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July 30th, 2019

Vol. 03

NO 89

Toll Free Number: 18001-200-1818

www.biotecnika.org

Headlines:

GATE 2020 OFFICIAL NOTIFICATION

IIT DELHI

ORGANISING INSTITUTE - GATE 2020

DBT BITP 2019

Biotech Industrial Training Program

GET THIS NEWSPAPER e-copy VIA WHATSAPP every week GIVE MISSED CALL TO

080-470-90943

IIT JAM 2020 Notification


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HEADLINES

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

GATE 2020 Notification, Application Date, Deadline & Eligibility Introduction: GRADUATE APTITUDE TEST IN ENGINEERING (GATE) IS AN EXAMINATION CONDUCTED JOINTLY BY THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE (IISC), BANGALORE AND THE SEVEN INDIAN INSTITUTES OF TECHNOLOGY (AT BOMBAY, DELHI, GUWAHATI, KANPUR, KHARAGPUR, MADRAS AND ROORKEE) ON BEHALF OF THE NATIONAL COORDINATION BOARD (NCB)-GATE, DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (MHRD), GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. By Diluxi Arya

2020. The GATE examination centres are spread in different cities across InQualifying in GATE is a mandato- dia, as well as, in six cities outside Inry requirement for seeking admis- dia. The examination would be purely sion and/or financial assistance to: (i) a Computer Based Test (CBT). Master’s programs and direct Doctoral programs in Engineering/Tech- The GATE score would reflect the nology/Architecture and (ii) Doctor- relative performance level of the canal programs in relevant branches of didate in a particular subject, which is Science, in the institutions supported quantified based on the several years by the MHRD and other Government of examination data. Note that the agencies. Even in some colleges and GATE 2020 score is valid for THREE institutions, which admit students YEARS from the date of announcewithout MHRD scholarship/assistant- ment of the results. ship, the GATE qualification is mandatory. Further, many Public Sector Eligibility: Undertakings (PSUs) have been using the GATE score in their recruit- The following candidates are eligible to appear in GATE 2020: ment process. The information in this brochure is mainly categorized into Pre-Examination (Eligibility, Application Submission, Examination Centres, etc.), Examination(Pattern, Marks/Score, etc.) and Post-Examination (Answers, Contests, Results, Scorecard, etc.) sections.

Bachelor’s degree holders in Engineering/Technology (4 years after 10+2 or 3 years after B.Sc./Diploma in Engineering/ Technology) and those who are in the final year of such programmes.

Bachelor’s degree holders in Architecture (Five years course)/ Naval Architecture (Four years course) and ABOUT GATE those who are in the final year of such Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineer- programmes. ing (GATE) is basically an examination on the comprehensive under- Bachelor’s degree holders of Fourstanding of the candidates in various year programme in science (B.S.) and undergraduate subjects in Engineer- those who are in the final year of such ing/Technology/ Architecture and programmes. post-graduate level subjects in Science. GATE 2020 will be conducted Master’s degree holders in any for 25 subjects (also referred to as branch of Science/Mathematics/ “papers”) and it would be distributed Statistics/Computer Applications or over 1st, 2nd, 8th & 9th of February equivalent and those who are in the final year of such programmes.

Holders of Four-year Integrated B.Sc./M.Sc. Dual Degree and those Master’s degree (Post B.Sc.) in En- who are in the final year of such progineering/Technology and those who grammes. are in the second or higher year of such programmes. Candidates with qualifications obtained through examinations conductHolders of Five-year Integrated ed by professional societies recogMaster’s degree or Dual Degree in nized by UPSC/ AJCTE as equivalent Engineering/Technology and those to B.E./B.Tech. Those who have comwho are in the fourth or higher year pleted section A of AMIE or equivaof such programmes. lent of such professional courses are also eligible. Holders of Five-year Integrated M.Sc. or Five-year integrated Next Page>>>>


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July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

Important Dates:

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Important Dates:

GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS) Website Opens

Tuesday

3rd September 2019

Zone

Contact Address

Phone Number

e-mail Id

Closing Date for Submission of (Online) Application (through Website) Extended Closing Date for Submission of (Online) Application (through Website) Last Date for Requesting Change of Examination City (an additional fee will be applicable) Admit Card will be available in the Online Application Portal (for printing) GATE 2020 Examination Forenoon: 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM (Tentative) Afternoon: 2:30 PM to 5:30 PM (Tentative) Announcement of the Results in the Online Application Portal

Tuesday

24th September 2019

1

080-22932392 080-23601227

gate@gate.iisc.ac.in

Tuesday

1st October 2019

022-25767068

gateoffice@iitb.ac.in

Friday

15th November 2019

Friday

3rd January 2020

3

011-26591749 011-26596137

chrgate@admin.iitd. ac.in

Saturday Sunday Saturday Sunday

1st February 2020 2nd February 2020 8th February 2020 9th February 2020

4

0361-2582751 0361-2582755

gate2019@iitg.ac.in

Monday

16th March 2020

Chairman, GATE Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012 Chairman, GATE Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 Chairman, GATE Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 Chairman, GATE Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039 Chairman, GATE Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 Chairman, GATE Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 Chairman, GATE Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 Chairman, GATE Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667

0512-2597412

gate@iitk.ac.in

03222-282091 03222-282095

gate@adm.iitkgp.ac.in

044-22578200

gate@iitm.ac.in

01332-284531

gate@iitr.ac.in

Examination Centres outside Indio (All Candidates) Category

On or before 24th Sept 2019

During the Extended Period

Addis Ababa, Colombo, Dhaka & Kathmandu Dubai and Singapore

US$ 50

US$ 70

US$ 100

US$ 120

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All candidates must apply online.


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HEADLINES

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

BITP 2019 – DBT Biotech Industrial Training Program Biotech students can apply for a hands on training programme in biotech companies for a period of six months. DBT – Biotech Industrial Training Programme (BITP) 2019-20 official notification is out. BIOTECH STUDENTS ARE ENCOURAGED TO APPLY FOR THE TRAINING PROGRAMME ANNOUNCED BY DBT INDIA 2019-20 AS PER THE DETAILS GIVEN BELOW: By Diluxi Arya

DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India BIOTECH INDUSTRIAL TRAINING PROGRAMME BITP 2019-20 UNDER DBTSKILL VIGYAN Applications are invited from Biotechnology students for hands on training in biotech companies (BITP 2019) for a period of 6 months. The programme supplies a superb opportunity to biotech students to get useful skills and also experience working on projects along with industry experts in addition to an opportunity to the industry to recognize possible candidates for selection of employees. Throughout the training, stipend will be paid to trainees.

Mode of Application: Biotech students Interested in training In biotech companies may apply online. For detailed procedure for filling the application form, payment of application fee and uploading of required documents/certificates in the prescribed format, please visit: http://www. bcil.nic.in/bitp2019/instruction.asp

A copy of the system generated acknowledgement and application form submitted online must be sent via speed post courier to Programme Co-ordinator, DBT-BITP, Biotech Attention BITP 2019: BiotechnolConsortium India, 5th floor, Anuvrat ogy Students Bhavan, 210, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg, New Delhi-110002, along with B.E./ B.Tech./ M.Sc./ M.Tech./ the following documents: M.V.Sc./ MBA in General/ Agricultural/ Industrial/ Marine/ a) A demand draft of Rs. 500/- toMedical/ Pharmaceutical/ Environwards non-refundable and non-transmental/ Plant/ Food/ Animal Biotechferable application fee as per the nology, Molecular & Human Genetics, details at http://www.bcil.nic.in/ Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, bitp2019/index.asp. Please write your Neuro-Science, Biochemical Engiapplication id, name, date of birth and neering & Biotechnology, Bio-promobile no. on the reverse side of the cess Technology and Bioinformatics demand draft. from a recognized Indian university with minimum 50% marks or equivb) Self-attested copy of final markalent grade. Candidates applying for sheet of the qualifying examination BITP 2019-20 must have completed indicating the cumulative percentage their qualifying degree in the year of marks or equivalent CGPA. For 2018 or 2019. students appearing in the final examination in 2019, filled and signed How to Apply: certificate from Head of the Department on college/university letter head Mode of Selection for BITP 2019: in the format available at www.bcil. Candidates will be selected based nlc.in. on computer-based entrance test followed by an interview. Entrance Test c) Self-attested copy of domicile would be conducted at multiple cencertificate (North Eastern States stutres across the country. dents only)

Note: Students with domicile in the bank name North Eastern States may apply as per the above advertisement for BITP A copy of the system generat2019. There will not be any separate ed acknowledgement and applicanotification for BITP 2019 for them. tion form submitted online must be sent via speed post/ courier to ProIn case of any query, please send gramme Co-ordinator, DBT-BITP, e-mail to bitp.dbt@nic.in Biotech Consortium India Limited, 5th floor, Anuvrat Bhavan, 210, Deen Detailed Instructions: Dayal Upadhyaya Marg, New Delhi-110002, along with the following The application will be filled via on- documents: line mode only. Online registration will commence on 23rd July 2019 and a. A demand draft of Rs. 500/the last date for submission of the on- drawn in favour of ‘Biotech Conline application form is 22nd August sortium India Limited’, payable at 2019. In order to register/complete ‘New Delhi’ towards non-refundable the application form, please follow and non-transferable application fee. the steps given below: Please write your ‘application id, a. Go to the link http://www.bcil. name, date of birth and mobile numnic.in/bitp2019/index.asp ber’ on the reverse side of the demand b. Click on “Application form for draft. Students (New User)” b. Self-attested copy of final markc. Create an account by entering sheet of the qualifying examination new user id, password and re-entering indicating the cumulative percentage password of your choice. of marks or equivalent CGPA (cond. You can view/edit your applica- verted to percentage). For students tion form any time in your account by appearing in the final examination clicking on ‘already in 2019, filled and signed certificate registered users’ before the last date from Head of the Department on of submission of the application. college/university letterhead in the However, editing should not be done format available at www.bcil.nic.in/ after sending the hardcopy of applica- bitp2019/index.asp tion and acknowledgement to BCIL. c. Self-attested copy of domicile certificate (For North-Eastern States stuBefore applying Online, candidates dents only) should keep ready the following: a. Scanned Passport size photograph in .JPEG format (maximum size: 25 KB) b. Scanned signature in .JPEG format (maximum size: 10 KB) c. Demand draft number, date and Next Page>>>>


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July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

The last date of accepting the hardcopy of the documents is 27th August 2019. Applications received after the last date will not be entertained.

For any queries, kindly contact on below given numbers: Phone Number: 011-23219064-67 (Ext:232, 241, 243, 245) Timings: 10:00 am to 5:00 pm (Monday to Friday) Or Email us at bitp.dbt@ nic.in

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Important Dates: Date

Events

July 23rd

Portal open for filling online applications

August 22nd

Last date for filling online applications

August 27th

Last date for receipt of documents

September 11th

Issue of Hall Tickets

September 22nd

Computer based test

October 1 st

Results of test will be displayed on website

October

Interviews for final selection of candidates

IIT JAM 2020 Notification, Eligibility, Application Date & Deadline The official poster for the IIT JAM 2020 has been announced. Interested and eligible candidates can check out all of the details on the exam, schedule, important dates, eligibility, application procedure and such below. JOINT MSC 2020 ADMISSION OFFICIAL NOTIFICATION BELOW: By Diluxi Arya

About JAM: National test for admission to M.Sc. (Two years), Joint M.Sc.-Ph.D., M.Sc.-Ph.D. Dual Degree, M.Sc.M.S. (Research)/Ph. D. Dual Degree and other Post-Ba chelor Degree programmes at IlTs (Bhilai, Bhubaneshwar, Bombay, Delhi, (ISM) Dhanbad, Gandhinagar, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Indore, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras, Mandi, Pallakad, Patna, Roorkee, Ropar, Tirupati and (BHU) Varanasi ) for the Academic Session 2020-21. JAM score will be used by llSc Bangalore for admission to Integrated PhD programmes. JAM score will also be used by other centrally funded technical institutions like NITs, IIEST Shibpur, SLIET Punjab and IISERs for admission to their programmes. Joint Admission Procedure:

the institute(s) in which admission is sought. Admission shall be given in the order of merit depending on the number of seats available at the admitting institute(s). After the declaration of JAM 2020 results, qualified candidates should apply online at common admission portal (JOAPS) through the Organizing Institute (IIT Kanpur) specifying preferences for the programmes of their interest. Further details regarding admission, prescribed fees, etc. are available on the JAM 2020 website. The reservation policy is applicable as per the Government of India norms.

Admissions to various academic programmes at IITs for the Academic Session 2020-2021 shall be made based on the All India merit list of JAM 2020. Candidates who qualify in any test paper of JAM 2020 will STRUCTURE AND MODE OF be eligible to apply for admission to JAM 2020 all the academic programmes corresponding to that test paper, provided JAM 2020 examination will be conthey also satisfy the minimum eduducted ONLINE only. A candidate cational qualifications and the eligican appear in either one Test Paper bility requirements as specified by

or two Test Papers by paying an additional fee for the second test paper. Candidates opting to appear in two Test Papers must ensure that the opted Test Papers are not scheduled in the same session. ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENT AND MINIMUM EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS (MEQ) FOR ADMISSION In the qualifying degree, the aggregate marks or CGPA/ CPI without rounding-off (taking into account all subjects, including languages and subsidiaries, all years combined) should be at least 55% or 5.5 out of 10 for General/OBC (NCL)/EWS category candidates and 50% or 5.0 out of 10 for SC/ST and PwD category candidates (If CGPA/CPI is on a different scale, would be linearly mapped to a

scale on 10). Refer to http://jam.iitk.ac.in for MEQ and other details. Proof of having passed the qualifying degree with the required eligibility and specified by the admitting institute should be submitted by September 30, 2020. PATTERNS OF TEST PAPERS JAM 2020 Test papers will be fully objective type, with three patterns of questions: (i) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ), (ii) Multiple Select Questions (MSQ), and (iii) Numerical Answer Type (NAT) questions.

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HEADLINES

EXAMINATION TOWNS

CITIES

&

Agra, Ahmedabad, Asansol-Durgapur, Bareilly, Bengaluru, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Coimbatore, Dehradun, Dhanbad, Dibrugarh, Ernakulam, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Goa, Greater Noida, Gurugram, Guwahati, Hisar, Hubli, Hyderabad, Indore, Jaipur, Jalandhar, Jammu, Jodhpur, Jorhat, Kalyani, Kannur, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Kolkata, Kollam, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Kurukshetra, Lucknow, Madurai, Mangalore, Mohali, Moradabad, Mumbai, Nagpur, Nanded, Nasik, New Delhi, Noida, Pallakad, Patna, Pune, Raipur,

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

Ranchi, Roorkee, Siliguri, Thiruvanathapuram, Thrissur, Tiruchirapalli, Tirunelveli, Tirupati, Vadodara, Varanasi, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam and Warangal. Note: The JAM 2020 Committee may add or drop any place as an examination city/ town at its discretion. INFORMATION BROCHURE AND APPLICATION PROCEDURE Refer to http://jam.iitk.ac.in for the downloading of Information Brochure and the details of the application procedure.

