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July 16th, 2019.

Vol. 03

NO 87

Toll Free Number: 18001-200-1818





Career Options After Bsc & Msc Biotech



July 16th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 87

Top 10 Survival Strategies for Freshers in Biotech Sector Biotechnology is one of the booming sectors today, however, we find a lot of qualified students facing difficulty in establishing their careers in this field. In order to curb the situation, we need to understand what the industry desires and what sustains a human resource in their career. FOR A LOT OF STUDENTS PURSUING SCIENCE, THE GOAL USUALLY IS TO BECOME A DOCTOR OR AN ENGINEER BUT VERY FEW MINDS ARE FOCUSSED RIGHT FROM THE START TOWARDS PARASCIENCE OR TECHNOLOGY. BIOTECHNOLOGY IS A FIELD THAT ALLOWS HUMAN INTERVENTION IN CREATING NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS TO AID HUMANKIND. By Rashmi Sanyal

To sustain in any field, one requires to have patience. As soon as you take up a career, you will find a lot of rejections, hard choices to make or below satisfactory response. The trick is to be patient and observant. As soon as the right opportunity creeps in, one must jump at it with full effort. One must remain vigilant at all times and continuously analyze the market trends, so as to reap maximum benefit at the right time. Here are some tips that will help you survive the first few difficult years in the field of Biotechnology. Make the right decision As a fresher in the Biotech sector, the initial struggle remains confined to the decision of Top 10 Survival Strategies for Freshers in Biotech Sectorpursuing research, education or industrial exposure. Once this phase is crossed one must search for the right opportunity by doing a lot of background research into their field of interest. For example, a lot of freshers lose out on time, energy and interest amidst changing fields and careers. If one is focussed from the start, it is easier to chalk out a career and struggle towards achieving their passion, their dream. For instance, if one decides to pursue the industrial field, one must chase the multinational companies like L’oreal, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche etc or indigenous companies like Reliance, Tata Research, Biocon etc. This will help build a stable and strong profile. If they wish to stay in the education line, best to start preparing early and complete a Ph.D degree while at it. Look for opportunities in reputed institutes and universities and start

preparing for the interviews straight away. Constant skill development The second important task is to continuously upgrade your knowledge and skills. For example, if you wish to remain in research, it is expected that you must learn novel methods that can help hasten your project completion. It is also important to read a lot of scientific work and keep yourself updated with the latest ongoings and current findings. Scientists would prefer associating with those students who can bring novel ideas to the forum and suggest efficient, accurate and faster methods of experiments. Techniques like CRISPR, NGS, DNA Fingerprinting, HPLC are in great demands in various institutes and companies. There are a lot of courses available in our country that can train a student on using these techniques efficiently. When caught in a race with multiple candidates, the one knowing the most relevant skills will definitely be preferred over the others. A lot of companies also prefer linguistic abilities, since our industry may require a lot of article writing to be done or multinational companies may require to send their employees across the globe. In these scenarios being fluent in multiple languages or having a good hold over certain desired languages will prove to be an asset. You must also train yourself in scientific writing, since publishing your research in renowned journals

indicates that both the technique used and the language must be novel and of a high standard. Defend your work in an interview Third, you must be completely confident and aware of whatever task, project or skill you claim to know. Since given an opportunity you must be able to defend your work in an interview or group discussion. This proves your integrity and confidence along with your skill. Nobody is a better judge of your work other than yourself. If you are able to prove this to the interview panel (in a polite manner), you will surely be worthy of their praise. When a student falters in answering questions pertaining to his/her own claimed work, it raises suspicion on their credibility. Hence, be very thorough about everything you claim to know. However, it is wise to remember that not everyone may know everything and it is not wrong to accept if you are unable to answer any question. The trick is to show your eagerness to learn. One important point to note in this regard is that you must never misrepresent your qualifications. A lot of companies may select you by your claims in the CV, but in the long run, you may get caught in the background check or interview, and that will be a huge setback for your career. One must be true to their own self and their workplace.

Follow your passion for selecting the field of interest Fourth, never undermine any career choice. For example, if you wish to teach but feel that the education field does not supplement well monetarily, you will be at loss. Find a way that helps you stay associated with the field and earn well at the same time. It requires research into the avenue. A lot of government colleges offer entrance examination linked permanent appointments with a regular pay increase that has a respectable amount to offer. Try choosing them. It is often said that you may be paid better in a job that you are not satisfied in doing and may be paid less in a job of your choice. But the effort that you will have to put in the former will be much higher than the one where you will work out of your will and interest. Innovate and be an entrepreneur Fifth, never be afraid to try establishing an idea of your own. Fresh out of college, your mind might be brimming with ideas and inspirations. Set aside 6 months or a year in planning the same, gather the capital and begin your own venture. It may be as simple as cultivating edible mushrooms in your backyard and selling them for a living !!

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July 16th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 87

Being an entrepreneur is satisfying as you are able to pursue your passion as well as are able to generate employment for other freshers along with you. In case you are unable to do the task alone, try to go in for partnerships among your friend circle. Your friend circles will have definitely have like-minded people and they will help you gather more ideas from various inputs suggested by them. The trick in entrepreneurship is to BEGIN !!

institute that you would want to associate with, begin designing your CV accordingly by getting trained in their required skills. Complete certifications as early as possible. Highlight them in a positive manner. However, do remember, a good CV is quite informative in the least amount of words used. Try not to write pages altogether, the content might not even be read !!

Build a strong network

Eighth, it is always good to begin with internships in organizations. In the Biotech sector, a lot of preference is given to people with handson skills and abilities. To gather the same, begin internship programs during your college days itself. You may also participate in summer internship programs during your session break. This allows you to build network and skills. Some internships are offered along with a stipend. Remember to collect the certificates to prove your association !!

Sixth, to survive in the industry, networking is very essential. Employers and Institutes rely on credibility. Your skills and abilities can be proved when there are people to refer you. An experienced individual will have a reference from his past employers, however, for a fresher, the reference begins from his educational institutes itself. It is important for you to at least have 3 referees while preparing your curriculum vitae. Your behavior and skills must make people remember you wherever you go. Hence, always try to do your best in any institute that you associate yourself with. In the future, they will help you in building your career. A lot of times maintaining contact with your peers may help you get exposed to new opportunities in your fields. You will be able to see the career changes that your colleagues are making and the impact that it is having. This will help you analyze your prospects first hand. In certain cases, you may also collaborate with your friends and complete short courses or projects which can help both of you grow. You can also have publications in collaboration with your contact. The key is to be of help, to get help in return. Upgrade your CV to fit the right career Seventh most important thing is to highlight the right kind of details in your profile. For example, while approaching an educational institute do not focus on your management skills, try to focus more on your knowledgeability, example a paper publication written byyou, or classes that you may have conducted during your education, or any teaching ability related degree etc. Even some institutes prefer the educator to be strong in extra-curricular activities as well !! Showcase the certificates that you may have for dance, drama or art. If there is a specific field or

Hands-on skills and Internships

For example, Biotech Consortium India Limited offers a Biotech Industrial Training Programme (BITP) which has an interview through which the selected candidates are offered a paid training program to train the students with industry based skills. The stipend is Rs 10,000/- offered for 6 months. Once the students qualify through this period, they become ready to acquire permanent positions in the company if selected. Increase awareness Usually, freshers have very little guidance, to begin with. As and when they begin their struggle period, they get acquainted with various companies, profiles, institutes, programs etc. One usually skims through the most sought-after jobs/ companies, but very few broaden their horizons. The more names you learn, the more avenues you have open for yourself. Example there

are over 900 pharma companies in India, however, we can name hardly 20. That is how people miss out on opportunities. A company grows with the right kind of talent that can be fulfilled by a lot of individuals who get disheartened by their first few rejections. The trick is to remain aware and keep eyes open and fixed onto each and every website/avenues possible. This will allow you to keep track of multiple interviews happening across the country. Choose the correct City If you would have been in the finance industry, cities like Mumbai, Gurgaon etc would have been perfect to settle in. One must choose their career location in the region where it has the highest demand and is able to generate maximum employment. For example, R&Ds dominate the South and Western India, pharmaceuticals dominate the Eastern India etc. Choose cities like Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune and you will find it easy to grow your career as there are a wide range of opportunities in the Biotech field offered by the cities. You must select the work profile that you wish to serve in and then keep


a track of the companies that offer such positions. For example, if you wish to be working on small molecule development, try to approach companies like Biocon, Dr. Reddy’s Lab, Wockhardt, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Limited. In case you are willing, you may also look for opportunities abroad. United States, Germany, Australia offer a lot of research opportunities in the fields of Pharmaceutical, Bio-IT etc. Biotechnology is of great demand in any country and state, since every human depends on it for their development. Career choice is an individual’s own decision. In every path that we choose, there will be rises and rejections. The key is to remain patient and vigilant. As a fresher, do not restrict yourself to opportunities. Try approaching as many companies and institutes as possible, sit for as many interviews as you can. They will help groom you and make you a stronger candidate for your future attempts. There are a lot of opportunities in Biotech, the only trouble is we do not know where and how to look for them !!



July 16th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 87

How to Prepare for a Biotech Job Interview Successfully It’s extraordinary how much interview advice there is on the internet nowadays. Most of them tend to be very successful, but not all are targeted at a specific issue. SO WHY DO YOU NEED TO READ INFORMATION ABOUT PREPARING FOR AN INTERVIEW IN BIOTECH? WELL, BIOTECH HAS ONE OF THE TRICKIEST INTERVIEWS AMONG ALL INDUSTRIES. SINCE IT HAS A WIDE COVERAGE, INTERVIEWS CAN EITHER BE TECHNICAL OR LESS TECHNICAL AND EASY OR DIFFICULT. THERE IS NO MIDDLE GROUND. By Preety Suman

In some companies, you’ll face two human resource people while others will give you a scientist-turned-businessman boss. Sometimes, you’re given a panel before going one-onone. But there are candidates lucky enough to get hired without even going to an interview. See the kind of razzle-dazzle you’re just about to face when you step into a biotech interview?

Marketing Job and what not. Looking for a job in Biotech is just like fishing. If you want a salmon for dinner, you don’t fish in the small sea where you’ll get a variety of fishes but not salmon. Instead, you sail to a salmon-rich spot where you’ll get more salmons than less expected fishTo add to the terror, most interviews es and Biotecnika is the big sea, just in Biotech or Biopharma industries dive and apply for that dream job of can last longer than you think. Ac- yours. cording to a survey, a normal interview would last at least 40 minutes. 2. Dress up according to the comBut what you don’t know is that hir- pany standards; don’t underdress ing managers can make a decision in or overdress as fast as 90 seconds. Don’t come to an interview wearBefore you know it, you are already ing jeans and sneakers. This is not an off their checklist. interview for a part-time work at in your college days. But don’t worry. An interview process shouldn’t be that hard when you Don’t wear a gown and glittery pieccheck this ultimate guide for a job in- es of jewelry. This is not a party eiterview success in biotech. ther. 1. Look for Biotech job openings Here’s a fact – you’ve already been at the right place, don’t just search judged by the way you’re dressed before you get to answer a question. So Sometimes, Googling for jobs is not the safest choice would be a corporate enough. If you want to find the best attire. For men, formal attire would job offers from Biotech Industries, be your best option. Avoid casual you need to look for them in the right T-shirts & shirts. place. For women, A Formal attire, Salwar A better strategy is to visit websites suit or kurta is ideal. Avoid anything that post verified biotech jobs with tight, sheer, and short. Also steer clear authentic information and of course from flashy colors like neon and anyou by now that BIOTECNIKA is imal prints. When in doubt, always the best choice. We post biotech job choose the simpler option. openings from R&D labs, Research Institute, Biotech Companies, Phar- Your footwear also does matter. ma Companies. Job position ranges Keep it formal & simple. from research-oriented jobs, Biotech Academics Jobs, Biotech Sales & 3. Keep yourself up-to-date with

the latest developments in Biotech interested in your work expectations for possible technical conversations and personal experience. Once you’re in the interview, you’ll This is very normal, especially in bineed your brain to cooperate. otech industries looking for individuals who can work with a team. As I’ve We all know that Biotech is an said there can be a lot of unexpected all-encompassing industry. You can turn of events during an interview. So expect questions from all aspects of don’t be too pushy to show how much biotech like agriculture, pharmacy, or you know about Biotech. Otherwise, bioengineering. So get ready to sur- you’d be shooting yourself in the foot. vive technical conversations which could happen anywhere in between Dr. Dhiren Thakker of UNC’s Esyour interview. helan School of Pharmacy has once said, “Referencing a particular source Chances are your potential employ- is a risky business — if the individual er will ask probing questions just to has not been a regular subscriber or gauge how you would fare on the reader of that area, it could backfire.” job. These questions can include very Trying to be technical even when not technical topics, current events, and needed will only make you sound latest biotech developments from the weird, arrogant, and off-topic. above-mentioned sub-industries. So if you’re in this situation, treat it Prepare by making sure you know as an opportunity to show yourself. about current events in biotech and It’s in your best interest, to be honknowing more about your chosen est about your critical reflections, company. Subscribe to Biotecnika experience, qualifications including news alerts & Biotecnika Weekly your strengths and weaknesses. PresMagazine so that you’ll be updated ent yourself as favorably as possible from time to time. Search for fre- without touching too much on your quently asked questions and practice private life and indicate your leaderanswering. ship skills with simplicity. When you’re prepared, this stage should be very easy for you.

5. Prepare smart answers in advance for some off-putting questions

4. Avoid any attempt to be technical if hiring managers do not throw As I said, there will be extremely untechnical questions expected questions during your interview in biotech. Okay, so you’ve read quite a number of biotech news and recited several biotech principles. But during your interview, the employer was more Next Page>>>>


July 16th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 87

For example, you might be asked if you’re planning to start a family. Many women applicants in their 30s have been asked this question, even though many HR managers are not technically allowed to. But don’t let questions like this upset you. Politely ask, how the question relates to your qualification. Then slowly move to a more-related topic. Sometimes, HR managers are just looking for candidates who know how to navigate through stressful situations. Other unexpected questions can include your political views, religious affiliations, hobbies, and favorite food. If in doubt if this could create a bias, a little white lie could save your career. 6. Show your interdisciplinary skills


you’re applying is crucial in determining the amount of preparation you need to make. So try to research information about your company. Check their official website and visit the “About Us” section or simply ask Large biotech companies have dif- a friend who has worked there. ferent interview processes which are 8. Widen your network not present in smaller companies. If you’re applying to large companies, you can expect the interview Connections play a very important to be more focus on your technical role in getting hired faster. Picture this and communication skills. Often- – if you walk into a company without times, they will ask you to undergo a knowing anybody, you’ll feel more 30-minute seminar just to get to know like a stranger. Yet, you will hear peoyou more. ple talking about someone you know. It could be your ex-colleague, a colHowever, if you’re applying to lege friend, or your previous boss. smaller companies you would probably be talking with the CEO and busi- So how could these people in the ness developers. Instead of having company know them but not you? In seminars, interviews can be done with truth, the biotech industry and many a smaller panel and more intimate. of its sub-industries are very small worlds. Knowing the size of the company

It’s hard to demonstrate how good er idea of how everyone works in the you are with interdisciplinary skills team. just by talking. Yet, an interview in the biotech will push you hard to the 7. Know more about the company you are applying limit. So for example, if you’re interviewing to be a chemist, speak like a “chemist and biologist”. Traditionally, biotech industries have chemist and biologists in their drug discovery teams. So you need to be conversant not just being a chemist but also in another field. This will show your flexibility and ability to work with other specialists in the field, without having to demonstrate your skills. As early as now, prepare by talking to other people with different field of specialization. Know their work and function, and how they move around the job. This will give you a broad-

Biotech Job Search Tips If You Are Not Getting Job Offers Searching for life science jobs & Biotech Jobs is probably one of the most excruciating experience after not getting job offers for so long. WELL, IT’S OKAY NOT TO RECEIVE OFFERS JUST YET. HOWEVER, YOU CAN’T WAIT FOR OPPORTUNITIES TO SIMPLY KNOCK ON YOUR DOOR. SOME LUCKS REQUIRE DIGGING UP BEFORE THEY SHOW UP. JUST LIKE FINDING A JOB, YOU NEED TO GET ON YOUR FEET AND START MOVING BEFORE ANYONE CAN SECURE YOUR DREAM POSITION. By Preety Suman

It’s worth noting that when you’re on the job market, every single point of reference you give to your potential employer – from your application to your email, including social media accounts – is an opportunity for them to evaluate your rightfulness for the position. So here are some job search tips you can follow just in case you’re not getting any life science job offers. Tip 1: Focus on the kind of medium where you intend to search for a job Every medium represents particular job offers, which are not available on

other channels. So when you search for a job, position yourself as the employer. Ask yourself, “Where could a certain company or industry advertise a job?” For example, since biotech can involve highly technical and modern positions, you can’t expect to find a biotech job in newsprints. The wisest place to focus on is the internet. You can apply for job vacancy directly via the company website, but this is a time taking procedure. There

nent institutes & companies post jobs directly with us like IISER, Amity, BIT Mesra, Dr. Reddy’s, Punjab Agricultural University, Panacea Biotec, ONGC, Many CSIR labs and the list is never-ending. An added advantage Biotecnika is India’s No 1 Biotech when you apply via Biotecnika is Job & News Portal serving biotech- you get a preference over other cannologists since past 11 years. You didates. So, become a SMART Jobmay land up on many different web- seeker by searching for a vacancy on sites while searching for a Life sci- Biotecnika directly. This was not to ence Job, but only we are known to promote the website, it’s just that we post 100% Authentic & Verified Jobs only directly from Research Institutes & Companies. Recruiters from emiNext Page>>>> are 100’s of companies who post vacancy daily, hopping onto an individual website and applying is a big No-No unless you really have nothing else to do.



want you to have the Best guide in the Well today, most things happen oncountry by your side along your en- line. Consequently, a majority of emtire Biotech Career Journey. ployers have now used the Application Tracking System (ATS) – a tool Best Way to Search For your that allows you to send applications choice of Job @ Biotecnika Web- online through company websites or site: third-party providers. • Subscribe to our daily newsletter and get hand-picked top jobs delivered fresh to your email • Follow Biotecnika on all Social Media Channels to get updates on latest job openings first hand • Use the Search Bar at the website on the top to search for specific jobs. E.g. – Microbiology Job, Job at IISER, Pfizer Job etc. • Visit biotecnika.org daily to get new job updates as fresh Biotech vacancies are posted every day on the Biotecnika website.

This system is built on algorithms and keyword searches. These tools are used to filter out resumes according to grammatical structures and keywords which hiring managers find most desirable in a certain position. For example, if your application does not contain their desired keywords, your chances of being chosen is quite low. On the other, various algorithms built specifically for Job screening purpose will be constantly checking on uploaded resumes for grammatical and spelling errors, including duplicates which might hinder your application Tip 2: Have your resume written from showing up to the company’s by a professional if you don’t know website. how to do it The key is to search for keywords relIf you can write a stellar resume, then evant to the company and add them to you are in a more advantageous posi- your resumes. Then have it edited and tion than other candidates. If not, you proofread by a colleague or a profesmay need to hire someone to do it for sional to make sure it’s error-free. you. Tip 4: Make it a habit to follow A professional resume-writer can your application bring a lot of help, especially when it comes to structuring your resume. Just because you haven’t received a First, they know the current formats reply doesn’t mean you didn’t get the and lengths for a resume that could job. The truth is you still have a chance attract an employer depending on dif- to get it by making a follow-up. ferent career levels. Second, they are Follow up through call or email. aware of the different demands for Sometimes, this is the best trick to get resumes and CVs of various biotech noticed. For example, your employindustries. Lastly, they are skilled in er must have already spotted you on highlighting key accomplishments LinkedIn but just couldn’t reach out that most managers are looking for. to you. If you make a follow-up, this could give them an idea that you’ve Don’t mistake the inability to write sent an application. Hence, hiring a good resume as a weakness. There managers can start looking up for are some professionals who are bad your application online. Of course, at writing resumes but are excellent avoid too much bugging & nagging. workers. Remember this – your resume is just a ticket to your dream Tip 5: Use the power of LinkedIn to job. Once you get in, it’s up to you to build your network and get recomshow your best self in order to keep mendations the job. LinkedIn is a very powerful tool to NB: Do not use the resume you de- build your professional network. signed years ago over and over again, Here, you can recommend people for by using it to apply for all types of positions where they are best at and jobs irrespective of the vacancy re- have them recommend you back. quirement. Let me be clear if you do not stop this, your Resume will be re- Nowadays, employers look at the jected over and over again. LinkedIn profile of their prospective employees to see what others think of Biotecnika will soon be launching them. A well-maintained professionPersonalized Resume Designing ser- al network with overflowing recomvices so that your chances of getting mendations can create a good impresa job offer increases further by 40%. sion. Tip 3: Observe proper keywords and algorithms

Tip 6: Choose your questions wisely during the interview stage

July 16th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 87

If you make it to the interview stage, it is best to play safe. Avoid throwing Tip 8: Clean up your social media – intriguing questions that would create Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Tuman impression that you’re doubtful bler, etc. about the job. As per the latest survey at least 60 But what if the employer asks you percent of employers screen job if you have any questions about the candidates through social media accompany or the job? Is it best to say counts. This includes your Facebook, “none” or “yes”? Instagram, and many other social media accounts where you inadvertentWell, the answer depends on a variety ly post scandalous and juvenile rants of circumstance. If there’s anything and photos. you do not understand such as the company policy, the payment meth- When you plan to apply for a job, od, or working hours then you can say you also need to start getting respon“yes” and ask away. sible for your social media accounts. No matter how private they are, your Never ever jump to salary discus- photos can still show up in your sion straightway. It can leave a bad friends’ profile. Sometimes they can impression on the employer and will link into your email accounts and you overwrite all the positive aspects the can’t afford a tiny detail to ruin your employer saw in you. Always wait for application. the employer to initiate the conversation in this regard. In truth, employers will only create There are also “fallback” questions impressions based on your resumes that you can ask to leave a good im- and social media accounts. It’s hard pression. For example, you can ask to see the real you unless you start about the development programs or to work. To stay on the safe side, do support network that the company of- not give your prospective employers fers. Or you may ask about the oppor- the slightest idea to doubt you. If you tunity to work with a team. Biotech have to clean your social media accompanies always have regard for in- counts to win your dream job, then dividuals who have excellent sports- why not? manship and teamwork. So there you go. These are some of Tip 7: Research about pertinent in- the most important tips you can folformation about the company low to search for a job. In any case, you can always fine-tune your apIf you want to seriously apply for a proach and focus on the job you’re job, you need to know what you’re most interested in. getting into. Most of the times, employers will also ask about your ex- Keep visiting Biotecnika to get more pectations for the company. insights on your Biotech Career. CanIf you can’t manage to do a little home- didates looking for Pharma & Chemwork before the interview, there’s no istry Jobs specifically please visit point why the company will hire you. www.rasayanika.com. So do a research for your own good. Show them that you’re someone they All the best! can trust.


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We all know that Biotech is one of the most in-demand and money-generating courses abroad. But while most graduates proceed with their Master’s Degree or Doctoral Degree in the pursuit of authoring the next There are top-notch research instimajor scientific breakthrough, some tutes in Bangalore, Chennai and New people are caught up in a crossroad. Delhi where you can pursue your doctoral studies in Biotech. The folSometimes the hard-hitting facts lowing are the top five universities like financial troubles, family issues, that you can check. and India’s dwindling Biotech industry can leave many students cussing • National Center for Biological about it. In fact, some people just simSciences (NCBS), Bangalore ply lose their interest through the pro- • Indian Institute of Technology, Macess. There is Scope in Biotech if you dras (IIT, Madras) don’t agree read this article – There is • International Center for Genetic EnFuture in Biotech / Life Sciences Ingineering and Biotechnology, New dustry, Here is the Proof! Delhi (Home – ICGEB) • Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Well if you have a deep interest in Bangalore Biotechnology, you’ll indeed have • Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Ada promising career. Every field has vanced Scientific Research (JNcompetition whether it is IT, Biotech, CASR), Bangalore MBA or Bank Jobs. But if you’re ex- • Institute of Genomics and Integraperiencing some quarter-life crises tive Biology, New Delhi + Many and you’re still too confused to demore cide, here are the top career options after completing Biotech courses. Option #2: Study Ph.D. in Biotech in India or Abroad Option #1: Pursue higher studies in Biotech and Life Sciences Truth be told, the scope of Biotechnology in India is developing rapidly. If you’re interested in furthering your Ph.D. in Biotech in India can be chalstudies and becoming a noble person lenging but it will definitely open up in the academe someday, this is where a lot of career options for you. you should go. Clear the CSIR NET / GATE Exam, and immerse yourself You can pursue Ph.D. Degree in in various opportunities in line with India at top-notch institutions with Biotech such as a PhD in Biotech or scholarships after clearing some enMaster’s Degree (MS) in Technology. trance exams. Clearing the CSIR NET / GATE exam will also enable you to pursue an MS Click to know more about the Top Degree in leading institutes in India 26 National Level Ph.D. Entrance Exas well as foreign universities, espe- ams for Life Science. cially in Singapore where Biotech is a thriving career option. Another option is to do your Ph.D. abroad. You can apply for a scholar-

ship and finish your Ph.D. abroad. Look out for Top R&D Jobs Here Big universities in the U.S. like Harvard University, Stanford University, Option #4: Teach in your favorite and Yale University can offer you in- Organization/university finite research possibilities. If you have the passion for menThe QS World University Rankings toring students, you can settle for a in Biological Science will basically teaching job. People enter this profesgive you the top foreign universities sion because of good vacations, job that provide high-end research fa- security, and low pressures at work. cilities for Biotechnology and Life The salary structure for fresh graduates are ultimately low but you can do Sciences Researches. further studies as you work, and get Option #3: Get a job in Research your promotions later. and Development (R&D) In order to get a post as a lecturer If you’ve decided to take a year off in college universities, you must first before proceeding to some postgrad- clear the NET-LS (National Eligibiliuate studies, you can apply for a job ty Test – Lectureship). In most cases, in the Research and Development in students who have outstanding NET Exam scores are eventually absorbed India. by prominent universities and offered R&D is one of the best career op- high-paying positions. tions for Biotech students in India who wants to get a job while look- Again, teaching is a profession by ing for some inspiration to proceed choice. If this isn’t your first choice, with their MS or Ph.D. Sometimes, then don’t waste time thinking about you just need to work on a piece of it and go for what you’re passionate something before you discover what about. you’re truly passionate about. Option #5: Get a job in IntellectuDespite the fact that R&D is an in- al Property Research and Patenting teresting job, the bitter truth behind it is that it’s not as high-paying as you Surprisingly, only a few people in think. Fresh graduates basically start Biotech knew that this domain is even with a minimum pay and will prob- existing. Walking down the memory ably get their first salary hike after lane, I’m sure you have one subject four to five years of working in the in Patents and Intellectual Property Rights during your college years. industry. Promotions are also tough in this specific field but if you’re a hard worker, this wouldn’t be an issue.

