to identify pathways and genes that Müller glia (MG). It is the source of could be activated to induce similar regenerated neurons in the zebrafish behavior in the human retina. He is retina, in part by releasing inhibi- the director of the Interdisciplinary tion of Dot1l. The next step is to test Graduate Program at Vanderbilt. whether suppressing miR-216a can

Periodic Tables For Molecules Discovered The periodic table was designed to contain all the elements or say atoms, found in nature in a special layout that groups the elements in rows and columns according to one of their most important characteristics, i.e, the number of electrons. Researchers have used the element periodic table for decades in order to predict the characteristics of the then-unknown elements. And these elements are added to the table over time. Now, Could there be such a periodic table for molecules? Although some scientists have thought about this possibility of periodic table for molecules and proposed periodic rules for predicting the existence of some molecules, these predictions by the researchers were valid only for certain clusters of atoms with a quasi-spherical symmetry, which is because of the limitations of their own theory.

However, there are many clusters of atoms with other shapes and other types of symmetries which has to be accounted for with a better model. Thus, a researchers team from Tokyo Tech, including Dr. Naoki Haruta, Dr. Takamasa Tsukamoto, Prof. Kimihisa Yamamoto, and their colleagues, proposed a new approach to build a periodic table for molecules considering multiple types of symmetries of molecules. This approach by the team is based on a keen observation on the behavior of the valence electrons of atoms that form the molecular clusters. The valence electrons can be regarded as free electrons in atoms with an outermost orbital, and thus these can interact with the electrons of other atoms to produce compounds. And when multiple atoms form a cluster with a symmetrical shape, their valence electrons tend to occupy specific mo-

lecular orbitals which are called as super-atomic orbitals, where the cluster behaves almost exactly as if they were the electrons of huge atoms. When this fact is considered and analyzed the effects of the structural symmetries for clusters, the scientists proposed symmetry-adapted orbital models, that are in agreement with multiple known molecules as well as state-of-the-art quantum-mechanical calculations. The new periodic tables, which would be created for each symmetry type, would actually be four-dimensional, because the molecules would be arranged according to four parameters: groups and periods (based on their valence electrons, similar to the normal periodic table), species (based on the constituting elements), and families (based on the number of atoms).

The symmetry-adapted orbital (SAO) approach is very promising in the field of materials design. Prof. Yamamoto stated that modern synthesis techniques enable us to produce many innovative materials based on the symmetry-adapted orbital model, such as lightweight magnetic materials. The road ahead for researchers lies in further expanding these periodic tables to molecular clusters with other shapes and symmetries and predicting stable molecules that have yet to be developed. Prof. Yamamoto concluded that among the infinite combinations of constitutive elements, the proposed periodic table for molecules will be a significant contribution to the discovery of novel functional materials.

By Ria Roy



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Super Shrimps Are Here To Fight Hunger & Prevent Diseases In a research published in Nature’s Scientific Reports, A group of researchers from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU)for the first time have developed “Super shrimps” which produces only female offsprings. THE ALL-FEMALE POPULATION COULD INCREASE AQUACULTURE YIELDS, ACT AS A NATURAL AGENT TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF WATER-BOUND PARASITES, AND PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT. By Preety Suman

The research was headed by BGU Prof. Amir Sagi, who is also a member of the National Institute for Biotechnology (NIBN), and, Tom Levy, a Ph.D. student. It was in collaboration with Enzootic, a Beer-Sheva, Israel-based startup company who specialize in all-female mono-sex aquaculture biotechnologies. The main focus was to achieve an all-female population in economically significant prawn- Macrobrachium rosenbergii. It was achieved for the first time by androgenic gland cells transplantation which caused full sex reversal of WW females to fully functional males. Later crossing WW males with WW females yielded all-female progeny lacking the Z chromosome.

the use of any hormones or genetic modification, achieving mono-sex population and addressing ecological concerns. Prawns also serve as a biocontrol agent against parasite carrying snails. The mono-sex population of prawns reduces the hazard of prawns becoming the invasive species.

The study follows a publication in July in Nature Sustainability, which stated that the freshwater prawn act as biocontrol agent by preying on aquatAs explained by Tom Levy, Mono- ic snail species. These snails serve as sex population was achieved without intermediate hosts for parasites caus-

ing schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. The mono-sex prawns can prevent the spread of parasites, are economical and environment-friendly. Prof. Sagi added that Integrated aquaculture-based interventions could be a great strategy for fighting schistosomiasis in endemic regions of the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 220.8 million people require preventive treatment for schistosomiasis in a year.

This study included minds like Prof. Sagi, Dr. Amit Savaya of BGU along with a large team of researchers around the world lead by Prof. Giulio De Leo of Stanford University who worked on control strategies super shrimps aquaculture to reduce intermediate host snail populations and mass drug administration to treat infected individuals. Both the strategies worked best together.


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Eating Chicken Linked To Higher Risk Of Cancer – Oxford Research Researchers have identified a link between people who eat chicken products and an increased chance of developing three different types of cancer. RESEARCHERS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD IN THE UNITED KINGDOM SURVEYED THE MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF 475,488 BRITISH PEOPLE AGED BETWEEN 37 AND 73 AND MONITORED HEALTH RAMIFICATIONS OVER FIVE YEARS. By Rahul Mishra

The researchers analyzed the participants’ diet, including diseases, and illnesses they suffer from. The study found more than 23,000 of the participants were diagnosed with any cancer during that time, and the consumption of chicken was associated with malignant melanoma, prostate cancer, and neck, armpits or groin, persistent fanon-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. tigue, abdominal pain or swelling, fever, night sweats, unexplained weight Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma- Eating loss, as well as chest pain and breathChicken linked to Cancer ing problems. The researchers found a link beThe study also found an association tween chicken consumption and inbetween eating white meat and an increased risk for non-Hodgkin’s lymcreased risk for malignant melanoma phoma, cancer that originates in the and prostate cancer in men. lymphatic system. Lymphatic System is considered to be the disease-fightProstate Cancer And Melanoma– ing network of the human body. Eating Chicken linked to Cancer The tumors in non-Hodgkin’s lymThe researchers said that further phoma develop from a type of white studies could shed more light on the blood cell called lymphocytes. The positive association between poulcondition is characterized by paintry intake and prostate cancer and less, but swollen lymph nodes in the non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

“Poultry intake was positively associated with risk for malignant melanoma (HR per 30 g/day increment in intake 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), prostate cancer (1.11, 1.02- 1.22) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1.26, 1.031.55),” A. Kruppel and colleagues wrote in their study. What is Prostate Cancer? Prostate Cancer Affect the prostate gland that produces some of the fluid in semen and plays a role in urine control in men. It is the most prevalent cancer in men. What is Melanoma?

Melanoma is the most severe type of skin cancer. It develops in the melanocytes, which produce melanin, the pigment that gives the skin its color. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight or tanning beds is popularly associated with the disease. Initial signs of melanoma include changes in an existing mole and the development of a new pigment or odd-looking growth on the skin. In their report, the researchers did acknowledge the need for more research to be done on the findingsChicken linked to Cancer – and said the further investigation would be held to correlate the results.



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New Malaria Drug Uses Human Blood As Weapon – Breakthrough Research According to the researchers, the medication commonly used to combat river blindness can also kill the parasite that spreads malaria. This could save millions of lives. IVERMECTIN IS A DRUG DISCOVERED FROM THE STREPTOMYCES AVERMITILIS IN 1975. IT HAS NOW FOR MORE THAN TWO DECADES BEEN USED TO KILL PARASITES INCLUDING WORMS, LICE, MITES, AND NEMATODES. IVERMECTIN WORKS BY DISRUPTING THE FLUID EXCHANGE THROUGH THE INSECT’S CELL MEMBRANE. By Rahul Mishra

Experts Scientists now say that the -New Malaria Drug- which is Ivermectin-based could be released within two years. Recently, researchers had reported that vaccine clinical trials in Burkina Faso using Ivermectin for conditions unrelated to malaria had also seen malarial transmission rates drop significantly. Further research revealed that Ivermectin was proved to be lethal to Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite carried by female Anopheles mosquitoes.

laria branch at the Kenya Medical Research Institute (Kemri), said that they are planning for human trials using this new malarial drug. He highlighted that further research needs to be done on Ivermectin. Showing concerns about the growing malarial drug resistance, Dr. Simon said that new medicines are the need of the hour.

A Far-Fetched Goal- Can we ComDr. Simon Kariuki, head of the ma- bat Malaria?