JAM 2020 SCHEDULE EXAM DATE

SESSION and TIME

TEST PAPERS

09 February 2020 (Sunday)

SESSION – I 9:30 am to 12:30 pm SESSION – II 2:30 pm to 5:30 pm

Biotechnology (BT), Physics (PH) and Mathematical Statistics (MS) Mathematics (MA), Chemistry (CY) and Geology (GG)

09 February 2020 (Sunday)

IMPORTANT DATES FOR JAM 05 September 2019

Start of ONLINE Registration and Application Process

08 October 2019

Closure of ONLINE Application Process

09 February 2020

JAM 2020 Examination

20 March 2020

Announcement of JAM 2020 Results

FEE DETAILS GROUP/CATEGORY

FEE DETAILS One Test Paper

FEE DETAILS Two Test Paper

09 February 2020 (Sunday)

SESSION – I 9:30 am to 12:30 pm SESSION – II 2:30 pm to 5:30 pm

Biotechnology (BT), Physics (PH) and Mathematical Statistics (MS) Mathematics (MA), Chemistry (CY) and Geology (GG)

09 February 2020 (Sunday)

CONTACT DETAILS of JAM OFFICES Institute

Website

E-mail

IISc Bangalore

http://gate.iisc.ac.in/jam

jam@gate.iisc.ac.in

IIT Bombay

http://www.gate.iitb.ac.in/jam

jam@iitb.ac.in

IIT Delhi

http://jam.iitd.ac.in

jam@admin.iitd.ac.in

IIT Guwahati

http://iitg.ac.in/gate-jam

jam@iitg.ac.in

IIT Kanpur

http://jam.iitk.ac.in

jam@iitk.ac.in

IIT Kharagpur

http://jam.iitkgp.ac.in

jam@adm.iitkgp.ac.in

IIT Madras

http://jam.iitm.ac.in

jam@iitm.ac.in

IIT Roorkee

http://www.iitr.ac.in/jam

jam@iitr.ac.in


NEWS

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

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India To Launch Its First Human Genome Cataloging Project India is all set to launch its very first human genome mapping job by October this year, an action that will aid researchers to get closer to establishing effective & advanced treatments for dealing with deadly diseases such as cancer. IN THE INITIAL STAGE OF WHAT IS CALLED – THE GENOME INDIA PROJECT, GENOMIC DATA OF 10,000 INDIANS WILL BE CATALOGED. THIS TASK IS AN INITIATIVE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (DBT), INDIA. By Preety Suman

In an exclusive interview to ET, DBT secretary Renu Swarup said that this Human Genome Cataloging Project will be a transformational move for the healthcare system as availability of proper – complete data plays a key role in disease management. She added that for progress in predictive diagnosis and precision medicine ar- DBT has actually started developing eas – genomic information plays a diagnostic labs for hereditary testing vital role and is the backbone for ad- as well as counseling services and also has initiated a program alongside vancement. to train clinicians to generate skilled Genome – is an organism’s total manpower to establish a lot more collection of DNA & genes. It com- such labs. prises of a complete set of hereditary instructions vital for building & maintaining an organism. By this sequencing project, researchers and unravel detailed characteristics & role of each gene and its criticality in functioning the organism. DBT is all set to build its own experience of genomic cataloging and will partner up with 22 organizations including public health institutions with regulatory clearances. Investigators in health centers will oversee the information collected with a simple blood test from individuals and the data will be contributed to biobanks. Dr. Renu Swarup expects the DBT will capture information from greater than 10,000 individuals over the following three years and also link them to its bio-banks and bio-repository.

data, as well as the details originated tives inclined towards the growth of from it, should be used. the Biotech sector in India, the rate of growth appears to be shooting up While Indian Govt is leaving no higher than ever. stone unturned, to scale up its Biotech sector at par with international The above article has been adapted Biotech Industry – it will be notewor- from the original post at ET, authored thy how soon can we achieve it. With by DIVYA RAJAGOPAL. The department has also launched recent launches of projects & initiaan outreach program to offer a genetic medical diagnosis as well as counseling to family members affected by genetic disorders in particular areas. The Human Genome Project, which was completed in 2003, was led by an international team of scientists seeking to series and also map all the genetics- – with each other called the genome – of humans. Numerous nations have actually embarked on mapping the genetic increase of their own population to better recognize disease profiles. The UK claimed in 2013 that it will carry out the sequencing of 100,000 whole genomes of individuals dealing with cancer as well as rare diseases. The task reached 1 million in 2018. Genomic England, the organization that runs the program, said that its aim is to develop a new genomic medicine solution for the National Health and wellness Service – changing the method individuals are cared for.

Across the globe, predictive diagnosis & precision medicine based upon the genetic make-up of individuals are emerging areas in the treatment of deadly illness. The Genome India – Human Genome Cataloging Project There are issues over the usage of aims to make predictive diagnostic hereditary information. According to markers available for some priority a report published in April by UK data consulting firm Ipsos MORI, there diseases, including Cancer. are clear limitations for just how far the general public thought genomic


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NEWS

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

Plant Cell Wall Bioengineered Around Animal Cell By Penn State Scientists Biomedical engineers at Penn State have created a process to construct protective, artificial plant cell wall surfaces around animal cells.

THE WORK, PUBLISHED IN NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, MIGHT HOLD THE SIGNIFICANT POSSIBILITY FOR A VARIETY OF MEDICAL AND BIOMANUFACTURING APPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND WELLNESS. By Preety Suman

Plant cells are individually framed in ultrathin cell wall surfaces that preserve the cell’s framework and also protect the cell’s inner organelles from ecological attacks such as heat and shear tension. Human and also various other mammalian cells don’t have this exterior wall, leaving them prone to harm or destruction. By developing a cell wall surface made from biomimetic materials– artificial materials that imitate biology– scientists can protect human cells for usage in vitro cell therapy to deal with illness and also in inscribing. While some strategies, such as hydrogel encapsulation, currently exist to assist safeguard mammalian cells in the laboratory setting, they are thick and also limit nutrient and also oxygen access, limiting cell survival. According to Yong Wang, professor of biomedical design and principal investigator on the research, this issue of just how to much better shield cells has actually been studied for 50 years. While many researchers have tried various techniques, Wang’s strategy is unique. ” No one has actually ever built up a nanoscale product that can really mimic the structure and functions of plant cell walls; our principle is totally new,” Wang said. Called biomimetic cell walls (BCWs), this nanoscale product imitates the architectural strength and also functions of plant cell wall surfaces. Wang compared the process of developing BCWs in constructing a home. A structure is laid prior to the structure can be put up. When the framework is up, the floors, as well as ceilings, should be ended up. ” Similarly, we synthesize BCW’s with a framing design template as well as, based on the mounting layout, we develop a crosslinked matrix,” Wang stated. “The framing themes resemble

wood beams, and also the crosslinked matrices resemble drywall.” The mounting design template is actually a supramolecular DNA framework, comprised of DNA building blocks spliced with natural polysaccharides. This overviews the formation of the crosslinked matrix, constructed from bonded sugar molecules and also connected amino acids. This crosslinked matrix forms on top of the mounting design template to produce the cell wall. Wang stated the research study revealed how nucleic acids, the complicated organic polymers that compose the hereditary product of all cells, can be made use of as an architectural theme to guide nanoscale setting up for a range of molecules. Seriously, the overview also allows the non-nucleic acid materials to connect to the cell surface area, allowing the BCWs to enclose the cells. ” Most notably, this process does not entail any kind of complex devices. It allows animal cells to be protected in vitro as well as in vivo,” Wang claimed. “The BCWs generally enter into the cell.” When the cells are framed in BCWs, the scientists demonstrated that the cells are secured not just from physical attacks yet also from organic attacks such as body immune system denial. ” When you dental implant the cells into a host, the client’s body immune system will certainly combat against the transplanted cells and also eliminate them,” Wang claimed. “If we

have this bioengineered cell wall surface on the cell surface area to secure cells from organic assaults, they can make it through enough time for efficient cell-therapy therapies for illness such as cardiac disorders as well as diabetes mellitus.” Cell treatment involves hair transplanting human cells to assist repair or totally replace broken tissues. According to Wang, the use of BCWs might significantly enhance therapies offered to people with diseases such as diabetic issues. ” Transplanting insulin-releasing beta cells into patents would certainly be an extra efficient diabetes therapy than insulin injections since the cells really pick up blood sugar level degrees as well as produce insulin to reduce them,” Wang stated. “However, without cell walls, the client’s immune system will kill the cells within a week. We have found that BCWs hold the excellent potential to shield them.” Wang likewise noted that BCWs can have a considerable impact on biomanufacturing, specifically 3-D bioprinting. Utilized to build cells, bone, capillary as well as, potentially, also body organs, the imprinting ink consists of living cells. ” During imprinting, cells can be shed, and also the cell membrane layer can be damaged,” Wang said. “If you can include a cell wall on the surface, after that the cell will certainly be protected throughout imprinting.” Wang claimed his group’s next steps are to maximize as well as customize BCWs to the different applications. Wang said that while their existing

version of BCWs would certainly be enough security for heart cell treatment, diabetes cell therapy needs a solid BCW structure due to the strength of immune system strikes on beta cells. ” If you are dealing with animal cells as well as you require to protect the cells, this method will certainly help,” Wang said. “There are so numerous potential applications, it’s up to the scientist’s creative imagination when adjusting the residential or commercial properties of BCW for a particular application.” Plant cells are separately encased in ultrathin cell walls that preserve the cell’s structure as well as safeguard the cell’s inner organelles from environmental assaults such as heat and shear stress and anxiety. By producing a cell wall made of biomimetic materials– synthetic materials that simulate biology– scientists can protect human cells for use in vitro cell therapy to treat the condition and in inscribing. Called biomimetic cell wall surfaces (BCWs), this nanoscale product resembles the architectural stamina and also features of plant cell walls.” Transplanting insulin-releasing beta cells into patents would certainly be an extra effective diabetic issues treatment than insulin shots since the cells really sense blood sugar levels and also create insulin to reduce them,” Wang claimed. “However, without cell wall surfaces, the client’s immune system will certainly kill the cells within a week.


NEWS

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

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Indian Scientists Create Database of Everyday Harmful Chemicals That Threaten Human Health In our day-to-days live, we are often exposed to dozens of chemicals either via products we use or take in as well as through direct exposure to the atmosphere. Such chemicals are present in Consumer products, pesticides, cosmetics, medicines, electric fittings, plastic products, electronic devices and so on. MANY OF THEM HAVE MATERIALS ARE FOUND DAMAGING TO HUMAN WELLNESS AND HAVE ACTUALLY GONE THROUGH RESEARCH THROUGHOUT THE YEARS. By Preety Suman

Currently, Indian researchers have created an extensive database of such chemicals belonging to a certain category referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals or EDCs. These chemicals can hinder hormonal agents in the body, creating adverse wellness effects related to advancement, growth, metabolic process, recreation, immunity, and also practices. The WHO considers them as ‘chemicals of arising concern.’ EDCs are only a part of poisonous chemicals in our atmosphere that influences the hormone system. The data source is not a simple listing of chemicals however a comprehensive catalog of study studies that concentrated on the influence of these chemicals on wellness. These research studies have actually been done in rodents and humans. The database has actually been established by an interdisciplinary group of scientists at the Chennai-based Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc). Over 16000 scientific research studies concerning EDCs and also proof of their capacity for endocrine disturbance were mined. Based on this, 686 prospective hormone-disrupting chemicals have been identified with proof of causing hormonal changes in 1796 research posts certain to people or rats. The first version of ‘Database of Endocrine Interrupting Chemicals as well as their Poisoning accounts’ (DEDuCT) has been released and it is freely accessible. The chemical materials have actually been categorized into seven broad categories – customer items, agriculture and also farming, sector, medicine and medical care, contaminants, all-natural resources and intermediates – and 48 sub-categories. Nearly fifty percent of the chemicals noted in the database loss in the ‘consum-

er items’ group. Of 686 potentially harmful chemicals determined in the data source, just 10 remain in the Safer Chemicals Ingredients List (SCIL) of the United States Environment Security Agency. All thorough information such as which EDC causes an endocrine disturbance, at what dose and if the research has been in animals or human beings, is readily available in a searchable mode. The dose details are essential since several of these chemicals can cause damaging influences also at extremely reduced doses, while in some case it might not be so. One can also get chemical framework, physicochemical buildings and molecular descriptors of the chemicals. “We identified EDCs based upon published speculative evidence regarding their capability to create endocrine disturbance as well as compiled observed negative impacts together with dose details. Negative impacts have been identified even more into 7 systems-level changes. This details will certainly facilitate toxicology research study towards comprehending the mechanism of endocrine disruption by these chemicals,” discussed Areejit Samal, the scientist that led the research group in the computational biology group at IMSc, while talking to India Science Wire. The info will be useful to govern firms, health and wellness authorities and also industry. In addition, it can be used for developing equipment learning-based predictive tools for EDCs. The database is much more

thorough than other offered sources on EDCs and contains extensive info on the dosage that other databases do not have, researchers stated. Apart from toxicology specialists and also various other scientists, the data source can also be helpful for the basic public. “This resource can help raise understanding versus unplanned use EDCs in life. Individuals can search these chemicals by ecological resource in our easy to use data source or can look if chemicals in products they utilize are EDCs based

on our collection,” included Samal. The IMSc team has earlier established an online data source of phytochemicals existing in Indian herbs that can possibly be developed into medicines. The research team included – Janani Ravichandran, Bagavathy Shanmugam Karthikeyan, Karthikeyan Mohanraj, R.P. Vivek-Ananth & Areejit Samal. Findings of Everyday Harmful Chemical Database study are to be published in the journal Science of the Total Environment.