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Yes, a lot of people are saying that it’s boring. However, it’s one of the best career options you can try after graduating from Biotech. There are really great patent firms in India that you can start with. For example, you can apply for a job as a KPO (Knowledge Process Outsourcing) then move slowly to more technical aspects of IP like a Patent Agent. As you continue to work in Biotech IP, you’ll be exposed to legal matters in the firm in which you can also help. Who knows, you might want to divert your attention into getting a law degree? If that’s the case, this option could be a great stepping stone in becoming a Biotech Patent Lawyer. Option #6: Apply in the government sector Health, technology, and life sciences are still part of Biotechnology. So if you look at the government sector, there are actually a lot of job opportunities that you can grab. The Biotech development in India is regulated under the Department of Biotechnology and under the control of the Ministry of Science and Technology. These industries usually post job offers either in their premises or

online for fresh graduates who are Option #8: Apply for a Sales Job looking for both full-time and part- in Biopharma Industry time job. There are also some non-scientific You just can’t expect to sit in jobs that you can work on like behigh-level positions but working in coming a sales agent or medical repthe government is interesting because resentative. Some companies require it gives a lifetime security. Further- a background in Biotech and other more, you can also work in other science just for the purpose of having government organizations and in dif- a good understanding of what they’re ferent autonomous institutions, or in selling. public health centers. When you’re a sales agent, you will deal with people like students, techs, Top Biotech Govt Job List doctors, or pharmaceutical scientists. Option #7: Apply for a job in the Option #9: Become an entrepreprivate sector neur The rapid advancement in Biotechnology has generated some of the best Believe or not, but there’s a high careers in science and pharmacology. chance that you can become an enConsequently, many people are at- trepreneur even if you’ve graduated tracted to the private sector because in Biotech. In fact, entrepreneurship of the higher pay structure that most is one of the highly praised Biotech career options for students who come pharmaceutical industries offer. If you are a Biotech fresh graduate, from business-minded families. you can work in the manufacturing department or the research depart- If you do not want to work under the ment. You can also apply as an intern pressure of a fixed schedule, you can in clinical research or partner with a be your own boss by starting up your researcher who’s developing a new own business. In fact, Biotech startmedicinal product. Higher and highly ups is a thriving economy in India. technical positions are available for those who have Master’s Degree and Take inspiration from various startups. So if you’re inventive and crePh.D.

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ative, search for available funding from the Indian Government and present your own Biotech innovation. Option #10: Work as a Laboratory Technician/Assistant This is by far, the easiest job you can land to right after a Bachelor’s Degree in Biotech. Private and government universities offer a variety of jobs for lab managers and technical assistant. Most of these fields would require applicants to at least have a Bachelor’s Degree in Biotech. That means you don’t even have to get a Ph.D. in Biotech to get hired. When you land a career in a laboratory, you can expect to do some lab chores, assist in collecting data from the various specimen, do some minor investigations, and work with lab equipment. There you go… These are the best career options after completing Biotech that you can choose from. You still have a bright future ahead of you. Do your best in your chosen carrier and you’ll soon reap the benefits of your hardships. Good luck!


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Cancer Biology Research – Top Cancer Research Institutes Where You Can Apply If your inspiration is to become a researcher with a Ph.D. degree specialized in Cancer Research and you possess the urge to work towards the development of treatment & cure for this silent killer then this article is a must read for you. CHANGES IN CANCER RESEARCH FIELD HAPPEN BRISKLY, THEREFORE, SO AS TO REMAIN CONTEMPORANEOUS YOU MUST STAY CURIOUS AND DEDICATED BY BEING UP TO DATE WITH THE LATEST ADVANCEMENTS IN CANCER RESEARCH BOTH LOCALLY & GLOBALLY. By Dr. Ankita Trivedi

The Cancer Red Alert! In 2018 alone 9.6 million deaths occurred due to cancer. It is estimated that by 2030 the cancer death toll will hit a scary number of 23.6 million.

Cancer research is basically fragmented into assorted broad categoWe might not have found a way yet ries : to beat cancer, however, as per statistical data the number of researchers Basic Research: Includes the restepping into the Cancer research sec- search of various cellular as well as tor to accelerate the quest of develop- molecular variations occurring natuing a cancer cure, has increased dras- rally or throughout the development tically over a period of past 5 years. of a disease. Also cited as preclinical While the scientific community is on or lab research. its toes to find “The Cancer Cure”, a lot of advancements have been made. Translational Research: It reIt is a high profile sector of research as the ultimate goal of learning facts about Cancer is to create guarded and constructive methods to diagnose, detect, treat and prevent cancer. The finer we understand this disease, the more progress we can make toward declining the prodigious human and economic trolls of CANCER. “CANCER Research Transforms And Saves Life” Advanced research in the field of cancer has helped us gather immeasurable knowledge about the biological processes involved in the onset of a malignant tumor. All those inventions have to lead to highly effective and earmarked treatments as well as prohibition strategies. Over the decades, Scientists have made numerous discoveries based on their research results in a wide array of disciplines that are considered as a major breakthrough in identification, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

counts an approach that accelerates the execution of several discoveries and inventions conducted in the laboratory to clinical practice. Also cited as operating advances from bench to bedside.

Clinical Research: It includes the implementation of treatments and procedures in patients. The research team conducts clinical trials where they try to study a group of patients, a particular patient and employ samples from humans like blood or any tissue samples to know details about the disease. They are interested to know how the healthy body works and responds to therapy.

Population Research: Most loved area of research. It includes the study of various causes and patterns of Cancer as well as their risk evaluation. Epidemiologists, the population scientists engage themselves in studying and identifying the patterns, causes, and effects of health & diseases in defined groups. It is highly symbiotic and can stretch the spectrum from baBroad Categories of Cancer Re- sic research to clinical research. search

Where To Apply For Cancer Research? If you have that desire to become a researcher and want to serve the people in need of care and assistance, Cancer Research is the best sector for you to grow and make a career in. The foremost question which comes to your mind to start a career in cancer research is – Where to apply?

How to apply? What are the Future prospects? No need to Fret at all! You can get all your answers here. Depending upon the abilities and qualifications, numerous Cancer Institutes have been established that admit young scholars with sharp minds. According to the eligibility criteria of all these institutes, you can apply for research as per your suitability. Next Page>>>>



Let’s look at some of the most renowned Cancer Research Institutes where you can apply for research! 1. Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Navi Mumbai The futuristic Research & Development satellite of the Tata Memorial Centre (TMC), ACTREC functions as a national center for medical care, research and enlightenment in cancer. TMC also includes Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), the largest cancer hospital in Asia under its patronage. ACTREC embrace 2 arms- one for basic research and the second one for clinical research. As discussed above, you can choose among numerous broad categories of cancer research. Research explorations at both the arms of ACTREC focus on molecular operations accountable for causation of crucial human cancers relevant to India. It is expected that ACTREC will play a significant role in drug development and emerging therapies for treatment and prevention of cancer in the future. Job Prospects @ ACTREC One can be a part of Cancer Research at ACTREC by obtaining a Ph.D. degree in Life Sciences provided by Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), a Deemed University established by the Department of Atomic Energy. The Research Scholars at ATREC handles basic and translational research in Cancer Biology where they focus on specific research topics such as Cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metastasis, tumor immunology, carcinogenesis, molecular imaging, stem cell biology, biophysics, structural biology, bioinformatics, genomics, genetics & epigenetics. Applications are invited early in the year (February/March) through the website by candidates all across India. The final selection depends on the student’s performance in Written Examination followed by an interview. Educational Qualifications: • M.Sc. (Bioinformatics/ Applied Biology/ Biochemistry/ Biotechnology/ Biophysics/ Botany/ Microbiology/ Life Sciences/ Molecular Biology/ Zoology or related Biological Sciences) • M.Tech. ( Biotechnology / Bioinformatics ) • M.V.Sc. or M.Pharm. Degree obtained from a recognized organization with 60 % or more marks.

• Final Year candidates are also eligible. • Candidates with a post-graduate degree of one year are not eligible. Fellowships: Candidates qualifying written examination are called for an interview and final admissions are dependent on the HBNI eligibility criteria and other requirements such as Medical Examination. You can avail Junior Research Fellowship, once you are selected by ACTERC for Cancer Research. JRF’s earns a stipend of Rs.25,000 +30 % HRA per month as applicable. This fellowship is tenable for a period of 2 years, can be extended for a further 2 years (not more than that) on an annual renewal basis which is considered on your performance of the previous year. You can also avail external fellowships if secured from agencies like CSIR, UGC, DBT, etc. Multiple Job openings are posted by ACTREC which can be located here. ACTREC very frequently hires M.sc /Ph.D. Biotech & Life Science Candidates for positions like Scientific Officer, Scientific Assistant, Research Fellow, and many other posts. For More Details Visit – http:// www.actrec.gov.in/ 2. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi AIIMS is an autonomous institution of national importance and awards its own medical degrees and other academic distinctions. The Cancer Research is carried out at Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (Dr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital). It is among the best centers in the country to have entrenched hematopoietic stem cell, bone marrow transplant program, around 250 or even more transplants have been already implemented. There are about 8 departments under this Institute, out of which Cancer Research is basically carried out in the Department of Medical Oncology. This department has been using modern techniques including FISH and PCR to prophesy cancer patients. It has been using screening programs to detect cancer at a very early stage, apart from this a preventive oncology program has also been initiated. Department excels in teaching, clinical and research related activities. MO department is managing DM and Ph.D. program. If you wish to apply for Cancer Research in AIIMS, you have to apply for the Doctorate program here. For

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entry in this highly prestigious insti- tions annually. tute, you need to crack the AIIMS Ph.D. Entrance Exam conducted by Numerous projects are carried out AIIMS itself twice in a year -Jan & by eminent scientists of this institute July Session. which are funded by various prestigious government organizations like Educational Qualifications: CSIR, UGC, DBT. If you wish to carry out your research in Cancer from Masters Degree (M.Sc, M.Tech. & the Institute that is only engaged in BAMS) -2 years course by Indian Cancer study, nothing else ! ACRC Universities or equivalent in the sub- is one of the perfect places where ject as per requirement. you can land safely without a second Candidates should have at least 60% thought. or more marks in their last qualifying examination. Educational Qualifications: Candidates having Masters degree through correspondence are not eli- Master’s Degree in any branch of gible. Life Sciences with at least 60% marks Candidate should have a valid felFellowships: lowship from any of the following agencies – UGC, CSIR, DST-INCandidates must have qualified at SPIRE, ICMR, DBT, KSCSTE least one of the following examina- Ph.D. entrance examination contions in the last 2 years – Joint CSIR- ducted by the University of Calicut UGC NET for JRF, ICMR-JRF/SRF, qualified candidates may also be conCSIR-SRF, DST-JRF/SRF, DBT-JRF/ sidered for enrollment in Ph.D. ProSRF, UGC-JRF/SRF, NBHM screen- gramme for Cancer Research. ing test, GATE, INSPIRE fellowship. Fellowships: Candidates having Selected candidates through entrance aforesaid valid fellowship are admitexamination with one of the aforesaid ted for various course work at ACRC. fellowships can easily pursue their Candidates can avail the fellowship doctorate degree from AIIMS. as per the rules and regulations of that respective funding agency. For further details visit the link www.aiimsexams.org For further details, visit http:// amalacrc.org/ 3. Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amalangar, Trichur 4. Centre for Cancer Epidemiology, Maharashtra ACRC is an integral part of Amala Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS), CCE is the new cancer research situated in the valley of Vilangan center established by Tata MemoriHills, 8KM from Thrissur town. The al Centre, Mumbai. It is one of the Centre focussed to accept scientific top-ranking tertiary cancer research research in Cancer and other associ- centers as well as treatment centers in ated branches of medical sciences in- South Asia. The CCE is equipped with cluding basic as well as applied fields. the finest amenities for data storage, high-speed servers, high throughput This research center offers vari- technologies and cold storage of bioous courses for research aspirants logical samples. It also has automated like Ph.D. Programme, M.Sc./M. biobanks for storage of around 3 milPharm./M.Tech/M.D. Dissertation lion biological samples. Work and Summer Training Programmes. Amala Cancer Research This institute’s main objective is to Centre is acknowledged by the Uni- develop Nationally and Internationversity of Calicut and Mahatma Gan- ally acknowledged as well as funded dhi University for the Ph.D. course inter-disciplinary research programs program. in epidemiology with prominence on assessing cancer Burden, the pervaIn addition to the Ph.D. program, siveness of threat factors, recognizACRC enrolls post-graduate stu- ing threat factors related to genetics dents for their dissertation and pro- and lifestyle and to study about these ject works in Cancer-related research. threat factors for disease advanceStudents are enrolled from numerous ment. CCE operates Molecular EpiUniversities and Colleges. Special demiology research that fosters coltraining programs are also organized laborative research, in addition, CCE by ACRC to help students in under- has also developed an Education and standing the concepts and values of Experimental Biology. It conducts a Training program in Epidemiology major training program for postgraduate students from different instituNext Page>>>>


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that encompasses Masters and Doctorate degree. Centre for Cancer Epidemiology has certain set Goals such as to build a strategy to identify Cancer Causation and Prevention, build capabilities to conduct Population genetics studies. Finally, CCE focuses on the blossoming of manpower for Cancer observation, Epidemiology, and Molecular Epidemiological studies. This Cancer Centre offers numerous education and training courses. CCE enrolls Ph.D. students in the field of Epidemiology from a deemed University- Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), established by the Department of Atomic energy. Research Scholars handles research in the field of Epidemiology counting Cancer Registration, Molecular Epidemiology, Cancer Control, and Prevention. To get admitted in the Doctoral program of CCE, applicants have to apply through the website of the institute [http://www.tmc.gov.in] early in the month of May/June of every year. It is open for all the candidates all across India. The entrance examination is being conducted by CCE for shortlisting the candidates based on their performance in that particular examination followed by an interview. An Orientation Course is available for students seeking admission to the Doctoral program. A core training course of HBNI is conducted for all JRFs at CCE, before initiating the Ph.D. research or thesis work. This is implemented just to expose the students to various facets of Cancer Epidemiology, Public Health, and Statistics. All JRFs are examined through a series of written tests, seminar presentations and home assignments in which they have to achieve at least 60% marks. Educational Qualifications Required: • M.Sc. (Applied Biology/ Biochemistry/Life Sciences/ Molecular Biology/ Biophysics / Biotechnology / Botany /Bioinformatics / Microbiology / /Zoology or related Biological Sciences ) • M.Tech. ( Biotechnology/ Bioinformatics); M.Pharm. Or M.V.Sc. from any acknowledged University, with at least 60% aggregate marks. • Candidates whose results are awaited may also apply • Candidates having only one year of post-graduate degree are not eligible to apply • Candidates with valid Junior Research Fellowships from recognized funding agencies like CSIR/UGC/

DBT are called for direct interview at CCE, these candidates are also requested to apply online. Fellowships: At CCE, Junior Research fellows will receive a fellowship of Rs.25,000 + 30% HRA and Senior Research Fellows gets Rs.28,000 + 30% HRA per month as applicable. This is the stipend provided by the institute to the Research Scholars. Candidates having valid fellowships from any external agencies can avail the same. The JRF is viable for 2 years, which can be further extended to a maximum of 2 years depending on the progress of students during the previous years. For More Details Visit – http://tmcepi.gov.in/ If we talk about Careers in cancer Research now, we have many paths to choose. Cancer Research has progressed with the times, adopting new technologies enabling scientists to chase varied research goals than ever. Researchers involved in Cancer study can find themselves in numerous settings to either industry or academia from addressing vivid questions in the laboratory to testing new vaccines and drugs in the clinic. At the Basic Research point, most of the young scientists will agree and admit that they were mesmerized at the outset to explore fundamental biological questions than to work precisely on Cancer. Moreover, they often notice the importance and suitability of their immense work to understanding the elementary biological processes leading to Cancer. New treatments or let us say new technologies can arise from such conception. If you have a deep and broad knowledge of the related subject with good molecular biology skills and ability to produce new ideas, you are the Right Person for the Cancer Research. Gazing forward, Cancer Research seems set to thrive- distinctly in the translational research arena and the evolution of new salubrious facilities. Coming 10 years is going to be a GOLDEN AGE in Cancer Research. If you desire to be a part of this golden era, do apply in the above mentioned Cancer Institutes and make your career progress exponentially. Apart from the most prestigious Cancer Institutes mentioned above, you can apply in other Cancer Institutes as well.


The list for the other Cancer Re& Research Centre, Bhopal search Institutes is provided below: • Marathwada Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Maharashtra. • Asian Institute of Oncology, • Bhagwan Mahaveer Cancer HospiS.L.Raheja Hospital, Raheja Hospital & Research Centre, Jaipur tal Road, Mahim, Mumbai • Mohan Das Oswal Cancer Treat• Bose Institute, Kolkata ment & Research Centre, Punjab. • Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai • Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Hospital & • Cancer Treatment & Research CenResearch Institute, Rohini, Delhi tre, Visakhapatnam • Rajkot Cancer Society, Mr. N.P. • Chittaranjan Cancer Institute, KolCancer Institute, Gujrat kata • Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruva• Christian Cancer Centre, Andhra nanthapuram, Kerala. Pradesh • Regional Centre for Cancer Re• Jaslok Hospital & Research Centre, search, Adyar, Chennai. Mumbai • Regional Centre for Cancer Re• Dharamshila Cancer Hospital & search and Treatment, Cuttack Research Centre, Vasundhara En- • Rotary Cancer Centre, Kanpur, Utclave, New Delhi tar Pradesh • Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Institute, • Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai Guwahati • The Gujarat Cancer & Research In• Dr. Bhubaneswar Borooah Cancer stitute, Ahmedabad Institute, Guwahati • Dr. Rai Memorial Cancer Institute Governments all across the globe 562, Chennai have taken a personalized interest in • G.V.N. Cancer Centre, No.16, Kile- this field and have formulated special dar Street, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil research cells and funding schemes Nadu. & opportunities via which they aim • Goa Cancer Society, GM Cancer to promote and invite more young Hospital & Research Institute, Goa. researchers to join Cancer Research • Indian Rly. Cancer Institute & Re- field. The increasing competition search Centre, Varanasi & dedication to finding a cure for • Institute of Cytology & Preventive this life taking disease is on its peak Oncology, Opposite City Centre, throughout the world, thus one can Noida foresee a flourishing career through• International Cancer Centre, out if proper educational degree & Neyyoor, Tamilnadu knowledge is attained. • International Network for Cancer, Treatment, & Research Rajinder Remember – “ Nothing is ImpossiNagar, New Delhi ble for a Willing Mind ” • J.K. Cancer Institute (G.S.V.M. Medical College), Kanpur, Uttar More details on Cancer Research Pradesh. Scope, Job Prospects & Salary De• Jagdish Cancer & Research Centre, tails will be covered in our next artiHyderabad. cle. Keep checking our career advice • Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital, section for all updates.



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How To Stay Productive During Your M.sc / Master’s Degree To begin with, I will not be talking about any rocket science here. There are a couple of things which you need to practice so that the outcome will not just be positive, it will be rewarding. And you will not just look back and feel like an achiever but also believe in your future. THIS IS WHY YOU MUST READ THIS ARTICLE ON HOW TO STAY PRODUCTIVE DURING YOUR M.SC / MASTER’S DEGREE UNTIL THE END TO MAKE THE MOST OUT OF IT. By Shekhar

College days are one of the most beautiful days every teenager cherish for. During your bachelor’s you may feel like hey, it’s all right not to study! Hey, it’s alright, to bunk classes! Sometimes you will also feel Hey, it’s alright to bunk the exams also! But trust me, if you stay productive during your bachelor’s and master’s, you are going to rock throughout your life. Proper planning and strategy have helped humans to reach the moon and very soon will be on Mars too. And here you are still struggling in your masters. Why? Because you are not planning to be productive.

can make you as well as destroy you, it’s totally your choice how you use it. If you use it in the right manner, it will help you, but if you use it in the wrong manner, it will hurt you! It will injure you! If you are using the smartphone to research the internet about something which you are studying, No problem! But when you are So let’s go through some points studying, put away all the apps which which will help you stay productive distract you like WhatsApp, emails, during Your Masters. Facebook, Instagram its a strict NO NO! Maintain a daily to-do list Now, what is a to-do list everybody knows! It’s something that makes you plan for the day and the next day. It helps you chalk out a list of things you want to accomplish for the day. You can always write a to-do list of next day in the night itself Or maybe the next day in the morning as soon as you wake up. There are several apps in the play store which you can use to build a to-do list for yourself. If you have a smartphone you can always use Google Keep.

Lack of self-study everyday

It is often seen that most of the students do not study on a daily basis, and they keep postponing writing their practical records till the end. Consequently, they will just copy from records of the toppers or their friendly seniors and believe me even the readings of experiments will be copied. But during exams, during Viva sessions, they will fumble and will fail to answer the questions. This is because they don’t study every day, they postpone things, pile up their The idea behind maintaining a to-do studies for the end day of the exam. list is to make you ready so that you can spend your day efficiently, and You cannot grow a plant in a single take essentials steps day by day to day by just flooding it with water, it reach your prime goal. will take its own time. Your brain is like a plant it must be watered with Put away your smartphone while knowledge every day for that you studying must study every day. Now when your previous generation Prioritizing Your Work used to study, they didn’t have the leverage of a smartphone and the in- Now prioritizing is all about deciternet so frequently like you. Remem- sion making. So if you are very good ber a smartphone is something which in making decisions, you will be able

to prioritize. Let’s take up a situation Here: You have a couple of things to do today. One of them is going for a movie other is writing your assignment and another is studying for a crucial test, which is coming next week. How do you prioritize? Decision making is a skill you need to develop yourself. Most of the students are not able to decide what is important what not. And this is where some friends will come and say, hey, let’s go for the movie and then you will end up prioritizing the movie. There’s no harm in watching movies. In fact, whenever you get bored of studies, you must watch movies. My point here is, you will have all of your life to watch movies but these foundation days of career will not come back. So before taking a decision look at your schedule, and prioritize things on the basis that how it helps you increase your productivity. If completing that assignment is important when preparing for that exam, which is their next week then strategize accordingly. If you plan properly you will be able to do both in time. Hence Prioritizing and Decision-making skills play a very important role early in your career. Finish those work first, which can be completed faster Whenever you have a to-do list, you should try to finish those task

first, which can be completed faster. For example, you have 12 chapters to study. And you know that the first three chapters are very long while the last ones are a little easy. So you must finish the last three fast, thus you will end up finishing 25% of the syllabus. By this method, your confidence level will always boost instantly. Avoid studying late at night I know I’m getting into a lot of controversies by saying that a lot of students say that, hey, I get peacetime only at night. So I’ll study only at night. You must be preferring studying at night because there are a lot of distractions in the daytime, which directly means you are studying in a crowded environment. Research has proved that working at night affects & alters your DNA, your hormones don’t work in sync. And that is where you will have hormonal problems in the future. And being a life science student you should know that playing with the hormones is something like a house of cards if one falls the entire system falls. It works similar to a negative feedback loop mechanism. And that is why you should avoid setting into late at night. Instead, look for a place where you will be distraction free during the day. Make monthly goals and targets Setting up a goal is very very imNext Page>>>>


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portant. You can have two types of goal- short term goal & long term goal. Short term goals can be weekly goals like I have to finish up by lab record and any particular topic this week at any cost. Long terms monthly goals can be made pertaining to the upcoming tests & exams. Make sure your monthly goal also has tasks like learning new lab skills, networking with your seniors and other members who are already at the peak of their research career. I have seen a lot of students who do create monthly goals and weekly targets but they do not achieve those because they fail to prioritize their work, they fail to put their smartphones away, they fail to a create a daily to-do list. Stop Running Away From College After 3 PM

8 out of every 10 students have a tendency to run away from college immediately after classes get over. Well, you need to stop this behavior immediately in order to have a successful career. I know it becomes extremely tiring attending lectures and standing in labs all day. But think once this is the only time when the college libraries and labs will be free of all distractions. Why not use this time to your favor? Spend some time in the library and try to learn something new or at least be prepared for the next lecture in advance, by this you will be able to churn out more benefit from the next lecture. Spend some time in the Lab to work on the experiments that went wrong, figure out the mistakes. These habits will not only make you stand out of the crowd, but it will also lead the foundation for a better future for yourself. WARNING: By practicing these things, you will be called a NERD by

your classmates & friends, but that’s a compliment right! If being NERDY will fetch you a six-figure salary or more in future then be proud to be called as a NERD. Plan for your future


So I hope you understood the above points and the message behind each one of them. If you are still doing your bachelor’s or master’s, make sure it is productive enough and you are future ready. If you follow the above points you will know, where you have to go ahead in your career and how you have to plan. Once your degree is completed, you will know which company will give you a job and you will know how to take the right decisions. Being productive in your Masters will not just make you successful in your career but will also make you a successful person overall as you will be able to work on your goal on a daily basis and you will be able to achieve what others have not.

Freeze certain time slots per day and assign it to study and research about your future, your future career. This means every day maybe one or two hours you should spend time with the internet, searching answers for questions like – What can you do after you complete your masters, What are the companies & institutes you can get a job in immediately after your course completion, What extra skills and certification courses you require to get your dream job, How should you prepare for competitive exams, How you can attend mock interviews and So start being productive right away many such questions. This will help and you will see your career grow exponentially like an urban city. you be future ready.

Top 10 Biotech Jobs With Good Future Career Opportunity When you choose a course, it is also important to think about your future. So in this article, we have compiled the top 10 BioTech jobs that will remain in demand over the next decade. IF YOU THINK OF GETTING A DEGREE IN B.TECH OR BSC IN BIOTECH, YOU MIGHT AS WELL CHECK ON THE CAREER OPTIONS BELOW AND TRY TO SEE WHICH FIELD YOU WOULD WANT TO WORK IN THE FUTURE. By Preety Suman

As per a report compiled by Govt of India, Biotech sector in India is growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 20% and a target has been set to reach USD 100 Billion by 2025. You must be not be knowing the fact that India is counted amongst the Top 12 biotechnology destinations in the world and is the third-largest in the Asia–Pacific region. Keeping these data in mind we present to you, statistics on Job opportunities available in the Biotech sector which has kept on booming year by year and is expected to touch even bigger numbers.

including Biochemical Engineering & Chemical Technicians. The following is a list of 10 research career opportunities that are projected to be in demand until 2025. 10. Genetic Counselors

At present, the highest in-demand jobs are the post of Microbiologists, Current Job stats: 100+ Vacancy QA / AC Analysts, Food Safety An- per month alyst & Lab Technicians. The next three fastest-growing job segments Expected Growth in No of Jobs are biopharma-related occupations Till 2025: 60%

Average Salary: Rs 15,500/-pm – Rs 40,200/- pm What to expect with the job: Genetic counselors are professionals who are in-charged of assessing different gene strands or DNAs to know the level of risk an individual has in contracting a particular disease or disorder. When you work as a genetic counselor, you can expect to be more exposed to a hospital setting, laboratories, or clinics. Each genetic coun-

selor is trained to analyze genetic data through different mediums and translate them into detailed information for families to understand. The following are some basic duties of a genetic counselor. Provide genetic testing and offer to counsel to patients, and also provide advice to health professionals and healthcare providers Provide information on families who Next Page>>>>



are in need of information regarding a Expected Growth in No of Jobs specific risk of contracting a certain Till 2025: 60% gene disorder Average Salary: ₹ 25,000 per month Eligibility: B.sc/ M.sc Life science, – ₹ 1,00,000 per month Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, What to expect with the job: B.Pharma can apply for these posts. With the increasing disbalance beRecruiters: AIIMS is the leading tween living beings and mother narecruiter for Genetic Counsellors ture, a Zoologist is one who can keep Along with Ministry of Health & a check on the wildlife aspect of it. If family welfare, You can also explore you love the wildlife and everything excellent job opportunities in Startup in it, then this could be the job for you. Companies in Medical & Healthcare. Being a zoologist means that you will be studying how different animals in the wilds connect with everyone else 9. Epidemiologists in the ecosystem. The job is important Current Job stats: 150+ Vacancy because it helps ordinary people understand how other species function, per month hence the information we normally Expected Growth in No of Jobs found in research papers and science books. Till 2025: 70% Average Salary: ₹ 22,350/- pm – ₹ Most zoologists work in local, federal, or state government. Depending 80,034/- pm on your work assignment, you may mostly work in the field to gather data What to expect with the job: or remain in the laboratory to conduct Epidemiologists are public health experiments on data that have already professionals who are in-charged of been gathered by your colleagues. studying various patterns of human The following are basic duties of a diseases and injuries. At its core, it zoologist. requires professionals to do detective Collect data samples from the wildjobs in determining the sources of life like parasites or insects to check diseases especially during outbreaks whether these particular species are and find a solution to stop them from suffering from a certain disease spreading out. Previously, epidemiol- Utilize geographic information sysogists are more exposed on the field tem (GIS) to track animals in the wild work, but now most people just work Conduct a research to find a treatin their laboratories and conduct ex- ment for a particular disease or relate periments. The following are basic a specific disease in an animal to a human duties of an epidemiologist.