According to some reports, deaths from malaria have dropped by roughly 48% since 2000. In 2017, the deadly disease killed 435,000 people worldwide. Recent studies in August this year highlighted that resistance to existing old antimalarial drugs is increasing worldwide. However, a paper published by the Yale School of Public Health earlier in 2019 explained that child malaria

could be reduced by up to 20%. This could be achieved if populations living in high-risk areas were administered Ivermectin. This report supports the efficacy of the New Malaria DrugIvermectin. Expert Scientists in the field of malarial research should team up to help fight this global massacre.


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Newly Discovered Eel Delivers Strongest Electric Shock On Record

In the murky freshwater rivers, that snake across the Amazon lurks an eight-foot fascination: the electric eel with strongest shock yet! Since the discovery of electric eel, more than 250 years ago by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus, researchers have thought the electric eel was a one-of-a-kind phenomenon, with only one species, Electrophorus electricus. NOW RESEARCHERS SAY THEIR TEAM HAS DISCOVERED 2 NEW SPECIES OF THE ELECTRIFYING FISH, WHERE ONE OF IT CAN GENERATE AN ELECTRIC DISCHARGE FAR STRONGER THAN THE EARLY DISCOVERED E. ELECTRICUS. By Ria Roy

David de Santana, the zoologist at Smithsonian Institute, said in a press release said that these electric fishes grow to be seven to eight feet long. They’re really conspicuous. he added that if we could discover a new eightfoot-long fish after 250 years of scientific exploration, can we imagine what remains to be discovered in that ysis on the specimens tripled the region?! number of known electric eel species till now. Although the newly idenDe Santana and his colleagues first tified electric fish look remarkably collected more than 100 electric fish- similar to that of E. electricus – gray, es from the rivers and lowland flood- flattened, wrinkly giant worms that plains that ripple vein-like across wiggle through the water – the new northern South America. Then the species of electric fish, Electrophoscientists conducted a series of exam- rus voltai and Electrophorus varii, are inations on the specimens collected. very unique. Electrophorus voltai, in Researchers scrutinized the fishes’ particular, sets itself apart with a reDNA and made an exhaustive analy- cord-high shock. sis of the eels’ shapes, sizes, and electrical capacities. This electric eel spits out electrical discharges at 860 volts, according to The research team’s extensive anal- the Santana’s and his team’s report on

Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications. This property is what makes the animal the strongest living bioelectricity generator known, and far stronger than its cousins already discovered. Electrophorus electricus produces a comparably paltry 480 volts while Electrophorus varii, the other freshly discovered species, can generate up to 572 volts. Not as impressive as Electrophorus voltai, but still four times as much as your standard U.S. household outlet. Beyond their cool factor, electric eels have sparked several medical and

technological advances. The animals inspired the design of the first electrical battery and continue to offer a model for battery design today. But this may only be the tip of the iceberg. De Santana says Electrophorus voltai’s exceptional electrical capacity offers a well of unexplored potential. It could really have different enzymes, different compounds that could be used in medicine or could inspire new technology, said de Santana.


An official from RGCB added that Illumina had positively responded to RGCB’s request, but they are yet to receive official intimation. The official added that RGCB’s proposal towards Illumina was to launch an integrative research program on

cancer genomics and pathology and clinical research. According to the officer, the collaboration with Illumina will help carry out cancer research faster, accurately and cost-effectively. It s also said that it might also lead to meaningful advances in personalized medicine. Illumina’s technology and instruments are also being used in precision medicine technology which helps to envisage current and future health conditions of the human body by sequencing DNA and RNA. Precision medicine technology is based on making medicine unique to each individual taking into account their health

and chemical balance of the body. Illumina collaborates with RGCBMore Information Meanwhile, it is learned that the collaboration will materialize after a meeting between BJP leader Kummanam Rajasekharan and Ryan Taft, vice-president, scientific research, Illumina at California. During the meeting, Mr. Kummanam conveyed his concern over the increasing rate of cancer in Kerala. He also handed over the ‘letter of intent’ from Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, an autonomous Institute of the Department of Biotechnology, Government

of India expressing interest in working with Illumina. During the meeting, the organization briefed Rajasekharan about the research activities especially in cancer and population genomics. Owing to the high number of cancer cases in the state of Kerala, it expressed its willingness to collaborate with RGCB.



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CSIR-IICT’s New Mol Bank Contributing to Life Saving Drug Discovery Inside the IICT campus, the facility- IICT’s National Mol Bank- has a sterile atmosphere with a consistently maintained temperature and round the clock power backup for molecules stored in vials or tubes in solid or liquid forms. THESE ARE THRICE BAR-CODED AND LABELED FOR ADVANCED SAFETY IN TALL SHELVES. By Rahul Mishra

Each compound is in its purest form and has been tested in some experiment or other, so the essential reactions data is maintained. CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) here signed a pact with Sun Pharma to ‘out-license’ a patent for a new chemical entity with a potential for developing life-saving drugs for multiple elements last month. S. Chandrasekhar, IICT’s Director, explained that when a firm approach us seeking a specific molecule to deal with a particular ailment or a target, we suggest compounds based on how much its enzyme responds in suppressing the bacteria. He added that These molecules are tested in cells and later in rodents and are entirely safe before human trials begin.

al Mol Bank is that it was set up with the help of an MNC- Glaxo SmithKline. The firm helped IICT develop the framework as Glaxo SmithKline have huge Mol banks. IICT’s scientists were allowed to visit one such unit to plan for NMB here in their institute. The Department of Science & Technology provided funding of ₹15 crore.

Prathama S. Mainkar, senior princiWhat is unique about IICT’s Nation- pal scientist and NMB in-charge says

that the team of scientists is adding up to 8,000 molecules every year. He said that this is the biggest facility is the Public Sector. IICT’s Mol Bank can store up to 1.6 million molecules in solid and liquid forms with storage and retrieval being automated. Dr. Mainkar says that the IICt considers this facility as the diamond mine. Sample purity at the IICT is checked once a year, and there are more than 8,000 molecules isolated

from natural resources. Dr. Chandrasekhar says the institute is ready to out-license three molecules immediately to the industry for product development, manufacture and regulatory filing. This can be done for the construction of affordable life-saving drugs so that India can become an active player in drug discovery.


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Amgen Drug Reduces Lung Cancer Tumors In Half Of The Patients! An experimental drug from Amgen Inc that targets a specific genetic mutation reduced tumor size in around half of advanced lung cancer patients, Amgen Inc said in a report. THE DRUG IS CALLED AMG510. OUT OF THE 13 LUNG CANCER PATIENTS TAKING A 960-MG DOSE OF AMG510, SEVEN HAD TUMORS SHRINK BY AT LEAST 30%. By Rahul Mishra

According to Greg Friberg, head of oncology department at Amgen, Patients who responded to the drug have been treated for 15 weeks, but the median duration of response is yet to be reached. Nine of the 13, or 69%, are still taking the daily pill. Two of the partial responders have died. Another left the study due to severe cancer progrestreatments, including regular chemosion. One patient with a stable disease therapy and checkpoint inhibitors. also died. Of the 23 lung tumor patients so Greg Friberg said one patient previfar evaluated at various doses of ously reported as free of lung cancer AMG510 – 11 had tumor shrinkage is being counted as a partial respondof at least 30%. er of the treatment. This is because cancer in lymph nodes or other tissue About one-third of trial patients recannot be ruled out completely. ported mild side effects. More severe side effects, including diarrhea, and Thirty-four lung cancer patients are anemia, were seen in 9% of patients enrolled in Phase 1 dose-ranging triand no one left the study due to toxical. The clinical trial enrolled patients ity, Amgen Inc added. with tumors carrying the targeted mutation whose cancer had worsened. Wall Street has taken a keen interest This was despite several previous in the Amgen drug- AMG510. This

drug could become the first approved medicine targeting a mutated form of a gene known as KRAS. It is one of the most common mutations found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). According to the American Cancer Society, NSCLC accounts for up to 85% of lung cancers. This is by far the leading cause of cancer death among men and women. Amgen’s AMG510 is part of a growing trend of precision medicines. Precision medicines target gene mutations driving cancer. It targets the gene mutation regardless of the organ

in which the disease originated. The targeted mutation, KRASG12C, occurs in around 13% of NSCLC cases. It also includes 3-5% of colorectal cancers and up to 2% of other solid tumor cancers, including pancreatic. Amgen said the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted “fast track” status to the tumor reducing drug- AMG510 for previously treated NSCLC with KRASG12C mutation.