Scientists at IMSc, Chennai: Image Courtesy – India Science Wire


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NEWS

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

First of Its Kind – 3D Models Of MS & Parkinson’s Off To Space A team of Brain organoids is readied to launch to the International Spaceport Station (ISS), First of its kind – Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis (MS) Models in microgravity. A TEAM OF SCIENTISTS ACROSS THE COUNTRY THINKS THE VERSIONS MIGHT CLARIFY EXACTLY HOW BRAIN CELLS BEHAVE IN THIS ILLNESS AS WELL AS UNCOVER NEW APPROACHES TO TREAT THEM. By Swarna Khushbu

The Disease models comprise microglia– the immune cells of the brain– as well as neurons created cooperatively by scientists at Aspen Neuroscience, in California, the New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute and San Diego-based Summit for Stem Cell. Aspen’s R&D head Andres Bratt-Leal, Ph.D., during a tel- ing for the first – neurodegeneration econference earlier this month stated study in microgravity scheduled for that – The team developed them from the ISS later this fall. blood or skin cells extracted from Parkinson’s and also MS patients. As per Valentina Fossati, Ph.D., a senior research investigator at the The researchers configured those New York Stem Cell Foundation Recells into induced pluripotent stem search Institute – These models will cells and then nudged them to be the spend one month in a fully automattypes of nerve cells impacted by Par- ed bioreactor created by Space Tango kinson’s and MS– dopaminergic neu- so that the astronauts won’t need to rons and cortical nerve cells. The sci- babysit them. Towards the end of the entists hope to find out exactly how stay in space, the cells will be “fixed”, the microglia and neurons adjustment to avoid any alteration in the results interact with each various other in the lack of gravity– something they can not do in the earth. Bratt-Leal stated that One reason they were thrilled about microgravity is that there are more news & research related to astronauts’ immune systems being affected by microgravity. He stated that they understand immune cells in the blood adjust their shape in order to come to be activated. It’s extremely probable that forces on the cell affect exactly how that cell reacts and also alters shape … When we eliminate those forces, it changes those cells’ capability to begin that procedure. He further stated that the models could point to a new way to treat Parkinson’s or MS, based on controlling how cells respond to forces that could affect their activation. But they will need more experiments and more launches before they finally get there. This launch is termed as a preliminary flight by The National Stem Cell Foundation. Its a step in the mak-

on their return journey. Fossati’s team will carry out microscopic analyses Getting Back on Earth to see how the cells changed, while Bratt-Leal’s lab will carry out whole-genome RNA sequencing. Bratt-Leal stated that they want to figure out all the genes in the genome that are being expressed. Unlike an earlier shipment of tissue chips – tiny 3D models of human organs which are launched to the space

station in May, the Parkinson’s and MS models aren’t considering mini-brains, because they are comprised of only a few types of neurons and microglia cells. The launch was postponed to Wednesday at 6:24 p.m. EDT, as models which were supposed to depart from Cape Canaveral, Florida, Sunday did not depart on time as part of more than 5,500 pounds of science, cargo and crew supplies for the space station’s microgravity lab.


NEWS

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

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Using Robotics & Gut Bacterium To Produce New Antibiotics A group of researchers from The University of Manchester has actually engineered Gut Bacterium to produce a brand-new course of antibiotics by utilizing robotics. THESE ANTIBIOTICS REFERRED TO AS COURSE II POLYKETIDES, ARE ADDITIONALLY NATURALLY GENERATED BY SOIL BACTERIA AS WELL AS HAVE ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES WHICH ARE CRUCIAL IN THE MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR TO FIGHT CONTAGIOUS CONDITIONS AND ALSO CANCER. By Preety Suman

Escherichia coli bacteria are hard to work with as they expand in dense clumps that are incompatible with the automated robotic systems used for modern biotechnology study. By moving the manufacturing machinery from the soil bacteria into E. coli, the Manchester team is now making this course of anti-biotics accessible for much more quick expedition.

which are mainly created by soil germs and also various other microbes that are testing to grow. By efficiently moving the production equipment for these compounds into the “lab workhorse” microorganism E. coli, we can ultimately generate and craft kind II This innovation might be important polyketide in our fast robot systems. for the continuous combat versus antimicrobial resistance, as just recently “This not just allows us to trial new created automated robotics systems polyketides in a computerized way, can currently be used to create new yet we will certainly additionally be antibiotics in a rapid as well as reliable way. In this work, published in the journal PLOS Biology, the team led by Professor Takano at The College of Manchester show the capacity of this technique. By integrating the microbial manufacturing machinery with enzymes from plants and fungi, it was possible to create new chemical substances not formerly seen in nature. Using this plug-and-play platform, it will certainly currently be possible to check out as well as engineer polyketides using robot systems to establish new and varied polyketides in an automated, fast and also versatile fashion. Eriko Takano, Teacher of Synthetic Biology claimed: “Nature is a huge gold mine for effective chemical substances to treat a vast array of diseases. Nevertheless, the most fascinating chemicals frequently come from organisms that are hard to collaborate within the laboratory. “This has been a significant traffic jam for our deal with type II polyketide, a team of important chemicals,

able to promptly reword the DNA series of the antibiotic biosynthesis pathways and combine them with new components from various other microorganisms, such as medicinal plants and also fungi, to create variations on the antibiotic motif– including compounds that are not created by the all-natural paths, however might have enhanced or novel activities in the therapy of important illness.”

It might take an individual a whole year to make and evaluate 10 brandnew prospective antibiotics, but this automated robotic system can make thousands because of time. This would extremely reduce the moment it takes for new prescription antibiotics to get to clients as well as offer the required agility to react to new pathogen stress as well as outbreaks.


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CAREER ADVICE

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

What Next After B.Tech Biotech ? Job & Career Options Available ! Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, engineering, and others. It includes technological applications that require living organisms, and biological systems to develop specific processes or to make products. NEW BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVENTIONS OR PRODUCTS THAT WE HEAR IN OUR DAY TO DAY LIFE ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO STUDY BIOTECHNOLOGY. By Dr.Tanushree

In Spite of a lot of courses available, the career path in biotechnology for B.tech Biotech students still remains abstruse. As the domains, areas in biotechnology are very vast, future prospects, especially in terms of Job after studying Biotechnology are still not clear. This is the major reason for disappointments in students and to their parents.

such as robotics, chemical engineerSo, here in this article Biotecnika ing, and information technology. Beprovides a career path exclusively to ing a B.tech Biotech student, If you students who have done B.Tech in Bi- have a keen interest in the biological sciences and have an analytical mind otechnology. as well as problem-solving skills, you can have a successful career in reAbout B.Tech Biotech search in biotechnology. B.Tech. Biotech stands for Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Biotechnology and is an undergraduate engineering program. Biotechnology is a combination of biology and technology and it is an applied science. B. Tech in Biotechnology uses various concepts of biology for modifying biological systems, cell structures and processes in engineering as well as technology-related applications. B. Tech Biotech students have a vast scope as they can work in sectors of pharmaceuticals, agriculture, healthcare, food processing, nutrition, animal science, and environmental conservation. Not in terms of opportunities, even salary packages of biotechnology professionals are lucrative. There are many career options that you can choose after B.Tech Biotech, some of which are listed below: B.Tech Biotech Career Options Available: Research Scientist Biotechnology not only combines theoretical scientific attitudes such as cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, and embryology but also practical scientific aptitudes

Drug/Pharmaceutical companies

B.tech Biotech students can also join, pharmaceutical companies, as these chemical industries need candidates of this profile. You can work as a marketing manager, research analyst, production-in charge, quality control officer, in various pharmaceuYou can work as a research scien- tical companies which include Dabur, tist in several Council of Scientific Hindustan Antibiotics Limited and and Industrial Research (CSIR) re- Cipla. search institutes such as National Brain Research Institute (NBRI), Pharmaceuticals and biotech compaCentre for Cellular and Molecular nies are inter-related. Biotechnologist Biology (CCMB), CSIR-Institute of students have knowledge of molecuGenomics and Integrative Biology lar biology so it is easier for them to (CSIR-IGIB), National Institute of understand about various health-reOceanography (NIO), National En- lated diseases and their effects on vironmental Engineering Research organs or cells. It is easy for them to Institute (NEERI). Many research understand the effect of the drug on labs or institute options are also there humans. Companies like Jubilant and such as Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Reliance Ltd have a biotechnology Advanced Scientific Research (JN- division where job opportunities are CASR), National Center for Bio- available. Some other pharmaceutical logical Sciences (NCBS), National companies are Invitrogen, Dr. RedInstitute of Plant Genome Research dy’s Labs, Cipla, Wockhardt, Cadi(NIPGR), National Brain Research la, Torrent Pharma, Novozymes, and Centre (NBRC), National Institute of many more. Immunology (NII), MS Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), etc. Skills Needed: Skills Required: • CSIR NET / GATE Qualification can easily get you a job in any of the research institutes listed above. • Non-Net Candidates can also apply at research labs & institutes but most of them seek for some experience.

niques alongside basic immunohistochemistry techniques and ELISA assays. Business Developer B.tech Biotech Candidates can take up the work of a Business Developer (BD) in marketing divisions as a career option in companies such as Cipla, Glenmark, GSK and Govt Organization like the Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (IDPL). The role of a business developer is to develop business for the company in sectors where their products are required. Companies train their employees for this job as the person who is working as a business developer to have a pleasant personality, good analytical, technical, and communication skills. Most importantly profound knowledge of biotechnology if you are working for Biotech company. Skills Required: • Excellent communication Skills • Good Presentation Skills & Fluency in thought & speech • Flexibility to work in shifts • Some kind of experience in field marketing

• B.tech Biotech Freshers can join the above companies as an Intern, Job openings for which are Information Technology/Bioinforfrequently posted at Biotecnika. matics Do check our job section for that. • Almost all the pharma compa- There is a great demand for Informanies seek candidates who have tion technology in the biotechnology prior Hands-on experience in techniques like basic protein purification and characterization work via chromatography techNext Page>>>>


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industry. The researchers, scientists and big corporate houses, often involved in experiments that are nowadays done in digital mode. It also has an important role in biomedical research as work in the area of genetic diseases, medicine, the genome is increasing. B.tech Biotech candidates take up IT / Bioinformatics as a career option & can work in companies like Accenture, Wipro, and HCL to work as a data analyst for various projects such as healthcare, etc. Skills Required: • Knowledge of additional tools like R, Python, Perl, tableau, and data analytical skills will help to find a job. Waste Management/Environment Control B.Tech Biotech can find a lot of career opportunities in various private sector companies which utilize different environmental products. They can work as environmental engineers in water treatment or disposal industries, fertilizers plants. There is a lot of scope in government sectors, you can work in various government pollution control boards like Punjab Pollution Control Board, Central Pollution Control Board, etc. You can work in different government departments such as the Agricultural Department, Forest Department, Water Authority, and Urban department. You can also work in environmental research institutes like the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) which researches on the effective solutions to various environmental problems. B. Tech in Environmental Engineering graduates is also recruited by this institute for various posts like technical or project assistant and scientist. Higher Studies Higher studies are important for career growth. In today’s competitive world just a graduation degree is not sufficient. It’s better if you go for higher studies as it will be helpful for your personal and career growth. After B.Tech Biotech You can do your Master’s from reputed organizations like IIT’s, NIIT and IISC after qualifying the GATE exam which is an important gateway for these institutions. There are many governments and private universities and institutes as well from where you can do your Masters. M.tech /M.Sc. You can also give CSIR UGC/DBT BET examinations after completing your B.Tech

(B.Tech final year exam students are also eligible). If you qualify these exams, you will be eligible for JRF and lectureship. You can pursue a Ph.D. or join institutes as assistant professor or lecturer. Study/Research in Foreign If you want to study in foreign universities prepare for GRE & TOFEL also look for scholarships alongside which could support you for abroad studies. If you are looking for job opportunities in foreign countries, there are wide opportunities available, but it is only for candidates with work experience. B. Tech Biotech Candidates with a doctoral degree and some work experience can apply for suitable vacancies. Intellectual property rights (IPR) Intellectual Property Right (IPR) is also a very promising field which you can pursue after B.tech Biotech as a career. You can work as an IPR specialist in companies after doing a diploma or master degree in IPR. You can pursue LLB (Bachelor in Law) in IPR from Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), IIT Kharagpur, National Academy of Legal Studies and Research (NALSAR) to become IP Lawyer. Due to an increase in R&D expenditure global demand for IPR specialist is anticipated to increase in the future. Bioprocessing (Agriculture/Food) There is a great career scope for B.tech Biotech students in the bioprocessing industry. The bioprocessing is required in both agriculture and the food industry for the production of useful products. As a biotechnology student has the knowledge of biocatalysts they can design and produce improved or new products related to agriculture like chemicals for plant and animal disease control, for increasing as well as improving crop yield, biological herbicides or insecticides, use of plant cell culture system to produce chemical substances or secondary metabolites of importance. In the food industry, you will get a good knowledge of various food and drinks processing techniques like how they are prepared, type of microorganisms involved for their production, techniques used for production, production of fermented foods, separation and purification of products. They also have a role to play in the management and treatment of waste that has been generated in agriculture or food processing industry.

Summer Training Programmes/Internship You can undergo some summer training programs or internship at various institutes such as Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Animal Biotechnology Centre ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute Karnal, IARI – Indian Agricultural Research Institute Internship Training, World Health Organization (WHO) Internship Programme, IIT Mandi Research Internship Summer Program and many more. You can also attend the workshops, conferences or seminars organized by academic institutes and universities as it will help you make your resume more attractive when you are going for an interview or applying for a job. Average Salary Package B.Tech Biotech Students

For

• B.Tech Biotech students in their Career have a lot of confusion regarding salary packages that they are very low in the Biotechnology field. It is quite obvious that when you are fersher you are not being paid much and this very must apply to other fields as well and not only Biotech. But as you gain experience in this field, there are very good salary packages which you can grab. • For example, if you are an employee in government research laboratories you may have an initial salary of Rs. 12,000 per month along with government perks/allowances. But if you are working in CSIR labs as Junior researcher, then you receive

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a fellowship of Rs. 30,000 per month (under revision) along with the contingency. In the private sector, like in pharmaceutical companies salary between Rs. 12,000- Rs. 20,000 per month can be offered to a fresher graduate or postgraduate. The salary package offered during B.Tech Biotech Career depends on a number of factors, like the field of specialization, type of job, whether it is government or private and also job position as well as location. The institute from which the course has been completed, skills, knowledge, experience, position and the company you are associated with also matter. The average annual salary by the leading biotech companies ranges from Rs.2,29,238 to Rs.8,28,746 per year. Refer to Biotecnika article https://www.biotecnika. o rg / 2 0 1 8 / 0 7 / b i o t e c h - s a l a ry-analysis-2018-city-wise-biotech-jobs-salary/) for more details. The numbers are projected to double in the future as the demand for biotech graduates increases.

Dear students, there are lots of opportunities available for B.Tech Biotech Candidates, only you have to find your area of interest and the field in which you want to make your career or the company you want to work with. Keep yourself updated with the latest happenings both nationally and internationally related to Biotechnology field. Most importantly believe in yourself, if you believe anything can be possible. Good luck!


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3D Bioprinting – Introduction, Types, Applications & Career Prospects If it is your domain of interest and you are blessed to have technical brains you can make yourself step into an exhilarating and proliferating career of 3D printing. HAVE YOU EVER THOUGHT OF PRINTING THE HOUSE YOU LIVE IN? OR GETTING PRINTS OF FOOD YOU WANT TO EAT OR THOSE SHOES YOU WANT TO WEAR? By Dr. Nidhi Hukku

That really seems like science fiction but 3-D printing is considered to be capable of accomplishing these visualizations. Loads of research has already been done in the field of 3D Bioprinting with organs like 3D Printed Pancreas, 3D Printed Mini-Brains, 3D printed Skull, 3D printed Skin Grafts and much more. In this artcile, we will try to understand what is 3D Bioprinting, types of 3D bioprinting, 3D Bioprinting Career Prospects, Companies involved in 3D Bioprinting and much more. What is 3D Bioprinting? This is an art of making three-dimensional solid objects from a digital file. It is a technology having roots in 3D imaging and layer by layer additive fabrication. This involves scanning of the digital model into slices using computer-aided manufacturing technology followed by constructing 3D geometry by layer-by-layer printing. This is emerging as a novel blooming technology which might have an acute impact on human lives. Rapid prototyping may be used as a synonym for 3D printing technology. It was invented back in the year 1980. It is extending its arms over education, manufacturing, engineering, and most importantly medicine. Making prosthetics, possible tissues and organ models are some of its benefits. Applications of 3D Bioprinting? 3D bioprinting, a wider applied multidisciplinary field of 3D printing technology in life science comprises of advanced biomedical applications like constructing human permanent implants, drug testing model, controlled drug releasing and biomimetic scaffolds. 3D bioprinting uses layer by layer method to pledge materials known as bioinks which are substances made of living cells and resemble an extracellular matrix environment.