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gineering principles and biological sciences to create innovations such as laboratory equipment, robots, and even software. Once publicly accepted to be safe for use, this equipment will then be utilized in laboratories for biologists and chemists to use. The following are some examples of basic duties of biochemical engineers.

In their daily working life, biochemists and biophysicists are in-charged in studying different molecules to determine their different effects on drugs and food. Their studies are always geared towards improving the quality of life by making new discoveries and seeing things at a molecular level.

Develop tangible products out of their knowledge in biology and engineering, which can help hasten laboratory works and create new science breakthroughs Solve issues related to various systems and materials which will be used to interpret their interaction and relationship with humans Keep a database of experiments done by chemists, physicists, and scientists

Biochemists and biophysicists can work in the federal government and in private laboratories. The following are some examples of their basic duties.

Eligibility: Graduates with a degree in biochemical or chemical engineering can apply for all entry-level positions. Many colleges offer a dual degree – B.tech in Biotech & Biochemical engineering.

Conduct research and make a technical report on a subject like enzymes or DNA Manage laboratory teams and conduct research on the different effects of a particular molecule on the development of a drug or food Utilize electron microscopes and lasers for the experimentation and testing processes Eligibility: Candidates with graduate & post graduate degree in Biophysics, Biochemistry, Chemistry can apply. Doctorate & postdoctorate vacancy in this field is also prevalent.

Recruiters: Biocon, Syngene, Serum Institute of India, Bharat biotech are some eminent companies where you can land up as a Biochemical en- Recruiters: Thermo Fisher is the gineer and earn a handsome salary. leading recruiter in this domain. IIT’s, IISC and NIT’s also float vacancy on 6. Biochemists and Biophysicists a regular basis. Current Job stats: 320+ Vacancy per month

5. Chemical Technicians

Current Job stats: 430+ Vacancy Expected Growth in No of Jobs Till per month 2025: 85% Expected Growth in No of Jobs Average Salary: ₹ 28,000 per month Till 2025: 75% Oversee public health programs, in- Eligibility: B.sc Zoology, M.sc Zo- – ₹ 90,000 per month cluding health care planning strate- ology & Ph.D. Zoology can apply for Average Salary: ₹ 25,000 per month these Vacancies. Candidates with a What to expect with the job: gies for the public – ₹ 90,000 per month Investigate the disease or parasites degree in wildlife are also eligible. that are causing the epidemic, determine how they are transmitted, and Recruiters: Leading recruiter in Next Page>>>> this domain is Wildlife Institute of Inprovide a solution to it dia with almost 60+ vacancy posted Eligibility: M.sc / Ph.D. candidates every month. ICFRE, Punjab Agriwith a degree in Epidemiology can cultural University also hire Zooloapply. M.sc / Ph.D. Biostatistics can- gists as Research fellows to work on didates are also considered. Life Sci- designated projects. ence & Medical Graduates are eligible for Masters Degree in Epidemiology. 7. Biochemical Engineers Most of the colleges offer Epidemiology in combination with Biostatistics. Current Job stats: 269+ Vacancy per month Recruiters: National Health Mission is the leading recruiter for the Expected Growth in No of Jobs post of Epidemiologists, Followed by Till 2025: 70% National Institute of Epidemiology, Average Salary: ₹ 27,234 per month UNICEF & THSTI – ₹ 100,000 per month 8. Zoologists What to expect with the job: Current Job stats: 200+ Vacancy Biochemical engineers combine enper month


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What to expect with the job:

Current Job stats: 490+ Vacancy per month

Chemical technicians are responsible for providing the technical sup- Expected Growth in No of Jobs port for chemists and scientists to be Till 2025: 68% able to produce a chemical product. Similar to an assistant, their job fo- Average Salary: ₹ 15,000/- pm – ₹ cuses on being a sidekick but with 50,000 per month more specific expertise – that is with using different special instruments. What to expect with the job: Chemical technicians have remained a mainstay when it comes to the list of in-demand jobs in BioTech because, without them, chemists and scientists would not be able to complete their experimentations and research processes. Some examples of tasks that chemical technicians usually do include chemical sampling, analytical testing, and quality control protocol. The following are basic duties of a chemical technician. Collect air samples to test whether it contains pollutants and determine unique properties not found in previous studies Operate and maintain different laboratory equipment, for example, the microscope or a small Erlenmeyer flask. Set up different equipment for use of the chemists and scientists Eligibility: Candidates with a chemical science background are eligible for this post. B.sc / M.sc Chemistry candidates can apply. Recruiters: Almost every lab & company in India needs a Chemical Technician. Thus loads of job opportunity exists in this domain. 4. Laboratory Technicians

Medical laboratory technicians are responsible for testing and analyzing different body fluids and tissues to determine their tolerance on a specific substance and toxicity level. Some medical laboratory technicians also assist physicians to perform tests or work with doctors in the hospital. The following are some basic duties of a medical laboratory technician. Run standard control to preserve samples and maintain the functionality of different laboratory equipment Operate different laboratory equipment to answer queries that require technical resolutions, for example, using gamma counter or spectrophotometer to provide a result for patient diagnosis Assure consistent blood supply in the blood bank by maintaining the blood bank database

Again a never fading job segment, which will be there for years, in fact, its demand has been increasing year by year as per recent survey by FSSAI. The role of a food safety analyst is to perform standardized qualitative and quantitative tests to determine the chemical and physical properties of food and beverage products. Its mandatory worldwide for all Food Manufacturing companies to have a Food Analyst in order to cross-check & maintain the quality of Food materials & beverages. Each country has a government body in order to regulate the quality of the food supplied to the mass, like the FSSAI in India & FSIS in the United States. Eligibility: As per FSSAI a candidate should hold a Master’s degree in Chemistry or Biochemistry or Microbiology or Dairy Chemistry or Food Technology, Food and Nutrition or hold Bachelor of Technology in Dairy/Oil or hold a degree in Veterinary Sciences in order to be eligible for a Food Analyst post.


It’s the most trending job whether its India or Abroad and is never going to be out of fashion. The title says it all. Microbiologists study all tiny things that are not seen through the human eyes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. They investigate how these things develop by looking into their structure and their relationship with other microorganisms. There are other jobs that are similarly related to microbiologists such as Bacteriologist, Chemist, and Clinical Laboratory Scientist. The following are basic duties of a Microbiologist. Isolate specimens and data samples for future research needs Provide laboratory services for health departments and other physicians who need information for diagnosis and treatment

Eligibility: Microbiologist job is available for each level of degree whether you are a B.sc Microbiology, M.sc Microbiology or a Ph.D. Graduates can do specialization in MicroRecruiter: Majority of candidates biology in their Masters. Some instiin India apply for Food Analyst post tutes even consider candidates with via Exam conducted by FSSAI. Lead- Biotech & Life science Degrees. ing recruiters in this domain are ITC, Hindustan Unilever, Britannia. Recruiters: Lakhs of Microbiologists are hired by Leading Research 3. Food Safety Analysts 1. Microbiologists Institutes of India, CSIR Labs, ICMR Labs, IISC & IIT’s & Biotech Giants Current Job stats: 319+ Vacancy Current Job stats: 529+ Vacancy Abroad. per month per month There are many other upcoming Expected Growth in No of Jobs Expected Growth in No of Jobs fields in the Life science research Till 2025: 72% Till 2025: 90% sector like – CRISPR, Next-Gen Sequencing, Bio-printing, genomics, Average Salary: ₹ 27,234 per month Average Salary: ₹ 25,000 per month and others which are proving to have – ₹ 90,000 per month – ₹ 1,00,000 per month promising future career prospects. What to expect with this job:

What to expect with the job:



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Bsc Life Science Career Plan, 10 Things You Must Do during Bsc Degree Today we’re going to talk about 10 Things You Must Do during BSc Degree. What you must do while you are doing your B.sc or B.tech degree in Life Science. What strategies you must take up during this stage of your career. TO BRIEF UP YOU ARE GOING TO READ ABOUT WHAT SHOULD BE YOUR BSC LIFE SCIENCE CAREER PLAN. WHAT IS IMPORTANT HERE TO NOTICE IS, IF YOU DON’T PLAN NOW THEN YOU’RE ACTUALLY PLANNING TO FAIL. SO READ ON TO EXPLORE ABOUT THE TOP 10 THINGS WHICH YOU MUST BE DOING DURING A BACHELOR’S WHICH WILL PAVE THE WAY, WHICH WOULD LAY THE FOUNDATION FOR YOUR CAREER IN LIFE SCIENCES. By Shekhar

Remember, these tips are very, very important. They may sound at times pretty obvious, but that is why you are not able to follow and that’s what will be responsible for taking your career down the drain. It’s very, very important at this juncture to lay the right foundation if you want the perfect building to come up. So let’s begin. 1. Start Reading You have been reading tons of books in the library since your school days, everybody does. But now is the time, to make the best use of your college library. Trust me, its the best place to learn at peace. No doubt you have internet at your fingertips now, why not browse for books and read online. Of course, you can do that as well. The main thing here is, how do you document what you are reading in your brain. Start making smart notes start utilizing the best of the books available in your college library. Make notes, memory maps, Mind Maps, memory milestones, which will be helpful in recalling what you read. Spend at least five hours per week in the library as soon as your classes are over. Start reading standard reference books, refer to what has been taught today and try to make it better, make your concepts better. 2. Armor yourself with lab skills Now pretty obvious again, everybody gets to do a lot of lab work during their coursework, in bachelors as well as masters, but early on in your life, in your career, if your lab skills are perfect, then only you can proceed

forward in your research career. Right from how do you handle a burette or a pipette, how you take readings, how you plot a graph and analyze those readings. Everything comes out of this and that means do not copy Practical record from the class topper, instead write one on your own, innovate on your own. Remember, it’s your career, not your friend’s career. So how can you just copy? I know it’s boring, it may sound boring at times. But if you develop correct, accurate lab skills from now itself, if you know how to handle glassware stuff, if you know how to operate the machines which are there in your course, which may not be there in the course but still exists in the lab, you are actually proofing your career. You must ask more questions to your lab instructor or teacher or professor who would guide you, Even they would take interest if you show interest. So that’s very, very important here, lab skills are a must. 3. Your hunt for Jobs should begin right away Yes, you heard it right! Start looking for jobs right from your first year of bachelor’s. You will ask now why to search for jobs now itself? Let me complete my degree at least! The answer to this question is, we all are misguided missiles if we don’t know what we have to do set and if we don’t set a target, a goal for yourself. So as a bachelor degree holder, if you don’t know which way to go, definitely you are planning to fail. You must refer to

Biotecnika website every day for at least an hour, browse through the jobs posted, look for newer job description and analyze them, understand what are the techniques, their usage & application. Trust me, If you know what kind of technologies and techniques are being asked today in the job, then only you can start planning for it. So by the time you finish your bachelor’s or master’s, you will know that you will have those skills and you will get employed easily. Explore Latest Biotech Jobs 4. Attend Webinars Thankfully, it’s an era of the internet. Gone are the days when you need to travel to attend Seminars. Webinars have been trending lately and are super convenient to attend, You just need a laptop and an internet connection with decent speed. All these webinars are going to help you enrich your knowledge. Top Biotech companies like Thermo Fisher, Bayer, Millipore Sigma, Waters, regularly conduct webinars on the latest trending technologies in Biotech filed. Most of the webinars are free and that means it’s a free license to gain more knowledge. Remember, Today’s learning is going to be the earning of the future and that means learning should never stop and the best time of your life is bachelor’s. Whether you understand these webinars or not, irrespective of that still attend it, I am sure over a period you will master the funda behind them.

4. Attend Webinars Thankfully, it’s an era of the internet. Gone are the days when you need to travel to attend Seminars. Webinars have been trending lately and are super convenient to attend, You just need a laptop and an internet connection with decent speed. All these webinars are going to help you enrich your knowledge. Top Biotech companies like Thermo Fisher, Bayer, Millipore Sigma, Waters, regularly conduct webinars on the latest trending technologies in Biotech filed. Most of the webinars are free and that means it’s a free license to gain more knowledge. Remember, Today’s learning is going to be the earning of the future and that means learning should never stop and the best time of your life is bachelor’s. Whether you understand these webinars or not, irrespective of that still attend it, I am sure over a period you will master the funda behind them. 5. Take part in Biotech Workshops, Take up Certification Courses in the Biotech field Biotecnika posts tons of paid & Free workshops regularly which is being conducted by various Biotech organizations & Institutes. It ranges from workshops on CRISPR techniques, NextGen sequencing, Patent Agent examinations, and other hands-on training techniques. You must atNext Page>>>>


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tend these workshops because here you get a chance to interact with the speaker, you get a chance to gain a certification. When you come out of your bachelor’s and write these stuff on your resume, your prospective employer will definitely get impressed. So apart from your regular coursework, Don’t forget to attend these workshops and certification courses and gain an advantage over your peers & classmates. • CRISPR certification Course • Next Gen Sequencing Certification Course 6. Participate in Conferences Browse through and get a list of conferences being held in a city which is near to you or maybe in the city you are in. Just go ahead and attend those conferences. Even if you don’t understand 1% of the what the speaker says does not matter. You get to know a lot of things including people skills, interaction skills, how to speak and listening skills, presentation skills and much more. Also, you get a chance to interact with industry experts who are rather very busy and you may not get a chance to interact with them ever in your life. So a hundred percent attending a conference is a must. In fact, if you get a chance to volunteer for a brand, go ahead.

you can always spare time for an in- or explore another domain.Whethternship, provided you have an inter- er you want to pursue your masters est in the topic of your internship. ahead or get into a job. List out skills in which you are good at & is of your 8. Weave a network around you- interest. Do some research about it, Get into the loop like its scope, Job prospects etc, accordingly chalk out a plan. Networking is the success mantra if you want to land up with a job fast- If you want to go for higher studies, er after completing your bachelor’s check out the top colleges which ofdegree. Whether you’re on Biotecni- fer the course of your interest. Check ka, LinkedIn, Facebook, Google Plus the eligibility criteria & the admisnetworking is everywhere. If you sion procedure. If you want to go for know people in the industry before- a job after bachelors start applying hand using your networking skills, by for them right from your final year of the time you complete your bachelors bachelors. or masters, you become employable instantly rather you will be able to Leading Industry experts suggest you seek advice from the real people in should do some sort of internship the real world. first, get an idea on first hand how the work is going to be and then jump in. So start attending conferences and Hence Plan accordingly. internships, register for webinars and workshops, all this will culminate in a You can even attempt various comeffective networking. Go ahead, net- petitive Exams right after your bachwork with people who are working elor’s degree like IIT JAM, UPSC Inin the industry, Weave a network of Industry people around you, Look up to them as your mentor to guide you. 9. Read about the latest research findings in leading journals & publish papers

Now that obviously means that you have to sit across the library or the internet, read these journals and understand what they’re saying. Again, you may not understand 1% of it at The organizers will never come to that level, but still, it will make sense you seeking help, rather you must a little later in the future. Take help of do some background search, find out your professors & mentors as much events & conferences being organ- as possible. ized near you and seek an opportunity to present yourself as a volunteer. Some papers will help you underThis way you get a chance to work stand how Academia works, how the from behind the scenes and that gives Biotech industry works, how papers you a better understanding of how bi- are published and how you can get osciences industry works. into this global competition. Attend Exclusive International On- Also Read: 7 Most Effective Tips For line Conference on AI in Biotech & Writing a Better Scientific Research Healthcare Paper 7. INTERNSHIP Any precursor to a job, we call it an internship. Whether the internship opportunity is a paid or unpaid one do not hesitate in taking it up. Benefits of an internship are you get a chance to see and understand how things work at a Life Science company, you get a job training and definitely, if it’s a paid internship then somebody’s paying you to attend this internship. You will get a glimpse of the real Biotech

10. Start Exploring Postgraduate Opportunities Most of the students in their Bachelor’s degree have no clue about what they have to do next after the course is complete. Either they lack vision, or they fail to chalk out a future career plan. Don’t just wait for your course to get complete, and then make a career plan. this way you are bound to fail and you will end up losing a lot of precious time of yours.

Job world without actually getting During your bachelors only figure into one. Most Internships last from out your what is your field of interest. a month to six months. And I’m sure Whether you want to go into research


dian Forest Service Exam. Read more about these exams below : • IIT JAM 2019 Official Notification • Importance of IIT JAM For B.sc Biotech, B.tech Biotech Candidates • UPSC Indian Forest Service Exam 2019 Exam Dates Announced • Explore Bsc Jobs Here Here we are with your Bsc Life Science Career Plan and 10 Things You Must Do during BSc Degree. These are just a few points I have mentioned in order to aid you to take up right steps in the right direction for a bright research career. But remember it all starts and ends with your perception & vision! If you plan from day one, I promise there will be no looking back and you will have a great stable career ahead. All the best.



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Why Biotech Freshers, Life Science Freshers Don’t get a Job Easily? This question keeps coming to me every now and then. A lot of people who look for jobs at Biotecnika website have this principal question in mind, Why Biotech freshers don’t get a job? or rather Why Freshers don’t get a job readily? BEFORE I GET TO THE CRUX OF THIS QUESTION, I WILL TRY TO ANSWER YOU IN ONE LINE IF YOU HAVE LESS TIME! BIOTECH FRESHERS DON’T GET A JOB BECAUSE THEY WERE NEVER PREPARED FOR A JOB. ALL THIS WHILE THEY HAVE PREPARED FOR THE UNIVERSITY EXAMS, INTERNAL EXAMS BUT THEY ACTUALLY WERE NEVER PREPARED FOR A JOB. By Shekhar

So it’s like you have been trying to grow an apple tree, How can you get an orange from it. According to me, this question should not be like why biotech freshers don’t get a job rather we should say, Why any fresher from any stream, in general, don’t get a job so easily? I hope I am clear it’s not just the Biotech freshers or Life science freshers it’s everywhere in every industry that freshers think its very very difficult to get a job. Its the first time they’re trying it so they feel that it is difficult. So here are a few key points to note before you jump for a job search in the Biotech field after completing your bachelors or masters degree. 1. Most of the Indian students are busy preparing for their engineering entrance or medical entrance exam, busy covering the entire entrance exam syllabus & solving a lot of multiple choice questions. In this rat race of competition, some clear the exam and some do not. The ones who don’t qualify these exams take admission in Biotech. While they could never really focus on the concepts which were being taught in the class in 12th, same happens during their bachelor’s! This disillusionment leads to a lot of problems and when they have completed their masters or bachelors they find it difficult to get a job as in interviews basic conceptual questions are also asked, which they fail to answer. 2. Life science field is pretty huge. It’s highly diverse with a lot of specialization & branches. There is Life Science and under it comes Applied

Life sciences. That means you have various subjects to choose from and each subject is itself a field. Let’s take mechanical Why Biotech Freshers, Life Science Freshers Don’t get a Job Easily?engineering for an example. It just means mechanical engineering. If I say electrical engineering it is electrical engineering! But when I say Life science it means Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, Evolution, ecology, and the list continues. Newer fields are also being added at a rapid rate based on scientific advancements & latest research. What I am trying to say here is, you need to pick up the subjects you want to specialize in your Bachelors & masters very carefully. It should be a combination of both what you like to study and its scope. From the term scope I mean, how huge is the industry, Job prospects, recent advancements etc. You might say now who does so much research & planning for studying, but my dear friend you must. Life is a chain of events and they are interrelated, if you fail to plan & prioritize from your bachelors itself, there is no way you can land up with a Job just after completing your studies. 3. Next point on which I would like to focus on is the lack of suitable upscaling institutes. Most of the Universities & Colleges prepare their students to qualify the university exams and not beyond that. Hence the students end up just preparing for their degree exam. And that is what I iterated in the first point. You are always preparing for your university exam

& worried about internal marks. So obviously you will qualify for your university exam and be a topper too, but that does not certify you to get a job. Of course getting good marks in the university exams matters but you have to make sure that simultaneously you are conquering all the concepts taught in class and become a master of it. Spare out some time, talk to your professors and explore how you can enhance your overall skills. To get a job you need to have skills which others don’t have. Be it communication skills, body language skills, or technical skills related to the job you are applying for. Thus Lack of upscaling institutes is a very important point here. More such institutes should come up which would make students job-ready right after they finish their degree course. 4. Ignorance among the students. You would say that’s not true, but I have proofs. Being in the industry for the past 15 years I have experienced this. Even though students have Why Biotech Freshers, Life Science Freshers Don’t get a Job Easily?access to all the skill set, they are ignorant. They are ignorant about their future, their career. They really don’t want to think beyond 4 pm when the class or lab gets over and they just rush towards the canteen or their room. In fact, many a time whenever I had a workshop or a conference after 3 pm, few students would turn up because they all would have run away! I know you must be thinking now, shouldn’t you enjoy your college life a bit? Yes, you must, I will say! But learn to plan

& prioritize things first. These are the stepping stones of your career, be a little cautious & vigilant. 5. Copycat Resumes! Aaaah I am not in a mood to go to the lab today, let’s go for a movie. Notes ka kya karenge? Its ok we will copy it from the class topper, he or she will be there in the lab na! This is what happens in every class, in every college. Tell me if I am wrong! The Why Biotech Freshers, Life Science Freshers Don’t get a Job Easily?class topper has got this design of resume. So let me have it the same way, definitely, I will get a job like him or her. No two humans are genetically identical you must have read it. Both of you are different, how can your resume be the same. Remember your five or seven years of education in the life sciences industry is to be summarized in just two pieces of paper. So it has to be different. There has to be some uniqueness, unique selling proposition to attract the recruiters. So please stop copying resumes. And to make your resumes distinct add skill sets & internship experiences which is my next point. 6. Lack of Life Science internship opportunities! More Number of Internship opportunities should be provided to bachelors & masters students. This will not only give them a glimpse of the real research world out of the college campus but will also make them understand the difference in between their lab work in college and the work done on an inNext Page>>>>


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dustrial scale. Unless they know this difference they will never become job ready. Students must also be on a constant lookout for such internship opportunities bet it paid or unpaid. Loads of Internship opportunities are posted on Biotecnika website which can be taken up during your semester breaks. An internship is something like one step behind your job. 7. Most of the students either lose interest in their study by the end of the course or they switch to other fields. This all happens due to lack of guidance. I’m sure this is being plugged partially now by Biotecnika. However, to date I see a lot of students are still not on the internet, hence they are unaware of the latest advances. They don’t get proper guidance. Thus they end up taking guidance from people who haven’t themselves updated their knowledge in the past 20 years. Life science industry changes every hour. So you need to keep checking the internet, keep reading journals, you need to keep yourself updated and seek proper guidance from the experts to get ahead in your career. If you walk side by side with the latest advancements in the Biotech & Life Science field, you will be aware beforehand which field is booming, Where more jobs are there and accordingly you can plan.

a different set of people surrounding you and same is with your master’s degree. In both bachelors & masters, you will be interacting with your classmates, colleagues, professors but that’s not enough. The journey with them will end as soon as the course finishes. You need to start interacting with people who are already in the industry, scientists, researchers, or maybe your seniors who are working in some labs already. The moment you broaden your reach of people, you are exposed to different scenarios. References while attending interviews, always helps. So you must start building your network as soon as you are in the bachelors final year or latest by the first year of your masters.

9. Now we must understand the difference in between a B.sc/B.tech 8. The next point on which I want fresher, a M.sc/ M.tech Fresher and to emphasize is Networking. While a Ph.D. fresher. A Bachelor fresher you are in your bachelors you have can do a lot of nonspecific lab work,

but will always remain at a lower pay scale. A candidate with Master’s degree in life sciences can get into the research industry at junior research associate level and can slowly climb up the ladder and get to the lead Scientist position. If you have a certification or prior internship experience it will be a lot easier. In this case, as well you will have to start at a lower pay scale. However, a Ph.D. candidate has an added advantage of directly getting either into Academia or the Research Industry with a good pay package. If you want to get into Academia a Post Doc will be helpful but for Industry a Ph.D. degree alone is sufficient. If Ph.D. is done from a CSIR lab, it will be even better and more valuable. So I hope I was able to answer all your questions regarding Why Biotech Freshers, Life Science Freshers

Don’t get a Job Easily? To summarize, A Biotech Fresher or a Life Science Fresher Does not a Job Easily because they were never prepared for a job. Start analyzing the points mentioned above, read in between the lines. It will definitely help you land up with a high paying job. But remember you need to be consistent! You need to be persistent! You need to work hard & Smart! While applying for a job read the job description carefully and analyze what is required and prepare your CV & yourself according to it. Improve your communication skills, learn how to talk confidently during an interview. Seek guidance from experts and not from people who have not updated their knowledge in the past 20 years. All the best & Have a great day ahead!



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Top 10 Alternative Biotech Career Options Outside the Research lab Working in the laboratory is a popular option for life science graduates. However, not everyone who completes their Graduate, Postgraduate or Ph.D. degree in Biotech & life science ends up working in laboratories or in the academia. THE TRUTH IS – A LOT OF THINGS CAN CHANGE OVER TIME. SOME INDIVIDUALS LOSE THEIR PASSION THROUGHOUT THE PROCESS WHILE SOME ARE DRAWN BY STRONGER FORCES AND OTHER CALLINGS OUTSIDE THE LABORATORY. By Preety Suman

Others may find that the job market isn’t what it used to be five years ago and they end up getting disappointed. But whatever your choices are, there are a handful of career options outside the lab for individuals who have completed a B.sc / Ms.c or Ph.D. Degree in Biotech & Life Science. Here is a list of ten most possible options for Ph.D. graduates who do not want or couldn’t get a job in a laboratory. 1. Technical Writing Just because you haven’t landed a job in a laboratory setting, doesn’t mean your degree in life science is useless. You have a higher degree in understanding technical materials and a complete training in writing technical papers, which could qualify you for a position as a technical writer in Biopharma.

easily get into the teaching field. As per new govt rule now its mandatory for one to have a Ph.D. degree to get into any University as a lecturer. You can always remain in touch with your subject via this profession, in fact, you can learn more and sharpen your skills further during the process. As you climb up the ladder with experience the salary package increases proportionately. M.sc Candidates with NET qualification can also get into teaching domain in selected institutes. Kendriya Vidyalaya are on a constant lookout for PGT posts. Biotecnika has the biggest fleet of teachers for training CSIR NET Life science students.