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Scientists Discover New Drug For Alzheimer’s Disease A new drug discovered through a research collaboration between the University at Buffalo and Tetra Therapeutics may protect against memory loss, nerve damage, including other symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. THE DRUG IS CALLED AS BPN14770. PRECLINICAL RESEARCH FOUND THAT THE NEW DRUG FOR ALZHEIMER’S DETERS THE EFFECTS OF AMYLOID-BETA, A SPECIFIC PROTEIN OF ALZHEIMER’S THAT IS TOXIC TO NERVE CELLS. By Rahul Mishra

Recent research findings concluded that Alzheimer’s may develop without dementia in nearly 25% of healthy 80-year-old patients. This suggests that the body may turn to compensatory mechanisms to maintain the nervous system. The New Drug is currently under development by Tetra Therapeutics. BPN14770 could help activate these mechanisms that support nerve health and prevent dementia, even as the Alzheimer’ progresses. The new drug may also benefit in other diseases, including Fragile X syndrome, developmental disabilities, and schizophrenia.

She highlighted that the New Drug for Alzheimer’s suggests that BPN14770 may be capable of activating multiple biological mechanisms that protect the brain from various Alzheimer’s symptoms such as memory deficits, neuronal damage, and biochemical impairments. The study was published on 5th September 2019 in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. The study was led by James M. O’Donnell, Ph.D., dean, and professor of the UB School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Ying Xu, MD, Ph.D., co-lead investigator of the research said that these observations imply that the brain can tolerate Alzheimer’s pathology to some extent due to compensatory mechanisms operating at the cellular and synaptic levels. Ying Xu is a Research associate professor in the UB New Drug for Alzheimer’s DisSchool of Pharmacy and Pharmaceu- ease- Research Methodology tical Sciences.

The research was conducted in mice. The study concluded that BPN14770 inhibits the activity of phosphodiesterase‐4D (PDE4D). It is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in memory formation, learning, neuroinflammation, and traumatic brain injury. PDE4D lowers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is a messenger molecule that signals physiological changes such as cell division, differentiation, migration, and death in the body — consequently leading to physical alterations in the brain. The cAMP has numerous beneficial functions. It includes features such as improved memory among others. By inhibiting PDE4D, BPN14770 increases cAMP signaling in the brain.

This ultimately protects against the toxic effects of amyloid-beta. Mark E. Gurney, Ph.D., chairman, and chief executive officer of Tetra Therapeutics said that the researchers had thoroughly studied various aspects of PDE4D functioning and its effect on the brain. Mark E. Gurney noted that he is excited by the new findings from his colleagues. James M. O’Donnell added that developing effective drugs for memory deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease has been challenging for his team. BPN14770- New Drug for Alzheimer’s works by a novel mechanism to increase cyclic AMP signaling in the brain, which has been shown to improve memory.


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Top 10 Govt Research Institutes In India

“It is science alone that can solve the problems of hunger and poverty, of insanitation and illiteracy, of superstition and deadening of custom and tradition, of vast resources running to waste, or a rich country inhabited by starving poor… Who indeed could afford to ignore science today? At every turn, we have to seek its aid… The future belongs to science and those who make friends with science.” — Jawaharlal Nehru. AS INDIA IS CONSTANTLY PROGRESSING IN THE RACE OF BECOMING A GLOBAL PLAYER IN THE FIELD OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE RESEARCH, IT WILL SOON BECOME A HOT DESTINATION FOR RESEARCH IN BIOPHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY/AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY. By Preety Suman

As per recent BIRAC reports – Indian bioeconomy is slated to reach $100 billion by 2025. With the vision of becoming a global leader in biotechnology/life sciences, many institutes and universities have started focusing on developing the new curriculum so that the students get proper education and training, and in turn, increase their chance to get recruited as a scientist in premier institutes. Many bioscience research institutes/ universities have recently started featuring in the list of the top universities in the world. Let us have a look at the Top Govt Research Institutes that are there in India, where you can pursue your research career. IISC Undoubtedly, IISC – the Indian Institute of Science is one of the finest research institutes in India having the top-class facilities for research in Biology. It is the brainchild of Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata, a successful businessman, and philanthropist. The Division of Biological Sciences of IISc is engaged in frontline research at the frontiers of modern biology. It encompasses over 40 departments spread across six divisions which include: • • • • • •

Biological Sciences Interdisciplinary Research Chemical Sciences Electrical Sciences Mechanical Sciences Physical and Mathematical Sciences.

Being one of the Top Govt Research Institutes – This division has been known as an internationally recognized Centre for fundamental modern biological research for decades. It has on its rolls about 73 faculty and Scientific Staff, 92 Fellowships of Sci-

ence Academies in India, and about 423 PhD Students / Integrated PhD Students. 79 PhD students graduated in the year 2018. This Division forges important links between basic science and innovative research, by committing itself to enhance frontline studies in almost all aspects of modern biology. Almost all aspects of modern biology are dealt with by scientists in the Division such as : • Infectious Disease • Neuroscience in health and disease • DNA Repair and Genomic Stability • Structural Biology • Oncology • Systems Biology and Bioinformatics • Immunology • Reproductive and Developmental Biology • Enzymology, Diverse Ecological Studies and so on. These investigations employ some methods which include immunological techniques, genetic engineering, PCR, spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray Crystallography, bioinformatics, and computer modeling. Useful applications of the research are receiving increased attention in recent years. It aims at carrying out excellent fundamental research and to vigorously pursue the applications that flow from it. Presently, the scientists in the Division are in the process of collectively orchestrating most

of their efforts under the following three broad areas with considerable application potential. They include Infectious Diseases, Drug and Molecular Design, Gene Targeting, Genetic Disorders, and Genetic Diversity. The scientists in the Division are committed to continue to carry out excellent biological research and also address real-life problems such as those involving tuberculosis, malaria, diarrhoeal diseases, and disorders of various kinds. Website: TIFR Falling under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy, TIFR – the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research is a National Centre of the Government of India. It is one of the Top Govt Research Institutes where one can pursue their research career. It is a deemed University awarding degrees for masters and doctoral programs. With the support from the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust under the vision of Dr. Homi Bhabha, the Institute was founded in 1945. Basic research biology, chemistry physics, mathematics, computer science, and science education is carried out at TIFR. TIFR is an ideal place for scholars who are looking for internationally recognized research facilities and opportunities for working abroad. Apart from PG and Ph.D. programs, TIFR hires highly skilled researchers for the research programs conducted. Being a highly reputed institute for research, graduating from TIFR opens doors to

join either BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) or any of the CIFR laboratories across the country as scientists. The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research is India is one of the most premier govt research institutes for advanced research in fundamental sciences. The National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS) is one of the national centers of the TIFR, Mumbai. The Department of Biological Sciences (DBS) is situated at TIFR in Mumbai. Both these units run vibrant graduate programs such as PH.D., Integrated M.Sc.-Ph.D. as well as M.Sc. degree in certain subjects. The procedure for the recruitment of graduate students into the programs includes clearing of a written entrance test conducted at several centers in India, followed by interviews held at Mumbai (for DBS) or submission of a full application and interviews for short-listed candidates at Bangalore (for NCBS). The Joint Graduate Entrance Examination for Biology and Interdisciplinary Life Sciences (JGEEBILS) is the name for the TIFR Nationwide Entrance Examination (GS-2019) for Biology. Many participating institutions use the JGEEBILS score for shortlisting candidates, but each institution follows its own admission

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procedure. Students will get called for interviews at these institutes accordingly based on the results of the TIFR Entrance Test for Biology (JGEEBILS). Students need to apply separately to each institution using the JGEEBILS score. Website: JNCASR Funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) is a multidisciplinary research institute and a deemed university situated at Bangalore. Although relatively young, it is quite wellknown around the Globe. Being in the list of Top Govt Research Institutes – The institute’s mandate is to pursue and promote world-class scientific research and training at the frontiers of science and engineering. The main advantage is their small size comprising of around 50 faculty members, spread over several disciplines, not segregated in farflung labs. One of the hallmarks of JNCASR is that they foster a spirit of interdisciplinary collaboration where chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers rub shoulders throughout the day. There are over 300 bright and energetic graduate students and stateof-the-art experimental, computational and infrastructural facilities. The institute, possessing all the necessary ingredients to excel in scientific research and education grants Masters and Ph.D degrees. Researchers at the Centre are divided into nine units: • Chemistry and Physics of Materials • Educational Technology • Engineering Mechanics • Evolutionary and Integrative Biology • Geodynamics • Molecular Biology and Genetics • New Chemistry • Neuroscience • Theoretical Sciences. Although it is difficult to quantify scientific performance, Science at the Centre is flourishing, by all numerical indications (numbers of publications, citations, grants, patents filed, etc. They have their research work published in some of the most prestigious scientific journals like Nature, Science, Evolution, the Journal of the American Chemical Society, etc. Not only this, but the Centre’s scientists