Bio inks are utilized for creating com- Position and speed of printing nozzles plex tissue models with application in in bioprinters for precisely depositing medical and tissue engineering fields. cells and materials is also controlled precisely. The building of 3D models of tissues and organs by applying 3D bi- Skin bioprinting: the imminent oprinting has been made possible. solution to burn wound reconstrucThis innovative technology involves tion? biological materials, growth factors, and cells. Cell biologists and tissue Layer by layer 3D bioprinting has engineers really believe that 3 D bio- been used to construct artificial printing can alter the way we respond skin which is needed when it comes to aging and it can further change the to curing skin diseases, testing the way we treat diseases. cosmetics or more severely to treat burns. Extensive burn injuries which 3D bioprinting can contribute to re- require surgical excision of bruised ducing the time and cost to introduce skin and replacing it with conventhe new drug in the market. During tional skin substitutes, this method new drug development, 2D cell cul- can be switched to using 3D bioprinttures are not efficient in predicting the ing by depositing of cells along with toxicity of drug which can be done scaffolding materials over the injured competently in 3D models cutting the parts. need for pre-clinical trial stages. Functional skin models have been How 3D Bioprinting is going to constructed using inkjet printing. contribute: a glimpse! Firstly, Dermal/epidermal like scaffold with keratinocytes and fibroblasts Various Types of 3D Bioprinting were constructed which on the culture at the air-liquid interface (ALI) gave In 3D bioprinting, digital design for rise to the appearance of dermal and a 3 D structure is fabricated using epidermal layers. Between the two layer by layer technique. It includes layers were printed melanocytes to Initializing from digital design for a complete the biomimetic skin. Reliving tissue, designing layer by layer searchers are still trying to print skin in a fashion followed by using living appendages like sweat glands, melcells eventually mixing with biocom- anocytes, endothelial cells, hair follipatible scaffolds to build viable tis- cles and sebaceous glands in the skin. sue. Preparing artificial skin by using this approach followed by targeting can Bioprinting technique utilizes com- definitely offer possibilities of effecputer-aided design software to build tive wound healing. 3D models of tissues and organs, diffuses the data to the control center. However, skin bioprinting whether

in vivo or in vitro faces various clinical and regulatory challenges which need to be tackled before it enables exact placement of cell types. Despite the initial application of bio-printed skin in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical testing applications, the long term vision of the researchers is to translate 3D bio-printed skin into clinical use. Cartilage Bioprinting – An approach to boost regeneration! If a patient suffering from cartilage lesions is asked, he could only explain how life quality is compromised, the reason being cartilage lesions fail to heal naturally. Cartilage is an elastic connective tissue supporting and protecting the human body. Since it is unable to repair by itself, if damaged, needs to be replaced by substitutes. 3D bioprinting holds the advantages to mimic natural cartilage over conventional techniques thus showing huge application prospects in the cartilage tissue repair. There are many references which exhibit cartilage tissue regeneration by various researchers. The use of chondrocyte-loaded scaffolds, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bone marrow cells are being used to prepare bio-inks for constructing cartilaginous tissue. Although bioprinting in cartilages faces challenges like cartilage having weak mechanical properties, others being a steadiness of the implanted cartilage

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tissues in the joints and finally their amalgamation to surrounding host tissues. The use of chondrocyte-loaded scaffolds, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bone marrow cells are being used to prepare bio-inks for constructing cartilaginous tissue. Can Tumor Cells Bioprinting be used to cure cancer? Nevertheless, it will be revolutionary making bioprinting part of the future of cancer treatment. 3D printing can provide direction to replacing enduring painful radiation or chemotherapies. One could expect printing tumor cells, analyzing the impacts of various anticancer drugs on it. In this way, 3D bioprinting illuminates the precise composition of complex tumor cells. Bio printed tumor models could reiterate the different stages of the in vivo tumor advancement to carry out the basic biological studies. Drug screening can be imagined to reach higher levels ending in achieving personalized anticancer therapies. 3D Bioprinting Career Prospects – What it can offer as a career? Development in 3D printing technology can give rise to broad potentials for employment opportunities. 3D printing could prove helpful in forensic sciences where one can reconstruct bones and body parts or ambiguous evidence assimilated from crime scene investigations. 3D printing has applications in paleontology: in reconstructing the fossils, in archaeology: replicating the historical artifacts, in aerospace for astronauts: to create space food and undoubtedly in healthcare and biopharma. -Biomedical technology – One can plunge into biomedical research implementing 3D bioprinting to develop new solutions to medical ailments. -Academics – Stepping into academics will always persist as a good option as now a day many organizations are introducing hands-on techniques in 3D bioprinting to students. Well skilled instructors will remain in demand in the future to provide training for company crash courses, at universities and technical schools -Biopharma Companies – A large number of pharmaceutical and allied industries would be trailing for candidates skilled in designing, modeling, and engineering with science backgrounds. The contribution of 3D printing in healthcare is expected to grow significantly over the next decade. In developing countries like

India, the technology is still in the growing phase but it may change the future of healthcare industry soon. Over 15% of 3D printing companies comprise of medical 3 D bioprinting. Few companies in various countries have been enlisted here which are majorly affianced in medical 3D Bioprinting: • Celllink – It’s the first bioink company in the world. It is into designing and developing bioprinting technologies that enable researchers to 3D print organs and tissue. • Organovo – An Organization headquartered in San Diego, California. They are proposing liver tissue generated by 3D bioprinting for R&D. • Aspect Biosystems – A Canadian company commercializing bio-printed “living human tissues“. They aim to strategically partner with life science companies, as well as academic researchers, to develop a portfolio of 3D Bioprinted human tissues. • Regenovo Biotechnology – A Chinese company offering its bioprinter “Regenovo” for constructing organs and tissues. It provides professional integrated solutions in 3D printing technology for biomedical applications.

• TeVido Biodevices – A USbased company working on bio-printed breast tissue. Many other companies worldwide like Rainbow Biosciences , RegenHU, Bio 3D technologies , GESiM, Osteopore International , nSCrypt Inc., Advanced solutions Life sciences , Micro Fab Technologies Inc., Digi Lab Inc. , Next 21, Rokit , Stratasys , Med Prin and Form Labs are working to make 3 D bioprinting revolutionize the medical and health care sector .

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Education / Degree required – No particular academic credentials are required to establish a career in 3D bioprinting. People with life science background are considered to handle bioprinters however engineering degree in biotechnology or related subjects is admirable. Creating Bioprinters may provide exceptional abilities to humans to engineer the human body by creating artificial organs and tissues. With immense impact, this technology has gained a lot of acknowledgment in the past short span of time. Confronting aging factors, illuminating the new ways to fight deadly diseases or injuries are down the line for 3D bioprinting.

Scope in India – In India with the government offering grants to bring 3D bioprinting into the right frame many small organizations have turned up to contribute in this sector e.g. NBIL, situated in Bengaluru, Karnataka has developed ‘Trivima’ – In- To bridge the gaps between organ dia’s first 3D bioprinter to cater the demand and availability, 3D bionecessities of researchers working in printing can give a leapfrog jump by 3D bioprinting domain. making bioengineered organs available. Although 3D bioprinting is going If you are willing to choose 3D bio- through infancy phase in India, the printing as a career option you‘ll need fact, it is a very transformative techto grasp knowledge with 3D CAD nology cannot be overlooked either. (computer-aided design) to construct It can lead to gigantic shifts in patient 3D objects. You need to have a clear outcomes. understanding of how 3 D bioprinters can be put into process besides stay- So, if you are captivated with ading acquainted with latest technical vanced technologies and possess an breakthroughs and demand for cus- eye for precision then embrace the tomized prosthetics. expanding world of 3D bioprinting as your expertise.


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Impact Of Having Career Break Before Pursuing PhD ! PhD is a process where you meant to master the ins and outs of a topic that is really of your interest. It is a process where you can learn and expand your knowledge and really get to know what something is about. PHD IS ALL ABOUT RESEARCH PROPOSAL THAT CONTAINS RESEARCH QUESTIONS, SOME METHODOLOGY, SOME JUSTIFICATIONS ABOUT WHY THIS IS IMPORTANT. By Divya

You are supposed to write a thesis which is a long piece of work. You work under the guidance of the supervisor and then you define your work after an examiner panel. You are encouraged to polish in academic journals and some coursework involved. There are many people in and around for whom completing PhD is a long-lasting mission. Not everyone is lucky enough to finish their PhD in their 20’s. They have to wait for a while which could be months to years in order to make their dream come true. Common Reasons For Career break Before PhD Career breaks before starting PhD is seen commonly. Of course there is no gender discrimination in it but still, it is observed that most of the women are facing it. There are a number of reasons behind it: • It could be due to some form of personal commitment (eg: marriage, childbirth, relocation, for taking care of parents, etc). • Some people after finishing their Master’s are very much unsure about their field of interest, so they will have an urge to know every aspect and future prospects of the research field and then go to work. • It’s also seen that people switch on to different fields out of passion and somewhere in the later part of life they develop an interest in research and then they aim for pursuing PhD. • Some people think that going for PhD is like a never-ending goal because one has to keep on climbing to new areas of research and diversify their work so in that case taking a break before joining anywhere is a good option for them. • Some people prefer to have train-

ing programs (hands-on training), learning new techniques, attending workshops etc to acquire proper practical knowledge on instrumentation before heading towards research field. • Some people will opt for company jobs soon after the completion of their Master’s because of financial crunch and family background issues and then after proper settlement, they will plan to go in the area of research. • Others prefer to do PhD by clearing national level exams like CSIR, GATE, ICMR, DBT etc so for that they opt for some 6-12 months coaching in a good institute like Biotecnika. PhD is all about learning new things, solving a particular issue or problem with the help of tools and techniques. Doing a PhD is not everyone’s cup of tea because it needs a good amount of hard work, better analytical and technical skills, good intelligence in the area of interest, etc. So, in the end, it depends on you, your zeal, your enthusiasm, and your excitement.

reer breaks hardly matters in pursuing PhD because this does have an impact but one can find alternatives to resolve it. There are many ways to fulfill your dream at any walk of life. It depends upon the individual himself. There are many people in and around the country who are opting for their PhDs in the latter part of their life. So there is nothing right and wrong about that. Always remember every aspect of life has its own pros and cons and so does the PhD. Whether we are doing earlier or later, it has its own advantages and disadvantages. Just go with the flow, you will definitely join with others sooner or later. Age limit is definitely not a barrier. Feed this thing inside you.

In general, minimum qualifications needed to acquire PhD includes a minimum of 55% in Master’s degree and if you have qualified any of the entrance exams you have more chances of getting one. Unlike CSIR which has an age limit, with the GATE score you can do your doctorate at any time, particularly in IIT’s. Again there are some universities or institutes which have their own eligibility criteria and Two things are of utmost importance exams. if you are opting for research i.e. one should go for a problem which must Returning back to PhD is not an easy be resolved and second is a good task. Although it’s challenging, but it mentor who will guide you to resolve is definitely not impossible. It furyour problem. The problem must be ther depends on several factors like at converted in the form of synopsis what stage you left your career, what and then submitted to the supervisor you did after resigning from your job, while applying for PhD. what is the duration of your career break. Talking more about Career break People who remain in their field (if Before PhD – I won’t say age or ca- not directly) by changing into differ-

ent tracks relevant to the research area like working as a scientific editor etc. do not find it challenging to return. Even though you are in career break you can do many things at home, for example opting for certain online courses based on new technologies, keeping yourself updated on your area of interest, maintaining contacts with people both online as well as in-person so that they may help you out in fetching your dream in the future. Of course not as a whole but yes career breaks before PhD do have some benefits: • Of course, I admit the fact that older people (people who start their PhD lately) are less energetic compared to freshers. But few things can’t be judged based on energy levels because enthusiasm is also one of the factors which have to be considered. • Older students are pretty sure of their pathway, they can make better choices and they also have good problem-solving skills. As they have experienced work pressure and stress before so they will be better in dealing with that compared to the younger lab mates. • Research is something which involves trying out a few protocols and thereby analyzing the results. In that case, we need to

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CAREER ADVICE

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undergo a series of attempts to honest it’s very challenging. reach a conclusion. The people who are doing late So once you decided for a comePhD can understand the situa- back in the research field, make tion and are aware of failures sure of a few things: so it won’t cause that much distraction as it does if you are new • First, do analyze your chancto the field. It needs a lot of paes and scopes and then leave tience. everything to the panel of interAt times it may happen that we viewers, let them decide whether have determination and enthusiyou are suitable to fit here or not. asm to work out but it won’t be • Second, you must work out on reflected in our results. a few things. Choose a topic In other words, one can say we keeping in mind that you need to won’t be able to get our desired work on it for a minimum of 4-5 results. The alternative is that years, so it should keep you moyou can switch back to your old tivated amidst all kinds of stress. work at that time. You must work a bit on your area Socializing and networking of interest and the topic in which hardly attract them so they will you wish to carry out your rehave much focus on their work search i.e. prepare a proposal for compared to young professionyour topic. Try to combine your als. experience along with the develConcepts based on theory will opments and analyze where you be easier for them to understand can fit best. If possible attend a and they know how to apply logfew training programs or workically. This is one of the good shops so that you will have a characters of showing maturity good exposure technically. After and good experience.

The other side of the coin has the following effects: • Undoubtedly there could be many pathways that could be closed, meaning you are not free to enroll everywhere and don’t have too much of choices like a fresher. • We can’t say completely there won’t be any sort of age discrimination because it may happen sometimes our guide can be someone younger than us. Not only guide we may also come across younger lab mates may. And the scenario of lab and lab mates will be different. So there must not be any sort of ego clash within the lab mates and should be humble enough to learn new things from supervisors as well as the young professionals. • One of the advantages of starting PhD soon after Masters is that your mind will be fresh, you will have a lot of energy, anxiety to move with the flow. • Switching to a PhD, years after completion of Master’s, will definitely take some time to match the speed. • Pursuing a PhD in the latter part of life may develop some life issues as well. To take care of kids, parents, in case parents are having health issues then it will be even more complicated. So one must go for it keeping in mind both the things. And to be

• •

completing the course work you might have enough knowledge in research methodology and technical writing. Using these skills you will be able to design and solve your own research hypothesis. Third, although there is a lot of age difference between you and other young research scholars, in that scenario you must not feel inferior to them, in fact, you must be more confident and proud that your vast experiences will bring novel innovations during your research journey. These approaches will maintain a good environment in the workplace. Fourth, select a worthy guide or supervisor or advisor, who is elder to you in order to avoid ego clash. Fifth, always remain updated about research work going on in the area of your interest. Sixth, be realistic and always choose the university program that suits you the best. It could

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be tough but in case if you are able to afford financial support to your work then you will have some better chances. Apart from that choose the university where professors are working on topics relevant to your field. It may happen sometimes that you need to make a few changes in the topic chosen but make sure that you must choose a relevant topic and must not go away from it. As I said before, everything in life has a positive and negative side. It depends on us what we choose, what are our aims and ambitions. It’s never too late to start anything in which you have an interest in. So just move ahead, you will definitely find a way out. Be aware of the challenges you are going to face in this journey. And then things will turn out to be pretty good. Be positive and be confident enough for the decisions in your life. You will definitely come out with flying colors.