Biopharma industries are engaged in 3. Food Safety Inspector producing high-tech pharmaceutical products. Since the qualifications for If you are thinking of a stable job in a technical writer is high, the payout the government sector or in Private MNC, then this position is right for could also be high. you. You will not be completely out In a recent survey, the demand of the lab and not totally into it. The for technical writers in Biopharma main job of a Food Safety inspector abroad is constantly increasing, with is to monitor food distributors, Proa median annual salary of $69,850 cessors and manufactures to keep a per year in 2016. If you’re passionate check on the safety & sanitation vioin technical writing, you could land a lations leading to food contamination. position as a manager or CMC tech- They have to make sure that the food nical writer in hospitals and health meets all safety qualifications before organizations. Your job assignments they go out to the public. can include grant writing, getting documentation papers done for regu- Govt of India hire Food Safety inlatory agencies, and writing technical spectors on a large scale. Also Food reports of current pharmaceutical re- MNCs like Britannia, ITC etc are on a constant lookout for this position. search. This position involves a lot of responsibility and the career ladder is also 2. Teaching great. The average salary one can earn Candidates with a Ph.D. degree can at this post is up to Rs 40,000/- pm.

4. Patent Analyst Biotechnology is a field where technological advancements are rapid. Loads of efforts & investment goes into a research and into the development of a novel idea, product etc. Because of this, it’s essential for Scientists & research organizations to defend the innovation they create with Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). IP industry includes businesses supplying patent, copyright or trademark services, law firms helping customers apply IP rights, knowledge or legal process outsourcing firms that are assisting in patent docketing or even patent searching or technical firms who need to work really difficult to create, protect and enforce intellectual assets. An average salary of a Pat-

ent Analyst can range from Rs 30,000 to Rs 40,000/- pm There are lots of profiles in the IP industry apart from an IP Analyst, Naming a few are Patent Engineers, Patent Agent, Patent Writer or Drafter, Legal Researcher and may more. 5. Business Analysts Who says you can’t work on the business side of the world when you are a Ph.D. life scientists? Science and business are often interrelated, especially when it comes to the development of new products. Generally, biotech startup companies utilize scientific principles to come up with noble inventions. It could be a high-tech treatment or Next Page>>>>


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computer-controlled machines that could change the way how we live. For these inventions to be replicated and available to the public, they may need to connect with venture capital firms and private organizations to fund their inventions.

expected to rise to 11 percent in 2024, which is a good news. At present, the median average salary of health informatics professionals is up to Rs 7 lakh per year.

With that matter, venture capital firms or investment banks would need a business analyst who can understand the product and provide projections regarding its economic viability. There are several job openings for business or financial analysts abroad, with a median annual salary of $81,760 per year.

MSLs are the highest paying job in Biopharma. They are also considered to be the most specific medical-related job and a highly competitive role in the pharmaceutical industry. If you have a specialty in any branch of life science like CNS, Hematology, or Pulmonary, then this could be your calling.

6. Health Informatics Health informatics professionals utilize their knowledge in healthcare and life sciences to make use of a large amount of data available in the information system. So if you’re a tech-savvy person, this could be an ideal option for you. When you work in the informatics, people will mostly refer to you as a data scientist. It’s a huge area in Biopharma and definitely a one-of-a-kind life sciences career option for people who are passionate about technology. The demand for health informatics is

7. Medical Science Liaison (MSL)

Your primary work as an MSL is to bridge communication between clinical medicine and pharmaceutical industries. You will be the spokesperson and educator between different companies. The advantage of this job position is the chance to explore different countries and cities considering that you will be sent to meet with various medical professionals. 8. Regulatory Affairs Just like what we said, there are numerous career options after Ph.D. life science. One of the in-demand stable jobs outside the laboratory is to work in regulatory affairs. You can work as


a regulatory scientist or an associate 10. Business development director of regulatory operations in biotech and pharmaceuticals, medical The business development comprisinstitutions, and cosmetics. es a substantial percentage of jobs in both the public and private sector and This job involves writing and re- is essential to many organizations enviewing documents to ensure that gaged in global development work. they conform to government procedures. It is an excellent life science This position oftentimes overlaps career for detail-oriented individuals. with sales and marketing jobs. Part of The average annual salary of this job this job is identifying key prospects is around $82,798 to $129,000. and possibilities to help a certain company expand its business. It re9. BioTech Marketing quires a great knowledge and passion for business and a deeper understandHaving a Ph.D. in Life Science gives ing in Biotech. you a wider opportunity than you can ever imagine including the chance to work in print, radio or TV. You read The decision to make a switch from it right! If you believe that you’re a laboratory works to a non-laboragood communicator and wants to tory career in biotech doesn’t come work as a marketer or advertiser, this easy. Many scientists are anxious that could be your chance. they might enjoy as much independence outside the lab as they do when Biotech marketing is viewed as a working with their own lab research. little broader than a pharmaceutical However, there are also many advansales representative. It requires the tages to working outside the laboratoability to create a marketing strategy ry such as the chance to expand your and develop different approaches to options. popularize a certain product. Unlike sales representative, it focuses more There are certainly several other on branding a particular product in choices than we’ve listed here. The a way that appeals to the mass. The key is to strike a balance between average annual salary of biotech mar- your passion and the greater opportuketer or advertiser is around $66,473 nity that lies ahead of you to secure to $115,796. your ideal industry position.

Valuable Skills That You Can Add During & After M.sc & Ph.D. Have you ever come to a point where you fell out of the PhD-industry gap? It’s the gap that takes place between a Ph.D. training and the expectations brought about the corporate world in terms of hiring candidates who are much more industry-friendly. WE ALL KNOW THIS FACT: THE FIRST JOB YOU LAND AFTER GRADUATE SCHOOL IS THE MOST IMPORTANT AT THE SAME TIME THE TOUGHEST. THUS, IT IS JUST FITTING THAT YOU KEEP YOURSELF AWARE OF ALL THE POSSIBLE OPTIONS ESPECIALLY THAT THE ODDS ARE MOSTLY NOT IN YOUR FAVORS. By Preety Suman

That’s the problem most PhDs who wish to enter the corporate industry have: people look at them as an academic who is only good in terms of bench science. Thankfully, it is not too late for you. You don’t have to be one of these

many PhDs who feel stuck with where they are. You have that potential to grow outside of the Ph.D. industry. It takes a lot of guts but you can do it. With determination, leadership capabilities, the right amount of personality and interpersonal skills, and the ability to work well in a team environment, you’ve got high chances of making it into the industry more possible.

in its own way. You just have to figure out how, and this article will do just that. Hopefully, if you haven’t figured it out yet, these solutions will help you find your calling. Consider Consulting Believe it or not, but there are multiple opportunities for consulting that are up for the taking for scientists if only they are willing to go that path. You can start by providing freelance consulting services, share the scientific knowledge you have and make the most of out it.

In addition to the academic & scientific skills you have gained during your Masters & Ph.D. if you have additional skills, it will not only be an add-on for your resume but also you can use a combination of all the skills If you have the resources and and sail through your career smooth- enough willpower, you might even ly. want to take it a notch higher and open up your very own consulting Every person’s career path is paved firm. Whichever of these you might

consider, know that it’s better to start as early as you can. So if you can, do freelance consulting work during your Ph.D., and you might just land into a management consulting position after completion of your degree. If not, then you just need to be resourceful and patient. What consultation services will you provide? That’s the easy part. All you need to do is identify a skillset or two that you are really go and offer those services. Doing this would not only earn you those extra bucks but also give you the opportunity to build your portfolio, harness your skills, and make a name for your own in the industry.

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If you are looking for the best field to provide your consulting services, then consider management consulting. It is the best place to put your analytical and scientific training into practice while developing and harnessing your business expertise. In the long run, if innovation, change, and success are on your priority list, then there are higher chances that your career path will be head that way too. Through management consulting, you get to learn how to lead teams, manage people, and tackle problems. Scientific Skills + Management Skills, its the secret mantra to get top-notch Job in the Industry. On top of it all, you get to create professional relationships with top businessmen who will pave the way for you in the future. Who knows, they might even absorb you in the company long before you have graduated. Now, landing a job after graduation will no longer be a problem. Take on a summer internship Internships are always a good idea, whether you are an undergraduate or working your way towards that Ph.D. Ideally, a paid internship will be like hitting the jackpot. You get paid, you gain experience, and you’re able to help with the financial side of it. Also, always try to remember the fact that internships are CRUCIAL. So use your summers wisely – do your best to have as many internship gigs as you can in the entirety of your graduate or post-doc education. If you can’t commit full time to an internship, try to balance it with your graduate school and obtain industry experience. This will prepare you for what’s to come and will give you a glimpse of the real-world industry. Plus, you gain some marketable skills. Now, you have a leverage and can use it to your advantage. Most industry companies nowadays are willing to let you become a part of their companies as interns. Of course, like any other real-world job, the spark can be seen in your informational interviews. So be sure to ace that or give it your best shot. If accepted, and if they actually like you, then they might offer you a position ready for your acceptance upon graduation. Always remember that just because internship positions aren’t usually announced doesn’t mean they do not exist. Sometimes, all you have to do is ask, research, and do some legwork. You’ll be amazed by what you will find.

Consider auditing or taking classes and workshops not related to your expertise

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Network as much as you can.

Networking with professionals and like-minded people has a lot of To have the best of both worlds, you benefits. It can help you land the need to work hard in order to get it. internship of your dreams and gain In Simple terms, if you are someone that marketable skills you need in who is inclined to the science, then the industry. Networking can also it’s time to go out of your comfort be the pebbles for you to land that zone. It’s time to explore other fields job in the future, after your Ph.D. which can be an add-on to your existing skill.T he important thing is you In other words, the network in order expand your connection, your knowl- to create opportunities and relationedge, and your skillset. You can either ships, in order to learn and to gain exstudy patent law, Food Safety Laws, perience. Network so that you’ll delearn about the latest information and velop those marketable skills and to technology like CRISPR, Next-Gen get that industry position. It might not Sequencing, Stem Cell Research, be an overnight thing but it is truly take Bioinformatics classes and learn useful and beneficial. You don’t have about the programming languages to stop doing it too! and how you can use it in your existing research, study the basics of Just look at it this way! How would computer programming or enroll in you know important people, learn entrepreneurial classes. All these will new skills, or gain knowledge if you depend on you and your interests. don’t ask, let alone talk, to people? How will you get to understand what I know now you will say, where do I a company if you don’t build nethave time? I am totally into my Ph.D.! works? The network is also difficult in the beginning. The more people Well, if you want to stand out of the you network with, the easier it becrowd and be in the top list of recruit- comes. ers, you must take out time! Just apply some time management tricks and of At the end of the day, you only course, willpower will solve it all. If have these to ponder. You are the you’re not sure about it yet, there are only one that is capable of creatprofessors who will allow you to sit in their class. Maybe you can start with this and see if this sparks any interest on your side. If not, do it all over again in another class until you find the right one. The bottom line here is to look beyond your horizon. Start Something on the side It doesn’t matter what it is. It could be a small R&D business, a product you’ve made from scratch, or anything else. The important thing is that you do start something that might help you in the future.

ing opportunities for yourself. So go ahead and do any or all of the above-mentioned solutions. If you can do all of it, then the better. If not, just take it one at a time. Chances are you will land a job in industry and work in a fulfilling career. Nothing worth having comes easy, or so they say. As Donald Asher, author of Cracking the Hidden Job Market, says: “You get a job by talking to people: You don’t get a job by having a great resume, a good interview look, a firm handshake, or a solid education. You get a job because you get in front of somebody and they decide to add you to the payroll. Most job seekers look for jobs by talking to computer software. It’s faster to talk to people. People are more likely to pass you along than computers are. Computers are picky. People are helpful.” Just continue pushing yourself to the limits until you start seeing good things come your way. Trust the process. It might be tough, but it works. All the best. If you are in need of more such career advice then do visit our career advice section on the website.


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What is the Right Time to Start Searching For Job If You Are In Biotech? As a child, we wonder when we would grow up and be called as an adult. While we are in college, we wonder when our education would get over and we will begin a career. It is basic human nature to want to think of a stable career, an income, a reliable source of survival. WHAT WE FAIL TO ANALYZE IS THE PENULTIMATE AFTER WHICH WE CAN START ‘JOB HUNTING’. IS THERE A RIGHT TIME FOR IT? WELL, IT ALL NARROWS DOWN TO WHAT YOU WANT TO DO. IF YOU ARE A SCIENCE ENTHUSIAST AND HAVE CHOSEN THE FIELD OF BIOTECH, YOU MUST BE AWARE OF THE OPPORTUNITIES IT HOLDS. By Rashmi Sanyal

Here is a short list to help you choose from. You can either • become a Lecturer/Professor, or, • a researcher, • work in upstream or downstream processing in an industry • associated with a pharmaceutical • be a food enthusiast or a nutrition expert • work with the government health department • manage the workings in a Biotech project or Laboratory • even want to set up your very own home-based industry.

to do internships rather then Searching Job In biotech. Approach industry experts and scientists or professionals and ask them about the opportunities available in their institute. Do not worry about the pay yet! This is your career debut. When you choose to do an internship, you will be trained and mentored and you will learn a variety of techniques that will shape your skill sets. The people you meet, and the contacts you make, will help you in your career ahead. This is the time when you can learn the maximum, but Searching Job In Biotech sector is this is also the time when you have an art which you need to master at an to decide which domain you want to early stage, depending on when you build your career in. want to start work. For eg- If you are a graduate student and want to start Many companies and government working right after your degree com- organizations release posts exclupletion you need to plan for from 2nd sively for freshers. The reason being, year of the degree itself. Same ap- a fresher can be molded as required. plies to postgraduates & Ph.D. degree New methodologies can be taught. holders in Biotech. The only secret They have high productivity. Search mantra is to start early. for these biotech jobs opportunities at Biotecnika, as they offer a decent pay As a Biotech / Life Science Grad- scale, which helps you stand on your uate own feet. You must also keep track of the different competitive exams that For achieving any of this, the basic are held. Often these certifications education required is completing your will help you to build your future Bachelor’s degree (B.Sc or B.Tech) in path. Learn hands-on techniques, cerBiotechnology / Life Science. But is tify yourself, attend workshops and that enough to land you a successful seminars. These will broaden your and high paying career? To this ques- horizon. Now, let us look at the downtion, you will find both positive and side of beginning a career, just after negative replies. your Bachelor’s degree. The most important thing to remember is that once Let us take the upside for example. you start earning, returning back to You are fresh out of college/univer- the field of education becomes very sity, brimming with enthusiasm and difficult. It needs a lot of motivation ideas, and are willing to work hard to and willpower. So, you must decide get streamlined. This is the best time what you want to do for at least the

next 10 years of life. If you have the intention of completing your Masters or getting a Ph.D., the expert advice would be, to get it done with the flow. Another aspect is that, once you begin working, you become restricted with your skillset. Your experience becomes domain restricted. This is both good and bad. It is good because the more experience you gather the faster you grow. But, it is bad since, you now have a narrower field of biotech job opportunity to choose from, firstly because you are just a graduate and secondly you are looking for a specific field. There is no doubt that you will grow in this path, but there will be a point where your growth may become stagnant. There is no need to worry. To improve your opportunity you must either improve your education credentials or your skillset. As a Biotech / Life science Post-Graduate So now, let us analyze what happens if you begin Searching Job In Biotech after you complete your Master’s degree. Well, now you are more eligible, you have mastered a certain domain. Your skills have evolved. There will be much more high paying opportunities to look for. Again, a lot of certifications and government employments begin when you have completed this degree. For example – CSIR NET, FSSAI. Many pharmaceuticals will be willing to hire you based on the expertise you have gathered in your curriculum projects or internships. Again the

downside is, do not begin your career now if you are, in the immediate future, wish to get a Ph.D. degree. Firstly, because you will not wish to leave your job and study again. Secondly, a lot of institutes offering doctorate degree requires a commitment of minimum 5-7 years. Thirdly, in India, the major fellowships offered for the doctorate degree have age-restricted eligibility. If you are on the brink of that limit, qualifying, finding the suitable lab/guide, getting registered may make you ineligible in due course. If you cross the age limit, you may find low stipend Ph.D., or you even may be deemed ineligible at many places. However, there are exceptions. So, think through and choose wisely. The later you begin this path, the more delay you bring to your stability. If you do not wish to get a doctorate degree, then decide on which skill set or work area you desire to build your career on. If you are strong in concept and explain well then choose to be an educator. If you are health conscious and constantly advise your family on what to eat and what not, become a food safety officer. If you wish to spend more time near your family and earn simultaneously, save space in your home/terrace and begin mushroom cultivation. If you wish to help mankind’s treatment process, join a drug or a vaccine production based institute. There are a plethora of avenues to choose from. Decide what you are good at and what interNext Page>>>>



ests you. If you find passion in your work, it reduces down to a hobby. As a Biotech / Life Science Doctorate Suppose you have completed your doctorate and are very enthusiastic about research, choose to be a research associate or a postdoctoral fellow. They sound just like another degree but are equally potential job fields. You get paid well, with experience. If research is not your forte, no worries, a lot of institutes and government firms look for doctorates, for their R&Ds. The big brands and public sector units require none less than a doctorate for their scientist vacancies. Once you obtain this degree you even get faster promotions in the education industry. Improve your chances Of Getting a Job The best chance of Searching Job In biotech and landing yourself an interview is either when you are a complete fresher or when you have gathered years of experience. It is the group in the middle that face the most difficulty. What should be done at this junction? A lot of people are short-sighted and do not stick to one role for a long period of time. They prefer quick career/company switches to have a better salary hike. But that may seem fruitful for the time

being, but definitely does not appear well on your CV. It shows that you are unable to commit to your employers. Do not keep switching your job and start searching for another for any arbitrary reason. Just the way you committed at completing your education, commit yourself to the job description you choose. Give it your 100%. Remember the stronger your CV, the better are your chances to grab your employer’s attention. Now, the question is how do I strengthen my CV? Now the most important aspect while searching Job In biotech is your CV. A recruiter will judge right from your basic education credentials. It is important for you to have a consistent academic record. An unjustifiable break in your education may hamper your chances of being the chosen one. But not all of us are able to keep up with this pace. It need not be a worry. When you look for a job opportunity in a particular career, try and master the strongest skill set, they require. For example, if you wish to join downstream processing or a quality control laboratory, learn about techniques like HPLC, Spectroscopy, NMR, etc. Get yourself certified, this will highlight your CV and you will have a chance to land that interview call. Never ever make a false claim on your CV. Whatever you are and can justify, use those skill sets to impress

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your employer. Try adding general skill sets to your CV. For example, if you are strong in computer handling, or have managed a team, or have taught/trained a group, etc. These add up as your personal skills.

Biotech, being a booming industry, will always have an opportunity waiting just for you. Open your eyes, search behind the right doors and make the right decisions at the right time.

Conclusion – The choice is yours

Always remember that a rolling stone gathers no moss !!

No matter which level you are, there is no person better than you to decide whether it is the right time for a job hunt when you should start Searching Job In Biotech. Sit back, discuss with your family, pinpoint the reason you want to start working and then make a decision. Is it because you want to experience? Is it because you want monetary support for your family? Or is it because you want recognition? Whatever it may be, remember, never to give into peer pressure. If you are doing this just to prove yourself to your class-mate who landed a biotech job and is using his income to spend left and right, just to show off, then don’t !! It may seem an inviting thought now, but you may regret the first wrong ‘yes, I accept’ for your entire life.

Keep pace in your life and either earn or learn while you are at it. Where to look for a Biotech / Life Science Job Matching your CV?

For a decade, Biotecnika has been helping lakhs of students get their dream job in biotech or Life Science sector. Biotecnika is the No.1 Jobs, News & Career Advice Portal in India and is among the Top 50 biology websites in the World. Biotecnika’s Job alerts can be followed at our website – www.biotecnika.org, On WhatsApp – @95-35-888-233 On Instagram – @Biotecnika_Official, On facebook – @biotecnika, On Twitter @biotecnika. Also, you can subscribe to our daily newsletter for the latest job openings both for freshers & exIf you wish to study further, then do perienced in the Biotech & Life scieverything in your power to complete ence sector. it with the flow with which you began. If you are worried about finances, try looking for scholarships and stipends for completing your degree. Kindly Install our App for latest update in the life science industry: http:// No matter which path you choose, bit.ly/app-btnika


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How To Get Job In CBI & Forensic Department After Life Science Degree The alarming rate at which crime is increasing all over the world is a matter of deep concern. To be practical crime & criminals can never be eradicated completely from the society hence the need of a Forensic Scientist is a necessity in all city, states & countries. IN ORDER TO ENSURE QUICK & CORRECT JUSTICE TO BE PASSED, A MAJOR ROLE IS BEING PLAYED BY A FORENSIC SCIENTIST. THEY LOOK AT A CRIME SCENE WITH A SCIENTIFIC MIND AND ANALYZE PIECES OF EVIDENCE TO HELP THE LEGAL SYSTEM. By Rashmi Sanyal

Many students who are in their life science graduation or post graduation level are unaware that they can make their career in this domain too. To understand in depth How To Get Job In CBI & Forensic Department After Life Science Degree, we must first understand what is Forensic Science & what are the job responsibilities of a forensic scientist. Forensic science is one of the most sought-after avenues. The term forensic is obtained from Latin word “forensis” that means “of or before the forum. A forensic scientist may work as a freelancer or may be associated with departments like the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) & Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL). They can also be employed in the government sector, where they work in different law enforcement agencies and investigation departments such as police, investigative services of state and central government and legal system. Role of a Forensic Scientist

• These pieces of evidence may be lege used during criminal trials to testify • St. Xavier’s college and explain the suspicions. • University of Madras • Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University The path to becoming a Forensic • Dr. Hari Singh Gour University scientist Step 4: To have a successful career, Step 1: Complete Class 12 with a it is essential to narrow down your good academic record. A scientist specialty. For instance, if you work must have strong basics to be able to with DNA analysis, it is wise to comhandle investigations on their own. plete additional courses in that field. Certifications and hands-on experiStep 2: Earn a Bachelor’s degree ence are always welcome. to be able to be eligible for a career in Forensic science. One may also There are many specializations ofchoose to complete their graduation fered under Forensic science. If prein Chemistry, Biology, Microbiology, sented with an opportunity to comZoology, Applied Sciences or Physiology. It is always advised to have a deep knowledge and hands-on experience with various techniques used for analysis. One may complete certifications in the same.

Forensic scientists help in criminal investigations by performing the fol- Step 3: One may also obtain a gradlowing duties: uate degree and/or post graduation degree in Forensic Science itself. There • Collect, identify and classify phys- are both graduation and post-gradical evidence pertaining to a crime uation courses offered in Forensic scene or suspect Science in various institutes, few of • Collect data, photograph, and piec- which have been listed below. es of evidence like blood smear, fingerprints, bullets to help understand • Gujarat Forensic Sciences Univerthe past events in the area. sity • They are responsible for document- • National Institute of Criminology & ing the evidence Forensic Science • Their investigations are conducted • Lovely Professional University independently to avoid partiality. • Amity University • The evidence is tested. With de- • Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathtailed analysis, records are prepared wada University for each case • Swami Vivekananda University • May be required to reconstruct acci- • Deen Dayal Upadhaya college dent scene to trace past events. • Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa Col-

plete a course on the same, it would be advisable to take it. A few of them have been listed below. • Forensic Biology • Forensic Chemistry • Forensic Entomology • Forensic Ballistics • Forensic Botany • Forensic Serology • Forensic Toxicology Step 5: Some job requirements may be purely medical. For example, a medical report creation or a medical examination can only be done by a doctor. Hence, one may also qualify Next Page>>>>



MBBS and MD or a pathology degree before switching to the field of Forensics. Step 6: Earn an associate in Law enforcement if you want to be able to be a crime scene investigator. It even allows one to testify in court cases when the need arises.

(c) Management of acute and chronic toxicity caused by poisonous substances, for which the basic qualification again is an MBBS. Forensic Psychiatry – This field determines the mental health of the criminal when they testify whether or not the crime was conducted.

Step 7: It is essential to obtain a Master’s degree in Science along with a NET certification in Forensic Science to be eligible to teach the subject in college. In certain scenarios, a Doctorate degree may also be required. Example a doctorate in Molecular Biology may be a suitable candidate for teaching the analytical techniques.

Forensic Microbiologists – One can pursue this area after a degree in Pathology or Microbiology. They are required to trace the biological evidence of a case. Starting from analyzing the food consumed by the victim to analyzing body samples and excreta, a scientist may be required to ascertain the cause of death.

Step 8: On the job Training. The more experience you can gain, the easier it is to switch or pick a career. Especially in Forensic Science, experience gives you better judgment and analysis.

Forensic Fingerprint Experts – They can join after a degree in Genetics or Molecular Biology. They are needed for the identification of fingerprint samples which can be used in pedigree analysis and establishing paternity and maternity. This has now been computerized and the data is even used to trace suspects immigrating to other nations.

Forensic science fields and their eligibility Forensic Biology – This field can be pursued after a degree in either Forensic science or Biological Sciences. A scientist is required to apply biology to identify a crime suspect by DNA sample analysis or even mitochondrial sample analysis. In order to this, a candidate must be strong in the basic biology and must be able to understand biological systems well. Then they will be able to analyze the anomalies associated with a crime scene. Forensic Pathology – Forensic Pathologists carry out autopsies to establish the cause of death. They identify the injuries, associate them with the type of weapon used, and are responsible for the collection and maintenance of the exhibits. They generally are from a medical background. There may be requirements for Microbiologists as there may be analysis required of various human samples. Forensic Toxicology – They are concerned with the identification of foreign chemicals, poison or drugs administered in the victim’s body. They may fall under – (a) Analytical Toxicology involving chemical analysis of viscera using sophisticated techniques. The essential qualification is M.Sc. or Ph.D. in Toxicology/Forensic Science. (b) Poison information involving in providing information relating to the nature of poisons. The basic qualification is an MBBS.

Additional Documents required for a career in Forensics: Every department operating with Forensic Science may have their own requirements for selection. A few of the well-noted criteria are given below. • Identification and Citizenship proof • Academic documents • Certification in the specialized field intended to join • May be required to clear NET in Forensic Science • May require a police clearance certificate for a background test. • Medical test to prove sanity and eligibility. • May require a medical science degree Forensic science as a career

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the responsibilities allocated to them. 1. Forensic Science Technician (Bachelor’s degree in Natural Science and on the job training) Forensic science technicians may require to work in one of two areas: They inspect crime scenes, collect and analyze the evidence present in the field, or they work in the laboratory, where they perform tests and analyze the evidence collected. Both responsibilities are equally important and require precision, following proper protocol to sustain evidence chain of custody, and submitting reports. Technicians may be required to specialize in a variety of areas for example fingerprint analysis or digital forensics. 2. Medical Examiner (Doctoral degree in medicine) Medical examiners perform autopsies and medicolegal examinations, which include locating and assessing body injuries, trauma, and hence determining the cause of death while identifying victims. They may be required to interview those who discovered the body or to re-create a crime scene to ascertain past events. They evaluate photographs of the crime scene and look through the medical history information on the victim. They may be required to issue death certificates and determine the cause and manner of death. 3. Forensic Psychologist (doctoral degree in Psychology) Often, a criminal can be identified by studying a person’s character and behavior. Forensic psychologists intersect psychology and the law. They often associate with people in the legal system, including lawyers, judges and police officials, to evaluate those who have been accused or convicted of crimes. They might evaluate perpetrators to determine the risk of recidivism or help victims deal with the trauma they have encountered or even decide whether someone is fit to stand trial.

