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Extension West Virginia University Extension Service Volume VII, Number 1 Summer 1992

West Virginia's Thriving Deer Herd a Mixed Economic Blessing


A devil-may-care attitude about the deer population prevailed in the 1800s. With destruction of habitat and unregulated hunting, the West Virginia deer herd dwindled . The state's first deer laws were passed in 1909. Today, an estimated 700,000 to 1.4 million deer roam the Mountain State. The 300,000-plus licensed deer hunters spend $7 million in recreation dollars. West Virginia issues the fifth largest number of nonresident hunting licenses in the United States. And 80 percent of West Virginia hunters hunt deer. But the cost to feed one deer for a year is an estimated $91 .25. For a deer herd of 700,000, the bill comes to more than $63 million . Because wildlife belongs to all citizens, landowners and taxpayers foot this food bill. "Since the early 1980s, the West Virginia University Extension Service has been studying the severity of the deer problem in West Virginia . Basically, extension has been involved in a major effort for 10 years," said Arthur W. Selders, WVU professor and extension agricultural engineer. "The deer population has been increasing ever since," Selders said . "The Division of Natural Resources recognizes that there are too many

No corn will grow on this cornstalk. Hungry deer entered the field early in the season and helped themselves to the tender corn plants.

deer. They promoted deer to sell more licenses, particularly out-of-state. Deer bring in millions of dollars in lodging, food and gear."

Selders continued, "It's obvious to me there are too many deer in the heavily populated deer areas such as Hardy (continued page 3)



As fall approaches, the harvesting of summer crops enriches consumers' diets and farmers' pocketbooks. Fresh tomatoes, corn, and green beans remain on my favorite list although concessions to health and age have reduced the salt, butter, and bacon fat I consume while enjoying them. My annual sojourn to the State Fair featured visits to agricultural exhibits with West Virginia grown and processed foods, conversations on hay bale seats, and a motel room across the road from the cattle barns . All my senses were reminded of the significant part that productive land plays in our lives as mountain people. The building featuring West Virginia grown products was clear evidence of how far farmers have come in the past five years in developing and promoting products for niche markets. Bob Williams, Jean Fields, Howard Knotts, and Andy McCauley from the state Department of Agriculture did an excellent job of planning and carrying out efforts to promote West Virginia products. The producers had colorful and tasty exhibits. The harvest season and the State Fair cause me to think of several areas of agricultural programming in extension which are generating good results. These programs are a blend of assistance to new enterprises and new ideas for old enterprises. Our ability to be successful has been enhanced because for the first time in several years we are close to fully staffed at the county and specialist level. We have an excellent group of county faculty with expertise in agriculture and natural resources, and many new faces in our specialist corps. Good harvest examples are: Finding and taking advantage of new markets for vegetables and small fruits


have netted good success particularly for pepper growers. The West Virginia Specialty Crops Project had about 200 acres planted this year-four times more than last year. Other crops show potential. The dreamers are talking about a processing plant. It can happen. The aquaculture project will begin its second year soon . It had the usual glitches of any research and development project: Some fish got sick, some springs didn't maintain flow in really dry times, matching markets with production was a challenge . But the pioneers in this new endeavor have a lot to show for their work-a processing facility in Tucker County, several new agricultural enterprises that combine tourism and recreation with farm income, and good progress at the policy level in developing the laws and regulations for a new industry. West Virginia farmers still raise a lot of beef cattle. And WVU Extension provides a lot of help to that industry. The extension marketing work of the past five years has provided new options-retained ownership, video sales, more yearling sales. As important is the fact that West Virginia beef farmers and strengthened extension programs in agronomy are in good position to take advantage of the national trends favoring forage-fed beef. And the county agents in southern West Virginia would scold me if I didn't note the growth of the southern bull test and the improvements to southern West Virginia cattle herds that it makes possible. In the past year, West Virginia University Extension has made a major commitment to help with issues of waste disposal for the poultry industry. The problems are far from solved, but alternative markets for poultry litter, multifarm dead bird composting options, and use of paper for bedding are areas in which positive results have occurred. College of Agriculture faculty in animal nutrition in collaboration with county agents and producers have been doing research on the problems and possibilities of poultry litter as a feed additive. This collaboration between research and

extension faculty is critical to longterm solutions of these difficult animal waste issues. In many ways, West Virginia mountain agriculture is in good shape to deal with the pressures and trends of the next decade. Small, flexible, sustainable enterprises selling to regional and local markets will be successful with good planning and management. Most farm family incomes still will have to be bolstered by another job, but that has been West Virginia's pattern for some time . My columns in Vision for the next year will focus on three issues you identified in meetings held across the state as most important: community economic development, environmental stewardship, and capacity building for youth and families . I'll talk about extension education in each of those areas . In addition , in November and December, the WVU Extension Service will sponsor a series of meetings around the state to report to you on the results of our work since 1990. I look forward to seeing you there .