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are also being recognized by various search Institutes where candidates awards. with masters & PhD degree can work. It provides effective interdisciplinary JNCASR supports a range of educa- learning ambiance through extensive tional outreach activities. The high- subject coverage in all fields of modly competitive Summer Research ern biology. It not only inter-phases Fellowship program is one of them, with other scientific disciplines but which hosts some of the very bright- also equips its students to keep pace est undergraduates in the country with recent developments in the field every year. Apart from this, it is also of scientific research by undertaking involved in organizing and teach- high-quality research activities in deing short term courses at universities fined areas of biosciences in order across India, where promising young to make an impact at national and chemists and biologists are trained in- international level. SBS imparts protensively as part of our programs of fessional training through short term Project-Oriented-Chemical-Educa- training courses for skilled human retion (POCE) and Project-Oriented-Bi- source development across the state ological-Education (POBE). Addi- and country and strives to develop tionally, the Educational Technology state of the art infrastructure compaUnit produces a range of teaching rable to best anywhere in the world. aids and educational materials. Some of its research areas include The institute’s intellectual atmos- Pathogen Biology, Molecular Microphere is further livened by a regular biology, Plant Development Biology, stream of visitors from all over the Cancer Genetics and Cellular Immuworld, who contribute to spirited sci- nology. entific discussions at seminars, conferences and summer schools. Websites: Websites: NISER NISER (National Institute of Science Education and Research) is an autonomous institute under DAE, Government of India. Established in September 2007, the School of Biological Sciences (SBS) is one of the major schools @ NISER. SBS has been involved in mixing and imparting traditional wisdom with modern technology since its inception, by developing research programs along with a vibrant teaching curriculum. NISER – SBS promotes innovative and scholarly thinking to conduct cutting edge research in diverse areas ranging from molecular to organism biology. The school offers 5-year integrated MSc program, PhD program and Post-Doctoral program to facilitate this process by motivating and training students. It aims at establishing itself as a center of excellence with its efforts grown up rapidly. Signs of its achievements are being noticed at national and international levels in terms of work and student placements. An Integrated PhD program initiative is under progress, to further strengthen the SBS research program. By providing training at undergraduate, graduate, doctoral and post-doctoral level, SBS strives to become a center of excellence in education and research in biological sciences and is counted among the Top Govt Re-

covers comprehensive topics from areas such as Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics, along with a few other subjects such as Earth and Environmental Science, Humanities, etc. A BS-MS degree from IISER can open doors for further research and entering into Ph.D. programs in top universities of India and abroad. Pharmaceutical Industries also hire graduates for their Research & Development divisions. Ranbaxy, Dr. Reddy’s, L’oreal, Unilever, etc are some of the few companies which hire students from IISERs. Through the CSIR-NET examination, students can also join any CSIR Labs (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) at the doctoral level, and continue their research in Cellular and Molecular Biology, and Drugs Formation, Implication. NCCS

Aided by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, IISER the National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS) is an autonomous organisaHaving been declared “Institutions tion, established to facilitate cell biolof National Importance” by an Act ogy research in the country. of Parliament, the IISERs (Indian Institutes of Science Education and NCCS is situated within the acaResearch) are among the most pre- demically-enriched campus of the mier institutes for research in India. Savitribai Phule Pune University IISERs were established by the Min- (SPPU). NCCS has been carrying out istry of Human Resource Develop- cutting edge research in cell biology ment (MHRD), Government of India, since its inception, by providing valubased on the recommendation of the able services as a national animal cell Scientific Advisory Council to the repository. It also supports human rePrime Minister. source development through various teaching and training programs. The There are a total of seven campuses institute has been at the forefront of spread over the country in locations basic research in diverse fields of cell such as Pune, Kolkata, Mohali, Bho- biology, especially those addressing pal, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupa- important human health issues such ti and Berhampur. Future locations as cancer, metabolic disorders, infecinclude Nagaland and UP. IISER’s tious diseases, and regenerative medmain aim is to carry out research in icine. frontier areas of science and to provide quality science education at the These challenging health issues are undergraduate and the postgraduate answered through the research work levels. Each IISER is an autonomous carried out at NCCS, by using apinstitution and hence awards its own proaches that integrate modern and degrees.” The IISER’s vision is to cre- conventional disciplines including ate research centers of the highest ca- stem cell biology, immunology, celluliber where teaching and education in lar signaling, genomics, proteomics, the basic sciences are integrated with systems biology, structural biology, state-of-the-art research and to devote and microbial ecology. to under-graduate and post-graduate teaching in the basic sciences in an The scientists of NCCS have gained intellectually vibrant atmosphere of worldwide recognition of their reresearch. search contributions through publications in renowned scientific journals, Apart from offering a 5-year BS-MS program (their flagship program), the institutes also offer integrated MSPh.D. and independent Ph.D. programs in Science. The course syllabus Next Page>>>>


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and prestigious awards including the Padma Shree, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Awards, National Bioscience Award, and Swarnajayanti Fellowship. Websites: Bose Institute Set up in 1917 by Sir JC Bose, the founder of modern science in the Indian subcontinent, Bose Institute is Asia’s first modern research center devoted to interdisciplinary research. It is funded by Department of science and technology, Govt of India. Bear-

ing a century-old tradition of research • Chemistry excellence, Bose Institute is known • Biochemistry for having conducted path-break- • Physics ing research in biological, chemical, • Biophysics physical and interdisciplinary scienc- • Bioinformatics es for over a century. The Institute, on • Environmental science. its centenary, celebrates its eventful past and vibrant present through re- Bose Institute has pioneered the search meetings and other programs. concept of inter-disciplinary research in Asia and India in sync with globThe current research carried out in al trends. This institute has been the this institute concentrates in the fields home of some extremely important discoveries and had in its name some of: internationally renowned researchers • Plant Biology like Debendra Mohan Bose (an Indi• Microbiology an physicist who made well-known • Molecular medicine contributions in the field of cosmic


rays, artificial radioactivity and neutron physics.), Sambhu Nath De (discoverer of the cholera toxin), , Gopal Chandra Bhattacharya, Shyamadas Chatterjee (known for research on fusion) etc. Needless to say, the pioneering work of Jagadish Chandra Bose on the effect of stimuli in plants at the dawn of Bose institute, automatically earns it the distinction of being one of the cradles of the field which is known as systems biology today.

How To Crack GRE Exam For Biology / Life Sciences Remember the dream that you got the other night about studying at Cornell University located in New York or the Mcquill university which is located in Montreal, Canada and making yourself and your parents proud!! It can be a reality soon! THERE IS A VERY FAMOUS SAYING WHICH WAS PUT FORTH BY DR. ABDUL KALAM, “YOU HAVE TO DREAM BEFORE YOUR DREAMS CAN COME TRUE.” By Kajol Patel

So if you have already dreamt about it, it means it is on the path of coming true! Being from the life science background one can go either for pursuing their Masters(MS) from abroad or a PhD degree. Now the next question that might occur in your mind will be how should I go about it? Worry not we at Biotecnika are here to guide you and present you with an enormous repertoire of options. There are some international exams which are conducted by the Educational Testing service in order to make the selection procedure for MS or PhD in foreign countries much easier. Out of which the most important one is the GRE Exam. GRE Exam – Graduate Record Examination Let’s understand one of the most important exams, GRE i.e. Graduate Record Examination. It is one of the exam which is mandatory for the students who wants to get in Canadian, US or Australian Universities. The total marks range from 200 to 990 and the score validity remains for the next 5 years. Truth should be stated

and the first rule that one should keep in mind is that the GRE is not a very easy examination. Instead of testing general problem-solving skills they too should require specialized knowledge. GRE Biology Test (GRE Exam Life Sciences) Talking about the content which is present in GRE subject test i.e. for GRE biology test: • Cell and molecular biology-related questions contribute around (33-35)% of the paper. In this part questions from topics like cell biology, metabolism, genetics, and microbiology are being asked. • Organismal biology topics contribute around (33-34)% of the paper. Topics like Animal anat-

omy and physiology, Plant anatomy and physiology and biodiversity are being asked. • Ecology and evolution (3334)%, Ecosystems, Behavioral ecology, Evolutionary processes, History of life are some of the topics from which the questions are being asked. When you are planning for your higher education in a particular field of study, it may not be enough to just crack GRE general test. The subject test is very important as by your GRE subject test you can represent your knowledge in a specific subject to any graduate school. This is beneficial as it helps in making you stand out from other applicants who have appeared for the general GRE test. GRE test named GRE Biochemistry subject test is based on 3 primary

content areas which are namely biochemistry, cell biology along with molecular biology and genetics. The question paper is divided into 3 parts 36% of the exam is taken up by biochemistry, 28% by cell biology and the final 36% is made up of molecular and genetics questions. When you study exclusively for biochemistry (GRE Exam Life Sciences) you will observe that the three classifications which are provided they are not independent of each other. Some of the topics under the biochemistry section are • • • • •