The minimum qualification required to begin a career in Forensic Scienc- 4. Latent Fingerprint Examiner es is Graduation. A lot of career path (Bachelor’s degree in science and choices can be made. Some choose the field of education, while others choose the analytical work. Though someone pursuing forensic science might initially start their education with many of the same courses as others in the program, they will eventually are required to specialize through certain additional courses that lead them onto their own path. Below is a list of a few of the most common forensic science careers and

extensive training) These forensic scientists are highly specialized in identifying, analyzing and lifting fingerprints at a crime scene. There may be field work required or they may be required to stay in the lab to analyze the prints and submit their reports. These reports may be presented to the appropriate law enforcement officials. Apart from these career fields, there are some which have recently been developed. For example, for a very violent crime scene, there may be Bloodstain Pattern Analysts. They check the blood spatter, associate it with the instrument and the victim and predict whether the wounds were self-inflicted or the direction of movement of the culprit etc. Often these data are used by insurance companies to filter false claims from authentic ones. Forensic Ballistic Experts identify the bullet used and the wound inflicted. They can trace the weapon used for the assault. There are even document examiners to assess the documentation work of the case. There can be polygraph test analyzers who can help in the criminal investigation by analyzing the authenticity of statements given. Conclusion: It is never late to decide your career path. Life science is a vast field. There are numerous employment avenues under it. Forensic Science is one such area which beckons students passionate about crime investigation and bringing justice to society. There are various techniques learned under applied biology that are required in forensic analysis. Also, individuals strong in understanding biological processes and systems can help in analyzing evidence related to a crime scene. The only thing required is a good academics record and a Bachelor’s degree in Science. With handson training in the job assigned, one will be able to master the skills needed for becoming a Forensic Scientist.


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Career In Patents & Copyright Industry After Masters in Life Sciences Intellectual property (IP) owes to any original creativity of the human intellect such as artistry, literature, technical, or scientific dimension. Intellectual property rights (IPR) alludes to the legal rights given to the inventor or creator to protect his invention or creation for a particular span of time. These legal rights address an exclusive right to the inventor/creator or his assignee to fully utilize his invention/creation for a given span of time. A PATENT IS GRANTED FOR AN EXCLUSIVE INVENTION, THAT SATISFIES THE NOTION OF GLOBAL NOVELTY, NON-COGNIZABLE, AND INDUSTRIAL OR COMMERCIAL APPLICATION. PATENTS CAN BE AWARDED FOR VARIOUS PRODUCTS AND THEIR PROCESSES. By Priyanjana Ghosh

As per the Indian Patent Act 1970, the span of a patent was 14 years from the date of filing except for processes for manufacturing drugs and food products for which the span given was 7 years from the date of the filing or 5 years from the date of the patent, whichever would be earlier. No product patents were permitted for drugs and food products. Copyright was generated in a member country of the Berne Convention that was protected in all the member countries, without any necessity for registration. India is an endorser for the Berne Convention and has dynamic copyright legislation comparable to that of any other countries. However, the copyright will not be available in all other countries that are not a part of the of the Berne Convention. Therefore, copyright may not be observed as a territorial right in a constricted sense. The most important aspect, like any other property IPR, can be transferred, sold, or gifted. This article has been penned with an aim to give Life science & Biotech students a vivid view of how a Career In Patents & Copyright Industry looks like along with details on Salary, eligibility criteria, Online exams, career prospects in future and much more. Why Patents and Patent agents – An India Scenario As India emerged as an economic able country in the 1990s, our policymakers conceded the importance of IP to encourage private investment in Research and Development. According to a guide published by WIPO and many other studies in the past, a healthy IP system is a prime element in encouraging foreign direct investment (FDI). According to the WIPO report, there has been an undeviating

increase in FDI in India, ever since the patent and Trademark reform was introduced in the 1990s. In the rise of India’s economic growth, it may be worthy to be aware of the immense importance of IP, the role of professionals within this field and why IP hold an important impact on our economy. The IP protection, mainly patents are the key force for further innovation, technology upliftment, and development of newer products that would revolutionize mankind. To legally own an IP, one has to file for its protection. The strategies associated with these may be rather complicated, often requiring a negotiator with a legal background to proceed with the application. It is interesting to note that the skill required for the protection of each form of IP might require a skill that is different from the other. However, most of the lawyers undertake copyright and Trademarks work, protection under patents require exclusive technical and scientific expertise in the area sought to be protected. Therefore the largest demand for IP lawyers is for those who can do patent work. While the patent drafting in itself is extremely challenging, patent apprehension is equally a job of clarity and dynamism which requires dealing with the objections raised by the examiners.

Career In Patents & Copyright Industry – Career as a patent agent Throughout the life of the patent, from filing to grant to the expiration of the patent, the patent agent continues to be confidentially linked to the particular invention, following up with the legal requirements to ensure that the patent does not lapse due to any negligence. With all the grandeur of the technology behind the invention, the agent is nevertheless faced with the routine roles of tracking deadlines and writing letters to clients, filling in forms, attending meetings with inventors and many more. Nevertheless, the field offers an interesting approach to science – learning about newer fields. Dr. Theresa Phillips, an environmental biologist has written in her blog “Success in this field depends on an ability to go “fact-finding”; gathering information and processing it an orderly fashion. Both require a high amount of logical introspection and attention to detail”. Although a PhD is not a mandate to enter the field, in specialized areas such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, biomedical research and this may make it immensely useful to get the essence of the field and

How can it be beneficial for Biotech and Life science students? However, standing on the current Being a Biopatent lawyer economic trend, patents by far are one of the most useful forms of IP and is Life science is all about studying life the only form that can protect innova- processes. The opportunity of PhD in tive and novel ideas. IPR is quite good as the person is fa-

miliar with the research but the best way to move ahead is to pursue any online IPR courses and get an overview of IPR. One should have immense interest and passion to solve the queries related to the intellectual creations of mind and to add one should also have a problem-solving approach as the client is in a hunt for a proper way out. Moreover, to look upon Biotechnology patent law focuses on securing and defending the property rights granted by patents on technologies developed and invented by scientists working in the field of biosciences. There are quite a number of opportunities in biotechnology patent law for both patent lawyers (who combine a law degree and a background in science or technology) and others that do not require a law degree, including becoming a patent examiner, serving as a scientific advisor for any law firm or any legal department of a company, and working in technology transfer at a University. Now in this context, we can discuss some common questions related to patenting which will usually come up in our minds:Who is a patent attorney? A patent attorney is a technical and a legal professional both who represents clients in obtaining patents and in filing a lawsuit in case of infringement by some competitor. Next Page>>>>



What can be an expected salary if anyone aspires to be a patent lawyer?

What are the required skills?

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Only physics courses for physics ma- What is the kind of work one is expected to do in this field? jor paper will be accepted.

Most importantly, the person should bear a technological and legal acu- Option 2: 32 semester in a combiSalary of a patent agent in India men to understand the major innova- nation consisting of the following: ranges in between 3.0 lakh per annum tions and have a research capability to to 20 lakh per annum. The entry-level work at least for 10-12 hours. Think- • 8 semester of either chemistry or salary for freshers can range in be- ing out of the way to solve a research physics, and tween Rs 20,000 to Rs 28,000/- pm. project is key in assisting the inven- • 24 semester in botany, microbioloHowever, if you are successful in tors to protect their inventions. gy, or molecular biology.8 semester grabbing a job with top law firms the of either chemistry or physics must perks will be even higher – in such Is it mandatory to qualify a patent be obtained in two consecutive secase salary offered to freshers can go agent’s exam to become a patenting mesters, each semester including a as high as Rs 35,000/- pm. Special- professional? lab. ization also matters – if you are just getting into filling – initial pay will be Primarily, there are two forms of job Option 3: 30 semester in chemistry. on the lower side. But if you are into roles. The first one is the prosecution, reading claims, drafting applications which includes meeting the examiner Option 4: 40 semesters in a cometc pay package will be on the higher (official) in the patent office and get- bination consisting of the following: side. ting the patent approved. To be able to deal with the patent officials, one • 8 semester of either chemistry or • At the later point of the career, you must have cleared the agent’s exam. physics, and can also make progress on the basis • 32 semester of chemistry, physics, of your learning potential and per- In order to become a patent attorney botany, microbiology, molecular biformance or patent agent, it is mandatory to take ology. The 8 semesters of chemistry • Creative abilities to make valuable and pass the Patent Bar Examination. or 8 semesters of physics must be contributions to the invention may Only those individuals with scientifobtained in two consequent semesend up as co-inventors. ic education are allowed to sit for the ters, each semester including a lab. examination, and it is not a necessity How to make an entry in this field? to have any legal training for writing How does a career in IP evolve in the exam. The easiest and more direct India? Gaining expertise in any of the life way is to have a bachelor’s degree in science fields will do —Botany, Zo- one of the listed fields. The individuals in our country are ology, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology most passionate about protecting inetc. Bachelor’s or preferably a Mas- • Biology novations. To get evolved in this field ter’s in any of the above-mentioned • Biochemistry one has to be technology savvy. The fields can be pursued. After this, a • Botany Intellectual Property law has evolved diploma in intellectual patent rights • Computer Science a lot in the last 10 year and now it’s from a known institute or an LLB • Electronics Technology a trademark that can be registered from IIT (Kharagpur) where intellec- • Food Technology in less than one month in India with tual property rights are the prime fo- • General Chemistry proper documentation. The Indian cus has to be done. • Marine Technology government is giving a number of • Microbiology grants to startups in India to grow. • Next, some law firm or company as • Molecular Biology a trainee in the patent department • Organic Chemistry can be joined and after gaining a • Pharmacology year’s experience you can actual- • Physics ly appear for a patent agent exam. • Textile Technology Once it has been qualified, any law firm can be joined, a corporate or If you have one of the degrees on an outsourcing firm with a job pro- the list you are said to qualify to sit file, whichever you find the best — for the exam under Category A and drafting, prosecution or litigation. all that is needed is to submit your application and transcript. If anyone List of Top Institutes From Where having a degree then he/she is eligible you can get a relevant degree to sit for the patent bar exam, but you need to prove either enough credits of 1. Academy of Intellectual Property coursework (Category B) or generalStudies, Mumbai for a PG diploma ized technical expertise (Category C). programme in patent management For those who are unable to qualify as (www.aips.ac.in) a result of not having a bachelor’s de2. NALSAR University of Law, Hy- gree in one of the above disciplines, derabad for a PG diploma programme the most common way of demonstratin patent law (www.nalsar.ac.in) ing the technical sophistication is to 3. Indira Gandhi National Open Uni- resort to what is called Category B. versity (IGNOU) for a PG diploma in Under Category B an applicant can IPR (www.ignou.ac.in) qualify to sit for the patent bar exam4. National Institute of Intellectu- ination through the fulfillment of one al Property Management, Nagpur of four options (Given below). (www.patentoffice.nic.in/niipm/index.htm) Option 1: 24 semester in physics.

Reviewing and researching the technologies filed across global patent websites. IPR rights are territorial in nature, that is, if a patent is protected in India and not in the US then anybody is free to use the technology in the US. A patent is granted to a technology that is afresh, non-obvious to an expert in the same field, and have industrial applicability. Right from patent filing before the patent office to patent grant, a number of steps are executed by a number of patent associates. Apart from this, a patent expert can research and work on a number of projects related to foreign patent litigation cases, which is an excellent knowledge process outsourcing model thriving in India. Global trade today is ruled by companies and Multinational corporations who have created and protected their intellectual property. No companies exist that embodies this better than Microsoft, and has been built entirely on the strength of its software programs which are protected through copyright. Protection of intellectual property has been a mandatory issue nowadays that the companies today are carrying out intellectual property audits to identify their intellectual wealth and form special departments to manage them. Currently, almost every country is seeking measures to strengthen its shield against cases related to intellectual property and India also has feigned specific laws on a variety of aspects related to intellectual property.


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CRISPR Research Trends & How to Build A Successful Career in CRISPR Since the end of the 20th century, CRISPR has been the most discussed topic in the scientific community. There are consistent predictions that this gene-editing technology has the potential to transform our planet. COMPARED TO OLDER AND OTHER POPULAR TOOLS USED FOR GENETIC ENGINEERING, CRISPR-CAS9 IS CHEAP, EASY TO USE, PRECISE, AND REMARKABLY POWERFUL. THE APPLICABILITY OF CRISPR IS ALSO WIDE-RANGING FROM HUMAN BIOLOGY, AGRICULTURE, AND MICROBIOLOGY. By Dr. Preeti Saini

Researchers are still trying to figure out how CRISPR can be used to change the world for the better. However, the power to alter DNA brings along many ethical questions and concerns. In this article, we will be looking at the latest CRISPR Research Trends and tips on how to build up a successful career in CRISPR. 1. Use of CRISPR To Treat Genetic Errors That Cause Disease

will enable scientists to predict the best sequences as a target to make gene editing more reliable, cheaper, less time consuming and more efficient. In this attempt, the researchers analyzed over 40,000 pairs of different target DNA and guide RNA deeply, and carried out CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in different cells. It was analyzed that the repair depended on the exact sequence of DNA and guide and discovered that it was reproducible within the same sequence. Thereafter, a machine learning computational tool, called FORECasT was generated, that enabled them to predict the repaired sequence, using the targeted DNA sequence alone. In a similar attempt, a machine-learning algorithm in Delphi has been created that predicts how human and mouse cells respond to CRISPR-induced breaks in DNA. It was discovered that cells themselves repair broken genes in precise and inevitable manners, typically even returning mutated genes back to their healthy version. In fact, the researchers were able to successfully correct mutations in cells taken from patients with one of two rare genetic disorders.

One of the rare, genetic, heart diseases is Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), affecting roughly 1 in every 500 people worldwide. This occurs because of mutations in a number of dominant genes, which leads the heart tissues to stiffen, and gives rise to chest pain, weakness, and, in severe cases, sudden cardiac arrest. Still, there is a hope, that in the due course of time, we will be able to use gene editing to cure this disease once and for all. Attempts had been made in 2017 when the Oregon Health and Science University researchers used CRISPR to delete one of these defective genes in a number of viable human embryos. They injected 54 embryos with the CRISPR-Cas9 machinery 18 hours after fertilization. The results indicated that 36 of the embryos did not show any chance of developing the disease. Other 13 were having 50 percent chances of inheriting HCM. On 3. Elimination of the Pathogens further reducing the chances of inher- via CRISPR Cas9 itance, it was found that only one was a mosaic. Even after 38 years of discovery of HIV, scientists still haven’t found 2. Algorithm-based approach to a cure. CRISPR can turn out to be improve efficacy a hopeful measure in this regard. In 2017, an experiment was carried As per the report published in No- out on mice to increase resistance vember 2018 in the leading journal to HIV. A team of Chinese researchNature Biotechnology, CRISPR-Cas9 ers successfully implemented this by

replicating a mutation of a gene that effectively prevents the virus from entering cells. This mutation has been found to occur naturally in a small percentage of people. Artificially it can be induced using CRISPR, which will considerably bolster HIV resistance in humans in the future. In another approach, scientists from North Carolina used CRISPR to engineer bacteriophages, to develop a proven, safe method for treating harmful bacteria. 4. Recreation of species using CRISPR Harvard geneticist George Church and his team have invested their valuable 11 years to recreate the DNA blueprint of the extinct mammoth. DNA from mammoths preserved in Arctic permafrost has been used to discover that only 44 genes are separating mammoths from elephants. It is an attempt to save endangered elephants they are trying to create hardier mammoth hybrids that is much more cold-resistant. The researchers also look forward to inserting non-mammoth genes, which will prevent them from growing tusks, to prevent poaching, as well as new DNA to allow them to eat a wider diet. 5. CRISPR Could Create New, Better & Healthier Foods Mushrooms that do not turn brown have already been created with the help of CRISPR technology. Attempts have been made by the scientists from

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York to edit the genes which determine fruit size, branching architecture and, the shape of the plant for a greater harvest in tomato. Before that, we should know the difference between GM crops and gene-edited crops. While traditional GMOs are made by inserting foreign DNA sequences into a crop’s genome, makes precise alterations to genes in specific locations of the native genome. The leading company, DuPont Pioneer is trying to bring its “waxy” gene-edited corn into the U.S. market by 2020. The U.S. Department of Agriculture regulation has already approved gene-edited mushroom, since it doesn’t contain genomes from viruses or bacteria, declaring it the first CRISPR-edited organism to be greenlit. 6. Possibility to Eradicate Mosquitoes Discoveries have given access to tackle the sleep menace ‘mosquito’ in the most astonishing ways. Scientists at the University of California, Riverside have disrupted target genes in multiple locations of the mosquito’s genes, using gene drive technology, by impairing the mosquito’s flight and vision. Success was achieved in postponing mosquito development, shortening the animal’s lifespan, retarding Next Page>>>>



egg development, and diminishing fat accumulation. Other researchers at the Imperial College London, have tried another unique way to get rid of a female mosquito, by interfering with how they reproduce. Current approaches in arthropods are based on delivering the gene-editing Cas9 on to eggs by embryonic microinjection, a tough and inefficient method that works in a mere a tiny low range of species. As per Jason Rasgon, faculty member of zoological science and unwellness medicine, Penn State school of Agricultural Sciences, microinjection will harm the eggs, and it needs costly instrumentality and coaching to implement. To address these limitations, the researchers developed ReMOT Control—Receptor-Mediated Ovary Transduction of Cargo. This is the technique that will deliver a Cas9 system to the target by a simple injection into the blood of feminine arthropods, wherever it is often introduced into the developing eggs via receptors within the ovary. Rasgon explained that in ovary and egg maturation, mosquitoes and alternative arthropods synthesize food proteins, that are secreted into the blood and brought up into the ovaries. The assumption is to bypass the requirement for embryonic microinjection to attain ordering gene editing within the embryo. 7. Designer babies The first edit in the genes of a human embryo in vitro was made by China in 2015 using CRISPR + IVF, which sparked global outcry and pleas not to make a baby using the technology. As per the reports, a team at the Southern University of Science and Technology lead by He Jiankui had been recruiting couples so as to create the designer babies. They had planned to eliminate a gene called CCR5 hoping to make the offspring resistant to HIV, smallpox, and cholera. They have successfully brought two healthy, little Chinese girls named Lulu and Nana into the globe in November 2018. He Jiankui said that his team performed “gene surgery” on embryos created from their parents’ sperm cell and eggs to shield the youngsters from the human immunological disorder virus, HIV, that causes AIDS. Their father is HIV-positive. Indian Research Community is all set to adapt for this trending gene editing technology of CRISPR Cas9. In fact, a lot of research is already being conducted at Govt research labs and private biopharma companies with respect to CRISPR Research Trends

– to tackle one re more issues faced globally related to health, agriculture and Food technology. List of Research Institutes in India Where CRISPR research is being conducted: • IARI – Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) • NIPGR – National Institute of Plant Genome Research • JNU – Jawaharlal Nehru University • DU – Delhi University • NBRI – National Botanical Research Institute • NABI – National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute • JUIT – Jaypee University of Information Technology • ILS – Institute of Life Sciences, BBSR • NII – National Institute of Immunology • NBRC – National Brain Research Centre • IIT – Indian Institute of technology – All Locations • IIsc – Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru • NRCPB – National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology • CSIR-NEIST – CSIR North East Institute of Science and Technology • CSIR-IICB – CSIR Indian Institute of Chemical Biology • CSIR NCL – CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory • TIFR – Tata Institute of Fundamental Research • NCBS – National Center For Biological Sciences • CCMB – Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology List of Biopharma companies in India Where CRISPR research is being conducted: • Reliance LifeScience • Thermo Fisher • Bayer • Syngene • Merck • GE Healthcare A lot of job opportunities in this field exists for which you need to apply for vacancies in CRISPR related research projects at either research institutes or Biotech companies. But all of these jobs require a minimum qualification of being a postgraduate with NET / GATE qualification if you are joining a research lab or preferably a PhD degree (given priority). So, the first step here is to grab a PhD position for yourself after clearing any of the exams that can help

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you get admission as well as guarantee you a fellowship. E.g. CSIR-JRF, ICMR-JRF, etc. You need to select for a potential guide, who himself is well aware of this new technique and can provide you with necessary facilities and guidance. Next, one should develop a research problem which has novel applications, that includes the use of CRISPR and which has not been standardized properly. But always keep in mind that you require something to look upon, when in doubt. So, try to select a research problem, which may have been successfully implemented in some other way in some related model organism. Now, you should also have a basic understanding of genetic engineering and molecular biology protocols as well. E.g. like cloning, PCR, qPCR, RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, immunochemistry techniques like western blotting, immunofluorescence. If there is no possibility to keep all these techniques in your research work, you can always opt for hands-on training courses or workshops which can be availed from any of the reputed laboratories. It may require additional hand-on-expertise on mammalian cell cultureexperience handling multiple cell lines, transfection, electroporation, transduction, generation of stable cell lines, single cell clonal selection, RNAi mediated gene knockdown, transient and stable expression of proteins in mammalian cells. Again, in order to get experience in related techniques or CRISPR itself, you can join as a Junior Research Fellow in reputed laboratories. Once you have completed your M.Sc. / Ph.D. research work success-

fully, you can apply for a patent as well, along with the publications in reputed journals. These publications will give you an upper hand while applying for the jobs. Moreover, you can apply for Postdoctoral positions in similar fields, as limited knowledge may give you perfection in a particular field, but it will not give you exposure. The more you learn, the better are the chances for you to get a salary hike or promotion or possibly a government job as a scientist. Let me remind you that CRISPR will offer you highly paid jobs (Research associate Salary US $ 40000). Since his field is still in its infancy, you will get ample opportunities to prove yourself. Recent developments have proven CRISPR to extremely versatile, precise and safe. However, the technology is still in its adolescence. Till date, we are facing technological and ethical hurdles that are not allowing us to feed the hunger-stricken planet, remove genetic disorders, or conserve extinct animal species back to life. But we are making progress in a satisfactory manner. But one thing is clear- CRISPR is a technology which in near future will be adapted globally looking to its diverse applications but of course, the practice should be done under strict guidelines to avoid its misuse. So are you CRISPR job ready yet? See also: • CRISPR CERTIFICATIONS – BioTecNika • The CRISPR Patent War – Everything You Need To Know • Unknown Facts About CRISPR cas9 Gene Editing Technique


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Career Scope of Microbiologist – Salary, Eligibility, Skills Required “We cannot fathom the marvelous complexity of an organic being. Each living creature must be looked at as a microcosm–a little universe, formed of a host of self-propagating organisms, inconceivably minute and as numerous as the stars in heaven.” MICROORGANISMS ALONG WITH THEIR ACTIVITIES ARE FUNDAMENTALLY IMPORTANT TO ALMOST ALL PROCESSES ON EARTH. MICRO-ORGANISMS ARE IN US, ON US AND AROUND US. BECAUSE THEY AFFECT EVERY ASPECT OF OUR LIVES- THUS THEY MATTER. By Dr. Deepa Sharma

Microbiology comprises of the study of all living organisms that are too minute to be seen with the naked eye. This takes in archaea, bacteria, viruses, prions, fungi, protozoa, and algae, together known as ‘microbes’. These microbes play crucial roles in biodegradation/biodeterioration, nutrient cycling, climate change, spoilage of food, biotechnology and also the cause and control of the disease. Who is a Microbiologist? A microbiologist is someone who works in the domain of microbiology. He is a scientist who makes a thorough study of the microorganisms. Microbiologists examine the characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The microbiologist tries to investigate and understand the behavior of miscellaneous microbes and their impact on human lives. Microbiologists might sometimes handle perilous organisms in the course of their research, thus making the work hazardous. Research in Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, and Parasitology are some of the specialist fields for microbiologists. Some of them also specialize in agriculture, environment, food and medical aspects. The microbiologists develop many vitamins, enzymes, and hormones. They further amplify new approaches to combat the diseases.

Clinical microbiologists: They execute a vast range of medical laboratory tests on collected specimens from plants, animals, and humans to aid in the detection of disease. Those microbiologists (clinical and medical) whose work takes in researching human health directly may be categorized as medical scientists. Environmental microbiologists: They make a study of how the interaction of microorganisms with the environment and with each other. They also study the use of microbes to clean up the sites contaminated by heavy metals and further investigate increasing crop growth with the aid of microbes. Industrial microbiologists: Industrial production processes are studied by them and also problems related to these processes are being solved. Examination of microbial growth in the pipes of a chemical factory may be done. Further, they can also keep an eye on the impact of the industrial waste on the local ecosystem, or even supervise the microbial activities involved in cheese production to guarantee the quality.

Mycologists: They study the charMicrobiologists are categorized acteristics of fungi such as mold and into the following types: yeast. A study is made to find out ways of how fungi can be beneficial Bacteriologists: They study the pat- to the society (for instance, in the entern of growth, development, and oth- vironment or food) and also the risks er characteristics of bacteria, includ- that may be posed by fungi. ing the positive and negative effects that can be brought about by bacteria Parasitologists: Life cycle of paraon plants, animals, and humans. sites is studied. Further, the host-par-

asite relationship and the adaptation of parasites to different environments is studied. The outburst and further control of parasitic diseases such as malaria may also be investigated.

Microbiologist – Career Requirements:

Laboratory services are provided by them for local health units and community health programs.

At least a bachelor’s degree in microbiology or a closely related field is required for would-be microbiology scientists. A concrete foundation of the sciences is needed. Microbiology majors pursue courses such as virology, microbial chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, and physics. A number of these courses comprise a laboratory component, which is crucial for soon-to-be microbiologists.

Virologists: Structure, development, and further properties of viruses are studied and, further any effects that viruses have on infected organisms is also being researched.

Microbial genetics and microbial physiology are the core courses taken by most microbiology majors, while elective classes are such as environmental microbiology and virology.

Public health microbiologists: Examination of specimens is done to pursue, regulate, and avert transmittable diseases and other health perils.