Rachel B. Tompkins Associate Provost for Extension and Economic Development Director, Cooperative Extension Service

Assuming that 50 percent of a deer's diet is from agricultural crops and continued from page 1 using deer feed consumption data from a WVU study made several years ago, County. The deer are not eating well. the value of agricultural crop damage There are lots of scruffy deer out there. in West Virginia by a deer herd of 1 They are probably experiencing a million could be over $35 million decline in weight which indicates annually. they're not eating enough of the foods to make healthy-looking deer." "Rhododendrons used as landscape plantings are a particular favorite," Concentrations of bucks and does of noted William N. Grafton, extension various ages develop near sources of specialist in forestry . "Two landscaping preferred food . Agricultural fields of all plants suitable for West Virginia that types signal an invitation to feed . Corn deer don't like are Japanese pieris and and alfalfa are the crops damaged most Chinese holly." frequently. Because corn is an annual crop and must be replanted every year, Thousands of acres of West Virginia's the loss of a corn plant affects only a forests no longer have seeds or single year's crop. Alfalfa, a perennial, seedlings of oaks, maples, and poplar will persist for several years under to replace mature trees removed in normal conditions, but a few deer are logging . capable of causing serious damage on an acre of alfalfa. Land competition between people and the animals that share the environment Although deer graze on grasses, crops is becoming more intense as more land and other plants, they are primarily is used for human needs. And browsers when choice food sources technology has produced changes in diminish . The deer bite off the tender land use practices that affect the lives tips, buds and leaves on shrubs, brush of many wild creatures, causing some and trees within reach . Having teeth to flourish and others to decline. only on the lower jaw in the front of their mouths, they cannot cleanly bite Some wildlife cause damage very off woody browse. Instead , they break evident to specific individuals or it off, leaving jagged, torn ends. special groups but such damage may Deer Herd ...

not be noticed by others. For example, deer that browse on fruit trees are objectionable to orchard owners, but tourists in the area may find the presence of deer desirable. In West Virginia last year: • Landowners reported 18,357 crop damage deer kills and 9,200 crop damage complaints. • Hunters killed 177,000 deer, up 7,000 over 1990. • Drivers killed 9,500 deer on state roads. Earlier this year, the WVU Institute for Public Affairs sponsored a round table discussion on "The Search for Common Ground : Deer in West Virginia ." The 57 participants included state legislators, Division of Natural Resources representatives, farmers, hunters, and faculty members. After several hours of discussion, a majority of those present approved 14 recommendations and requested the governor to consider them for his legislative agenda. (continued page 4)

When snow cover is light, temperatures are mild and the habitat provides a generous food ration, West Virginia's deer herd survives winter without heavy population losses.


Deer Herd ... continued from page 3

The recommendations included the following: • expand research efforts to determine the extent and location of deer to commercial crops and forest ecosystems; • expand the availability of technical assistance to farmers and others to reduce deer damage costs; • offer low- or no-interest loans to farmers and others to purchase deer damage abatement equipment; • adopt legislation that provides limited liability protection to landowners who may wish to charge hunters for hunting on their land; keep a list of landowners willing to allow hunters access to their property; • extend the antlerless deer hunting season to seven days, with the possibility of a later season in January or February; • open buck hunting season on a Saturday instead of a Monday; • allow deer hunting on Sundays; • allow hunters to take up to two deer a day; • sell resident and nonresident gun permits between buck and antlerless hunting seasons; • allow hunters to donate deer meat to public institutions and charitable organizations; • create, when appropriate, a micromanagement plan that allows extra deer to be taken by hunters in particular areas; and • open state parks to controlled deer hunting. Of the round table proposals, Selders sees two as keys to reducing the size of the herd . Instead of a statewide deer hunting regulation, different regulations could be enacted for different crop areas, depending on the deer population (a micro-managment plan.) He also believes more farmers would be receptive to permitting hunting on their land as an additional source of income if legislation is enacted to limit their liability.