Catalysis and binding Major metabolic pathways Bioenergetics and regulation Biomolecules Integration of metabolism Next Page>>>>



• Chemical and physical foundations • Under cell biology and molecular biology • Cellular compartments of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, • Cell surface and communication • Cytoskeleton • Protein synthesis, processing, and cell division • Motility and shape • Differentiation and development • For the molecular biology and genetic sections • Genetic foundations • Genomics • Chromatin and chromosomes • Genome maintenance • Gene expression • Gene regulation in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes • Bacteriophages • Animal and plant viruses

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1. New GRE 2011-2012: Strategies, Practice, and Review

(Life Science) test one must have: Another important point that should be kept in mind is that one should not • Their ETS account and one 2. Cracking the New GRE, Pub- get overconfident. Since the subject needs to open an ETS account lished by top GRE instructors at The based GRE test is based on specialfor yourself and get registered Princeton Review ized subjects do not get overconfifor the subject test. dent with the thought that you have • ETS is a very user-friendly site 3. Barron’s New GRE 19th Edition already studied for this subject in where you can also reschedule your undergraduate program. Invest the test date of the GRE subject 4. The Official Guide to the GRE re- a huge amount of time before giving test just do it 4 days prior to the vised General Test your GRE exams (Life Science) since date of the test. The cost of rea huge amount of questions are asked scheduling is $50. 5. Barron’s GRE Math Workbook by from biochemistry concepts that you Blair Madore might think that is not clear. Refer to One important thing to remember is standardized books like Biochemistry that one should get thorough with the 6. Cracking The GRE, 2009 Edition by Leninger, Voet, and Voet, etc. basic concepts first. For this purpose by Adam Robinson prepare from the standard reference A GRE subject test consists of 190 books solve previous year question 7. GRE General Test by David Bell multiple choice questions and there papers having multiple-choice quesare 3 parts of biology subject test tions. 8. GRE-Preparation Course by Jeff which are namely, Kolby Put your dreams ahead of everything • Cellular and Molecular Biology and attain your dream to fly higher in 9. Kaplan GRE Exam Math Work- • Ecology and Evolution and international universities by clearing Best books for GRE Exam Life book by Kaplan • Organismal Biology the GRE subject test. Sciences / Biology are as follows:10. Peterson’s Ultimate GRE tools For Attempting a GRE Subject Exam

Importance of Rank in CSIR NET & GATE National Level Exams

As soon as one completes their post-graduation, they choose to work in the industry or continue with their higher education. The field of biotechnology is highly competitive, thus in order to stand out among the crowd and get noticed by a recruiter or come in the eyes of prestigious institutions for a Ph.D. degree, one must try to qualify competitive exams such as CSIR & GATE with a good rank. FOR SOME, GETTING A PH.D. IS A DREAM OR MAY EVEN ARISE DUE TO PEER OR FAMILY PRESSURE. FOR OTHERS, GETTING A STABLE CAREER IS MORE IMPORTANT. By Shekhar Suman

Whatever be the case, getting a national level certificate is important to withstand the cut-throat competition. For the students of science, CSIR/ GATE/DBT/ICMR/ICAR are some of the many exams to choose from. Every year, lakhs of aspirants undergo rigorous training & mentoring to clear these exams. Some are lucky enough to get these exams cleared in the first attempt itself, while others need more luck and hard work. Whatever the case may be, aspirants are often confused with the importance of rank in these exams and how they can make use of it. Let us discuss a few aspects which highlight the importance of a good rank in these exams. Importance of obtaining a good rank in CSIR NET & GATE Exam: Below we have discussed a few

points highlighting the importance of rank (importance of good ranks) in National level exams like CSIR NET & GATE. Monthly Stipend: – Shortlisted candidates who qualify the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering – GATE Exam are offered a research fellowship to work as researchers leading to Ph.D. This fellowship is only acceptable at CSIR

laboratories. Qualified candidates will get INR 25000 per month plus HRA in addition along with a contingency grant of INR 20,000 per annum. Under the CSIR-UGC JRF scheme, the tenure of fellowship is initially for three years. The stipend of a JRF selected candidates through CSIR NET Exam will be INR 31,000 per month plus HRA continuously for two years. After successful completion of three years JRF the upgraded fellowship to SRF will be increased to INR 35,000

per month. This can be used at any institute or university throughout the country. – With top ranks in these exams, one is allowed to be interviewed for better stipend opportunities like the SPM (Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee) Fellowship. Top 14 candidates each in Life Sciences, in an unreserved category, will be taken from Next Page>>>>


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the combined merit list of General/ OBC/SC/ST/PWD. Top 8 candidates will be taken from the OBC category. Top 5 candidates will be taken from SC category. Top 2 candidates will be taken from ST category. Top 1 candidate will be taken from the PWD category. As a stipend, they would be given Rs.36000/- + HRA per month during the first two years of the fellowship and a Contingency grant of Rs.70000/- p.a. This may be raised to Rs.42000/- + HRA per month from third year onwards on the basis of assessment through interview. It may also be reverted to JRF (NET) if student performance is not found satisfactory. The fellowship is initially for 2 years and can be extended as per normal rules for CSIR JRF (NET) scheme. The maximum tenure of the SPM Fellowship is up to 5 years. – Another such benefit is CSIR’s JRF-GATE. Candidates with B.Tech in Biotechnology with valid GATE score and a minimum of 85.00 percentile in GATE are eligible to apply for the same along with BE/B.Tech Engineering students with a GATE score. The stipend of a JRF-GATE will be Rs 31,000/ p.m for the first two years. In addition, an annual contingency grant of Rs. The 20,000/-per fellow will be provided to the University / Institution. On completion of two years as JRF-GATE, the fellowship will be upgraded to SRF (GATE) and the stipend will be increased to Rs. 35,000/- p.m for the 3rd and subsequent years. Admission in top institutes: – Candidates who qualify GATE exam with good rank are eligible to get admission in top institutes in India for pursuing M.Tech/ME/MS. For example, if you wish to study Biotechnology in the IITs you will require to have a rank within Top 50-70. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research National Eligibility Test – CSIR Exam is a gateway for all those aspirants who wish to start their career as Lecturers in India’s reputed institutes, universities, and colleges. – When facing an interview in reputable institutes, your selection depends upon 3 factors. First, the presence of a National Level Exam qualification certificate. Second, is your performance in the interview. And the third is your rank if your performance is comparable to your fellow contenders. The interviewing panel may choose to select the candidate with a better rank in case the first two factors are judged and found to be equal.

Job requisite: – Various Public Sector Unit jobs are also offered to the CSIR NET qualified candidates. PSUs have also started recruiting through GATE score. Candidates who qualify this exam can get stable jobs with good salary packages, being able to support a good living standard. Candidates can enjoy the opportunity to get a job in top organizations like DRDO, BARC, ISRO, etc. If you want to get a job in foreign companies, the GATE scorecard is also considered in foreign firms. Above all, it certainly gives you a huge technical edge over others in all your interviews and career planning. – For each of these positions, the notification mentions the corresponding cut off ranks. Hence, to be eligible to apply you must secure a good rank. The second level of scrutiny would happen based on the rank you secure, followed by your interview performance and other educational credentials. Knowledge: What if you did not clear the exam? Well, knowledge never goes in vain. The knowledge that you gain while preparing for these exams will also give you a fair idea how entrance exams are prepared for, how one should study objectively, what kind of topics are important from exam or interview point of view. You can always use your knowledge to clear your interviews, educate others and also clear the exams on subsequent tries with top ranks. Foreign education: You may be surprised to know that those who qualify this test are eligible for doing a Master’s degree at NUS, (National University of Singapore), Singapore. Easy entry into Foreign Labs for Ph.D. or Post Doc is also possible as all Foreign PI’s are aware of CSIR NET & its competitive nature. The higher your rank is, the better your performance is, and the more convincing it appears to the scientists. Weightage addition to your resume: Qualifying a National Level Exam with a top rank is something that will always shine on your resume. It shows your level of knowledge, determination, confidence and skill set. No doubt there is an importance of rank in these national exams which comes with its own perks. Now let us glance through the factors that often