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Students should also have a knowledge of other sciences, such as physics, chemistry, and biochemistry because it is essential for microbiologists to have an extensive understanding of the sciences. Courses in math, statistics, and computer science are vital for microbiologists as they may need to perform complex data analysis. Having laboratory experience is crucial for prospective microbiologists before moving into the workforce. Nearly all undergraduate microbiology programs contain a mandatory laboratory requirement, however supplementary laboratory coursework is recommended. Students can also acquire valuable laboratory experience out of internships with potential employers, such as drug manufacturers. Microbiology is a flourishing field that should offer good outlooks for qualified workers. A number of the applied research projects where microbiologists are involved in necessitating the expertise of scientists in various fields such as chemistry, medicine, and geology. Microbiologists with a little familiarity with another branch of learning should have the finest opportunities. In order to carry out independent research and work in colleges and universities, microbiologists usually need a Ph.D. Class work, laboratory research, and completing a thesis or dissertation are included in a Ph.D. program. Many microbiology Ph.D. holders initiate their careers in provisional postdoctoral research ranks. During the postdoctoral appointment, they work with knowledgeable scientists as they go on with learning about their specialties and create a broader understanding of related areas of research. Postdoctoral positions offer the opportunity to publish research findings. Certifications and skills required For A Successful Career as Microbiologist Requisite degree levels vary on the basis of position. For many settings, a bachelor’s degree in microbiology is ample, while for advanced research work, a doctoral degree is obligatory. Voluntary certification is obtainable through numerous organizations, including the American Medical Board of Microbiology and the National Registry of Certified Microbiologists. Lab experience is required for aspiring microbiologists; postdoctoral research work may be required for advanced research positions. Basic

skills include interpersonal, analytical, mathematical, speaking and writing expertise, and further being detail-oriented. Knowledge of query, medical, scientific, and spreadsheet software is fundamental to this position. A variety of specialized equipment such as gas chromatographs and electron microscopes must be appropriately used by a microbiologist. If one thinks of a science-based career, pre-entry experience in a laboratory becomes advantageous. A few of the degree courses may include a year’s work assignment carrying out scientific research in a government research laboratory, in an industry or other pertinent organizations. Certain companies take care of funding to sustain research work in laboratories during the summer. In order to obtain information on these opportunities as well as other internships, it is advisable to contact various career services. Further, contacts can be extended to local hospital laboratories to uncover work experiences or even work shadowing opportunities. Valuable networking opportunities can be provided if one has joined the membership of a relevant society or a professional body such as the Microbiology Society and the Society for Applied Microbiology (SfAM). By being a member of such organizations, one can get access to grants and also discounted or free conference attendance. Career Scope of Microbiologists Employment of microbiologists is estimated to grow nearly 8 percent over the coming ten years, which is as fast as the average for all professions. More microbiologists will be required for contribution to basic research and for solving glitches of industrial production. There will be a need for microbiologists to conduct research and thus develop novel medicines and treatments, such as antibiotics and vaccines. Besides, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies will need microbiologists to develop drugs which are produced with the service of microorganisms. Alongside improving health, further areas of research and development are expected to cater to employment progress for microbiologists. Microbiologists will be needed by many companies, from chemical companies to food producers, to warrant product quality and production effectiveness. In an expedition to find more clean sources of energy, microbiologists will be involved, such as industrial microbiologists and mycologists, who research and develop alternate energy sources such as biomass and

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biofuels. Further, microbiologists will be needed in agriculture to help in developing genetically engineered crops that offer superior yields or involve less fertilizer and pesticide. Lastly, the use of microbiologists will be made in endeavors to uncover upto-the-minute and improved ways to safeguard public health and preserve the environment.

• Britannia • Bisleri • GSK • Johnson & Johnson • Dr. Reddy’s • TUV SUD • Jubilant • Sanofi • Sun Pharma • Lupin • Apollo Employment areas For Microbiol- • Emcure Pharmaceuticals ogists: • Cipla • Sami Labs Microbiologists mainly worked in • Cafe Coffee Day laboratory research settings in dec- • IFF ades past. With the potential role of • Suguna Foods microbes in biotechnology as well • Apotex as their new appreciation in environ- • Mondelez mental and human health, microbiologists today work as intact members List of Top Govt Institutes / Organof interdisciplinary squads in clinics, izations & Industries that hire Mihospitals, industry, universities, and crobiologists are: government. They are on the cutting edge of science. • FSSAI • National Health Mission The significant employers of micro- • DRDO biologists are as follows: • NCDC • IRCTC • The state government, excluding • HPCL Biofuels education and hospitals—18% • Tea Board • Universities, colleges, and profes- • National Tuberculosis Institute sional schools; state, local and pri(NTI) vate—14% • KIIDC • Medicine manufacturing and phar- • CSIR – CSMCRI maceutical—32% • IPFT • Research and development in life • ICMR – RMRC sciences—36% • PAU • JALMA Employers that hire Microbiologists includes are mostly from the Salary of a Microbiologist below fields: If you are looking for a job as a Mi• Higher education institutions. crobiologist in India, your average • Industry – water and biotechnology starting salary as a fresher will be companies, food and drink, toilet- around Rs 3 Lakh p.a. With Experiries, petroleum, pharmaceuticals. ence and ample skills acquired you • Environmental organizations. can climb up the career ladder and • Public health organizations. grab a pay package of up to Rs 10 • Healthcare organizations. lakh p.a. If you are looking forward • Forensic science laboratories. to a stable and long term career in the • Publicly funded research organiza- field of microbiology a Ph.D. degree tions. in Microbiology or related subjects will just to the magic for you. List of Top Companies that frequently hire Microbiologists are Top City That Hire Microbiologists given below: – Location wise Bangalore tops the list with more number of companies • Novozymes & institutes that hire microbiologists. Average Salary

Annual Pay Package

Average Salary As a Fresher Microbiologist

Rs 3 Lakh p.a

Average Salary With 5-6 Years of Experience as Microbiologist

Rs 10 Lakh p.a

Average Salary As a Senior Microbiologist / Research Scientist

Rs 20 Lakh p.a

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Pune, Hyderabad, Mumbai & Chen- scientists only conduct research and nai comes next on the list. lecturers only teach, while, professors usually do a mix of research and Microbiologists typically accomplish teaching. In science, the steps inexperiments and analyze the results volved in “research” include writing while they work in laboratories, offic- down grant proposals in order to get es, and industrial settings. Strict safe- funding for designing and carrying ty procedures must be followed by out experiments, for evaluating the microbiologists who work with haz- data, and for publishing the findings ardous organisms, in order to avoid in scientific journals. contamination. Professors do have the additional reBasic researchers who are involved in sponsibilities of handling their labs working with academia usually pick and further mentoring others who the focus of their research and run work in their labs. Teaching at a unitheir own laboratories. Applied re- versity or college involves designing searchers who are involved in work- the classes, delivering lectures, leading for companies making a study of ing labs, and mentoring the students. the products that the company will Professors, as well as lecturers, can sell or further suggest amendments to teach hefty undergraduate courses, the production process, so as the com- such as Biology, or small, gradupany can turn more efficient. Fund- ate-level electives, such as Environing the research by basic researchers mental Microbiology. is often fulfilled by winning grants. These grants every so often put pres- Typically clinical microbiologists opsure on researchers to meet the dead- erate in hospitals, as well as in medlines and various other specifications. ical, public health, or veterinary labA competitive selection process is oratories. They conduct various tests generally preferred for awarding the on animal or patient samples sent to research grants. the lab by veterinarians or doctors Microbiologists of diverse specialties respectively. These tests assist in can work as research scientists, lec- identifying the microbe that makes a turers or professors at colleges or patient/animal sick and can facilitate universities. By and large, research the doctor/veterinarian with treatment

decisions by determining whether the microbe is sensitive or resistant towards common antimicrobial medications. Clinical microbiologists likewise work with public health executives to track outbreaks. When at higher career levels, microbiologists progress new diagnostic tests and procedures and may thereby manage an all-inclusive clinical laboratory. Microbiologists can furthermore work for industrial companies or in commercial applications. A number of microbiologists conduct research to aid their companies in developing new products and further improving industrial processes or prevailing products. “Products” can be miscellaneous, such as anything from plant parts that are resistant to infections (such as agricultural biotech companies) to probiotic yogurt (in food companies). “Industrial processes” can take in microbes to extract minerals (in mining companies), to clean up pollutants (in sewage companies), and further to formulate medicines (in pharmaceutical companies). A number of microbiologists also work in quality control thereby making sure that products are safe and that they do not deteriorate due to microbiological activity over time.


Microbiology, furthermore, overlaps with other fields of biology such as molecular biology, genetics, and immunology. This projects that there are several opportunities for a microbiology-related career in an extensive range of zones. Finally, a few microbiologists also combine their technical expertise with various other fields. Hybrid careers comprise of, science writing, public policy, patent law, infectious disease medicine, education, and business analysis. However, most of these hybrid careers necessitate supplementary education or further experience in a field foreign to microbiology. So to summarize in this article we talked about Microbiologist – Career Requirements, Career Scope of Microbiologist, Certifications, Eligibility, and skills required, Top Companies 7 Institutes that hire for Microbiologist Post, Average Salary of a microbiologist and much more. If you have any questions related to your career as a microbiologist after your Bsc / Msc Microbiology or Ph.D. microbiology please do comment below.

Food Inspector Career Scope, Jobs, Eligibility, Salary, Skills Required The Food Industry is a broad sector and certainly can offer a variety of careers Options for Life Science candidates. Food Industry is one such field in which opportunities are never going to decline neither it is now, nor in the future. A CAREER IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY MEANS YOU CAN EITHER WORK AS FOOD SCIENTIST, FOOD TECHNOLOGIST, FOOD LAWYER OR A FOOD PRODUCTION MANAGER – THE LIST IS ENDLESS. OUT OF ALL A FOOD INSPECTOR CAREER TOPS THE CHARTS – BOTH IN TERMS OF JOB AVAILABILITY & FUTURE SCOPE. By Preety Suman

A career in food inspection is where you can find that ideal endeavor of job advancement potential and sense of ensuring the safety of the community. If you are a graduate with Life sciences degree and seeking a job in public health / Food Industry, this article is a must read for you. But before taking this route veered to be a Food inspector, one must be aware of the accountabilities a Food Inspector


nies engaged in producing various consumables, falling under any catWhat are the responsibilities of a egory ranging from restaurants to Food inspector? food manufacturing plants. • He ensures the food being produced • A food inspector is responsible for by food manufacturers, distributors certifying health codes in compaand processors undergo the licensed

protocols of storage, handling, processing, and sanitation, so as its quality is not compromised. • He monitors the quality and hygiene Next Page>>>>



of ingredients and equipment being used along with a compilation of the place to quality guidelines where the products are being processed. • He also ensures appropriate labeling descriptions on the consumables being marketed • He extends support in an escalation of business by making them comply with national or international health and safety standards. • He holds a good knowledge of laws and legal terms related to safe handling of food items making it appropriate for consumption. • Besides carrying inspections, a food inspector hunts for possible sources of contamination if any and evaluates the reasons that may put the general public in any kind of risk. • Food inspectors may be responsible for keeping close vigilance on slaughterhouses and poultry farms by inspecting that animals being slaughtered are free from any deadly diseases or infections. • He may contribute to imparting education to violators for rectification. • Lastly, He documents the course of action and reports any violations if witnessed to the regulatory authorities. Eligibility for becoming a Food Inspector – Eligibility requirements may vary by position and program, the underlying general requirements can be considered by an aspiring candidate. – Bachelor’s degree/ BE or B.Tech in Chemistry / Biochemistry / Food Technology / Food Science / Edible Oil Technology / Microbiology / Industrial Microbiology / Dairy Technology / Agricultural or horticultural Sciences / Toxicology / Public Health / Life Science / Biotechnology / Medicine or Veterinary Sciences / Fisheries or Animal Sciences. – PG Diploma of minimum one-year duration in Food Safety or Food Science or Food Processing or Quality Assurance from the Food Industry or Dietetic and Public Health or Nutrition or Dairy Science or Bakery Science or Post Harvest Technology from a Govt.Recognized University/ Institute with a condition that must have studied any one of the subjects mentioned in above point in their Bachelor’s degree level. – A Masters Degree in Chemistry / Biochemistry / Food Technology or Food Science / Edible Oil Technology / Microbiology / Dairy Technology / Agricultural Science / horticultural Sciences / Industrial Microbiology /

Toxicology / Life Science / Biotechnology or Food Safety & Quality Assurance. – Doctorate Degree in any of the aforesaid subjects – GATE / CSIR NET / ICAR NET Qualifications are also desirable to get into the job of a Food Inspector via direct recruitment by any of the Govt Organizations. Additionally: • The aspiring candidate must be in between 18 -25 years of age. Although age criteria differ in various exams held. • He/ she must be a permanent resident of India. • Candidates having training in various Food Safety certification programs are generally preferred.

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• Strong vision for detecting minor characteristic changes in food items during inspection • Able to focus on details and analyze in detail and depth • Have a strong stomach, experienced tasting skills (as there may be a wide variety of food source offered for tasting and testing. • Be able to work standing/sitting for long hours • Be comfortable with traveling to various sites for work KNOWLEDGE BASE:

• Thorough knowledge about food laws and principles • Knowledge about Legal Proceedings • Detailed knowledge of food safety and quality • Detailed knowledge of laboratory handling and rules • Aware of required sanitation, hySkills you need to turn into a comgiene and pest control practices petent Food Inspector • Be strong in General knowledge and General Aptitude TECHNICAL SKILLS: • Valid certification and have eligible course subject background • Strong in Instrument Handling • Handle a variety of instruments FSSAI Exam – FSSAI Food Safety based on the requirement and Standards Authority of India • Must have computer proficiency Exam and be able to handle software like MS Importance of FSSAI Exam For a • Word/Excel/PowerPoint for com- Food Inspector Career piling reports • Must have the report writing ability It is a qualifying exam conducted by • Must be able to defend one’s report FSSAI for in-service candidates to in case of legal proceedings sign the analytical report of food products of FSSAI notified Food testing SOFT SKILLS: laboratory for legal purposes. Writing this exam will provide an additional • Strong communication skills advantage to your dream career as a • Able to clearly and critically specify Food Inspector. FSSAI conducts this the analysis in an unbiased manner examination annually. It provides cerwith precision and with experimen- tification under two categories Junior tal support Food Analyst and Food Analyst for • Have good decision-making skills, freshers and experienced candidates in order to take swift action post having three years experience respecanalysis. tively. This is to emphasize that pass• Be a good observer, orator and ing this examination doesn’t ensure strong in literary skills any job guarantee but you certainly • Systematic thinking – to choose get the benefit of preference as a food which technique to use for required analyst in any of the food testing labs. analysis This year FSSAI Exam will be tenta• Aware of the latest analytical meth- tively conducted in 2nd or 3rd week odologies of July 2019. • Critical Thinking – Using logic and Besides providing this opportunity reasoning to identify the strengths of becoming the owner of food anaand weaknesses of alternative solu- lyst certificate FSSAI performs direct tions, conclusions or approaches to recruitment of many posts like Techproblems. nical Officer, Central Food Safety • Judgment and Decision Making Officer, Food Inspector which it ad– Considering the relative costs vertises on its official website – also and benefits of potential actions to you can check out the details about choose the most appropriate one FSSAI Jobs at Biotecnika. Qualifying Entrance Exams For BePHYSICAL FITNESS coming a Food Inspector at Govt Level

Now if you are assertive that you own all those qualities which may turn you into a proficient Food Inspector, it is the time to decide whether you want to offer your duties at a state level or national level. Many government organizations such as USFDA and U.S. Food and Drug Administration abroad, and other state and country government agencies are involved in employing food inspectors. Some states even offer inspector trainee programs for candidates with a blend of education and work experience. Some of the reputed Food Inspector / Food Safety Officer Exam Conducted by the Govt of India are listed below: • Food Corporation of India – FCI • Public Service Commission West Bengal • Maharastra Public Service Commission • Punjab Public Service Commission Food Inspector Salary • The starting average Salary of a Food Inspector Career ranges from Rs 35,000/- pm to Rs 40,000 pm. • If you qualify any of the Govt Exams conducted for Food Inspector Recruitment the starting pay package is Rs 37,000/- pm + HRA. • With Experience and the duration, you spend in the industry the average salary can go as high as Rs 2 Lakh pm at managerial positions in Govt organizations. Food Inspector Career Scope With intertwining of global food chain auditing process, increasing pressure to enhance food safety, more and more emphasis on food safety regulations by various national and international regulatory agencies, the streamlining of the inspections has emerged as one of the concerns among establishments involved in food processing. To strengthen it, the demand for food inspectors is vigorously growing in India. Although presently the government sector is liable in employing the food inspectors, both state and federal agencies recruit food inspectors. However one may explore opportunities with private companies as well. Food inspectors employed engage in inspecting both the government-owned units as well as privately owned food processing establishments. To rationalize the audits and ensuring compliance with food regulatory guidelines, the requirement for food inspectors is rising proportionally.


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Bioinformatics Career Scope & Job Prospects Analysis Bioinformatics or computational biology is the use of information technology in the field of molecular biology or applying computer technology to biological research and management. Hereby computers are used to gather, store, analyze and merge biological information. IT IS AN EMERGING INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH FIELD AND IS PROGRESSIVELY GETTING USED TO BOOST THE STANDARD OF LIFE. By Dr. Preeti Saini

The ultimate goal of bioinformatics is to uncover the knowledge of biological data hidden in the mass and structure of sequence and develop clearer insight into the basic biology of organisms for using this information to reinforce the quality of life for the human race. It has boundless importance in the present era when we are dealing with molecules in the range of nano to femtometers. The hereditary information of an organism is encoded within the DNA. Genomics, the study of an organism’s entire genome is developed to understand the basic molecule of life which is known as the code of life. DNA is the entity that directly controls the biological makeup of any living organism. Understanding the structure of DNA has created wonderful success over several genetic disorders. It is variations and errors in the genomic DNA which ultimately outline the probability of developing diseases or resistance to the same disorders. Bioinformatics may have a profound impact in the lab as well as fields, ranging from, agriculture, biotechnology, human health, the environment, energy to advance medical analysis and development. It is getting used currently in the areas of molecular drugs to assist manufacture higher and a lot of customized medicines to prevent or cure diseases, it has environmental benefits in identifying waste cleanup microorganisms and in agriculture, it can be used for manufacturing high yield low maintenance crops. These are just a few of the numerous advantages bioinformatics can offer. Bioinformatics Career Scope & Job Prospects The career prospects in the field of bioinformatics have further increased

since the merging of information technology has taken place with molecular biology. Job prospects are everywhere ranging from biotechnology, hospitals, pharmaceutical, and biomedical sciences, research institutions till industry. A few specific career areas that fall within the scope of bioinformatics include Bio-analytics, Clinical pharmacologist, Computational chemist, Database design and maintenance, Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacology, Sequence assembly, Sequence analysis, Informatics developer, etc. Bioinformatics Career Scope & Job prospects have become widespread after the merging of the information technology sector has taken place with that of molecular biology. Job prospects are in all sectors of biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and biomedical sciences, in research institutions, hospital, and industry.

sis in an attempt to find drug targets (Pharmacogenomics), Prediction of the function of genes and proteins based on sequence and structural data etc. Bioinformatics Courses Available A wide range of courses is available in Bioinformatics like B.Sc. Bioinformatics, B.Sc. Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, M.Sc Bioinformatics, B Tech Bioinformatics, Advance Diploma in Bioinformatics, Post Graduate Diploma in Bioinformatics, Advance Post Graduate Diploma in Bioinformatics, Advanced Bioinformatics (ABI), Certificate Course in Bioinformatics, Diploma in Bioinformatics, M.S. Bioinformatics, M.Sc. Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, M.Tech. Bioinformatics.

Let us take a few highest paying jobs around the globe, which one Some of the career areas that specif- can apply for after pursuing a deically fall within the scope of bioin- gree or course in bioinformatics. formatics include Bio-analytics and Analytics, Clinical pharmacologist, – Postdoctoral Associate: Every Computational chemist, Database Ph. D. student has a dream to purdesign and maintenance, Informat- sue at least one postdoc in a develics developer, Pharmacogenomics, oped country where he can find all Pharmacology, Proteomics, Sequence the necessary facilities and get good analysis, Sequence assembly, etc. publications. There are chances of getting one in countries like ChiThe work involved in the specific ca- na, Korea, UK, USA, in universities reer areas are Characterisation of pro- which offer payscale in the range of teins and their interactions (Proteom- $47,476-$55,308, with minimum ics), Comparing genetic data between qualifications including PhD in the and within species (Genomics), Drug appropriate area of specialization, design utilising 3-D structure mod- with some basic knowledge of bioelling and computational chemistry informatics, computational biology (Cheminformatics), Genomic analy- and coding language with good pub-

lication records. Of course, one will have to clear other necessary requirements like GRE, TOEFL/IELTS, visa processing as well to get entry into these prestigious institutes. Not only this, certain institutes like St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in the USA, University of Maryland offer a sign-on bonus, health insurance, and a retirement plan as well. What else one can ask for!! – Research Associate: It’s not the case that India is not providing sufficient opportunities to its valuable candidates. For those who want to serve their country, staying with their near and dear ones can find ample opportunities in universities, hospitals and research institutes in India as well. Again, a research associate post has minimum eligibility criteria of having a Ph. D. with the requisite experience of the related instruments, with good publications. One can earn at least Rs. 55000/- per month, alongside getting exposure and improving their curriculum vitae. – Medical coding jobs: Those without a Ph. D. should not get disheartened, as there are numerous opportunities for them as well throughout India. Medical coding jobs require only up to 2 years of experience in the relevant discipline along with a postgraduate degree. These offer a decent salary ranging from INR 2,50,000 – 5,00,000 P.A. alongside handsome incentives. Other benefits include dayshift, food, cabs, etc. Next Page>>>>



– Assistant professor: For all those, who have completed Ph. D. degrees with utmost care and sincerity, in order to get settled as a Professor and earn huge respect in the society, choices are always open. Best universities throughout India are always offering Assistant Professor-Computational Biology/Bioinformatics. However, along with Ph. D., publications, research expertise, they also need NET/SET qualifications, which you can easily crack taking the support of BioTecNika. As you already know, they have already implemented 7th CPC which offers salaries in the range of Rs. 57,700-1,82,400 per month, depending on qualifications and experience. Not only this, these are government institutions bound by their rules and regulations, so reserved categories are given due consideration.

ing newer techniques related to their field, there are vast choices to become a JRF. The only requirements are 60% marks in their post-graduation. Some institutes, however, demand NET/SET as well. Here, alongside learning new techniques and getting a clear hand, one also gets the chance of earning up to 35000/- per month. Also, this will clear one’s mind to choose from his desires for pursuing the Ph. D. degree. – Teaching in colleges: One can also take up teaching jobs in public institutions if you have a taste in teaching. A fresher postgraduate joining a private sector pharmaceutical company is expected to get a salary within the range of Rs. 1,44,000 to Rs. 2,40,000 annually.Similarly, government lab employees can start on Rs. 9,000 along with government allowances.

– Junior Research Fellow: For those who have freshly submitted their M. One can find work in PharmaceutiSc. thesis and are interested in learn- cal and Biotech firms wherever bio-

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informatics technologies are applied throughout the drug discovery methods. Firms like Accelrys, IBM Life Sciences Pubgene, Reliance, Satyam, Silicon Genetics, TCS, Tessella, Wipro, etc are recruiting bioinformatics candidates because it has made a considerable new market for IT infrastructure. – Data Scientist- jobs require Talented and dynamic candidates who have completed a PhD or MSc in Bioinformatics, with a keen eye to detail, strong analytical skills, good communication and a desire to work in a team and solve challenging problems. These also demand expertise in languages like UNIX, command line Bioinformatics & Python, past experience in using large bioinformatics data-sets in a variety of formats, familiarity with SQL database and experience in data analysis and visualization. The best part being these are available in developed cities like Pune and Bengaluru, where IT parks

are well developed and usually do not require the experience of more than 1-2 years. – Associate Scientist: This is another highly paid job which requires qualifications like that of a data scientist viz. Masters in Bioinformatics, experience with Python, Hadoop, C, C++, SQL. Now, don’t get disheartened with programming languages like C, C++, etc. Nowadays, anyone can have that knowledge via short online courses. So, we have seen there are unlimited opportunities in this field. These were only a few of the readily available options. Lot more similar opportunities can be observed and availed. So, have a clear vision, choose the correct path, focus in that direction, and for guidance, BioTecNika is always beside you.

Career in Computational Biology, Job Prospects, Skills Required Computational Biology!! Sounds interesting, isn’t it? But what exactly it is and how is it applicable in the field of life science??


Complex biological processes which are present at an atomistic level can be understood thoroughly by using computational biologies such as by using computational biophysics and the physical principles in it. Some of the most commonly used techniques in this field are Monte Carlo sampling, molecular dynamics simulations, and electrostatic energy calculations. Imagine researching upon the physics and related attributes of proteins and other biomolecules at their atomic level. Statistics say that this is exceptionally a great time to start a Career in Computational Biology. The reason being that in today’s speeding use of computers there is a gap with this use of computers in the biological field.

This field of computational biology is concerned with solving biomedical and biological problems using mathematical and computational methods. In modern research, they are been perceived as an essential element in research. Due to the spectacular improvement and growth in data collection in the biological field like proteomics, biomedical imaging, and genomics, computational biology has acquired special importance in the

past 2 decades. Using the tools from this subject we can build integrated models of biological systems and also device strategies to treat or prevent diseases.

associated with the ones having this background education. Not just in academics but also in industries, computational biology is growing at an impressive rate.

With a degree in computational biology, students can work in the commercial, academic and government domains. Titles like computer and information research scientists or data scientist or data analyst are usually

Major players who are working and have a good job prospect are companies like Roche and Merck, Life Technologies, Lockheed Martin, Google, Next Page>>>>


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and Microsoft. An encouraging statement published in the journal Science was stated as, “Today, job prospects within computational biology — also known as bioinformatics — seem strong and appear to be growing, buoyed by pharmaceutical and biotech industries looking to take advantage of reams of genomics data and usher in a new era of drug discovery.” So, let’s explore the Job prospects / Career in computational biology: 1. Government Domain In the fields of health and research computational biologist are employed by the government in order to analyze large quantities of data which is available for research in the areas of medicine, genomics, and epidemiology. The qualification for research jobs under the guidance of other employers is commonly a graduate degree in this field or related fields like bioinformatics. While if one is qualified with a Ph.D. degree, they are given more responsibilities along with a higher position. With the advancement and faster growth in this field, there is a reliable good job prospect over the next few years. 2. Computer and Information Research Scientist In the research and development sector of biotech, pharmaceutical, and scientific software companies, a computational biologist is a very popular job profile. Responsibilities like modeling drug interactions, developing analytical software which the biologists use for big data analysis in biotech companies. As compared to academic research, commercial research concentrates on profits. Ph.D. candidates in this field have a better scope to prosper and progress in the industry career path. Nevertheless Master’s too have ample opportunities in this field. For example, companies like Biocon, Serum, Lupin, Coca-cola, Reliance, and Tata are some having rewarding positions for Computer and Information Research Scientist. 3.Computational Biology Professor If one is interested in the field of teaching, then he/she can consider being a computational biologist professor. They are involved in simulations, theoretical and applied research and in making predictions for molecular biological interactions and systems.