Browsing deer ate the bark from this tree, making it a casualty in the forest.

At the round table, Steve Hannah, executive secretary of the West Virginia Farm Bureau, observed: "This is an educational process-a mutual understanding. Farm and timberland is private property. Provide liability insurance. Change the law to allow income from hunting ... (without being) liable." Hannah further asserted that farmers should be paid for crop damage, which would be a bureaucratic nightmare. "The bottom line is we've got to reduce the deer herd in West Virginia. We don't have enough hunters to bring the herd down." Deer possess keen senses and cunning. Add hospitable living conditions and an adequate food supply, and the deer thrive, resulting in a population problem in many areas of West Virginia.

WVU's Agricultural Extension Committee on Deer Damage and Control has researched various nonlethal deer control methods that landowners can use and has developed a series of fact sheets emphasizing fencing, repellents and scare devices to discourage deer. A permanent demonstration deer fencing exhibit is set up at the Jackson's Mill State 4-H Conference Center. Extension faculty who have served on the committee since it was formed include Selders; Grafton; Tara A. Baugher, horticulture specialist; and agents Thomas R. McConnell, Preston County; Charles E. Williams, Morgan County; and David J. Workman, Hardy County. -Jerry Kessel

W.Va. Residents Considering Greenhouses for Second Income


Like rural people in other states, West Virginians are often looking for a business that will provide a good second income. Many are considering greenhouses.

Dr. Jett asks the hard questions to help determine if a greenhouse is "workable or a dream ."

The greenhouse and nursery industry is the fastest growing sector in U.S. farming, according to a May 30, 1992, Associated Press article in The Charleston (W.Va.) Gazette.

"I want to see if they have done their homework. Do they know what they want to grow and what sells best? We talk about marketing, structures, equipment and pest management.

West Virginia University Extension Service's John Jett, also a WVU visiting professor in horticulture, gets plenty of calls from people eyeing the

"I try to make them see the shortcomings so they will have the full picture to make an informed decision," says Jett. "Together we take a look at

greenhouse business.

the population base, competition, sites and the person's experience. "I try to give insights on what to expect, particularly that it is a seven-day-aweek job," Jett adds . The extension specialist is a fountain of information . If someone calls about specific plant information, chances are his thick files will contain some useful data on what is needed. Since keeping records is important in any business, Jett also can help with what information to keep and how. "I also keep a full list of all the supply companies that we know about in the United States," says Jett.

(continued page 6)

A gutter-connected greenhouse, like this one near WVU's Agricultural Sciences building, has many advantages. It is three times Jess expensive than glass to build. Each bay has its own heat and ventilation system. A partition can be dropped between the bays for a cold house on one side and warm house on the other. The arch and gutter system is easily expandable and a 1!24th horsepower fan is used to inflate the space between two layers of plastic to ensure heating efficiency.


Greenhouses . .. continued from page 5

Jett and John Baniecki, extension entomology/plant pathology and pest control specialist, work together with greenhouse operators on an Integrated Pest Mangement program.

away from indiscrimi nate use of chemicals. For its reserarch, West Virginia University operates both glass and the popular plastic greenhouses. Jett passes along useful research findings to operators.

Operators are encouraged to keep track of pest populations by hanging plates of colors attractive to insects throughout the greenhouse. The plates are coated with sticky tanglefoot. Pests can be tracked by counting the number stuck to the plate over a given period . Dr. Baniecki can supply the operator with material about what action to take against pests and when . In greenhouses as well as outdoor gardening, the main concern is to get Extension 's visiting horticulture professor John Jett (left) and Larry Satterfield, WVU greenhouse supervisor, examine a hanging plate coated with sticky tanglefoot. This recommended Integrated Pest Management practice allows operators to keep track of the number of insects infesting their plants.


From information on greenhouse structure to a specific plant's economic feasibility, extension is helping greenhouse operators and those dreaming of becoming operators to make informed decisions. -Diana Jividen

WVU uses a standard exhaust fan and a heater regulated by thermostats in the plastic greenhouse. Air circulation is essential for proper disease control.

In summer, glass greenhouse temperatures can exceed 90 degrees. Many greenhouses use a fan and pad cooling system, like the one at WVU, which recycles water over an evaporation panel.

• "... extension is helping greenhouse operators and those dreaming of becoming operators to make informed decisions."