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INTERNSHIP

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

National Dope Testing Laboratory Biotech / Biochemistry Internship & Training

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ational Dope Testing Laboratory (NDTL) has announced the Training & Internship Programme for July-December 2019. MSc Biosciences and Biochemistry candidates are eligible to apply for the Training & Internship July-December 2019 at National Dope Testing Laboratory (NDTL), New Delhi. Check out all of the details on the same below: Ref: F.No. 54/NDTL/ISO/20182019-II National Dope Testing Laboratory (NDTL), New Delhi is an ISO 17025:2005 & World Anti Doping Agency accredited laboratory. It pertains to the field of drug testing and Investigation for both horse and human samples using its state of art facility such as GC/MS, GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS, HPLC, GC/C/IRMS, ELISA, protein separation and Identification tools towards the goal of earning sports free of doping.

NDTL offers the opportunity of a training facility for deserving students in both summer (July-December) and winter (January-June) sessions. The training options are given For a span of two months to 6 months for the pupils from different Universities/institutions in areas of drug testing and analysis. A total of 10 pupils Will be accepted for training as per schedule decided by the competent authority. Eligibility Criteria:

2. The disciplines may be considered are as follows: a) M.Pharm, b) M.Sc. (Biochemistry, Chemistry, Forensic Science, Bio-Sciences).

06th, 2019, which should include the complete bio-data of the Students along with a forwarding letter from the Head of the department. A minimal Cost of Rs. 3000 (for training up to 3 months) and Rs. 5000/- (for 6 months) will be charged. Pupils having first-class (1st division) from 12th grade onwards may only apply.

The final date for submission of the application for training for winter session (July-December 2019) is August

The application Ought to Be sent either to Scientific Director, National Dope Testing Laboratory,

1. A candidate should be pursuing his/her postgraduate (PG) course (II year).

East Gate No 10, JLN Stadium Complex, Near MTNL Building, Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003 or on the email id: aondtl@gmail.com latest by August 06th, 2019. The shortlisted candidates will be called for interview. Note: Application submitted Before the date of advertising will not be considered.


SCHOLARSHIP

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19

POSE Scholarships 2019 For Life Science UG & PG Students

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ndians nationals with a biology/biochem/microbiology background are encouraged to apply online for scholarships at the Promotion Of Science Education (POSE) Scholarship Scheme 201920. POSE Scholarship Scheme 20192020. POSE Scholarships 2019. Interested and eligible candidates check out all of the details on the same below: 1. Introduction: So as to encourage meritorious students towards science education and to encourage them for the continuation of their science education up to higher level, Haryana State Council for Science & Technology supplies scholarship to the meritorious students of 3-year B.Sc. /4-year BS/5year integrated M.Sc. /M.S. courses and 2-year M.Sc. Course students opting for natural & basic science topics viz (1) Physics, (2) Chemistry, (3) Mathematics, (4) Biology, (5) Statistics, (6 ) ) Geology (7) Astrophysics, (8 ) ) Astronomy, (9) Electronics, (10) Botany, (11) Zoology, (12) Bio-chemistry, (13) Anthropology, (14) Microbiology, (15) Geophysics, (16) Geochemistry, (17) Atmospheric Sciences & (18) Oceanic Sciences. The details of the scheme are as under. 2. Admissibility of Scholarship: The scholarships are restricted simply to the pupils who have obtained admission throughout the calendar year 2019 in some of these courses: – (i) 3-year B.Sc. / 4-year BS or 5-year integrated M.Sc. /M.S. program in Basic & Natural Sciences in IIT, IISc, IISER, NISER, DAE-CBS or at any college/university at India. (ii) 2-year M.Sc. Program in Basic & Natural Sciences. • Under basic & natural science, 18 topics Mentioned Previously will be considered. • The Scheme in its current format doesn’t include courses in engineering, medicine, technology and other technical or professional courses. 3. Qualification: 1. For 3-year B.Sc. /4-year BS/5year integrated M.Sc. /M.S. in basic

& natural science areas, the pupils should have passed class X and XII Board examination in a school located in Haryana with minimal 85 percent marks for Haryana Board School and 90% marks for different boards such as CBSE/ICSE etc. in 12th class. 2. For 2-year M.Sc. In fundamental & natural science issues, the student should have passed X, XII and B.Sc. /B.A. (B.A. for M.Sc. Mathematics) from school/college/university located in Haryana with minimal 75 percent marks in B.Sc. /B.A. class. 4. Amount of Scholarship: (i) 3-year B.Sc. /4-year BS/5-year Integrated M.Sc. /M.S. courses – 150 (ii) 2-year M.Sc. Course – 50 Chairman, EC has the right to pick a pupil from a discipline in the event the said subject isn’t represented. In the event of tie taste will be given as below:(a) Girl pupils will be favoured. (b) Preference to language score of (English/Hindi) in the 12th class board. (c) Student younger in age is going to be favoured. 5. Number of Scholarships: (i) Rs. 4,000/P.M. for 3-year B.Sc. course. (ii) Rs. 6,000/P.M. for 2-year M.Sc. course. (iii) In the event, the pupils take admission in 4-year B.S. or 5-year incorporated M.Sc. /M.S. then the amount of scholarship during the 1st, 2nd & 3rd year will probably be Rs. 4,000/- P.M. and through 4 th & 5th year Rs. 6,000/- P.M. 6. Merit List / Selection Criteria: a) For 3-year B.Sc. Or 4-year BS or 5-year integrated M.Sc. /M.S. Courses Merit list will be prepared based on average percent score obtained in class 12th board examination in English/Hindi (better of the two) and best of three out of Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology (i.e. Total of four topics separated by maximum marks in four different areas %).

Notice:

7. Research Mentorship:

(i) First priority will be given to the pupils admitted to national institutes i.e. IIT, IISER, NISER, DAE-CBS and IISc. Remaining scholarships will be supplied to the other people on merit.

The chosen students will get a mentorship grant (one time) of Rs. 12,000/ in 3-year B.Sc. Program, Rs. 17,000/ in 4-year B.S. program, Rs. 22,000/in 5-year integrated M.Sc. Program and Rs. 10,000/in 2-year M.Sc. program.

(ii) Pupils who analyzed 11th & 12th class in a rural area school will receive an additional 3 percent weightage, subject to max 100%. Rural area school is going to be considered as those schools that are within the authority of the Gram Panchayat.

To avail the mentorship grant, the pupils need to perform project work beneath a Professor/Research Supervisor (Mentor) during the holiday period, in almost any accepted Universities or Institutes or Research Laboratories/ Centres of the choice (rather outside their parent institutions) either in India or overseas. For students doing a project in India, the costs associated with travel, lodging and consumable costs are reimbursed to the student inside the mentorship grant. Please note that no food costs are covered by this grant, as the pupils receive the scholarship in this period. Pupils at 4th or 5th year of the Scholarship are permitted to take our research job in any Institute/ University/ Laboratory overseas by using the Mentorship Grant. If the sponsoring institute accomplishes any stipend or travel grant, just the difference between the service received from sources placed together and real expenditure will be reimbursed from the Mentorship Grant.

(iii) The students who have passed their 11th & 12th class from rural area elite schools won’t be given added weightage of 3 percent. ‘Elite’ schools have been defined as schools, where tuition fees and other fees payable exceed Rs. 1 lakh each year. (iv) Added weightage would be added to the average percentage score acquired from the student for discovering inter se merit (such as if a student got 90 percent marks in 12th class board examination and he/she has passed 11th and 12th class from a non-elite rural neighborhood school compared to their marks will be deemed as 93 percent ). (v) The students claiming the advantage of rural region has to submit the rural region school certification of passing 11th and 12th class from the rural neighborhood school duly signed by the Principal of this school, Sarpanch of the village panchayat from where 11th and 12th class passed and concerned BDPO. b) For 2-year M.Sc. The merit list will be prepared on the basis of average percent marks of B.Sc. /B.A. course in 3 years.

The Mentorship Grant shall be refunded directly to the Scholar to execute research work/project. After completion of this job work in the Institute or University or Research Laboratory (either in India or overseas ) beneath a Professor/Research Supervisor (Mentor), the candidate must submit the following records to the HSCST for settlement of their

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SCHOLARSHIP

Mentorship Grant. (i) A letter issued from the Professor/ Research Supervisor/Head of Institution at which the scholar is registered for the job indicating the length of the project i.e. date of commencement and date of completion. (ii) A report outlining the goals and outcomes of their research work/project. (iii) Brief particulars of this cost i.e. travelling, lodging, consumable etc. ) countersigned by the Head /Principal/ Registrar/ Teacher of this College/ University/Institute of the concerned institute. (iv) Detail of the funds obtained from some other department/Institute for the stated research work/ job. 8. Continuation of Scholarship: (i) Students are advised to submit their self-attested semester Marksheets during their institutions right after the announcement of the result, preferably within 1 month of a statement of semester results to ease the payment of pupil. Provisional or Internet backup of this Mark-sheets won’t be considered. (ii) The Scholarships are compensated into the pupils on the basis of performance in the semester examination. For continuation of pupil the chosen students must keep at least 60% marks in each semester. In the event of SGPA/SPI or some other indicator awarded from the university, the conversion could be performed according to college accepted formulation. In the event such university formula is not available the percentage will be derived by scaling down the SGPA/SPI by 10%. For example the SGPA/SPI is 6 on 10 point scale, the equivalent percentage would be taken as 54%. (iii) In the event the institute/university is awarding SGPA/SPI or some other indicator, the pupils are expected to send the institute/university accepted conversion formula from SGPA/SPI to equal%age. (iv) The scholarship will be paid to the pupils for all the twelve months in a year beginning from the month in which the admission is taken. It’ll be from July (admission year) to June (next year). (v) The scholarship will be released to the pupils in two half-yearly installments semester wise. The first

installment is going to be released on selection, the 2nd on the grounds of performance of 1st Semester, 3rd on the grounds of performance of 2nd semester and so forth. (vi) Candidates having Compartment / Re-appear in semester examination won’t be considered for an additional installment of scholarship. (vii) If re-appear or under 60% marks in any of this semester, the near future installments of scholarships of these pupils will be stopped. Candidates clearing the re-appear in supplemental examinations won’t be considered for continuation of scholarships. 9. POSE Scholarship shall be controlled with these stipulations. (i) The pupils selected under this scheme won’t be eligible for any other scholarship. (ii) The applications received through online mode is only going to be entertained. The applications received in another manner won’t be considered. (iii) Do not submit more than 1 application. Please make sure that each of the columns of this application is correct prior to submission. No claims will be entertained in the event of incomplete or non-submitted application. (iv) The applications received online is going to be inspected and also a merit list will be prepared according to the standards of the scheme. (v) All offers made originally will be’Provisional’. This will be verified depending on the confirmation of original documents by this office or from the concerned institute where the pupil is studying. The chosen students must submit the certification of subjects/courses pursued from the 3-year B.Sc. /4- year BS/5-year integrated M.Sc. /M.S. & 2-year M.Sc. courses. The chosen students must submit a certification that he/she isn’t availing any other scholarship together with POSE scholarship. The certification is to be countersigned by the head/principal/registrar of this college/ university/institute. The student will submit the evidence of enrolment certificate duly accredited by the Head /Principal / Registrar / Director of the College / University / Institute. (vi) Any change or re-admission to a different College/ University/ Academic Institute within the same academic year is acceptable, provided

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the scholar pursues subjects out of identified 18 nos.Subject(s). The Offer would stand invalid if this change or re-admission happens in the upcoming academic year and thereon, or topic (s) pursued is/ are beyond the 18 identified subjects. In this circumstance, there’ll be no scope for the restoration of this deal and no communication could be made individually to Scholar.

(xiii)HSCST will be able to increase or reduce the amount of scholarship. (xiv) When a pupil is discovered to have acquired a scholarship by false statement, his/her scholarship will be cancelled forthwith and also the sum of the student paid will be retrieved, at the discretion of HSCST.

(xv) In the event of any confusion/ (vii) The scholarships will be dis- dispute decision of Secretary, Execubursed directly to the pupils in their tive Committee HSCST will be final. bank account through online (NEFT / RTGS). Each of the pupils while (xvi) Sanction in regard of this shortemploying shall need to open their listed pupils will be issued by this ofaccount in the banks using Electron- fice following confirmation of origic Transfer / ECS facility and furnish inal documents, submission of the the bank details like Name of bank, evidence of enrolment certification branch address, IFSC code and ac- along with other relevant papers procount number in the application fessionally certified from the Head / format for online transfer (RTGS / Principal /Registrar /Director of the NEFT) of scholarship. The pupil may College /University / Institute. make sure their bank account number ought to be linked with Aadhar Num- (xvii) All correspondence in regard ber. of POSE scholarship might be made in the name of Secretary, Executive (viii) This scholarship will be given Committee, Haryana State Council to the students analyzing fundamental for Science & Technology, Bays No. & natural science in the identified 18 35-38, Sector 2, Panchkula. Telesubjects. phone No. 0172-2563439, 2560309, 2560339, Fax No. 0172-2560018, (ix) Just regular students will be E-mail pose.scholarship@gmail.com. qualified to apply for this scholarship. The pupils studying privately or How to Apply: via correspondence/distance way or at unrecognized institutions won’t be For eligibility and other informaeligible for this scholarship. tion, interested students can stop by the site http://dstharyana.gov.in/html/ (x) The pupils shouldn’t be involved whatsnew.htm in any sort of indiscipline or unjust means. The applications can be submitted via the web-portal http://saralharya(xi) there isn’t any limitation of na.gov.in/. household income for availing benefits of the scholarship scheme. The web-portal will be available from 24th July 2019 (9:00 am) to (xii) Self Attested photocopies of 24th September 2019 (5:00 pm) for all of the certifications from 10th on- submission of online applications. wards will need to be uploaded together with the application.