In the field of genomics and genetics, they are actively involved in analyzing big data. Academically they teach and supervise students and mostly work in the dry laboratory. In order to obtain a faculty position at a university, a Ph.D. is recommended and in order to become a permanent faculty in a reputed institute, it is mandatory to have a good postdoc experience. So, all in all, there are three broad areas i.e. Industry, Academia, and Government domain has a very high and attractive job profiles for the students having the background of Computational biology. Some of the common job titles in the field of computational biology are: 1. Software & Instrumentation Test Engineer 2. Research Scientist 3. Bioinformatics Scientist 4. Senior Research Associate Sector / Industries in which positions for computational biology is popularly available all time: 1. Medical device and equipment 2. Research and testing 3. Agricultural chemicals 4. Pharmaceuticals 5. National Institutes of Health Required Skills for computational biology jobs / Career in Computational Biology: 1. Programming and software: Python, Galaxy, Bash, MATLAB, Perl, Java, R, C, C++ Statistics: R is a very common tool used in today’s time 2. Bioinformatics Tools: Bio-edit, T-coffee sequence analysis algorithms, Blast, Clustalw, BLAT 3. Bioinformatics Resources and Database Skills: SwissProt, MySQL, SRS Database, UCSC genome browser, NCBI, UniProt, Entrez. 4. Sub-domain software (toolkits): Argus, Oracle, ChemmineR, Indigo, Scaffold, Enalos, ProtMAX (Proteomics), PerlMol, AutoDock, SwissDock (Molecular Docking & Drug Discovery), OEChem (Cheminformatics) 5. Data Mining 6. Data Visualization


7. Understanding the basis of life sci- As compared to pure life science, ence. Example: Molecular biology, computational biology has better job Genetic biology. prospects and salaries. One can use their life science degree and add some 8. Soft Skills: Flexibility, Patience, computational biology skills so as to Communication, Teamwork. polish their profile and increase their likelihood to get better jobs. Latest Required Education for making a technologies like Next-generation Career in Computational Biology sequencing, CRISPR, scRNA-seq, CITE-seq, CROP-seq, etc. can also In the career path of this field, you help in increasing your chances you can either take bioscience or any oth- get into good biotechnology and er branch of life science or computer pharmaceutical industries. science and engineering at the under- The perk of Career in Computational grad level. Biology is that with the help of your One must be fluent in understanding skills and knowledge you can be very life science terminology of genetics, creative and contribute in the field genomics, and cellular biology. Along of medical science. The salary too is with this, biologists must also take up quite large hence making the work skills in data analysis, including sta- worthwhile. The computational bioltistics, programming, and logic. ogist scientist also gets to travel the At your 10+2 level, the combination world for his/her work, thus making of subjects that will benefit you will this field more attractive. An immense be Chemistry, Biology, Physics, and amount of self-satisfaction is gained Maths or Chemistry, Biology, Phys- from the work that you do in this ics, and Computer Science. field. The downfall in this field is that In the master’s it will be ideal to take very long working hours are required up specialization in either of the fol- in this job and sometimes many years lowing fields: Chemical Engineering, are also required to advance to the Computer Science, Applied Statistics, higher positions in this career path. Bio-Statistics, Epidemiology, Com- Looking at perks and downfalls asputational Biology, and Bioinformat- sociated with this field, one needs ics. to carve their career properly before stepping on this career path. Job prospects in computational biology have been steadily increasing with Thankfully, India is one of the main the amalgamation of information bioinformatics hubs in the world and technology in various fields of life cities like Pune, Hyderabad, Bangascience like cell biology, molecular lore, Delhi and Chennai are the best biology, genetic engineering, etc. Sec- cities having an immense amount tors like hospitals, research institutes, of opportunities in this field. In the biomedical science, biotechnology, world specifically, Washington D.C and pharmaceutical industry are some in the USA is prospering in computaof the areas where you can apply for tional biology domain. jobs in computational biology. Some of the areas of bioinformatics like Thus, overall computational biology Clinical pharmacologist, Bio-analyt- is a very interesting field which one ics and Analytics, Proteomics, Phar- can choose in today’s time for explormacogenomics, Pharmacology, Se- ing and prospering in the field of life quence analysis, Sequence assembly, science as well as informational techDatabase design and maintenance, nology. Computational chemistry and Informatics developer are the areas where computational biologist can work.



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Career In Molecular Modelling & Drug Designing – Eligibility & Salary The average price of developing new drug molecules and therefore the time that is taken to publicize them is quite high. The time factor to some extent is being reduced by utilizing modern techniques but the price issue remains a matter of concern. HOWEVER, THE NUMBER OF NEW DRUGS COMING TO MARKET HAS SHOWN ONLY A MARGINAL INCREASE, WITH RESPECT TO THE PRICES. ONE OF THE EXPLANATIONS FOR THIS TREND MAY BE THE LACK OF STRUCTURAL DATA OF THE TARGET MOLECULES. By Dr. Preeti Saini

Enzymes are the frequent targets of choice because of their involvement in various biochemical pathways in human physiology. Even with enzymes, there can be problems in getting their structural information. Sometimes it is also troublesome to isolate or produce sufficient quantities of the target enzyme to analyze it directly. These obstacles hinder the successful entry of drug candidates into the market. Therefore, there’s an indispensable demand for efficient strategies that could enhance the drug discovery process. Computational strategies or molecular modelling methods can be utilized to accelerate the drug discovery process for getting new drug molecules. Nowadays there is a trend that multinational pharmaceutical companies and Research Organizations involved in drug discovery have adopted computational methodology at several stages of the design process. Several computational methods complement each other and may be merged to assist rationalize the drug discovery method. The ultimate challenge in drug styling is to predict and explain the activities of new drug molecules. Modern drug discovery is a multidisciplinary project, where the role of various computational processes is to utilize experimentally and foretold information in designing new active compounds thereby facilitating and enhancing the speed of discovery of acceptable chemical entities for lead improvement. As far as success stories of drug molecules generated through molecular model ing are concerned, it has been claimed that structure-based drug design strategies have already contributed to the introduction of some drug compounds

into clinical trials and for drug ap- than that the employee should underproval. stand the process of pharmaceutical discovery and the data and technoloFor ligand-based drug design, we gies associated. He is also sometimes have software like quantitative struc- required to have previous experience ture-activity relationship (QSAR), in applying molecular modelling Comparative molecular field anal- methods to structure, ligand and fragysis (CoMFA), Grid independent ment-based drug discovery projects, (GRIND), comparative molecular ADME modelling and drug ADME similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). profile optimization, a certain degree For drug discovery, there are methods of proficiency in programming/scriptlike Pharmacophore model ing, working knowledge of databases, etc. All of this can be easily achieved ing. Similarly, a variety of drug dock- if someone is putting all his efforts in ing programs like AUTODOCK, the field of research consistently. CDOCKER, DOCK, FlexX, GOLD, GLIDE are available. 2. Professorship No wonder, there is a vast array of jobs in this sector of Molecular Modeling & Drug Designing, owing to its rapid development rate.

1. Scientist

Another ambition of most of Ph. D. students is to get a Professor title. Numerous universities and institutes which are conducting research in the field of drug designing offer this platform as well. E.g. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, IIT Delhi, RGIPT, offers these positions as Assistant Professors, Professors or Associate Professors. Along with a Ph. D. degree, requisite experience, is required which fetches them a good amount of income to sustain their living (as per 7th Pay Commission).

This is the dream of every Ph. D. scholar that after successful completion of his degree he/she can get involved in research activities as a Scientist. Well established companies like Syngene International Limited, Quantumzyme offer this unique opportunity. Basic requirements include having an experience of 0-8 years, after completing Ph. D. degree. Other

This is not only a noble profession but also it gives recognition to the Professors and nurtures their hunger to be active research participants. They also get benefits like HRA, TA, etc. Not only this, but professors are also liable to represent their institute at international levels via conferences, symposia, where not only they are honored, they also receive travel

Let us have a quick look at the readily available Career options available in Molecular Model ing & Drug Designing field along with eligibility & Salary Details required for each position.

grants for pursuing the same. 3. Project Assistant All those, who are still at the verge of M.Sc. and Ph.D. have another chance to update their resume by adding to their publication record. Regular Project Assistant vacancies are displayed on the university or institutes websites like that of Central Drug Research Institute. These not only fetch them with requisite experience before beginning their Ph.D. journey but also help them financially. Usual pay Scale for a Project Assistant is INR 16000+ HRA p.m. However, not everyone is eligible to be a PA. There is an age limit of 28 yrs to this. Also, their qualifications should be in the Bioinfo and Life science fields with a minimum of 55% marks. Also, depending on the project they may be required to have an experience in Computer Assisted scientific research in Drug Design (CADD) including Bio-molecular modeling, Machine Learning techniques, etc. Familiarity with LINUX based Computer systems also proves to be an advantage. 4. Research Associate Being a Research Associate in the field of drug discovery in a top company like Glenmark life Sciences Ltd requires you to have an experience of 1 – 4 yrs. Next Page>>>>


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The candidate is expected to handle targets like the synthesis of APIs following product patent or non-infringing route, literature search for finding suitable reagents and methods for experimentation, other than performing experiments, purification and concluding the experiments based on analytical results. He is also required to work towards identification, synthesis, and characterization of impurities/related substances, performing polymorph screening experiments to invent novel solid forms (polymorphs, pseudo-polymorphs, co-crystals, etc). The RA is expected to have good knowledge in data interpretation of NMR, Mass, HPLC, and GC. Preferably data interpretation of PXRD, DSC, TGA, and KF. He is also responsible for documentation of experiments in Lab Note Book (LNB), preparation of reports and following Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). 5. Bioinformaticist in the health sector Certain hospitals like The Institute for Trauma Recovery at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, look for Bioinformaticists who are comfortable working with genetic, RNA sequencing, and epigenetic data derived from large human cohort studies. Candidates ought to have expertise in advanced bioinformatics and statistical modelling, artificial intelligence, multilevel modelling, power /factor analyses, and classification analyses targeted around biomarker discovery. Knowledge of SAS, SPSS, R, and/or Python is desired, in conjugation with the flexibility to develop scripts/code as necessary to streamline/optimize analyses. Primary duties of the candidate embody developing analysis plans unitedly with members of the research team, conducting analyses in a timely fashion, deciphering results for the team, and writing analytical strategies for peer-reviewed publications. Candidates are required to have a minimum of a Master’s degree or ideally a Ph.D. degree in Bioinformatics. Qualifications needed for this position include intensive knowledge of applied statistical and computational methods. These jobs facilitate earning approximately 50,000 to 1,00,000 USD per year. 6. Postdoctoral positions Post Doc Positions are also available throughout the globe, which usually has 2 years duration. However, these

are full-time jobs with designated working hours per week. The basic requirements include Ph. D. in structural bioinformatics/ chemoinformatics/ biophysics or a related field with a strong interest in intermolecular interactions alongside a good hold over English. Other specific requirements may include an ability to conduct independent research, 0-5 years experience in molecular modelling and chemoinformatics, experience in at least two topics of: structure-based and ligand-based drug design; machine learning methods; MD simulations / enhanced sampling methods, knowledge of programming languages e.g. Python, Perl, Java, SQL, etc. These positions, on one hand, give a lot of exposure and on the other hand, also provide a handsome salary of around 50,000 USD per annum.

ion channels, or other biomolecules, or study of fundamental biophysical problems, such as protein and RNA folding. 9. Teaching in colleges One can also take up teaching jobs in public institutions if you have a taste in teaching, but before that, you need to be well versed with the techniques and up to date with the latest technologies being used in this field. Also, standard hands-on experience related to molecular modelling and drug designing technique is also desirable. Business Development Executive

It is not so, that drug discovery will lead you to orthodox jobs only. One also gets a chance to handle businesses. Most of the Pharma giants are actively looking for candidates with 2 7. Research Technician – 6 yrs experience, who can identify business opportunities from the local This is another infamous job profile in and domestic market to expand their the USA, which pays $17 – $25 on an pipeline. hourly basis. Essential qualifications include a Bachelor’s Degree, MS in He should also have marketing skills biology, or a related field, at least so as to pursue annual sales in order to 1-2 years of professional laboratory achieve quarterly and annual targets/ experience, previous technical expe- budgeted revenues. These kinds of rience with basic cellular and molec- jobs easily fetch you a handsome salular biology research techniques and ary between INR 3,00,000 – 6,00,000 bioinformatics, alongside some basic P.A. knowledge of computers. Courses / Workshops & Training The technician is expected to handle available in the Field of Molecular standardized molecular biological, Modelling & Drug Designing microbiological or biochemical tests and laboratory analyses, CRISPR/ Now, let us find out how one can build Cas9-mediated genome editing ex- a successful career in these two fields. periments, flow cytometry, and cell Of course, you need to have concepsorting. He is also responsible for de- tual clarity and basic knowledge. signing and executing advanced ex- Some students get limited knowledge periments and setting strategy. while they are enrolled for Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Courses in institutes The candidate is also expected to de- like Jawaharlal Nehru Technological velop, modify and improve standard University or Birla Institute of Techoperating procedures. nology and Science. Others who have not studied these at all, also need not 8. Computational Biophysicists worry. Let us have a quick look at the readily available option. Certain companies in the USA, as well as India, have other job profiles First of all, institutes like Amity Uniwhich need similar skills. Computa- versity and Nirma University offer tional biophysicists are one of those. courses in Molecular Modelling and These companies are seeking excep- Drug Designing. These are usually tional computational chemists and 1-year courses with approx. 6 lectures biologists, with a track record of ex- per week (theory + practical). The traordinary achievement. Relevant syllabus includes details of molecuareas of experience might include lar geometry, molecular dynamics, structural modelling of protein-pro- pharmacophores, molecular docking, tein complexes involved in signal libraries and databases, and software transduction or other cellular process- resources. es, investigation of conformational changes relevant to the function of Not necessarily the courses, one can protein kinases, direct application of always join workshops that suits molecular dynamics or other compu- one’s schedule. DBT in association tational methods to drug discovery, with many institutes & universities


conducts offline workshops. Shortterm Diploma and certificate courses in Bioinformatics (with Molecular Modelling and Computer-Aided Drug Design Courses as a part) are also available in some institutes. If you have a shortage of time and cant travel to places to attend these workshops, no need to worry. Biotecnika conducts online workshops related to Molecular Modelling, Drug designing & molecular docking which you can attend at the comfort of your home and if you miss out on any session you can watch the recorded sessions later. One can get certificates related to these courses as well which can be an add-on for your resume. Foreign universities like the University of Southampton, University of Roehampton, Queen Mary University of London, Kingston University, are regularly hunting for suitable candidates who can join them as Ph. D. scholars in the domain of Computational Biophysics and Bioinformatics. While some of these may be self-funded, others are supported. Here, one gets chances for hands-on training in a wide range of computational methods including bioinformatics and biomolecular simulations. As an international student, one is required to have equivalent degrees in biochemistry, chemistry, physics or a similar discipline and familiarity with molecular modelling and computer programming ability. Salary Details As we have already checked, salaries in this field range from Rs. 3 lakh/ year for Research Associate to Rs. 10 lakhs for a managerial post. With experience and increasing responsibility, compensation also grows significantly. They also can receive bonuses throughout the development of a new drug. The opportunities are abundant. The success rate also depends on several other factors like analytical thinking, desire to learn new methods, leadership, quality management, problem-solving, strong interpersonal skills, strong verbal and written communication, task delegation, sound judgment, and planning and organization skills. What matters most is the capability of the individual to implement the knowledge acquired in a range of fields, his efficiency, and clean hands.



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Is Programming Knowledge Necessary For Career In Bioinformatics? Biology is the study of living beings, starting from the interaction between species and population to the structural and functional organization of cells and tissues in an individual organism. BIOLOGISTS COLLECT AND INTERPRET HUGE AMOUNTS OF DATA DURING A STUDY. FOR EXAMPLE, WE HAVE VAST VOLUMES OF DNA SEQUENCE DATA, BUT HOW DO WE UNDERSTAND WHICH PARTS OF THAT DNA CONTROL THE VARIOUS LIFE PROCESSES? By Dr. Leema George

How do we determine the function of new proteins that we came across during a study? And how do we predict the structure of a protein, based on the available information of its sequence? Bioinformatics is a tool that helps us to answer these questions. Bioinformatics can be defined as the application of information technology to study biological processes at the molecular level -ie. digitizing life science. The field of bioinformatics creates a niche for the emergence of a new class of biologists created by computational advancements. It has a collaborative approach that relies on computational methods including mathematical modeling, statistics, programming, simulation studies, analytical methods, etc. to analyze a huge amount of biological data. The objective of bioinformatics is to open new insights about the biological process. It could be about a disease mechanism, yield of new crops or drug therapy. Bioinformatics has been emerging out to be a critical domain within life sciences, especially under the realm of biotechnology & biomedical sciences. It is not only crucial for the management of biological or genomic data. But, it’s also becoming a key component in the discovery of new diagnostic & therapeutic tools- basic & translational research, clinical practice, and personalized medicine. The field of bioinformatics is multifaceted, applicable to almost all sectors of the life sciences It is very well explored in genomics, proteomics, pharmacovigilance, drug discovery, cheminformatics, and clinical studies. In Omics research, it is crucial to handle and interpret large-scale data. Additionally, bioinformatics also im-

plies a key role in the other branches of life sciences such as agro-science, forensic science, veterinary science, bioenergy, and environmental biotechnology. Thus, bioinformaticians are in high demand in Industry, Research, and Academia. Currently, bioinformatics is not just a tool for promoting scientific inventions in biotechnology and life sciences research. But, the subject has evolved from its supporting role to its own research arena. Yes, bioinformatics has achieved a buzzword position in life science. Hence, the biomedical science domain is witnessing an outburst of career opportunities in the field of bioinformatics. The call for talented & expertise professionals at the crossways of biology, statistics, and data science is very high. The requirements by a bioinformatician continue to evolve. There are two paths to shape a career in bioinformatics, both of which require learning a new language. Computer professionals must become eloquent in the language of genomics, genetics, and molecular biology, whereas biologists must grasp skills in data analysis, including statistics, logic, and programming. When picking the perfect career match, many recent graduates seem to forget about the involvement of computer science in bioinformatics. This article is a bird’s eye view to introduce the core programming requirements to frame a career in bioinformatics.

Why does bioinformatics need computation and programming Knowledge? It is a point of intersection between information technology and biology. The grand goal of bioinformatics is to define predictive methods that permit scientists to model the function and phenotype based on the genome sequence of an organism. Compiling genomic and biochemical data into quantitative and predictive representations of biochemistry and physiology will be the result of the enormous effort of computational biologists. Some biologists may have an opinion that a good background in organic chemistry, biochemistry and deep knowledge in molecular cell biology is enough to study bioinformatics. But, this may not be true for stepping into a career in an interdisciplinary field like bioinformatics. There must be several entry points and one of them is using the programming language. Programming skills are becoming a requirement across many planes of biology and medicine. With respect to the diversity and complex nature of problems addressed in biology, and medicine, it is authoritative to be able to tackle each problem with a comprehensive knowledge of available computational tools—so that the right tools can be applied for the problem at hand. The basic and versatile tools in your technology

toolbox are programming languages. The modern programming languages can attain numerous computational achievements, while some are more apt for specific tasks when compared to others. For example, the R language is almost unbeatable in its statistical computing capabilities, whereas the Lisp language is well versed for problems in artificial intelligence, and Erlang shines in fault-tolerant and distributed systems. To become an effective use of a programming language, it is important to not only gain basic proficiency in diverse languages but also to manage the time and energy to master at least a single language. The knowledge of computing and programming is crucial in computational biology in the aspect of computational modeling and simulation in molecular engineering. This involves making prototypes or models that can be simulated to perceive how they will act before they are installed into real-life applications. Moreover, knowledge in computational programming is essential for the development of new tools which can further open insights in finding solutions to numerous health ailments. However, this does not imply that one can avoid the fundamental knowledge in cell and molecular biology.

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So, let us now discuss the various aspects of a successful launch in the field of bioinformatics – Required educational background The field of Bioinformatics is very vast, and you can step into this domain taking multiple routes. To start with let us understand the required educational background – At the +2 level, the perfect grouping would be Chemistry, Physics, Math & Biology or Chemistry, Physics, Biology & Computer Science. – At the undergraduate level, you could pursue Biotechnology, Biomedical Science, Genetics, Computer Science, Biology, Biochemistry, Molecular biology, Statistics, or Chemical Engineering.

1.Required computational Skills: Knowledge in Software & Programming: C, C++, Java, R, MATLAB, Perl, Bash, Python, Galaxy. Linux and UNIX sysadmin skills are kind of mandatory. Knowledge of UNIX is enormously beneficial in bioinformatics. You should be also familiar with Machine learning tools and libraries such as Mllib and Scikit-Learn in python 2.Bioinformatics Skills

– At the postgraduate level, you would need specialization in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, Epidemiology, Biostatistics, or Applied Statistics. Since strong computer programming skills are a must to get established as a bioinformatics engineer, earning a Master of Science (M.S.) in Computer Science is also a popular option.

• Sequence alignment tools such as Blast or Bowtie • The Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) • Software for Next Generation Sequencing, Microarray, qPCR, and Data Analysis (Partek) • Tools for handling high throughput sequencing data like (samtools) • To get gene data sets use a tool such as (Ensemble) • Tools for database search systems like (Entrez) • T-coffee sequence analysis algorithms and clustering tools

Going ahead, the core requirements to become a bioinformatician fall under different domains.

3.Bioinformatics Resources and Database Skills UCSC genome browser, NCBI, En-


trez, SRS Database, UniProt, SwissProt, MySQL

skills are high-throughput sequencing, computational genomics, and next-generation sequencing. 4.Sub-domain software (toolkits): When choosing the perfect career match, studying bioinformatics is a • Proteomics: Scaffold, ProtMAX, promising bet to professional suc• Cheminformatics: ChemmineR, cess. Bioinformaticians enjoy an arEnalos, Indigo, PerlMol, OEChem, ray of research and professional jobs • Molecular Docking & Drug Dis- and get competitive salaries. Biocovery: Oracle Argus, ARISg, Au- informatics expertise is invaluable. toDock, SwissDock, etc. Ground-breaking technological abilities and productivity are intrinsic qualities of bioinformaticians, wid5.Statistical skills: ening their employability in the modStatistical software systems such as ern scientific community undergoing SPSS and SAS. How to perform sta- long lasting renewal tistical analyses with Python or R? But, before you choose a career in 6.Data Mining: this field, you should be clear enough about the sectors and applications of being able to extract data from di- Bioinformatics which interest you. verse resources. Getting Familiarised For gaining a better understanding of with techniques like hierarchical clus- what the field entails read scientific tering and decision trees is also useful journals in these areas so that you can make informed decisions about your 7.Data Visualization: future. In fact, it is not an easy task to get into bioinformatics programs acextract complex data and interpret it quainted in only biology, or computer into models and effectively commu- science. nicate with biologists Instead, you have to demonstrate you 8.Genomic and Genetic Knowledge know more than a little of both as it a blend of life science and computer This forms the core of bioinformat- science. ics. Some of the highly demanded

Importance of Research Internships For Your Career & How To Apply Intermittent breaks are essential in life to refresh body and mind for enhancing work efficiency. Like other work professionals, students are also provided with semester breaks throughout their academic career. THE BREAKS GENERALLY ENCOURAGE THE STUDENTS TO COME BACK TO THE ACADEMIC FIELD AFTER A REFRESHMENT WITH MORE ENERGY AND ENTHUSIASM. AS STUDENTS STEP INTO HIGHER ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS ESPECIALLY FROM A SCIENCE BACKGROUND THE CURRICULUM INCLUDES MORE PRACTICAL BASED SYLLABI. By Manisha

Apart from studying only the principle and theories of scientific phenomena the students are more attracted towards the practical experiments and the result analysis. It creates a desire in the student to learn the application of these principles for the upliftment

of mankind.

practical knowledge and sometimes to meet the requirements of their degree fulfillment at a place other than their own academic institutions. This short term exposure can be really of great importance for the career establishment of a student in the research sector. One can see the benefits from the moment a student starts to search for a suitable Job. This broadens the outlook of the students regarding the various available platforms for scientific works worldwide. By surfing through the website of the institutions and reputed companies students get to know a lot of information related to research areas in various places. This immensely encourages the students to be active in the research field as well as industrial applications of research work.

Within a limited time period for syllabus completion and other academic activities of the institute; not every student can get satisfactory experience related to hands-on experiments in the laboratories. For this reason, most of the institutions make Research Internships as a mandatory credit for completion of the degree. This helps students to work as interns in the laboratory of some other Research and Development Organization as well as established companies during their summer vacation where they are completely dedicated to enhancing their practical knowledge and experimental skills without any other academic burden. In general, an internship provides a short term work experience for an intern (mostly students) to enhance their Procedure to Apply For Research

Internships • There are certain procedures to be followed for applying the summer research fellowship. Most of the institutes notify and choose students for the research internship program. • Many of them hire Summer research Fellows nationwide through a screening process. • In order to motivate students more towards research career, these governing bodies also facilitate them with fellowship assistance. • Students have to be alert enough to check the dates of the advertisement and apply in time. Once they make it through the selection they are allocated to labs of their interest or any lab by the selecting body.

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• The selection is definitely a tough process as it solely depends on the inquisitiveness of the students towards research. • Along with the academic qualifications students have to submit a research proposal based on any topic of their own interest. This writing can be used to screen the research enthusiasm and the depth of knowledge of the students for the selection process. • Once the selection list is finalized the students are notified through email to contact their respective allocated supervisors and decide the suitable date for joining the internship. Apart from the above procedure, • Students can also join any company with a well developed Research and Development wing such as Pharmaceutical companies, Manufacturing companies for products such as enzymes, developing diagnosis kits, etc through direct references. • The students can approach existing employees for a short term project with sufficient laboratory skills involved that helps them to enhance their practical experience on a paid/ unpaid selection basis. • The company will have an enthusiastic intern to work and this will help the student to learn the relevant industrial skills. This transient break can have some really significant impact on the personal as well as the professional career of a student. Below mentioned are few points with a brief listing of the definite useful outcome of the Research Internships for a student. 1. Encourages One For A Research Career During the academic period, some students can fix their career objective but some may have the confusion to set their career objective. Sometimes a small exposure to a new field may help the student to realize what they actually need to do in the future. Research internships can really be a significant exposure to change the career path of students and make them realize whether they could continue a career in research throughout their life. Learning through visual sense is much more influential than auditory sense, hence practical knowledge always has a greater significance in humans than only theory based knowl-

edge. No matter how well the students are taught a concept in the theory class, exposure to a practical field can only help them understand it properly. Through this internship programme, students get access to visit other labs of Research and Development institutions that help them to come across a wide range of research field. They get to know how using the knowledge of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics different problems related to human society can be addressed worldwide. What is the practical implementation of life process knowledge to enhance the solution strategy for existing problems of human beings.

the interns learn minute yet useful techniques that are actually helpful to make them expertise at work. The basic lab techniques including micropipetting, sterilization techniques like autoclaving, media preparation, preparing reagents and stock solutions, etc are taught during the research internship program. In addition to this interns are trained some important instrumentation handling knowledge such as a spectrophotometer, gel documentation, cell culture, PCR, DNA quantification, etc. This learning gradually improves with time and makes a student much more precise than others.

is also taught during the internship. For writing the thesis and framing the abstract in the most influential way students are also trained to represent their work. Other research related soft skills such as taking up a specific problem to work on, how to set the objectives, structuring the materials and methods, how to design the experiments, represent data and analysis finally concluding remarks in the form of discussion is also learned during this period.