Glass greenhouses, such as this one is on the WVU campus, are three times more expensive to build than plastic, but also are more durable. The glass is usually coated at the beginning of the summer to give some heat relief. The coat wears off by winter when no coating is needed.


Preventicare Helps Seniors Maintain Independence


Watching the men and women perform their prescribed exercise regimen, one might expect to hear grunts and groans. After all, the dozen or so participants are senior citizens. However, these folks at the Shawnee Community Education Center in Institute aren't groaning. Instead, they're smiling ... talking quietly . .. kidding one another .. . having fun. At the same time, they're rotating their heads ... lifting their legs . .. slowly maneuvering their bodies from a standing position to a seated one. Three times each week, they come to the center to exercise for 20-30 minutes. Their low-mobility exercise program, known as Preventicare, was designed about 20 years ago by Lawrence Frankel of Charleston . Preventicare exercises help participants retard the aging process by strengthening the heart and lungs, improving circulation and flexibility, and toning muscles. Under an agreement with the Frankel Foundation, the West Virginia University Extension Service has coordinated the 120 established Preventicare groups throughout the state since July 1990.

United Methodist Church also support the effort by having representatives on the project's advisory committee. "The underlying motive of Preventicare is to get people to adopt healthful lifestyles," commented project coordinator B. Sue Black. The extension associate professor believes participants are attracted by the exercises, which lead them to make lifestyle changes. After rural and urban sites in Kanawha County were chosen for the demonstration project, 50 volunteer leaders were recruited and trained . Groups meet in a variety of settings, including churches, community centers, senior nutrition sites and public housing complexes. To determine the most cost-effective staff management needed for a Preventicare program to be successful, the project is testing three models of supervision , with low, moderate and high levels of group monitoring and interaction. Black and assistant coordinator Frances Smith visit the demonstration

groups every two, four or six weeks, depending on the management model chosen for each. They may do some training, participate in exercises, observe and support the leaders, and collect attendance records that indicate what exercises participants complete. "We're trying to see if all participants can complete the regimen," said Black. "We encourage them to do the exercises to the best of their ability." Every three months, the demonstration group members, 87 percent of whom are women, complete a health profile, which provides data enabling the coordinators to monitor the health benefits of Preventicare participation. At the beginning of the project, nearly half (48 percent) of the participants reported having high blood pressure. More than a fourth (28 percent) have arthritis, and 21 percent have high cholesterol levels. Participants often credit participating in Preventicare with helping them improve their well-being. For example, Florence Carte of Powellton , a Preventicare leader for 20 years, was suffering from a job-related back injury when she learned the exercises from Frankel in Preventicare's early days. "At first, I was scared of the exercises, (continued page 9)

In addition, extension has organized 16 new groups, attended by approximately 248 Kanawha County residents, to take part in a national demonstration project. The research project will help determine whether extension services in West Virginia and other states incorporate Preventicare into their regular program offerings. The demonstration project is testing methods of delivering Preventicare to community groups and assessing the program's impact on the health and well-being of participants. The two-year project was funded by grants of $100,000 each from the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation and the Clay Foundation Inc. The Frankel Foundation and the


Leader Ralph Steele, second from right, encourages four other Preventicare participants as they do leg lifts. "This is my first time to lead anything," says Steele, a Union Carbide retiree, who attends sessions with his wife at the Shawnee Community Education Center in Institute.

• "The underlying motive of Preventicare is to get people to adopt healthful lifestyles ... "

• Preventicare coordinator B. Sue Black, second from right, discusses Preventicare attendance records with Shawnee group leaders, from left, Ralph Steele, Thelma Mosley and Hobert Carder. Preventicare ... continued from page 8

but I did them and began to get better ... ,"she said . Soon she could drive again and do housework. She later was able to go without a back brace except when driving long distances. "I wouldn 't have stuck with Preventicare if it hadn't helped me. It did me so much good , I decided I would introduce it to other people," she added in explanation of how she came to lead two Fayette County groups. While Carte appreciates feeling better, what she likes best about her involvement is "getting older folks together to talk and enjoy each other. My husband died seven years ago and if I didn't go out, I'd just sit here and mope." Because she sees many people who think their life is over after losing a mate, "I've made it my business to try to get them out to senior citizens and other activities," she noted. Similar comments have been made by the demonstration group members. On follow-up surveys completed six months after beginning the program , according to Black, "participants not only report feeling better, but they also say they enjoy the social interactionthe fun and friendships that develop. We believe it leads to increased selfesteem ."