SCHOLARSHIP

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DST BRICS Young Scientist 2019 – Application Invited

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fficial Notification for the DST India 4th BRICS Young Scientist Conclave 2019 / 4th BRICS Young Scientist Forum 2019 has been announced. If you are Doctoral Students or Post-doc or a young faculty completed the Ph.D degree in certain areas, the apply for the 4th BRICS Young Scientist Campinas, Brazil, as Per the details giveb below: DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (DST) (Govt. of India) Announcement for inviting applications for participation in 4th BRICS Young Scientist Conclave Campinas, Brazil November 2019 (exact dates to be notified later) OVERVIEW: The idea of the BRICS Young Scientist Forum was adopted at the 2nd BRICS Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Ministerial Meeting. As part of BRICS YS Forum’s activities, the 1st BRICS Young Scientist Conclave was held in Bangalore (India) in September 2016, the 2nd Conclave was held in Hangzhou, China during July 2017 and 3rd in Durban, South Africa in June 2019. Just as a follow up of the aforementioned and also to execute the BRICS Leaders’ Declaration on “strengthening cooperation in science, technology and innovation, especially leveraging Young scientific talent for addressing societal challenges; creating a networking platform To get BRICS young scientists”, and implement the instructions of BRICS ministers, the 4th Edition of this BRICS Young Scientist Conclave is scheduled to take place in Campinas, Brazil in November 2019 (exact dates to be notified later). The Conclave will Offer a high level platform of policy and academic exchange For gifted young scientists in addition to scientific personnel from BRICS countries to help them expand their skills, expand their horizon and improve policy and academic Qualifications, stimulate the interest of gifted young scientists in the strategic research Of future technology, direct their focus on the most promising and significant field Of technology and science, promote friendship and

exchanges, expand channels of Cooperation, fortify inter-disciplinary integration, encourage new academic Inspirations, cultivate new academic disciplines and produce valuable policy advice. VISION: • BRICS Youth connectivity & networking to harness their knowledge for resolving Common societal challenges through innovation and research and strengthen Advancement of research & skill competencies of youth primarily below the age of 35 years drawn from Science, Engineering other allied disciplines. • Building BRICS leadership in S&T through creative youth with ability and Capacity to accelerate change individuality and collectively (BRICS Youth Alumni). • Reinforcing BRICS country’s and regional STI policies and youth policies, skill Entrepreneurship and development policies. LEAD SPONSORS: BRICS STI Coordinating Ministries (Department of Science & Technology from Indian side). THEME: “BRICS Young Innovation and Entrepreneurship” The 4th BRICS YSF under the theme “BRICS Youth Innovation and Entrepreneurship” will Highlight the strategic importance of science, innovation and technology as key drivers of Youth entrepreneurship and leadership. Eligibility: Scientists/ engineers/ technologists/ innovators/ science journalists-educators-science, Science literacy and popularizing professional / specialists on translational aspects of Research and technology integration in society-market / researchers, up to age 40 Years The participants Have to Be Doctoral Students or Post-doc or even a young faculty completed The PhD degree in the aforementioned areas/ topics. The candidates that have already Partici-

pated in the prior versions of BRICS Young Scientist Conclaves are NOT eligible To apply. Funding support: The International air travel-related expenses (airfare, medical insurance, visa fee etc) Shall be met by the Department of Science & Technology Govt of India) whereas the local Hospitality ie food, accommodation and local transport in Brazil is going to be supported by the (MOSTIC of Brazil) for the whole duration of stay in Brazil. Programme The 4 Th BRICS YSF programme is very likely to include these activities: • BRICS Young Women in Science Dialogue • Youth Innovation and Entrepreneurship • Science Diplomacy, Advice and Communication Selection procedure: The selection of Indian participants for participating in the BRICS YS Conclave 2019 shall Be made by means of an Expert Selection Committee to be comprised by DST. The selection shall be based upon the assessment of the information provided by the applicant in the application form and the reference letter(s) by any of the eminent researcher/ scientist/ guides/ mentors of the candidate. The reference letters must be submitted along with the application form. The reference letters submitted separately through email or other forms shall not be considered in any case. Up to 20 participants shall be selected by the Department of Science and Tech (Govt. Of India) along with the

final list of participants shall be forwarded to the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication of Brazil. Submission process and timeline: The application must be submitted online ONLY at http://www.brics-ysf. org/ No additional form and/or channel of submission of this application will be entertained. Hard copies aren’t required to be submitted. The deadline for submitting the applications is 31st July 2019 (midnight) 21st August 2019 (midnight) To Learn More concerning the program, please contact: Dr D. Suba Chandran, PhD Professor & Dean National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Indian Institute of Science Campus Bangalore-560012 Email: subachandran@gmail.com Mr R K Sharma, Scientist-E, IMRC Division, Department of Science & Technology Technology Bhavan, New Delhi-110016 Tel: 011-26537976, email: Sharma_rk@nic.in


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Cambridge International Scholarships 2020-21 Interested and eligible applicants are encouraged to apply for the Vice-Chancellor’s Awards & Cambridge International Scholarships 2020. Cambridge International Scholarships notification 2020. Vice-Chancellor’s Awards 2020. Check out all of the details on the same below: On behalf of the University, the Cambridge Trust is pleased to offer the Vice-Chancellor’s Awards (for UK and EU students) and the Cambridge International Scholarships (for international students) for those undertaking PhD studies. The aim of the Vice-Chancellor’s Awards and Cambridge International Scholarships is to ensure that the 250 highest ranked students, irrespective of nationality, receive full financial support to undertake research leading to a PhD. The Scholarships pay the University Composition Fee and a maintenance allowance sufficient for a single person. Applicants who wish to start their PhDs in 2020-21 must apply by either the 5 December 2019 or 3 January 2020, whichever deadline is appropriate for your course. Please see the Graduate Admissions webpage ‘Application & Funding Deadlines’. All applicants should complete the funding section of the online application form via the Applicant Portal expressing their ‘wish to be considered for funding’. A University Committee draws up one ranked list of all PhD candidates across all disciplines. The only factors taken into consideration in agreeing with this list are academic qualifications, references and research potential. The financial situation of applicants does not affect the selection of scholarship winners. Successful applicants are informed at the earliest opportunity and the Trust will announce the winners of the Cambridge International Scholarships for 2020-21, and the winners of the Vice-Chancellor’s Awards for that year, in early March 2020. In order to maximise the number of Scholarships awarded, the Trust will, when appropriate, promote winners of Vice-Chancellor’s Awards and Cambridge International Scholarships to other full-cost awards with UK Re-

search Councils, or partner organisations, or Departments or Colleges, who are willing to provide either the full amount or part of the cost of the scholarship. Where part of the cost of a scholarship is offered, the Trust will meet the balance. In the case of students securing other full-cost scholarships, the Trust will be pleased to offer ‘honorary’ status which entitles them to become a Trust scholar without remuneration. The scholarships are awarded early in the academic year. You will be informed in March 2020 if you are have been successful in gaining a scholarship, following meetings of the Selection Committee. Eligibility These are guidelines on eligibility for scholarships that are available from the Cambridge Commonwealth, European and International Trust: Nationality All students, irrespective of nationality, are eligible to be considered for funding by the Trust. Status

students at a degree level that is the same as, or lower than, a degree they already hold, with two exceptions – we will consider an application from a student who is required to take a second Masters degree at Cambridge in order to gain admission to the PhD here, or from an international (nonEU) student who is proposing to study as an affiliated student at Cambridge for a second BA degree. The Trust does not have scholarships available for post-doctoral positions, or for visiting or exchange students. The Trust does not have scholarships available for part-time postgraduate degrees, and part-time undergraduate study is not available at the University of Cambridge. Subject

The Trust does not accept applications from students who are part-way through a course at Cambridge, unless they are applying for funding towards a higher degree course following graduation.

Applicants may study any subject currently available at the University.

To find out more about your fee status, see information on the University’s web pages for undergraduates and for postgraduates.

IMPORTANT DATES:

Degree level Applicants must be intending to start a course at the level of undergraduate (excluding UK/EU applicants), Masters (such as MPhil, MASt, LLM), or research postgraduate (such as PhD). Please note that the Trust does not offer many scholarships to students on undergraduate courses, and has many more scholarship programmes available to postgraduate students. Approximately 85% of the scholarships awarded each year are to students taking Masters or PhD degrees. The Trust will not normally support

How to Apply

It is easy to apply for funding at Cambridge. Eighty per cent of the funding awarded to applicants last year was from competitions that just require you to complete the funding section of the Graduate Application Form (via the Applicant Portal); you will be able to check using our funding search for options that you aren’t automatically considered for. The most important thing to remember is this: get your applications in early! See below for deadlines. When will I hear? Most funding awards are made between the beginning of March and the end of July with the majority of awards being made in March and April. If you haven’t heard by the end of July, you should assume that your application for funding has been unsuccessful. See the timeline for decisions through the Graduate Funding Competition for 2019 entry

Applicant Eligibility For the Graduate Funding Competition (including Gates Cambridge)

Deadline (12:00 UK time)

If you are a USA citizen, resident in the USA, and 10 October 2018 wish to be considered for Gatesfunding. 5 December 2018 For all other applicants, the funding deadline / 3 January 2019 is course specific so please check the course directory to see if your course has a December or January funding deadline.

Decisions Made

Early March onwards


SCHOLARSHIP

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Terry Hennessey Microbiology Fellowship for Young Investigators

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he announcement for the Terry Hennessey Microbiology Fellowship 2020 has been made. Interested and eligible candidates from all over the world are encouraged to apply for this fellowship. For more details on the fellowship, eligbility, how to apply and all of the benefits of the fellowship below: About the Terry Hennessey Microbiology Fellowship: The Terry Hennessey Microbiology Fellowship Provides a young investigator (normally under the age of 35) functioning in the field of infectious diseases, a travel grant up to £1,500 to present a paper/poster in the Yearly ASM Microbe Meeting at the USA. Qualification: This Fellowship is available to applicants on a global basis and the BSAC administers this award on behalf of this Terry Hennessey Microbiology Fellowship Trust. Applications are considered by the BSAC Grants Secretary. Value of the Award: Maximum of £1,500, (payable to the applicant upon return from ASM Microbe conference and submission of all expense receipts and a full written report). Terms and Conditions: This award is up to a value of 1,500. The Terms and Conditions for all BSAC Grants and Scholarships are published on the BSAC site. The applicant and host institute are needed to browse the terms

and conditions prior to completing an application form. Applicants are expected to submit a signed copy of the BSAC Terms and Conditions form, submitting this with their application form. How to Apply: Applicants should complete the application form at the top of this page. The application form should not be altered at all. Applicants should submit info in the Specific sequence * as follows: • A completed application form • A copy of the abstract submitted to the Scientific Committee for ASM Microbe • A copy of the letter of acceptance from the Scientific Committee for ASM Microbe • A brief curriculum vitae (maximum x2 A4 pages, including any current publications) • Applicants should submit a signed copy of the BSAC Terms and Conditions form (prior to making an application, applicants are advised to read all Terms and Conditions as well as Standard Operating Procedures found in BSAC T&Cs/SOPS) • All documents should be submitted through the BSAC online submission system: • The online submission system will produce one pdf document of the information uploaded — applicants should check this pdf document to make sure all infor-

mation is correct and also in the order asked above *Applications not submitted with pages set out in the order asked above will be returned to the applicant for revision *Applications submitted by email Won’t be accepted Payment / Claiming Funding: All original receipts must be submitted with a BSAC expenses claim form (found on top of the page). Claim forms and receipts should be sent to The Grants Secretary, The BSAC, 53 Regent Place, Birmingham, B1 3NJ, United Kingdom. Please obtain VAT receipts where possible. For any payment, enquiries contact Debbie Irwin at dirwin@bsac.org.uk Written Reports: Successful applicants must submit a written report post attendance at ASM Microbe, and using to the BSAC Report Form at the top of this page. The report should

include: 1) short details of your professional background, 2) specifics of sessions attended at the conference (such as benefits derived & contributing to your role/career), and 3) a copy of the abstract presented at ASM Microbe. The Report Form ought to be submitted to BSAC Grants via email at grants@bsac.org.uk ♦ The Terry Hennessey Trust kindly asks that reports are written in lay terms for the benefit of Trust Sponsors who might not be scientifically or medically qualified. Correspondence: All correspondence, such as submission of final reports, must be sent via email to grants@bsac.org.uk Application Deadline: 10 April 2020 at 23:59 GMT/UK time. [ASM Microbe 2020 to be held from 18-22 June 2020 in Chicago, USA].


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CSIR-Nehru Science Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Scheme

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ndian Nationals are encouraged to apply online for the CSIR Nehru Science Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. 100 fellowships up for grabs for FRESHERS PhD. A fellowship of Rs. 65,000 per month will be paid plus HRA and a grant of Rs. 3 lakh per annum to be offered. Check details below: ABOUT THE SCHEME Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), an ensemble of 37 state-of-the-art institutes, is one of the leading industrial and scientific research organizations. Over time, this exceptional organization has assisted India usher in a scientific milieu, creating and nurturing talent in a huge variety of S&T domain names, spawned several associations, many disciplines and above all have served as a nursery school and training ground for most of India’s talented scientists and technologists. CSIR annually publishes over 3800 papers in science journals and holds over 3000 patents. “CSIR-Nehru Science Postdoctoral research Fellowship Scheme” was commissioned to identify promising young researchers with innovative ideas and provide them with research and training opportunities in niche areas of basic science, engineering, agriculture and medicine. The scheme aims at facilitating their transition from mentored to the independent research career. CSIR plans to offer you one hundred (100) such fellowships annually to promising fresh PhD holders for working in CSIR labs with state-of-art R&D facilities. ELIGIBILITY PhD degree holders within three years of the award of PhD degree, or people who’ve submitted PhD theses. Applicants who are about to submit a thesis will also be eligible to apply, however, their selection will be subject to the condition they would have submitted the thesis before the expiry of the validity of this award offer. Applicants must have research publications in high impact factor SCI journals. Although CSIR Nehru Science Postdoctoral Research Fellowship is available to Indian nationals, Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) and Overseas Citizen of India (OCI), a certain num-

ber (up to 20 percent ) of fellowships can be offered to foreign nationals. MAXIMUM AGE LIMIT 32 years, relaxable up to 5 years in the event of SC/ST/Physically handicapped and women candidates and 3 years in case of OBC (Non-Creamy Layer) candidates. TENURE 2 years and extendable for maximum one more year based on exceptional performance and recommendation from the Director of the CSIR laboratory where working.