In industries, the interns get to learn the optimization of instruments, how In industries, interns get exposure to handle them properly with care to to different industrial processes at a minimize damage. Proper calibration larger scale. In what way the proto- of instruments is another important col designed in a lab is used to meet skill such as in weighing machines, the demands at a commercial level. pH meter, dissolved Oxygen meter, The technology, the instruments used etc. in industries, their principles, efficiency can inspire them to develop 3. Increases Proficiency in Writing similar equipment for other applications. They are encouraged to think One of the key skills in a research caof improvising existing models to en- reer is representing your work through hance methods and production. This research and review papers in various motivates a student to search answers journals. Writing the paper in a proper for some questions that are still unre- scientific way to decrease the chance solved. To find the solution to prob- of rejection by editorial boards of lems that are still unsolved. This small journals is a difficult task. So during experience can lay the foundation for internship interns are trained to write a research career for the students. the papers in formats that are readily accepted. This skill can be enhanced 2. Helps Improvise Hands-on skills by studying papers of various journals such as Nature publishing group, The laboratory provides a platform Cell, Science, PNAS, PLOS, etc that for the students to experience things shape up the crude writing ideas of as real. They might have studied the students into a proper scientifDNA replication numerous times ic format. Reading these papers also but they get to see a DNA molecule enhance the vocabulary skills of stuin the lab for the first time. This is a dents and gives ideas of work protogreat experience for them. Practical- cols adopted by different laboratories. ly many small things are there which may affect the efficiency and accu- Learning proper citation of a referracy of the result. In the laboratory, ence journal is also a vital thing that

The curriculum vitae is a summary of the entire academic profile of a student till the present date. CVs include detailed information regarding academic backgrounds such as teaching experience, additional degrees, research work, awards and achievements, publications, presentations, and extracurricular deeds. In brief, CVs include more information, particularly extensive records related to one’s academic and research background. Along with the essential degrees and qualifications such as graduation and post graduation etc something extracurricular can definitely increase the weightage compared to others.

4. Adds Weight to Your Curriculum vitae – Preference Given During Job Interviews

Internship in a reputed laboratory under the supervision of scientific personnel will definitely add a shining star to the general CV of the intern. In the future, this experience may account for some really important selection criteria in the student’s career. This internship will classify you as an experienced candidate over others which most employers desire. So this internship increases the chance of selection over other candidates in the employment field. Next Page>>>>


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During an interview, this extra weight also boosts the self-confidence as it ensures better practical knowledge in the relevant field. 5. Increases Team Building Skills Teamwork is definitely much more effective than working alone. Research work needs a strong team with lots of cooperation and knowledge exchange among the team members. Most of the research works are done in collaboration between different laboratories where part of the work is done by one lab and part of the objective is done by the other lab. So to be capable of being a good teammate is a necessity for a research career. During this internship, the intern has to work with the research scholars of respective supervisors in R & D institutions and other employees in R & D wings of industries. This requires to learn new things as well as cooperation from the experienced members of the team. In return interns also

need to assist their seniors in various collaborations. projects. This definitely strengthens the teamwork quality. This prepares 7. Makes Your Research Career an intern to work in a team in the fu- Futureproof ture. While working as an intern if the stu6. Helps in Establishing a Strong dent finds the place suitable to work in future also they can definitely asProfessional Network sure it with their dedication and hard Today’s world has definitely shrunk work. Every employer needs dedicatwith advanced technologies that en- ed hardworking and sincere employable people to stay connected with ees who can contribute to maximum each other through networking. But growth for his company. Once interns still developing a relation by direct get to work at a place such as a labointeraction is much stronger than a ratory or industry they are acquaintvirtual relationship. During the re- ed with the work environment. They search internship period, the intern align themselves as per the rules and comes in contact with a lot of peo- regulation of the workplace. ple from scientific academic as well as nonacademic backgrounds, this There is also a friendly professional widens the professional network for environment that ensures better work them. This improves communica- quality by the employees. So many tion skills and enhances knowledge employers may prefer to recruit ingain through the exchange of ideas terns as their permanent employees. and views among interacting people. This is definitely a kind of career inThis broad professional networking is surance for the interns. For interns in helpful for the establishment of future R & D laboratories if they develop a


good understanding of the supervisors this may lead to a secure PhD position in the respective lab. 8. Boost Self-Confidence Self-confidence is the key to success in life. Exposure to a practical work environment gives the confidence to work in new better places in the future. This enhances the communication skills, time management skills and work efficiency which is really helpful to maintain a healthy professional life. Time is the most precious thing in life. The person who can make the best use of it definitely succeeds in life. Obviously, leisure is equally important in life to freshen up and rejuvenate mind to get back to work, but using the leisure time in some productive work is a wise decision. Joining a research internship will certainly give a boost to the academic career of an intern.

Biophysics: Introduction, Eligibility, Career Scope, Companies Hiring Introduction To Biophysics: Science is divided into different disciplines – Biology, Physics, Chemistry, etc. All these are again incomplete without the contribution of mathematics. A SEPARATE STUDY OF NATURE AND NATURAL PHENOMENON THROUGH SPECIFIED FIELDS OF BIOLOGY, PHYSICS, MATHEMATICS, AND CHEMISTRY GAVE US A CERTAIN IDEA ABOUT THEM. BUT WITH TIME IT WAS REALIZED TO UNDERSTAND THE REAL WORLD, WE NEED TO COMBINE ALL THE KNOWLEDGE OF DIFFERENT FIELDS TO GET A UNIFIED VIEW. By Dr. Sunita Adak

Only a unified view can bring us closer to the real world. This led to the development of many multidisciplinary as well as an interdisciplinary field of studies, like astrophysics, biophysics, physical chemistry, biochemistry, astrobiology, biomechanics, biopsychology, etc. Biophysics or biological physics combines physics with biology. It is an interdisciplinary field of science which is a congruence of many other disciplines. Major contributing disciplines

are physics, mathematics, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, material sciences, and computer science. All these together are utilized to define the biological systems, phenomena, and functioning. The concept of biophysics might have been around many centuries and can be traced back as early as ancient Romans and Greeks. Discovery of radioactive elements and inventions related to those elements like nucle-

ar weapons shifted focus to the effect of radiation on living organisms. Research in this aspect widened the view of biology by utilizing physics to explain the mechanics of life. This new approach seeks to explain the life at the molecular level – molecular composition of biomolecules, cells, organization, and hierarchy, how they from molecules to cells to tissues to organs to organ system to organism work.

Life At The Molecular Level Living organisms are comprised of basic elements like Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorous, etc. All these combine in a different manner to give rise to the basic biomolecules – proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. They help to create the unit of Next Page>>>>



life the cell. Though diverse in their shape, size, composition, and properties, they function as the building blocks of life creating cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and finally the entire organism.

macromolecules like DNA, RNA and proteins have been elucidated till date. Techniques of purification, characterization, sequencing, and crystallization has helped in this process. Presently innumerable entries are available for DNA, RNA, and The major functions allocated to protein sequences from varieties of basic macromolecules are as fol- living organisms. These entries have lows: been utilized for the structural analysis, sequence matching, development 1. Nucleic acids store the information of gene maps, and evolution and phyrequired for the cell functioning are logenetics. Species relatedness, deknown as genetic material. velopmental hierarchy, and diversifi2. Lipids create the membranous cation can be studied extensively. boundaries which help to compartmentalize the cell from the rest of 2. Modelling – Biophysics also deals the surrounding and even creates with computation, using which modsub-compartments inside the cell els can be developed for DNA, RNA, which help in work distribution. protein, and viruses, etc. This ap3. Carbohydrates used as energy proach helps in better visualization of source and storage and are part of the desired object and understanding many structural and functional com- the working process. A complete unponents of the cell in association with derstanding is essential for further maproteins or lipids. nipulation of structure and prediction 4. Proteins are the working machin- of the consequences. Thus, gives an ery of cells in the form of enzymes in-depth understanding of the effect and take part as a major structural of mutations, DNA damage or any component. other abnormality due to conditions like disease or cancer. Moreover, the All these macromolecules interact foremost application of modeling so among each other and with other mol- far has been done in drug designing ecules, ions for the sustenance of life. and finding new drug targets. The underlying mechanisms involved in a molecular association like associ- 3. Molecules Dynamics – Molecation and dissociation kinetics, energetics, thermodynamics, and molecular dynamics, special organization, stability, ionization, wave-particle interaction, etc. can be studied by biophysics. Using diversified tools and analytical methods, the intricacies of biological functions at cellular can be explained in terms of structure, function, and properties of specific molecules. Even it is possible to develop tools for detection, and manipulation of a single molecule. Biophysics can also integrate the cellular working mechanism at the higher levels of organ and organism, helping to unravel the body’s functioning. These functions can be visualized using different biophysical techniques and even modeled. Modelling and simulation are successfully used for prediction and therapeutics. Moreover, the biophysical study of environment and organisms also sheds light on the ecological interactions around us on earth. Applications of Biophysics Being an interdisciplinary science, it can be applied in multiple domains. Some of them have been mentioned below: 1. Structure and Data Analysis – The structure of many biological

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ular dynamics can also be studied under biophysics. This has been accomplished by using fluorescent tags which can bind to specific target inside or outside the cells. The fluorescence can be monitored using spectroscopy or microscopy techniques and thus the movement of molecules could be recorded. It has immense scope in predicting the working machinery of cells like the dynamics of the plasma membrane during endocytosis, exocytosis, signaling, transportation, assembly, and disassembly of cytoskeleton during the cell cycle, sudden rise and fall of internal signals in form of ions, cAMP etc. and even outside the cell movement of secretory signals viz. hormones from one cell to another.

processing of different sensory information like visual, auditory, etc. models have been developed using neural networks. 5. Nanotechnology and Biomedical engineering – The critical understanding of mechanics of an organ and its supportive tissues helps in the development of biomimetics. The detailed knowledge and simulations provide an extra edge to design appropriate biomaterials and to improve upon it which can replace the damaged tissues or organs like prosthetic limbs. Even the development of better nanomaterials as a drug delivery system is also possible through biophysical studies. 6. Imaging – Development of sophisticated imaging techniques like CT scans, MRI, US, and PET scans have been possible by biophysical studies. These types of imaging and diagnostic tools are essential for efficient, precise, rapid and safe diagnosis and monitoring of organs and bioprocesses.

4. Neuroscience – Another active area where biophysics has been extensively used is in understanding the nervous system. Nowadays famous Deep learning in computation is based on Neural Networks – single layer, multilayer – an algorithm which is modeled based on the human brain. The neural network recognizes patterns by interpretation of sensory data through 7. Medical Therapeutics- Biophysa kind of machine perception viz. la- icist also work towards research and beling or clustering raw input. Like- development of therapeutic devices, wise, to understand the working of the brain and nervous system during Next Page>>>>


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which can be successfully utilized to treat certain conditions. Some of such devices and techniques so far developed and being utilized include a pacemaker, stents, cardiac defibrillators, artificial joints – knee and hip, dialysis, electrotherapy, radiation therapy, etc. 8. Ecosystem study– Biophysics also studies life from a larger view of environment and population, community, so considering both aspects of abiotic and biotic factors. A detailed study of all these along with model development is essential for understanding the ecosystem, its variations and complexities, dynamics, conservation, and management. Courses Offered in Biophysics & The Eligibility Criteria Many colleges/universities in India offer academic courses in Biophysics in India. Some of them are – All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Manipal University, University of Mumbai, University of Madras, University of Kalyani, and so on. From a basic degree to higher advanced level of degree is available. The course of Biophysics mainly comprises of subjects like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Physiology, Computer science, Molecular and Structural biology, Bioinformatics, Biomechanics, Biochemistry, and Computational Chemistry, Biophysics, Medicine and Neuroscience, Pharmacology, etc. Higher education at Ph.D./PDF level involves research in diversified fields viz. Nanotechnology, Bioengineering, Systems Biology, Agrophysics, etc. Following courses are available: 1. B.Sc in Biophysics – Bachelor of Science in Biophysics is a three years course. The eligibility criteria include basic 10+2 with Biology, Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics compulsory. 2. M.Sc in Biophysics – Master of Science in Biophysics is a two years course. Eligibility for Master degree includes Bachelors in Physics, Biology with mathematics in 10+2, Bioinformatics, Chemistry, Biotechnology, etc. Many institutes conduct entrance exams for admission; hence clearance of admission test is also mandatory. 3. M.Phil in Biophysics – Master of Philosophy in Biophysics is a two years course. Candidate interested need to have Post Graduation in relevant subject or equivalent and need to

clear institutional entrances. 4. P.hD in Biophysics – Doctor of Philosophy in Biophysics is a research-based course with variable duration based on the institute. Candidate interested need to have Post Graduation in relevant subject or equivalent and need to clear institutional entrances. Apart from these courses many certification and Diploma courses are also available of various duration and eligibility. Biophysics Career Scope & Opportunities Biophysicists can solve biological and physical problems pertaining to daily life. As the research is carried out at different biomolecular, organism and environment levels, it has tremendous career opportunities.


research institutes as Indian Institutes of Technology, Raman Research InOther work fields as bioinformaticist, stitute and National Institute of Menprogrammer and computational bio- tal Health & Neuro Sciences. physicist involved in database compilation, computer model development Companies like AstraZeneca Pharma for viruses or new protein structures India Ltd, Johnson & Johnson, Abbott to elucidate their function. Also have Laboratories, Bristol-Myers Squibb, career scope as engineers targeting Boehringer Ingelheim India Pvt Ltd, environmental problems such as pol- Baxter, Boston Scientific, CPA Globlution control, waste treatment, bio- al, Thermofisher, Merck and Pfizer fuel production, etc. Other job oppor- also hire Biophysicist in the capacity tunities include work in intellectual of scientists, engineers, research felproperty, writers and editors, and leg- lows, analysts, designers, programislative advisers. mers, patient specialists and directors. Institutes & Companies Hiring In Biophysics Field

Biophysicist gets a job as Professor, Associate Professor and Assistant Professor in Universities and Institutes like University of Madras, Banaras Hindu University, Indian Institutes of Technology, and National Some of the job profiles available Institute of Mental Health & Neuro are as follows: Sciences. Research jobs as a Junior Research Fellow, Senior Research 1. Medical/Clinical Biophysicist – Fellow, Research Associate, ScientifWorking in the field of mainly thera- ic officers, etc. also available in many peutics and diagnosis. Need skills of a variety of analytical, computer-aided and bioengineering techniques in their work such as x-ray imaging, tomography, ultrasound, radiotherapy, radiology, lasers, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Also work as professionals developing new diagnostic tests, drug delivery systems, and drug designing. 2. Nutritional Biophysicist – Working in the field of food and nutrition. Need skills of food analysis of different nutritional content, adulterants, toxins, product processing, quality control and analysis, research and development of products. Also, monitor the effect of nutrition on the body and bioprocesses. 3. Applied Biophysicist – Work in projects regarding basic and applied research. Associated with checking the effect of substances like hormones, drugs etc. on biological processes. 4. Researcher/ Scientist – Working in different institutes- laboratories, research institutes, universities, Pharmaceutical companies, Hospitals, etc. Investigating biophysical aspects of biomolecules, drugs, etc., their effect on the living organisms and their modification for improvement or correction. 5. Professor/Lecturer/Teacher – Work as a teacher of Biophysics in different institutes, colleges and uni-


Biophysics has immense scope in today’s world. With the increase in the institutes offering courses for study and research, many are opting for it and there has been a significant rise in its application in different sectors. As there are so many related fields of application, a biophysicist with a wide breadth of training, find a wide range of career open to them. This is the upcoming field which will bear many successes and help in human progress in a sustainable manner.



July 16th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 87

Food Technology Career, Job Prospects, Scope In India & Abroad


f you are one of those people who are constantly curious and always on the lookout for news and information about the trends, hypes, and new discoveries in the food industry, then this article might be of interest to you. Furthermore, if food science and technology is of any interest to you, then you are in the right place. Recently, you might have noticed the significant rise in the field of Applied Biological Sciences. In fact, many individuals have become more interested in this field due to its dynamic and interesting nature and of course its direct implications to a human being’s life. And if you are observant enough, you’ll notice that the buzz about this topic has become more frequent – you get to read it on the news, on the Internet, and even in social media platforms. This alone is a sign that there is something good going on. Most of us would think of Biomedical Science when one talks about Applied Biological Sciences. This is normal because it is one of the most popular branches. However, tailing it is the Food Science and Agriculture, which has also been gaining a lot of attention recently. This branch though is wide-ranging and interdisciplinary, and thus, requires a comprehensive discussion. This is what this `article aims to do – provide you with an overview of the Food Science and Technology, where the world of Sciences meets the world of food. Food Science Defined First and foremost, let us discuss and try to explain what food science is. To give you a glimpse of what it is about, allow us to define it in a way that is easy to understand and uncomplicated. Food science is another area in applied sciences that involves the basics of biochemistry, chemical engineering, and physical sciences in order to be able to understand the biological, chemical, and physical nature of food. To make it even simpler to comprehend, food science (or some call it food science and technology) is the study involving the manufacturing, processing, treatment, preservation, and distribution of food. Like every other field in applied science, the main objective of food science ti to be able to understand the principles and the processes involved in food, from the manufacturing up

until the distribution. Understanding these processes will allow the team to come up with steps, suggestions, and other processes that would improve the food quality for the consumers – the general public. Therefore, the next time you see a food item while doing your grocery, just put in mind that it has undergone scrutiny from a food scientist, food technologist, or food engineer or all of the above. This is to help ensure that what you are feeding your body is not toxic and poisonous. Food Science, Food Technology, and Food Engineering A lot of people, especially those who are not familiar with this field, get confused with terminologies and the scopes covered in food science, food technology, and food engineering. Truth be told, these three are overlapping; however, there are few subtle differences. We will not be explaining each in detail but allow us to illustrate the three the best we can, so you will have a picture. The following have been adopted form research gate. • Food Technology: Talks about how one can use fire to cook food • Food Science: Discuss the effects of burning wood. That is, it can produce heat, water, and carbon dioxide. To add further, it also explains how heat denatures the proteins in food. • Food Engineering: This explains why building a fireplace and chimney can make cooking easier without having to fill the room with smoke. Hopefully, the illustrations above would make it a bit clearer. But for the purpose of this article, let us all take the three as one and use Food Science & Technology moving forward. The Need for Food Science & Technology One fact cannot be denied: All forms of life need food to survive. It is a basic necessity, especially for human beings, just like clothes, shelter, education, and healthcare. If you take a look at it, the majority of the food items are biological in nature. However, the processes involved after, including harvesting, processing, distribution, storage, and preparation, are complex. It requires someone to have a broad-based knowledge and

training in order to understand the entire process and to be able to solve problems. The person responsible for making our food safe and nutritious are called food scientists. They are also the ones responsible for coming up with innovative packaging. In other words, food scientists are the ones doing the dirty job so we can maximize our food resources and minimize waste of resources. Because of the advent of technology, and of course, the existence of food scientists, the evolution of the food system worldwide has been tremendous. These and so much more are thanks to food science and technology. In fact, because of this field of applied sciences, our processed food items have become healthier to consume and move conveniently too for everyone! Demand for Food Science and Technology Professionals Although Food Science is relatively a new discipline, its popularity is growing as the day goes by. Two factors that contribute to this is the rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes that are happening across the globe. Food Science is multidisciplinary in nature; it’s the same with Pharmacy, Biomedical Science, or even Translational Science. We already know that Food Science is involved with chemistry (inorganic, organic, and physical), microbiology, biochemistry, chemical, nutrition, and process engineering. Thus, the holy grail of this branch of food science is understanding biochemistry and chemistry of each of the food components, including carbohydrate, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. Therefore, it is just but understandable that only highly qualified

and trained Food Scientists get into the industry. One thing that might have contributed to this is the fact that the advancements in technology have an effect on our daily life, making us busier than we ever have. Thus, the demand too easy-to-prepare and ready-to-eat drinks and meals have also increased as well. These drink and meals should be high quality, partnered with safety and nutrition value. As a result, there is once again a need for advancements and developments in technology worldwide. Thus, food science and food technology go hand in hand. Requirements for a Career in the Food Industry So, now, that we have the overview of Food Science and Technology settled. It is now time that we tackle what it takes for someone to get into the Food Industry. What are the needed education and training? Well, in a nutshell, you need to have a background in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (PCB) combination and Mathematics in your 10+2. When talking about it in the bachelor’s degree level, one should get a three-year or four-year degree courses in the fields of Food Science or Food Technology, Food Science and Technology, or Food Science and Agriculture, depending on what’s available on the school you are choosing. If none of these courses are available at where you are studying or plan to study, then you can choose from these alternative courses: Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Chemical/Process Engineering, Organic

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July 16th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 87

Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences, • Denmark Technical University Nutrition, etc. Salary Structures in the Food InOn the other hand, if you are look- dustry in India ing to have a career in QC and QA or R&D, you need to have a higher Now, here is the part that we have all degree, maybe a master’s degree or a been wanting to get a sneak peek of. Ph.D. Doing this will give you more Of course, we want to know the saladvantage and an edge, especially ary structures in the food industry, at when you decide to pursue a high- least in India. So allow us to take you er degree from a school abroad. On through a short journey to the salary the other hand, if you are leaning to- structures. ward a career in sales and marketing For starters, a Food Technologist or roles, such as product or brand man- sometimes called food scientist can agement, then getting an MBA might earn an average between INR 20,000 help you achieve just that. and 25,000 per month in India. If you Lastly, if you are planning on a career stay in the field for at least five years, as a Nutritionist or Dietician, there’s you can earn between INR 500,000 good news for you. You might not al- and 740,000 annually. With more ways need to get a higher degree af- years of experience, at least 10 years ter you achieve a bachelor’s degree. of it at least, you can very much exThere are other options you can do, pect an annual salary of between INR like getting certificates or PG Diplo- 900,000 and 1,180,000. ma courses that are in the fields of If you are planning a career in the Nutrition or Dietetics. manufacturing industry, here’s the The following are some of the top salary structure. It is approximateuniversities and colleges in India to ly equivalent to those who decide to study Food Science & Food tech- be involved in the R&D or QC/QA nology: function. If you’re someone you are a travel enthusiast, then Food Inspector • Central Food Technological Re- role is the best one for you. Next, if search Institute (CFTRI) academic roles are your interest, then • National Institute of Food Technol- you should know that the pay will deogy Entrepreneurship and Manage- pend on the University pay scales. ment (NIFTEM) • Indian Institute of Crop Processing There will be extra incentives for Technology (IICPT) those in the Sales & Marketing field. • National Agri-Food Biotechnology Without the incentives in mind, the Institute (NABI) salary levels are usually 20% to25% • Food and Drug Toxicology Re- higher than those in the R&D and search Centre (FDTRC) QC/QA field. • National Institute of Nutrition Lastly, for the nutritionists and dieti(NIN) cians, the average annual wage is INR • Indian Institute of Toxicology Re- 210,000 for starters while Nutrition search (IITR) Managers can earn up to an average • Indian Agricultural Research Insti- of up to INR 750,000 per year. As a tute (IARI) nutritionist or diet counselor, you can • Department of Food Science and also do freelancing, either on the side Technology, Pondicherry Universi- or as your main source of income. ty • International Life Sciences Institute Product & Brand Management in – India (ILSI) the Food Industry • IISER – Pune In India, the food industry is huge, Best Food Tech Degree Colleges in with every single role being imporThe USA tant. For instance, R&D and QC/QA professionals are the ones responsible • Cornell University for making the food nutritious and • The University of Illinois at Urbana safe for all of us. But, to be totally Champaign honest, Product Management and • Texas A&M University Brand Management are arguably two • UC Davis of the most sought-for and in-demand • University of Florida functions from the industry’s point of view. Best Food Tech Colleges in Other To give you a picture, let us rememcountries ber how Cadbury revived its image after the worm incident in Dairy Milk. • University College Dublin Also, just last year, Nestle exerted all • University College Cork possible efforts to revive the Maggi. • Dublin Institute of Technology These are where product and brand • University of Copenhagen management functions are most in



need. A lot of strategies is very much ready-to-drink items needed as the competition is fierce. • Food Processing has been recognized as a priority sector If you are a foodie, into challenges, • Services of pre-conditioning, has a thing for strategy making has pre-cooling, ripening, waxing, retail a whole lot of creative juices, and of packing, labeling of fruits and vegcourse wants to be wealthy, then landetables have been exempted from ing a job in these Food Industry roles Service Tax should be your goal. • The food processing sector has a lot of exemptions and rebates are availThe scope of Food Industry in India able. These include transportation costs, taxes, customs duty, and cenFinally, we can now talk about the tral excise duty scope of the food industry in India. At • Various investment opportunities present, it is currently valued at USD are available $39.71 billion. This can reach USD • 100% FDI is permitted in the auto$65.4 billion by the end of the year as matic route for most food products the Govt. of India and IBEF stated in • Many foreign players worldwide its reports. are interested to invest in the Indian A DIPP report said that the Indian Food Processing sector Food Processing sector has about • There is demand for Food Tech USD $6.7 billion as FDI between the Startups years 2000 (April) and 2015 (December). The investments are poised to The Verdict reach the value of USD $33 million in the next 10 years. To sum it all up, if you are a foodie To add to this investment factor, an- and totally interested in science and other thing to consider is the opportu- maybe about technology, then you nity factor. This is based on the data must consider and include in your from the Ministry of Food Processing goals a career in Food Science and Industries. To add, it reports that 42% Technology. of the Indian Food Processing Indus- The Food and Beverage industry in try is still unorganized (D&B). Mean- the country has been consistently rising to say, opportunities are up for ing and increasing and is fast-becomgrabs for prospective entrepreneurs. ing of the top ones. Plus, it might not end anytime soon as we all know that All in all, the signs are very promis- all human beings and even all creaing for the future within the food in- ture with life need to eat and drink in dustry in India. order to survive. In other words, you likely will land Well, if you still aren’t convinced, a good-paying job in the food industhen the following key points might try as long as you have the required change your mind. These are based education and training, whether here on IBEF and MakeInIndia websites: or abroad. The education and training in the food industry are very crucial • The country ranked 6th in the World to your career. Plus, you should also in terms of agricultural product ex- consider taking up further studies or ports in the year 2013 short-term courses wherein you can • India lands 2nd in terms of having earn certificates and merits. All these the largest arable land in the world can be used on your application, de• The country possesses 20 agrocli- pending on what role you are planmatic regions; it has all 15 possible ning to pursue. major climates, and it has 46 of the The bottom line here is that Food Scioverall 60 possible soil types world- ence and Technology is here to stay, wide not only in India but anywhere around • The food processing sector contrib- the world. It is one of the applied uted INR 845.22 billion to the GDP sciences that becomes even more in in 2012-2013 demand as the time goes by. If you • Food Processing Industry also has land a career in this industry, you are the major employment intensive a vital member of making sure that sectors in the country the food that people consume not only • Food constitutes 38.5% and 48.6% in your country but worldwide is safe of the total household consumption and has the best nutrients one can get expenditure in 2011-2012 in a processed food and similar items. • The growing population is one huge factor in the increase in India’s So, we hope this article sheds more overall food consumption light not only about food science and • One-third of the population will technology but also on its importance be living in urban areas by 2020, and its function in the country and resulting in an increase in brand- the lives of millions of individuals’ ed, packaged, and ready-to-eat or health.



July 16th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 87

Profile for BioTecNika

Biotecnika Times 16th July 2019 Edition - Biotech Fresher Career Advice Special  

Biotecnika Times 16th July 2019 Edition - Biotech Fresher Career Advice Special