Colleen Garnes, right, leader of the Sissonville Preventicare group, encourages participants to repeat each exercise 10 times.

As Preventicare moves into more counties, extension faculty and volunteers will try to expand the community-based program to include more residents of nursing homes and personal care homes. Thirty-one of the state's 120 established Preventicare groups are based in such facilities. Part of the program's purpose is to develop volunteer leadership. "To

conduct Preventicare, we involve older individuals who have a wealth of skills and abilities. We like to have at least three leaders per group in order to provide continuity to the group in case a leader becomes ill or goes out of town ." Volunteer leaders will be important in expanding the program to new (continued page 10)


Preventicare ... continued from page 9

counties. In fact, Black forsees volunteers even taking on the role of county coordinator. Recently, Black and Smith provided training for extension agents and 64 volunteers interested in forming new Preventicare groups in nine counties: Cabell, Calhoun, Doddridge, Greenbrier, Mason, Mercer, Monongalia, Monroe and Webster. The Preventicare staff, housed in WVU's Health Sciences Center in Charleston, serves as a contact for all of the state's Preventicare groups. All leaders receive a quarterly newsletter and are invited to participate in regional training sessions, which often cover nutrition and health topics, as well as how to lead groups. Kay Hilbert,

office manager, handles correspondence and the computerized record-keeping system.

Applications are being made for grants to fund nationwide dissemination of the project's findings.

Frankel, the program's 87-year-old founder, called extension's undertaking of the project "an innovative idea for extension and the land-grant system." Because aging is a global problem, Frankel is not content to limit Preventicare to the United States. He presented a paper on the program at a May meeting of the World Health Organization in Finland.

"A major benefit of Preventicare is that the program can help people remain independent as they grow older," said Black. That benefit should appeal to West Virginians, who generally take pride in their self-reliance and independence. -Joyce Bower

Grants from the two foundations will allow the demonstration project to continue through June 1993. Then, decisions will have to be made about extension's future role in Preventicare.

The Sissonville Preventicare participants meet at the Sissonville High School cafeteria, which also serves as the local senior citizen nutrition site.

Three times each week, Kanawha County Preventicare groups exercise and have fun while participating in WVU's national Preventicare demonstration project funded by the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation and Clay Foundation Inc.



Jackson's Mill's Future Depends on Funding


How will Jackson's Mill fare in the 21st century? Will it be a self-sufficient, year-round educational conference center for West Virginians of all ages? Or, will it be simply a nice summer camp for youngsters?

The future role of Jacksor ;'s Mill depends largely on decisions made in coming months. West Virginia University officials are working with private and public funding bodies to secure financial support for construction of a major conference center at Jackson's Mill . The center would house the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Hall of Fame. It would provide first-rate meeting facilities for groups of up to 600. Most importantly, it would provide the private lodging that adults demand-something in short supply at Jackson 's Mill right now. It would make Jackson 's Mill selfsufficient rather than dependant on state subsidy to close the gap between income from guests and costs of operation.

"When they hear we have only 23 private rooms, probably 60 percent say they need more, and that's the end of the call," Frye explained . "If we are to serve these groups, more private housing is a matter of economic survival." Rachel B. Tompkins, WVU 's associate provost for extension and economic development, has briefed the university system Board of Trustees on the proposed center, which carries a price tag of about $9 million . As envisioned in architectural plans, the center would be built in what is now a wooded area between Jackson Lodge and the livestock barn . The facility would house a large auditorium with theater-style seating for 600: a smaller auditorium seating 300: a restaurant that could serve 200 and a banquet room for groups up to 400. The lodging complex would include 150 motel-type rooms, each with space for two double beds. Lounge areas, meeting rooms , a nursery and an exercise room also are provided for in the plans.