become a hindrance for aspirants in give at least 6 hours to self-studies per the way of securing a good rank in day. The more you read and practice, these exams. the better your preparations will be. Well written reference books, high Factors Affecting Good Rank in impact research journals, memory imCSIR or GATE Exams proving tabular contents, flow charts, diagrams, etc will help through the – Competition: Lakhs of aspirants journey. take these exams on a bi-yearly or yearly basis. Thus the competition – Incorrect approach: Some students has increased over the years. With the start preparing without knowing the ever-evolving question difficulty and pattern of the exam. It is necessary to the increase in the number of aspir- know that while GATE questions are ants, the cutoff for qualifying these memory and numerical based, CSIR exams, increases. This also signifi- has analytical questions as well, cantly affects the chance to secure the which needs more time to prepare as top ranks. One must put in more effort well as a different type of study mateinto their preparation. rial and practice papers. The approach utilized for each of these categories of – Level of difficulty: The exams questions must be different. For nuinclude knowledge about almost merical category, you must be precise everything from the Science field. Be in your answer and confident about it research papers, review articles or your method, as there is no displayed the new techniques. Every updated option to choose from. technique and its application must Whatever be the exam, it is just a be known to the students. Hence, the stepping stone for your career. Some amount of effort added behind prepa- of the students do not understand the rations must be proportionately in- consequences of not having a strong creased. CV or enhanced knowledge, and they do not try to indulge in these areas or – A limited number of fellowships: studies. Others secure professional Top ranks, secure higher stipend. The help but lack the motivation. Only a CSIR and UGC body decides on the few of the students are actually able number of fellowships released each to grab these prestigious positions year. Based on average performance, and are ready to give their heart and the cut off is decided. Hence, it di- soul throughout the process. rectly affects the score required for securing top ranks. A limited number Author: The above article on: “Imof fellowships may mean enhanced portance of Rank in CSIR NET & competition for these golden oppor- GATE National Level Exams” has tunities. been penned & curated by Dr. Preeti Saini & Mrs. Rashmi Sanyal – two of – Preparation: It is not enough to get the most dynamic members of Bioyour form filled, know the syllabus tecnika with an experience of over 5 and show up in the exams. As the dif- years in counseling students for CSIR ficulty level keeps getting upgraded, NET & GATE Exam. one needs proper guidance and should



September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

IAS, INSA & NASI Summer Research Fellowship Programme 2020


cience Academies’ Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers 2020 notification has been released. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru/ Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi & The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad are inviting applications for the same. Check out all of the details below: Science Academies’ Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers 2020 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi The National Academy of Sciences, India, Prayagraj The 3 national Science Academies offer you several two-month Summer Fellowships to allow students/ teachers (studying/teaching in India) to work with scientists related to the 3 Academies during 2020. A copy of the application format, instructions to applicants such as eligibility criteria, and a list of names of scientists/ faculty that have agreed to direct students/teachers to work on short term projects are displayed in the online application. Applications are invited from interested teachers and students from all colleges and universities affiliated to UGC/AICTE/MCI/Accredited Institutions of State Universities for these Fellowships. The application should comprise: (a) the application form in the prescribed format; (b) scanned copies of marks sheets from class X till the previous examination; (c) that a write-up (in roughly 150-250 words) regarding what the applicant would like to learn and achieve. Student applicants must provide the email id of one of their teachers or HoD familiar with their work. The Academy will approach them to get a recommendation letter in the prescribed format. The chosen candidate must work with the assigned guide for two months any time during the calendar year, preferably during summertime. Applications should be submitted by logging on one of our sites [www.ias.; and]. The registration number assigned soon after the online submission has to be quoted in all fu-

ture correspondence. The final date for receipt of all applications online is 30 November 2019. Info of selection together with the concurrence of this guide will be despatched around February–March 2020. The chosen students/teachers will be provided appropriate round trip train fare along with a monthly fellowship to satisfy their living expenses at the workplace. Instructions to Applicants: (Please read all the directions carefully Before filling up the application) Please don’t send hard copies of marks sheets or applications. The practice of enabling the candidates to suggest possible mentors has been discontinued with. A. General 1) Application ought to be submitted online in the prescribed format. This link is available in the sites of the three Academies (;; in). 2) It is required to upload the marks sheets from class X until the last examination. Please, have the scanned versions of mark sheets (in JPEG format), before beginning to fill up this application. 3) Only 1 application per candidate will be considered. If more than 1 application is submitted, none of the applications will be considered. 4) Answers to columns indicated by an asterisk (*) are compulsory and must be filled. 5) The final date for receipt of all applications online is 30 November 2019. B. Eligibility criteria Students 6a) Applicants must be studying in one of the following: • BS / BSc / BVSc (II year only) • BPharm (III and IV years only) • BE / BTech / BCA (II and III years only)

• BArch(II,III and IV years only) • MS / MSc / MVSc / MPharm (I year only) • ME / MTech / MCA / MArch (I year just ) • (5-year integrated) MS / MSc / MTech / MBBS (II, III, IV years only) • PharmD (III, IV years only) • (dual degree) BTech + MTech (II/,III,IV years only) • (dual degree) BE + MSc (II, III, IV years only) • (dual degree) BS + MS (II, III, IV years only) • Integrated PhD (I, II years only) • MSc Tech (I, II years only) Teachers 6b) Teachers have to be teaching at a College/University.

from any source. 11) don’t use special/scientific characters such as Ø Ü etc.. As the software will prevent you from uploading the application with such characters. D. Enclosures to application 12) Both student and teacher applicants should upload scanned versions of mark sheets from class X, until the last examination in JPEG Format (the size of each marks sheet shouldn’t exceed 700 kb). 13) Teacher applicants must upload their publications if any. E. Other matters

14) Student candidates should upload the contact details of one of their present teachers or the Head of the 7) The minimum percentage of av- Department (HoD). The Academy erage marks in core subjects only (i.e. will get in touch with the teacher and excluding languages) from X std. Up obtain the recommendation letter. to post-graduation (whichever years finished ) should be 65 percent or 15) All decisions concerning the over for students.The minimum Per- selection of candidates will be at the centage of average marks doesn’t ap- sole discretion of the Academies. Any ply for teachers. grievance or dispute regarding SRFP 2020 shall be addressed to the Acad8) PhD students aren’t eligible. emy, whose decision thereon shall be final. 9) Applicants that have availed the Academies fellowship twice before 16) When a candidate is found at any aren’t eligible to apply. given time period to have submitted false information, his/her fellowship C. Contents is going to be cancelled, and he/she will be requested to pay back the fel10) The applicant must include a lowship amount/travel allowance etc. write-up (in roughly 150–250 words) that’s been paid to him/her. Additionregarding this particular area of al his/her guide along with the Instituthe applicant and indicate what he/ tion in which he/she is presently studshe would like to learn and achieve ying will be informed of the matter. through this fellowship. Additionally, it may include the specific exper- 17) Without prejudice to 15) above, iment or theory the candidate would only the courts at Bengaluru city shall like to work on but NOT a general be the fora for seeking judicial remdescription of the area. The write-up edy, if any, for any dispute or grievshouldn’t be a”copy and paste” job ance.


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F. Notes

India (Prayagraj).

19) Guide signifies a person from 18) Academy signifies Indian Acad- the listing of scientists/faculty apemy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Acad- proved by the Academies as guides. emies mean Indian Academy of Sciences (Bengaluru), Indian Nation- 20) All correspondence Ought to Be al Science Academy (New Delhi), and addressed The National Academy of Sciences,

Mr C S Ravi Kumar Coordinator, Summer Research Fellowship Programme Indian Academy of Sciences CV Raman Avenue, near Mekhri Circle Sadashivanagar Bengaluru 560 080


Tel. -LRB-080-RRB- 2266 1207, 2266 1202, 2266 1221 Email:


Please don’t send hard copies of marks sheets or applications.

Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship 2019-20


he official notification for the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India, Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship 2019-20 has been released. Indian Nationals who are abroad are encouraged to check out this golden opportunity and all of its details below: RAMALINGASWAMI RE-ENTRY FELLOWSHIP MINISTRY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 2019-2020 Applications are solicited from Indian Nationals working in overseas research institutions for the “Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship”, a Re-entry scheme of the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India. Aim of this Fellowship: The scheme has been conceptualized with the aim of bringing highly skilled researchers (Indian Nationals) working overseas in various cutting-edge disciplines of Life Sciences/Biotechnology/Bio-engineering/ Health Care, Agriculture/ Veterinary Sciences and All other allied regions by providing them with an attractive route to pursue their R&D interests in Indian institutions. Who’s eligible to apply? The applicant must have a Ph.D./ M.D. or equal degree with an outstanding track record as reflected in publications and other recognitions as well as at least three years of postdoctoral research experience, of that last two years ought to be from an overseas lab. People who’ve already returned to India within a year of the final date of the Advertisement are also eligible.