ence Postdoctoral Research Fellowships” will be made dependent on the presentation of this proposed research project followed by an interview of short-listed applicants by specially constituted Committees. Applicants REMUNERATION from abroad may also be considered CSIR Nehru Science Postdoctoral in absentia if qualified. Selection of Fellows will be paid a consolidated foreign nationals will be subjected to fellowship of Indian Rs. 65,000/- a clearance by ISTADS, CSIR. month and House Rent Allowance AND (HRA) as admissible and a contingen- ACCOMMODATION cy grant of Rs. 3.0 lakhs per annum. OTHER BENEFITS 25 percent of this contingency grant may be used for domestic and global Accommodation may be provided by CSIR labs if available. CSIR rules travel including per diem expenses. on leased accommodation are being reviewed in the light of “Sixth Pay MODE OF SELECTION Commission” recommendations and Eligible candidates may apply in the will be made applicable as and when prescribed format, available on the approved. CSIR Nehru site: www.csirhrdg.res.in, any time of year. On the other hand, the selections Science Postdoctoral Fellows will be will be made twice annually, in the entitled to Medical benefits Accordmonths of June and December. Ap- ing to the CSIR rules for Research plications received two months prior Associates. to the scheduled interview date will be considered for the short list and OTHER RELEVANT INFORcall for an interview. Eligible candi- MATION dates have to route their applications (i) Candidates that have worked for through the sponsoring CSIR lab. their PhD from a particular CSIR lab Applications of the employed (Per- won’t be eligible for becoming a PDF manent/Temporary) applicants from at the exact same CSIR lab under this external CSIR system Is Only Going scheme. to be considered provided that: (ii) Appointing CSIR lab will bear Director of the sponsoring laborato- 20% of the yearly expenditure from ry recommends the application, citing its internal resources. the motives of mutually benefitting the research in the CSIR lab vis-à-vis (iii) 20 percent of this fellowship the organization of the applicant at amount will be compensated as a which he/she is a permanent/tempo- lump sum at the conclusion of 1st and 2nd year, respectively. rary employee. Undertaking from the organization where employed that Extraordinary (iv) Selected candidates are expectLeave (EoL) without pay will be ed to join within four months of the granted for the whole tenure of this effective date of the award. CSIR-Nehru Science Postdoctoral The rest of the rules and regulations Research Fellowship if chosen. Selections to the”CSIR-Nehru Sci- will be applicable to CSIR Research

Associates (could be observed at www.csirhrdg.res.in). Further, in all matters, the decision of CSIR will be final. List of CSIR labs and their R&D activities could be seen at www.csir.res. in. For more information about CSIR labs, please see the web site of the individual lab. HOW TO APPLY Please read the instructions, given at (Annexure-I), carefully before filling the Application Form. The Application Proforma is given as (Annexure-II). Application received without attestation of the Director of the Sponsoring CSIR lab is going to be rejected. Fuly filled application Ought to Be sent to:Mr S. A. Hasan Principal Scientist CSIR-Human Resource Development Group CSIR Complex, Library Avenue Pusa, New Delhi-110012


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ICMR-Newton Fund Researcher Official Notification

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he official notification for the Indian Council of Medical Research & British Council UK Researcher Links Workshops under the Newton Bhabha Fund programme has been released. Indian nationals are encouraged to check out all of the details of this below and apply for the same: Indian Council of Medical Research has partnered with British Council UK for the Researcher Links Workshops under the Newton Bhabha Fund programme. Newton Researcher Links Workshops bring together early-career researchers from the united kingdom and a partner nation to make international connections which may enhance the standard of the research. Once funded, grants are available for early-career researchers in the united kingdom and the country hosting the workshop to attend. These grants are financed under the Newton Fund, a UK Government initiative funded by the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), together with spouse funders from all over the world. The Fund intends to promote the economic development and welfare of either the partner countries or, through working together with the partner country, to deal with problems of low-income and vulnerable populations. Researcher links grants are made to provide financial aid to bring along a UK/Indian bilateral cohort of early career researchers to take part in workshops to satisfy the overarching objectives. Every workshop will be co-ordinated by 2 Leading or Established Researchers, (Principal Applicants), one from every country, and will focus on a particular research area. Priority areas: Partner nations may specify priority areas and will only accept applications within these. Priority areas are listed in the guidelines document. ODA requirement: All applications must satisfy the mandatory relevance to economic development or social welfare of the partner country – view guidelines document that can be

found in the downloads section. Partner Countries: Brazil China India Jordan Philippines The thematic research areas are: 1. Elimination Strategy for HIV — together with the following subthemes: a) The test-and-treat strategy along with other potential strategies for HIV elimination including themes such as — Treatment as prevention for HIV AIDS that highlights the impact of treatment on the transmission dynamics of HIV in populations; Other possible elimination strategies. b) Challenges to elimination such as topics such as — Resistance, Social behavioural aspect and persistent HIV infection Dynamics of HIV reservoirs 2. HIV-TB co-infection — together with subsequent sub-themes: a) Understanding TB latency now and its opportunities for HIV and TB programs including topics include — • Current Choices for treatment and diagnosis and for TB latent infection; • New strategy/ formulas for treating latent TB infection: opportunities and challenges; • Reach all needing treatment of latent TB & and its own opportunities for HIV and TB programs. b) Finding synergies between the HIV and TB programs such as topics like — • TB prevention in HIV-associated TB: Opportunities and challenges; • New regimens for both TB and HIV. Eligibility Criteria: • Leading or Established Researchers can apply to be Principal Applicants (according to the EC – download information

here ). • Each proposal should have one Principal Applicant from the united kingdom, in addition to a Principal Applicant from the partner countries listed above. • Please download and see the list of eligible UK research institutions (in the Downloads section). Other eligibility criteria apply – for complete eligibility criteria, please read the guidelines document available in the downloads section. How to Apply: Applicants should submit a completed application form through the British Council online application system. Prior to applying, kindly go to the site https://www.britishcouncil. org/education/science/current-opportunities/newton-fund-researcher-links-workshops?_ga=2.261 486093.1636826022.1563263022 1592752652.1562737002 for the details. Contact: • In case you have any queries, please contact UK-ResearcherLinks@britishcouncil.org • In your email, please specify

that you’re enquiring about the Newton Fund Researcher Links Workshops call. After applying, a soft copy of the proposal may please be submitted to the undersigned for the record. Contact person(s) at ICMR: Dr. Reema Roshan Scientist C(Project) International Health Division (IHD) ICMR Hqrs, New Delhi Email: reemaicmr@gmail.com 91-11-26588895, Extn.347 Dr.Mukesh Kumar Scientist G & Head International Health Division mukeshk.hq@icmr.gov.in Tele Fax. 91-11-26588755, Tele. 26589794,26588980 Extn.242 Dr. Harpreet Sandhu Scientist F International Health Division sandhuh.hq@icmr.gov.in Tele Fax. 91-11-26589492, Tele. 26589794,26588980 Extn.237 Closing Date: The last date of submission of applications is 9th August 2019.


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VOICE OF BIOTECNIKA

July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

Top 10 Scientific Myths Decoded – Voice of Biotecnika Episode 41 By Priyanjana Ghosh

Our World is an instance of awful scientific myths that are perambulating since centuries, though most of them were refuted years ago, these rumors just won’t go away. So hey friends…well guessed…today’s voice of Biotecnika will be decoding some of these old wives’ tales. Top 10 Scientific Myths Decoded – Voice of Biotecnika. 1. Everest is the world’s tallest width, making it far too narrow to be mountain visible. Those astronauts who claim to have seen the Great Wall have been To measure all 8,848 meters of this proven to have mistaken the object for unforgiving spike of rock is one of the a river, in particular, the Grand Canal greatest human achievements, but an- of China.So finally its decoded! yone who claims to have conquered the world’s tallest mountain would be 3. Bumblebee flight violates the incorrect.So the title goes to Mauna laws of physics Kea, a volcanic peak in Hawaii with a summit of 4,205 meters.But hey Indeed, presidential candidate Mike hold on! that’s much shorter than Ev- Huckabee used the line while out erest. In fact, that number is only the campaigning in 2008: “It’s scientifamount peeking above sea level – the ically impossible for the bumblebee rest of its enormity goes all the way to fly, but the bumblebee, being unto the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. A aware of these scientific facts, flies measure of its entirety from base to anyway.” It’s a myth that science is peak clocks in at almost 10,000 me- baffled by bee flight. The misconters, making it the tallest mountain on ception seems to come from a 1934 the planet. Technically, Everest is the French book called Le vol des insecttallest mountain above sea level, but es, which suggests that insects – not a more formidable title would be the just the bumblebee – shouldn’t be highest point on Earth. able to fly.But, of course, they can, and the physics behind it isn’t a great 2. The Great Wall of China can be mystery to scientists. Yes, if you maseen from space nipulate the same calculations you’d use to explain why an airplane flies, This man-made structure is impres- then bees shouldn’t be able to take sively massive and one of the most off, but a flash glance will confirm magnificent historical destination to that bees are not planes. In the 1990s, visit, no doubt, but is it big enough to it was discovered that the secret of be seen from space? No. This remains their flight comes from air swirling a wonder only on Earth: numerous in a tight circle over the wing. “The astronauts have confirmed it can’t be vortex is a low-pressure region above seen with the naked eye in orbit, and the wing, and it sucks the wing upcertainly not from the surface of the wards,” this theory was explained by moon.The myth has been exaggerat- Charlie Ellington, professor of Aned in popular culture since the 18th imal Mechanics at the University of century – before people actually went Cambridge. into space – but based on its measurements, spotting it from the moon 4. Red Enrages Bulls would be like trying to see a human hair from two miles away. The fact is, We’ve all seen bulls bear down at the despite being 13,171 miles in length, sight of someone waving a red cape it’s only approximately six meters in in their face.Even there are popular

sayings such as “seeing red” or “red mist” to describe anger overcoming us. In all truth, however, bulls are color-blind. It’s not the color of the cape that enrages the animal, but the flapping movement of the material. In tests conducted by science’s favorite tandem, the MythBusters, a bull was presented with three dummies holding capes of varying colors. It was really proven that the bull would charge at the cape that was moving, regardless of the color.Ohh finally you are free to wear red dresses in front of them-giggling! 5. Chameleons can change to any color About 70% of adults believe this one and even there are proverbs and idioms on this but, despite, a chameleon can’t turn itself tartan or mimic the pattern of your wallpaper as part of its camouflage capabilities. The chameleon does have an extraordinary color-changing ability, but it actually shifts color in response to mood, a change in body temperature or to communicate rather than to blend in with its environment.For instance, they’re able to turn themselves bleach-white in direct sunshine to reflect the heat or turn dark in the cold to absorb light, while a male’s colorful patterned body can be a mating display. A little bonus fact is that the outermost skin of a chameleon is transparent: they change color through layers of cells called chromatophores, which contain different pigments to make up its striking natural palette. 6. Lightning never strikes in the same place twice

Yes, it does. Trees and tall buildings are often hit repeatedly by lightning that isn’t too fussy about what it targets.During one storm, it took eight strikes in less than half an hour.Of course, the main purpose of the idiom is to encourage people to try something more than once – a folksy way of informing them that a bad experience is unlikely to be repeated. Again, not always true. A man once was hit by lightning on seven different occasions, seeing him enter the Guinness World Records, while Tsutomu Yamaguchi had an even more traumatic experience, managing to be hit by both the Nagasaki and Hiroshima atomic bombings. 7. There are left- or right-brained people The school of thought was always thus: creative types were more rightbrained, while more calculated and detailed folk channeled the left half of their brain. It’s a neat way to classify personality traits, but studies have shown no indication that individuals have stronger left or right halves of their brains.The University of Utah conducted a two-year study with more than 1,000 participants, whose brains were observed as they performed various tasks. While the researchers found it was true that the left and right parts of the brain are responsible for alternative functions (language on the left; attention on the right), no brain was stronger either way. As Dr. Jeff

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Anderson, the study’s lead author, brain receptors, so scientists make stated: “The truth is that it would be sense when they say we have more highly inefficient for one half of the than five. brain to consistently be more active than the other.” 9. We only use 10% of our brain 8. We only have five senses

We’d like to think that we only use 10% of our brain, with the rest waiting like an empty hard drive ready to be filled. Sadly, this isn’t the case. There are several Hollywood movies based on this theme but it doesn’t help to debunk the myth, portraying a world in which unlocking that extra 90% has us learning languages in seconds or becoming instant experts in anything from combat or mechanics. But it’s the stuff of sci-fi slosh. We do use our whole brain, all the time. We process so much information at any one time that our neurons and synapses are firing across the whole brain almost non-stop. Any function or task we perform constantly stimulates different parts of the brain; MRI scans conducted by neuroscientists have proved that the organ is lit up with activity even during the most trivial tasks.

Sight, smell, taste, hearing, and touch. These senses, categorized by Aristotle himself. So what do u think, is it the only senses we have? While we have long focused on these as our set of tools, the truth is that we have far more, even as many as 20. The big five might seem to have every base covered, but we’re more perceptual than we realize. What about our ability to sense temperatures (thermoception), or our ability to balance upright while skiing (equilibrioception) – where would you classify these? How about hunger, thirst, motion or spatial awareness? Without these senses, we’d operate on a rather basic level – so boiling all human senses down to just five doesn’t make science happy. Each sense can be sub-categorized into further senses. For example, there’s nociception (a sense of pain), proprioception (a sense of There’s also the case of head injuknowing where your limbs are) and ries. Even the smallest ding to the time perception. We’re alert to many head can cause severe trauma and influences playing on our body and brain damage. If 90% of our brains

lay dormant, we’d be able to lop off our “non-functioning” section and walk around perfectly fine. This, as we know, isn’t possible. Finally crushing the myth is the evolution argument. Nature is such an efficient system that having a large, redundant amount of grey matter taking up space in our craniums would have been sufficiently secateured eons ago. The brain is a huge drain on our energy (it’s estimated it draws around 20% of our total energy), so having to power such a large percentage with no benefit doesn’t make much biological sense. 10. Sharks can’t get cancer The misconception regarding this can be traced back to the 1970s, when researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine discovered that cartilage stopped the growth of new blood vessels in tissue – a key characteristic of malignant tumors. Since shark skeletons are made entirely of cartilage, it’s no wonder researchers’ attention turned to sharks. Scientists also discovered they had a lower rate of the disease and began exposing them to high levels of carcinogens, although there were no

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results to prove that the sharks didn’t develop tumors. The most damage came when Dr. William Lane gained notable media attention for his book Sharks Don’t Get Cancer. Following dubious clinical trials, he claimed remarkable results from shark cartilage. Rather more suspiciously, Lane then set up his own business, selling pills of powdered shark cartilage as an alternative treatment for cancer. The FDA conducted clinical trials of the pill on three separate occasions and found it to have no effect whatsoever. Further blowing the theory out of the water, a 2004 study from the University of Hawaii found multiple tumors in a range of sharks, skates and rays, and even tumors in shark cartilage itself. Hey time flies really…we have come to the end of the session and it’s time to say, goodbye pals…but before that…did you all recovered from the cobweb of these myths?… if yes,share your views regarding the same and also let us know if you have decoded any of them? Thank you so much and stay tuned to our very own podcasts-Voice of Biotecnika!