The Agricultural and Forestry Hall of Fame would have a permanent place to exhibit photographs and biographies of the men and women enshrined in this group. This has been a dream of the Hall of Fame Foundation since its inception . To support the project, the foundation's Board of Governors will work with WVU to raise $1.5 million towards the construction costs. Revenue bonds would provide most of the funding for building, according to Dr. Tompkins . "Our financial analysis showed that we could comfortably bond about $6 million," she explained . "With the private support, that still leaves us about $2 million short. " Tompkins is exploring several options. One is increasing private support by looking to potential donors to the Campaign for West Virginia University. Financial mechanisms to increase bonding capacity are another possibility. Another is allocation of state funds . A fourth option is to scale back the project to reduce overall costs . Jackson 's Mill is a public facility operated by the WVU Extension Service. Currently, about 25 percent of its costs are paid by public funds; the facility generates enough revenues to cover the rest. (continued page 12)

William Frye , Jackson 's Mill coordinator, says the scarcity of private rooms severely inhibits the mill's ability to boo k large adult groups for conferences.

Agriculture/Forestry Learning Center Jackson's Mill, West Virginia Proposed Main Lodge


Jackson's Mill . .. continued from page 11

'The issue the state is facing is this: Do we invest some money now in a conference center that will make this facility self-sufficient in the future?" Tompkins said. Herman Mertins Jr., WVU's vice president for administration and finance, believes an investment of public funds would yield long-term benefits for West Virginians. "This center would contribute a great deal to the kinds of programs that the university could and should be presenting in the future," Dr. Mertins said . "It makes good economic sense to take maximum advantage of Jackson's Mill , and clearly, something has to be invested if it is to achieve its potential." According to Frye, the new conference center would need to achieve only a 30-percent average occupancy to pay off the revenue bonds. "We anticipate actual average occupancy at 50 to 60 percent. This would provide a positive cash flow that obviously would support not only the new facility but the older ones here as well," he said . At age 70, Jackson's Mill has its share of older facilities. Its picturesque


VISION is publ ished three times a year by the West Virginia University Extension Service.


cottages are named for the county groups that helped to launch it as the nation's first state 4-H camp in the 1920s. Their charm is ageless, their maintenance needs constant. For decades, young and old have gathered at the 525-acre complex nestled in the hills of Lewis County-for camps, educational programs, retreats, agricultural shows and sales, heritage celebrations, even family reunions and weddings . Its tranquil beauty spans the seasons . History buffs, lured by the mill's legacy as the boyhood home of Civi l War General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson , have preserved and restored buildings of historical significance, including a real g ristm iII from the 1790s. Visitors enjoy "all-you-can-eat" meals served family style in rustic, stately Mount Vernon Dining Hall. For recreation, there's basketball, volleyball, tennis, horseshoes and an outdoor swimming pool. Miles of hiking tra ils and paths wind through lush flower gardens, quiet woods and lawns shaded by spreading oaks. "Jackson 's Mill has served as the common folks' conference centereven resort-for the last 70 years . Our mission, however, is to provide the best atmosphere for educational meetings for adults and youths. And, the idea of this conference center is to have a firstclass educational facility at a Layout & Graphics: Sheila Gairhan

Printing: WVU Printing Services

Photo Credits: Bob Beverly

Rachel B. Tompkins Associate Provost for Extension and Economic Development Director, Cooperative Extension Service P.O . Box 6031, Knapp Hall Morgantown, WV 26506-6031

reasonable cost," Frye observed . Frye said that, even with the new conference center, the charm of Jackson's Mill would continue. "There are many groups who still like the way we do things here. They like the inexpensive stays in the cottages. They like to eat in the dining hall . We will continue to operate traditional Jackson's Mill just as we have been, with the added dimension of a modern educational conference center," he explained. Tompkins concurred . "Jackson's Mill has always been envisioned as the place in West Virginia where rural people-4-H'ers and farmers, Extension Homemakers and church leaders-can develop leadership skills," she said. "They will continue to be major clients and others will be added. Having a modern training facility will enable us in the 21st century to do what 'Teepi' Kendrick and Charlie Hartley started doing in the 20th century ." (Kendrick and Hartley were the first two camp directors.) "The paths of Jackson's Mill lead to the future" is the slogan for this timehonored facility . In the final decade of the 20th century, the future of Jackson 's Mill is still being shaped . -Grace Truman

Programs and activities offered by the West Virginia University Extension Service are available to all persons without regard to race , color, sex, handicap, religion, age or national origin . Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, West Virginia University and the United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating . Rachel B. Tompkins, Director, Morgantown, West Virginia. Published in Futherance of Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.

Nonprofit Organization U.S. Postage PAID Morgantown, WV Permit No. 34

Volume 07, Issue 01 - Summer 1992  

West Virginia University Extension Service Today, an estimated 700,000 to 1.4 million deer roam the Mountain State. The 300,000-plus license...

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