Researchers up to 45 years old as determined by the closing date of application are eligible to apply. Incentives of being a Ramalingaswami Fellow: • This is a senior fellowship programme and awardees are to be considered equal To Assistant Professor/Scientist-D level position. Fellows chosen are entitled to take Up teaching/research assignments and supervising Docprevious approval of DBT. toral/MS students. • The scheme provides a consoli- • Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellows could take up a fellowship dated monthly remuneration of at any of the scientific Institutes/ Rs. 1,00,000/p.m.. In Addition, universities/ applicable Indusa House Rent Allowance of Rs. tries in the nation. But, the appli18,500/- p.m. (consolidated) is cation should be duly forwarded given to fellows. If the host inby the competent authority of stitute provides accommodation the host Institute. Fellows can to the fellow, no House Rent AlChange their host institute just lowance is admissible. The felonce throughout the tenure of lowship is taxable according to this fellowship with all the priGovt. of India rules. or No Objection Certificate from • Fellows will receive a research/ the host institute who has forcontingency grant of Rs.10.00 warded the application [Direclakhs for the 1st & 2nd Year; tor/Registrar/Vice-Chancellor/ Rs.7.50 lakhs for the 3rd & 4th Dean/ CEO/ HR Head (in the year; Rs. 5.00 lakhs for 5th year case of industry) or as The case for the purchase of consumables, may be] and additionally with minor equipment, domestic and prior approval from DBT. Subinternational travel, engaging sequent change will probably be manpower and other contingent Allowed when the fellow gets a expenditure to be incurred for permanent job in another Instithe implementation of the retute or on the case to case basis search proposal that’s part of if needed. the fellowship and Institutional • Candidate can submit their nomoverhead @Rs. 50,000/ year. ination through single host insti• DBT encourages host institutute only. But, Institutions can tions to provide medical benenominate more than 1 candidate. fits, transport allowance, leave travel allowance and other ben- • Awardees are eligible to apply for research grants to any of the efits according to their prevailfunding agencies Towards the ing norms as applicable to Their accomplishment of the research employees of the rank equal to proposal. However, the Co-PI Assistant Professor/Scientist D Must Be a Permanent employee out of the Own resources/ funds. of the host institution. • Fellows retain an option for drawing the fellowship or wages if they’re Appointed at a suitable Tenure of fellowship: permanent scientific position. Fellows opting for wages can Fellows can draw fellowship for a Continue to get the study /con- term of five years. Fellowship is furtingency grant together with the ther extendable for Another 2 years

on a fresh appraisal. Only fellowship & HRA will be admissible during Extension period. No research/contingency grant will be provided during the extension period. People that have the ability to secure permanent positions won’t be considered for 2nd term. How to Apply: Applications may be sent as per proforma downloadable from DBT Site ( duly forwarded by the competent authority to Dr. Kakali Dey Dasgupta, Scientist ‘E’, Department of Biotechnology, Block-2, 7th Floor, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi -110 003, equally as one hard copy as well as Soft copy (as a single PDF file only). The applications not forwarded by the host institution Won’t be considered. Soft copy to be mandatorily mailed at Email:- rlsfellowship-adm@dbt.nic. in latest by 31st October 2019.



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FAST-SF Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship 2020


ocus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship [FAST-SF] – 2020 notification has been released. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru/ Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi & The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad are inviting applications for the same. Check out all of the details below: Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship [FAST-SF] – 2020 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad With a view to enhancing the spread of Technology and Science at the specific regions of the Nation, the Inter-Academy Panel has Pioneered the Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship [FAST-SF]. This coming year (2020) our attention will be on the North Eastern States of the Nation and the states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Jammu & Kashmir and the FAST-SF will be for students and teachers studying/working in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Jammu & Kashmir. Approximately 200 fellowships will be offered during 20 to students/ teachers studying/working in these states, to work with scientists associated with three Academies’ anywhere in the nation. A copy of the application format, instructions to applicants such as eligibility standards and a list of names of scientists/faculty that have consented to guide students/teachers to work on short-term projects are displayed online. Applications are encouraged from interested teachers and students from universities and colleges from North-Eastern states of India, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Jammu & Kashmir associated with UGC/AICTE/MCI/ Accredited Institutions of State Universities for these Fellowships. The application should include: (a) the application form in the prescribed format;

(b) scanned copies of marks sheets from class X until the last examination; (c) a write-up (in about 150-250 words) regarding what the applicant wants to learn and achieve. Student candidates must provide the email id of one of their teachers or HoD familiar with their work. The Academy will approach them for a recommendation letter in the prescribed format. The chosen candidate must work with the assigned guide for two months any time throughout the scanned versions of mark sheets (in 8) The minimum percentage of avcalendar year though summer months JPEG format), before starting to fill erage marks in core subjects only (i.e. are preferred. up this application. excluding languages) from X std. Up to post-graduation (whichever years Applications should be submitted by 4) Only 1 application per candidate completed) should be 65 percent or logging on our sites [; will be considered. If more than 1 ap- over. The minimum percentage of av and www. plication is submitted, none of the ap- erage marks doesn’t apply for]. The registration number plications will be considered. ers. assigned shortly after the online submission has to be quoted in all future 5) Answers to columns indicated by 9) PhD students aren’t eligible. correspondence. an asterisk (*) are compulsory and must be filled. C. Contents The final date for receipt of applications online is 30 November 2020. 6) The final date for receipt of appli- 10) The applicant must have a writecations online is 30 November 2019. up (in roughly 150–250 words) reInfo of selection together with congarding this specific area of the cancurrence of this guide will be des- B. Eligibility criteria didate and suggest what he/she would patched around February–March like to learn and achieve through this 2020. The chosen students/teachers Students fellowship. Additionally, it may inwill be provided appropriate round clude the specific experiment or thetrip train fare along with a monthly 7a) Applicants must be studying in ory the candidate wants to work on fellowship to meet their living ex- one of the following: but NOT an overall description of the penses at the workplace. area. The write-up shouldn’t be a”• BS / BSc / BVSc (II year only) copy and paste” job from any source. Instructions to Applicants: • BPharm (III and IV years only) • BE / BTech / BCA (II and III 11) don’t use special/scientific char(Please read all the directions careyears only) acters like Ø Ü etc. As the software fully Before filling up the application) • BArch(II, III and IV years only) will prevent you from uploading the • MS / MSc / MVSc / MPharm (I application with such characters. Please don’t send hard copies of year only) marks sheets or applications. • ME / MTech / MCA / MArch (I D. Enclosures to application year only) A. General • (5-year integrated) MS / MSc / 12) Both student and teacher appliMTech / MBBS (II, III, IV years cants should upload scanned versions 1) This programme is currentonly) of mark sheets from class X, until the ly available for all Students and • PharmD (III, IV years only) last examination in JPEG Format (the Teachers studying/teaching in the • (dual degree) BTech + MTech size of each marks sheet shouldn’t exNorth-Eastern states of India. VIZ. (II/, III, IV years only) ceed 700 kb). Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Megha- • (dual degree) BE + MSc (II, III, laya, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, IV years only) 13) Teacher applicants must upload Sikkim, Tripura, Bihar, Chhattisgarh • (dual degree) BS + MS (II, III, their publications if any. On selection, and Jammu & Kashmir only. IV years only) an authorization letter from the Prin• Integrated PhD (I, II years only) cipal/HoD that required permission/ 2) Application ought to be submitted • MSc Tech (I, II years only) leave of absence will be granted ought online in the prescribed format. This to be sent by post to the Coordinator, link is available in the sites of both Teachers FAST-SF 2020, Indian Academy of Academies (;; 7b) Teachers working in North-Eastern states, Bihar, Chattisgarh and 3) It is required to upload the marks Jammu and Kashmir only need apply. sheets from class X till the previous examination. Please, possess the Next Page>>>>


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Sciences, Bengaluru 560 080.

16) If a candidate is found at any point of time to have submitted false E. Other matters information, his/her fellowship is going to be cancelled, and he/she will be 14) Student candidates should up- requested to pay back the fellowship load the contact details of one of their amount/travel allowance etc. that’s present teachers or the Head of the been paid to him/her. Additional his/ Department (HoD). The Academy her guide along with the Institution will get in touch with the teacher and in which he/she is currently studying will be informed of the matter. acquire the recommendation letter. 15) All decisions concerning the selection of candidates will be at the sole discretion of the Academies. Any grievance or dispute regarding FAST-SF 2020 shall be addressed to the Academy, whose decision thereon shall be final.

17) Without prejudice to 15) above, only the courts at Bengaluru city shall function as fora for seeking judicial remedy, if any, for any dispute or grievance. F. Notes


18) Academy means Indian Acad- (FAST-SF) emy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Acad- Indian Academy of Sciences emies mean Indian Academy of C V Raman Avenue, near Mekhri Sciences (Bengaluru), Indian Nation- Circle al Science Academy (New Delhi), and Sadashivanagar The National Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru 560 080 India (Allahabad). Tel. -LRB-080-RRB- 2266 1207, 19) The guide means a person from 2266 1202, 2266 1221 the listing of scientists/faculty apEmail:, site: www. proved by the Academies as guides. 20) All correspondence Ought to Be Please don’t send hard copies of addressed : marks sheets or applications. Mr C S Ravi Kumar Coordinator, Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship



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Deadliest Being On Planet Earth – The Bacteriophage Episode 48 By Dr. Sunita Adak

Ever wondered how true the saying is, “You’re the predator right up until you are the prey”. That is what life is all about –where every predator is someone’s prey and every prey is someone’s predator. It is all the consequence of evolution bringing in variation, diversity and complex interactions among living beings inturn fueling more evolution. So, evolution is the driving force, evolution is the process and evolution itself is the outcome. A quite interesting cycle of nature which is so productive yet so merciless.