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Latest Blood Cancer Research Updates – Voice of Biotecnika Episode 40 By Dr. Violet Senapati

Today’s podcast is all about Believing Miracles Can Happen. We are going to talk about Cancer today, with a special focus on Blood cancer. Blood Cancer is the abnormal or uncontrolled growth of blood cells. The most commonly diagnosed blood cancers are non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. it because the detailed mechanisms for the occurrence and progression Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma occurs of acute myeloid leukemia are inwhen large B-cell lymphoma, grows completely understood. Presently, the rapidly, and follicular lymphoma treatment strategies for patients with grows slowly. Chronic lymphocytic this disease include chemotherapy, leukemia (CLL) occurs due to un- targeted therapy, and hematopoietic controlled growth of B lymphocytes, stem cell transplantation. Though the which is a type of white blood cell. significant development in treatment Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) strategies has enhanced the therapeuis fast-growing cancer, common in tic outcomes of patients with acute adults in which the bone marrow pro- myeloid leukemia over the last few duces abnormal amounts of white decades. But nonetheless, a large blood cells, red blood cells, and number of patients face relapsing of platelets. Acute lymphoblastic leu- the disease and hence die of the diskemia (ALL) is a fast-growing type ease. Therefore there is an utmost of leukemia in which the bone mar- need to understand the molecular prorow makes too many immature lym- cesses and mechanisms which are rephocytes. Multiple myelomas occur sponsible for acute myeloid leukemia when the body makes too many plas- development and progression of the ma cells, which develop from B lym- disease. The mechanisms are of great phocytes in the bone marrow. importance as it helps to develop reliable therapeutic approaches for paCancer is a life-threatening disease, tients with this disease. is considered a taboo in many cultures. But now its time, not to be de- A group of researchers at the Ludpressed as new research offers a ray wig Boltzmann Institute for Cancer of hope for treatment as researchers Research and the Medical University are contributing immensely towards Vienna has now made some breakcontrolling the untamed growth of through to tame this disease. Acute bold cancer cells. myeloid leukemia is carried by a mutated, oncogenic isoform of the proAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is tein CCAAT/enhancer-binding proone of the most common and lethal tein alpha or C/EBPα, the interaction acute leukemias. According to the of the mutated protein with an epigeAmerican Cancer Society every year netic regulator, MLL1 complex, if the 19,520 cases are diagnosed and about MLL1 complex was functionally in10,670 people die annually from it, hibited, acute myeloid leukemia cells due to the increase of malignant my- underwent cell death. Acute myeloid eloid progenitor cells. It’s a deadly leukemia patients harbor mutations disease as after initial diagnosis only in the CEBPA gene, which encodes twenty-five percent of patients sur- the transcription factor C/EBPα. One vive beyond five years. truncated protein C/EBPαp30 isoform interacts with the MLL1 complex to Why there is no permanent cure for control gene expression.

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of MLL1 results in proliferation of arrest and myeloid differentiation in C/EBPαp30-expressing cells. OK first let me tell you what is CRISPR. CRISPR technology is a very powerful tool for editing genomes. These are specialized stretches of DNA. CRISPR derived protein Cas9 is an enzyme that acts like a pair of molecular scissors, which can cut strands of DNA. Further, it was found that CEBPA-mutated hematopoietic progenitor cells are more sensitive to pharmacological targeting of the MLL1 complex. When the inhibitor is added it impairs proliferation and restores myeloid differentiation potential in mouse and human acute myeloid leukemia cells with CEBPA mutations. Finally, they identified the transcription factor GATA2 is a direct critical target of the p30-MLL1 interaction. They further discovered that C/EBPαp30 requires the MLL1 complex for regulating oncogenic gene expression and that CEBPA-mutated acute myeloid leukemia is very sensitive to perturbation of the MLL1 complex. These findings identify the MLL1 complex as a potential therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia with CEBPA mutation. Apart from the above research new drug compounds have been isolated that show promise in treating acute myeloid leukemia. Purdue University researchers have shown promise in treating acute myeloid leukemia. They are of the opinion that tyrosine kinases (TKs) drive the survival and proliferation of both normal and malignant cell types. These TKs are usually mutated in acute myeloid leu-

kemia and hence they targeted it. In 30 percent population of acute myeloid leukemia patients, a mutation is caused by a kinase known as FLT3. Inhibitors of FLT3, like Radapt and Gilteritinib which was approved in 2018 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, have shown immense promise in treating leukemia. But it was found that acute myeloid leukemia patients with FLT3 inhibitor therapy often relapse due to secondary mutations in the FLT3 and existing treatments have not been fully successful in treating those cases. Therefore the researchers have developed novel compounds that work not only on acute myeloid leukemia with common FLT3 mutation but also on drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia harboring secondary mutations. Researchers working at the Department of Hematology China were of the opinion that different microRNAs (miRNAs) get aberrantly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia and miRNAs play the role of protagonist in tumorigenesis and progression of acute myeloid leukemia. miR-6283p (miR-628), is one such miRNAs which get dysregulated in many human cancers, also exerts anti tumorous roles in different cancer types. Their studies were aimed at exploring the possible mechanism underlying the function of miR-628 in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

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The expression of miR-628 was downregulated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-628 in acute myeloid leukemia cells which gets upregulated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia while IGF-1R knockdown led to the tumor-suppressive effect of miR-628 in acute myeloid leukemia cells. It was found that miR-628 inhibited the activation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in acute myeloid leukemia cells which is suggestive of its potential role as a therapeutic target in patients with this life-threatening malignant tumor. Another latest research to control this disease is through the development of engineered T cells which can treat acute myeloid leukemia. Though it is a challenging task thinking about the difficulty in target selection and the requirement for robust T-cell expansion and persistence. The team of researchers at Pediatrics, University of Michigan have designed a T cell which can be stimulated to kill acute myeloid leukemia cells by recognizing the acute myeloid leukemia-associated surface marker CLEC12A, through the release of a CLEC12AxCD3 bispecific “engager” molecule (CLEC12A-ENG). CLEC12AENG T cells are in turn activated by CLEC12A, which are not harmful to hematopoietic progenitor cells. Thus it was shown to exhibit anti-

gen-dependent acute myeloid leukemia killing. They also coupled this with triggering the expression of a chimeric IL7 receptor having an ectodomain that in particular binds to a second acute myeloid leukemia -associated surface antigen, CD123. The resulting T cells, CLEC12A-ENG. CD123IL7Rα T cells have displayed improved activation upon dual-target recognition, kill acute myeloid leukemia, and exhibit antitumor activity in xenograft models. Expression of the chimeric IL7R which is targeted to a second tumor-associated antigen would improve T-cell activity against the hematological monsters.

preferential lethality of spliceosomal mutant acute myeloid leukemia, thus providing a strategy for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia which has RBP splicing mutations. Recently one more interesting research showed that Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation can be considered a viable postremission therapy for intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia as a complete remission when there is absence of a matched identical sibling. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is already considered a curative strategy for acute myeloid leukemia, the efficacy of autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) for patients without a matched sibling donor was never very clear. What is allogenic and autogenic transplant?. It is a collection of stem cells from a matching donor and transplanted into the patient to control the disease and restore the patient’s immune system. An allogeneic stem cell transplantation is different from an autologous stem cell transplant, wherein stem cells from the patient’s own body are used. They compared the survival number after alloSCT versus autoSCT for patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission, by performing a meta-analysis of 11 clinical studies. The outcomes were relapse-free survival, overall survival, relapse rate, and treatment-related mortality.

Another group of researchers further showed that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential modulators of transcription and translation, which is often dysregulated in cancer. They assessed the role of RBP in human cancers using a comprehensive CRISPR/ Cas9 domain-focused screen which targeted RNA-binding domains of 490 classical RBPs. This led to the discovery of a network of physically interacting RBPs which gets upregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are very important for maintaining RNA splicing and acute myeloid leukemia survival. Targeting of one key protein of this network, which is RBM39, led to repression of cassette exon inclusion and promoted intron retention within mRNAs which encodes HOXA9 targets as well as in other RBPs which are preferentially required in acute myeloid leukemia. RBM39 could not perform The results showed that when comsplicing which further resulted in pared with autoSCT, alloSCT showed

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better relapse benefits, further analysis based on donor category like matched sibling donor or matched unrelated donor of allogeneic stem cell transplantation showed the allogeneic stem cell transplantation from matched sibling donor rather than from matched unrelated donor had better overall survival benefits compared to autologous stem cell transplantation. For FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) wild-type patients, alloSCT and autoSCT had comparable relapse-free survival and overall survival outcomes. Thus the above research suggests that when, in the absence of an available matched sibling donor, autologous stem cell transplantation remains a viable postremission therapy alternative in case of intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission, especially for FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications wild-type patients. So what we can conclude is…Cancer diagnosis and treatment is growing by leaps and bounds. The glass, however, remains half-empty as many types of cancers still defy treatment. So the need of the hour is to encourage more scientific research which can provide the lead in resolving most of the human suffering from cancer in the coming years. So young researchers out there…what are your thoughts on controlling this untamed animal-cancer. Do share with us.


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Can Mosquitoes Be Wiped Off The Earth? – Voice Of Biotecnika Episode 39 By Rashmi Sanyal

Mosquito is one of the deadliest dipterans. It is the source of many epidemic diseases among mankind. I am sure that, all our fellow listeners would have thought of getting rid of this entire species at some point in time. Today, techniques have become so advanced that it is safe to say that humans are capable of eradicating this entire species at the click of their fingers. But should we edit nature? Should we toy with its ways? To brainstorm on this scenario, I, Rashmi, welcome you all to another amazing session on Voice of Biotecnika. Today we will be discussing on the fact that “Can mosquitoes be wiped off the Earth” and if so, Should they? If it were a harmless creature, we would not have worried about it so much, but mosquitos not only bite and irritate the skin, they also are a vector for deadly diseases. So can we curb the problem at its roots? We have so many mosquito repellents in the market that aim to kill the insect, but why not go for a mass scale eradication? Ideally, mosquitos put a huge financial and medical burden on society by infecting millions of people every year. To name a few – Malaria, Dengue, Zika fever, Chikungunya have seen a major rise, especially in tropical countries. The origin of these diseases may be different, but due to its infectibility, it has rapidly spread across the globe.

Well, to understand the pros and cons of this idea, we have to look into the ecological importance of the insect. Eradicating any organism would ideally have a serious impact on the balance of ecosystems. There are about 3,500 named species of mosquito. Out of this only a couple of hundred actually, bite or bother humans. Out of these the female counterparts are the actual bloodsuckers as they need blood for reproduction. They live on almost every continent and habitat and may serve important functions in numerous ecosystems. Mosquitoes have been a part of the Earth’s biomass for more than 100 million years. During this stay, they have co-evolved with so many species along the way. Wiping out the entire species of mosquito could ideally leave a predator without prey, or maybe a plant without a pollinator. Actually, exploring a world without mosquitoes is more than an exercise in imagination.

However, some scientists believe the fact that the niche gap left by one What we do as of today, is restrict missing mosquito is equally rapidly ourselves to eradicating a local pop- filled by the growth of other organulation of the species. Example re- isms. stricted treatment to your home, colony or at the most neighborhood. With Getting rid of mosquitoes might the use of chemical repellents, sprays, make the biggest ecological difference repellent incense sticks, fumigation, in the Arctic tundra. It is the home to we manage to control their growth to mosquito species including the Aedes a certain extent. We even use mosqui- impinger and Aedes nigripes. Eggs tos nets to prevent their entry. But why laid by the insects hatch the next year have we not thought about cleansing once all the snow melts, and their the world of this nuisance? Though development into adults takes only on one hand, we are genetically ma- about 3–4 weeks. Right from northnipulating them to raise pathogen re- ern Canada to Russia, there is a brief sistant varieties of the insect, on the period in which they are surprisingly other we are fearing their extinction. abundant, even forming dense thick clouds in some areas.

Daniel Strickman from the US Department of Agriculture in Beltsville, Maryland, however, suggests that this is an exceptionally rare situation worldwide and that there is no other place in the world where they have that much biomass.

amander, lizard, and frog would also lose one of their primary food sources. In this context, researchers tracked insect-eating house martins at a park in France, after the area was sprayed with a microbial mosquito-control agent. They found that the birds which initially produced three chicks per Bruce Harrison, another entomol- nest now produced on average two ogist from Salem, estimates that the chicks per nest at the control sites. number of migratory birds that nest in the tundra could actually drop by Most mosquito-eating birds would more than 50% without having mos- probably switch to other insects as quitoes to eat. Other researchers how- their source of food. Other insectiever disagree. Cathy Curby, a wildlife vores might not miss them at all. For biologist at the US Fish and Wildlife example, bats feed mostly on moths, Service in Fairbanks, Alaska, is of the and less than 2% of their gut content opinion that Arctic mosquitoes don’t is mosquitoes. If you’re calculating show up in bird stomach samples in will you eat the 22-ounce filet-mihigh numbers and that midges are a gnon moth or the 6-ounce hamburger more important source of food for mosquito? them. Possibly we may have overestimated the number of mosquitoes in However, further experiments are the Arctic simply because they are se- being conducted to find a solution. In lectively attracted to us. Britain, genetically modified Aedes aegypti are being bred. This species is For them, mosquitoes are a delicious a carrier of zika virus and dengue fething to eat and they are easy to catch. ver, but the genetically modified vaIn the absence of their larvae, mul- riety carries a gene that prohibits its tiple different species of fish would offsprings to develop properly. As a have to change their diet to survive. result, the lineage of carriers is ended This can sound simple, but traits such before it can explode. On the release as feeding behavior are deeply im- of such mosquitos, an amazing 96% printed, genetically, in those fish. Let reduction in the species count was us take the mosquitofish (Gambusia) observed, but the ecological balance for example. It is a specialized preda- also seemed to sway a bit. Though the tor — so effective at killing mosqui- upside was the fact that the region betoes that it is stocked in rice fields and came multi-disease free. swimming pools as pest control. They would probably go extinct. The loss Then again, scientists came up with of these or other such fish could definitely have major effects up and down the food chain. Many species of insect, spider, sal-

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July 30th, 2019 Vol. 03 NO 89

a genetically modified variety that did not harbor the pathogen at all. So, the species would survive, bite, prosper, but would never harm mankind. There are other mutations that allow the mosquito to feed on other blood meals rather than humans. Yes, this is absolutely possible. Mosquitoes have a long list of criteria for feeding off of humans – their scent, their temperature, CO2 release, etc. If the gene sensitizing them to these criteria are switched off, they do not distinguish between the blood meal and can feed

off other sources as well. This way the chances of disease distribution also reduces quite a bit. Yes, I know this sounds like the perfect solution, but, scientists are also of the opinion that such genetically modified agents may unknowingly transfer genetic mutations into other species creating unaccounted for varieties. Probably the mosquitoes would have a mutant variety that went way out of control. So we again came back to square 1, where we allow these troublesome

agents to lead their happy life. I now ask you, dear listeners, what are your opinions. While we sit and squat a few of these insects with our palms or books or bats, why are we not thinking of mass eradication? Why are we allowing these species to survive and yet fear the medical burden it carries? The only thing I can conclude is that till we make a tough decision, we will remain to tabulate the pros and cons for the rest of our life.

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would ask you to pay heed to the government’s suggestions and keep your surroundings clean and dry, to avoid the propagation of these very harmful insects around you and your dear ones. Do not allow water to accumulate in any vessel in your neighborhood, use mosquito nets and keep your area clean. So till the next eye-opening session with Biotecnika, I, Rashmi, will take your leave. Do keep us posted on your ideas and comments about this chicken and egg discussion and However, for our personal benefits, I have a good day ahead!


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BIOTECNIKA TIMES

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Biotecnika Times - GATE 2020 & IIT JAM 2019, BITP 2019 Notification  

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