Twort in 1915 who observed characteristic zone of lysis in bacteria which is associated with phage infection. Latter Felix d’Herelle independently identified the source of this phenomeWelcome to today’s Podcast where non and attributed the plaques to bacwe will understand one such inter- terial viruses. Subsequently, the term esting outcome of evolution, “The “bacteriophage” was coined by him. Deadliest Being on Planet Earth – The Bacteriophage”, presented by Bi- They are highly abundant in nature otecnika team member Sunita. existing approximately in total about 1031 in number. It is more than any Evolution is at work that we can other species on earth, even all the very easily say looking at the diver- bacteria collectively cannot match sity of life around us. Life began as this towering number of viruses. On a so-called LCA -Last Common An- the contrary, they are tinier than their cestor and flourished into millions of prey and are visible only under scandiversified species. And one of the ning electron microscopy – mostso-called most evolved and dominant ly their size ranging in nanometers. species today is Homo sapiens. But Phages are available in diverse habithis most advanced and dominant spe- tats like oceans, hot springs, soil, glacies have also time and again fallen ciers, even human intestine. In terms prey to tiny microscopic prokaryote – of form, specificity, and function their bacteria. Throughout human history, diversity is unmatched in nature. there are multiple accounts of deadly And the most interesting aspect of epidemics and pandemics caused by a phage is that it is considered at the bacterial pathogens almost wiping out borderline of living and non-living. its existence. Hence, we can say it is a This is because Bacteriophage does deadly organism, though less evolved not have any elaborate cellular comyet so powerful, posing a constant po- ponent as found in the case of prokartential threat to the great and mighty yotes and eukaryotes. Phage architechuman race. ture is quite simple – a protein capsid containing a simple genetic material But is this minuscule-1 um- bacteria in the form of DNA or RNA. So even existing in trillion of trillions in num- though they possess genetic material ber all immune, all invincible and all but have no means of propagating it. immortal? Thus, they are completely dependent on their host i.e. the bacteria for their No, there is someone to challenge propagation. it, someone who preys on it and that is the bacteria eater – Bacteriophage. Phages float around waiting for the Also known as phages are a type of encounter with a specific host. When viruses, they are obligate intracellular they collide with any bacteria, their parasites of bacteria. The first descrip- attachment will be dependent on the tion of phages was given by Frederick availability of specific receptors on

the bacterial surface. Likewise, phages also bear special equipment like tails, hooks, etc. which helps them to bind the bacterial receptor. Attachment is followed by injection of the phage genetic material into the bacterial cell. There is two distinct fate of this phage genetic material- lytic and lysogeny. First one is where the bacterial machinery will be hijacked and deployed for replication of phage genome and expression of phage genes, ultimately leading to the assembly of new phage particles. When numerous new phage particles assemble inside the host approx. 1000 or so, then bacteria are lysed, and the phages are released. Second fate is where the Bacteriophage genome inserts itself into the host genome and passively replicates along with it. During this more parasite like existence, the phage genome is passed down from mother host to daughter vertically. Phages which follow lytic life cycle known as lytic phage and which follow lysogeny are called temperate phage. Temperate phages can often shift to a lytic life cycle depending on the various environmental conditions. So, preliminarily the propagation of phages requires the destruction of bacteria. Almost every second approx. 2 x 1016 phage mediated gene transfer in bacteria occurs globally. Such a huge extent of bacterial attack by phage accounts for the destruction of nearly 40% of bacteria available in the ocean every day. Hence phages play a very significant yet invisible role in the biological world and ecology as well as evolution. Being an active part of the microbial food chain, their role is indispensable in the main-

tenance of bacterial population turnover and recycling of elements like carbon, nitrogen, etc. in nature. Concurrently this predator-prey relationship is the working force behind the evolution of both bacterial and phage population. Bacteria continuously develop defenses to evade Bacteriophage infection and survive, while simultaneously phages also create new strategies to break those defenses. Thus, a continuous evolutionary arms race commenced right from their origin millions of years ago has led to the tremendous diversification of both bacteria and phages on the earth. Further phages play a key role in horizontal gene transfer as they mobilize genes from one host to another. This mechanism is known as transduction, where part of host DNA is packed inside the phage head along with viral DNA. When this phage infects another bacterial host the previous host DNA is transferred to it. This can create variation in gene combinations giving rise to new properties like virulence and antibiotic resistance. Such type of gene transfer is beneficial for bacteria giving it an edge over others in terms of survival, reproduction, and evolution. In fact, one such example is of R-type process and Type VI secretion systems, which are phage tail-like structures encoded by the bacterial genome. These are used for delivering proteins to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes or for killing by puncturing cells. Thus, it can be concluded that Bacteriophage even has

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September 17th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 96

the capacity to transform bacteria. Phages might have a diverse effect but their ability to kill bacteria has proved useful for human. How? Well, people thought of using phages against bacterial diseases- a therapeutic method termed as Phage therapy. In 1925 d’He’relle reported treatment of plague (four types) by antiplague phages which drew attention towards phage therapy. Many researchers worked on phage therapy and achieved positive results but by the late 1930s, the idea of phage therapy looked no longer promising. Major reasons for this were: 1. The emergence of antibiotics which appeared safer and successful, 2. Early phage therapy experiments were found to be unreliable and inconsistent, and 3. Poor understanding of phage biology and uncertainty over the downstream processing. But now, we understand phages better and have advanced in the field of biopharmaceutical production. Moreover, with the emergence of antibi-

otic-resistant bacterial pathogens the world is facing a serious threat of some major pandemic. So, in such a crisis with a paucity of any new effective antibiotic, as an alternative treatment Phage therapy can be employed. Bacteriophage being host-specific do not kill non-specific bacteria, which means only the pathogens will be killed and commensals will be spared. Such type of distinction is not possible in case of antibiotics as they work on all bacteria, thus antibiotics harm the normal microflora. This is an added advantage of phage therapy apart from being harmless as there is no probability of the phages infecting eukaryotic cells. Both natural and modified phages have given promising results in the ongoing clinical trials worldwide. Phages can be used to destroy the target of pathogenic bacteria. One currently conducted PhagoBurn clinical trial, is at Phase I/II level. This trial is carried out by three European countries and the motive of the trial is to check the safety and efficacy of phages for the treatment of burn wounds infected with E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Similar trials are being conducted in the Netherlands and USA against


Listeria monocytogenes for increas- From all these, we can conclude ing the shelf-life of processed foods. that the most abundant killer on the earth- bacteriophage could be given Another way in which phages can the tag of deadliest being as it devours be employed is for specific targeting mercilessly numerous bacteria every of the antibiotics to pathogens. Since second. But they are equally imporphages are host specific so, antibiot- tant for conservation and sustenance ics can be conjugated to phages and of life. Until now whatever we have delivered to specific cells, thus in- understood about phage biology has creasing the efficiency of antibiotic proven quite rewarding to human. therapy. Additionally, modified phag- The most illustrious outcome to be es can be developed to inject desired mentioned here is the CRISPR-Cas genes which transform the pathogen which has revolutionized the field of for example genes introduced can recombinant DNA technology. With enhance antibiotic sensitivity of the more research and deeper understandbacteria, improve drug uptake capac- ing in this area of biology many more ity and even repress biofilm forma- fantastic and beneficial surprises can tion, in turn, restoring the efficacy of be unraveled. a drug. But for now, let us wait and watch And the final approach of phage the course of Phage therapy, wheththerapy employs the proteins harvest- er it will rise to give us the panacea ed from phages. Endolysin, tail spike against bacterial pathogens or will it or diffusible polysaccharide-depo- also face the same consequences of lymerizing enzymes of phage origin antibiotics. With this note, I am signcan be used for lysis of specific bacte- ing off today but do let us know What ria or to stop them from forming bio- is your opinion on Phage therapy? films, which can reduce the virulence. Will it succeed or will it fail? And all this aid in the easy immune clearance of the pathogen from the body decreasing the chance of infection and disease.

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Biotecnika Times - 17th September 2019 Edition  

Biotecnika Times - 17th September 2019 Edition

Biotecnika Times - 17th September 2019 Edition  

Biotecnika Times - 17th September 2019 Edition