Taking Flight NEWS FROM THE CENTER FOR VIOLENCE AND INJURY PREVENTION AT WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY’S BROWN SCHOOL I S S U E 5
Fathers in Positive Parenting Patti Schnitzer 4 Professional
Veterans, Trauma, and
Resource Center Publications
F A L L 2 0 1 1
Preventing Child Maltreatment: Is it Just About Parenting Skills? Child abuse and neglect is heralded as a worldwide public health con‐ cern (Witkin & Butchart, 2009) be‐ cause of the numerous costs to individuals, families and socie es. It is diﬃcult to find an argument against preven on, but what should we do? A recent ar cle in the Future of Children (Barth, 2009) suggests that paren ng educa on as a sole or at least the primary focus should be our priority. Programs with a paren ng focus have certainly received the most research a en on (Witkin & Butchart, 2009) and there is some evidence of ‘spillover’ posi ve eﬀects on improved paren ng for parent mental health. On the other hand a recent review of child ne‐ glect among three studies of lower income families raises the ques on of whether a focus on paren ng is enough to oﬀset the risks related to poverty (Slack, Berger, DuMont, Yang, Kim, Ehrhard‐Dietzel, & Holl, 2011). Another study found that while paren ng stress had the strongest direct impact on maltreatment, mothers’ percep ons of nega ve social community context influ‐ enced their sense of personal con‐ trol which then led to great par‐ en ng stress (Guterman, Lee, Taylor & Rathouz, 2009). A study of fami‐ lies involved in the child welfare
system found that almost half of the parents reported incomes less than $10,000 annually with a broad range of unmet basic needs (Marcenko, Lyons, & Courtney, 2011). Much more work needs to be done to understand the rela ve magni‐ tude and the dura on of benefits of preven on programming that tar‐ gets paren ng skills as compared to those that also impact the socioeco‐ nomic environment of the family. A Center study now in progress as a supplement to a major study of child savings accounts and educa‐ onal aspira ons in Oklahoma and another economic interven on study in Wisconsin are a emp ng to understand the role of purely economic approaches (Sherraden, Nam & Kohl, 2009; Slack, 2011). Meanwhile preven on work con n‐ ues in our communi es across the state. This issue highlights just a few of the eﬀorts designed to be er understand how to support fami‐ lies. In January 2008, Missouri KidsFirst entered into a provisional license agreement to serve as the lead agency for the Missouri Chapter of Prevent Child Abuse America. “Parents create protec ve or risky environments for children,” says
Cherrise Thibaut, MSW, Preven on Specialist at Missouri KidsFirst, “I have seen first ‐hand how giving parents tools to protect children can empower them to take ac on and create environments where child abuse cannot exist.” However, when parents’ internal resources are strained by emo onal stress, physical ailment, or financial diﬃcul es, the parents’ capaci es to provide the best support and care for their children are weak‐ ened. Without external support from other family members, neigh‐ bors, or community organiza ons, these children are at an increased risk for child abuse or maltreat‐ ment. The Saint Louis Crisis Nursery is an agency seeking to prevent child abuse and neglect by providing emergency interven on, respite care and support to families in crisis. Aubrey Edwards‐Luce, MSW, a research assistant at the Center, worked as an intake counselor at the St. Louis Crisis Nursery. She recalls “receiving a call from a mother crying that she just wanted to be a ‘good mom’ but she was just so red. When she described her schedule, which included work at night and on weekends and caring for her children, I praised her for (ConƟnued on page 2)
Melissa Jonson‐Reid Professor, Brown School Director, Center for Violence and Injury Preven on Faculty Scholar, Ins tute for Public Health
It is hard to believe the Center is entering its third year. The num‐ ber of partners and aﬃliates con nues to grow. And our cer ficate program is in full swing. We’ve recently added two new areas of focus for the cer ficate program: (1) Violence Preven on in Young Families and (2) Violence Free Transi on to Young Adulthood. This spring we will be oﬀering a new course in adolescent health and violence preven on. You can learn more about some of our students in this issue. In this issue of Taking Flight we focus on preven on of child maltreatment. Research under‐ taken here and around the country demonstrates the associ‐ a ons between experiencing maltreatment and later physical
Cita ons (Crossing Boundaries: Sexual Violence) Neil B. Guterman, , Shawna J. Lee, Catherine A. Taylor, Paul J. Rathouzd (2009). Parental percep ons of neighborhood pro‐ cesses, stress, personal control, and risk for physical child abuse and neglect Child Abuse & Neglect . 33(120), 897‐906 Mikton, Christopher and Butchart Alexander. (2009). Child maltreatment preven on: a systema c review of reviews. Bull World Health Organ [online]. , vol.87, n.5 [cited 2011‐09‐16], pp. 353‐361 . Available from: <h p://www.scielosp.org/ scielo.php?script=sci_ar ext&pid=S0042‐ 96862009000500012&lng=en&nrm=iso>. ISSN 0042‐ 9686. h p://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0042‐96862009000500012. Maureen O. Marcenko, a, , Sandra J. Lyonsa, Mark Courtneya (2011). Mothers' experiences, resources and needs: The context for reunifica on. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(3), 431 ‐438. Kris n Shook Slack (2011). Preven ng Child Maltreatment with Economic Supports: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Random‐ ized Clinical Trial. Paper presented at the 5th annual Transla on‐ al Research on Child Neglect Consor um, Iowa city, Iowa.
Kristen Shook Slacka, Lawrence M. Bergera, Kimberly DuMontb, Mi‐Youn Yanga, Bomi Kima, Susan Ehrhard‐Dietzelc, Jane L. Holld (2011) Risk and protec ve factors for child neglect during early childhood: A cross‐study comparison. Children and Youth Ser‐ vices Review. 33( 8), 1354‐1363 Stahlschmidt, M., Seay, K. & Jonson‐Reid, M. (2011). Connec ng Families Involved with Child Welfare to Longer Term Supports. Poster presented at 2nd Na onal Child Welfare Evalua on Sum‐ mit., Washington DC.
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health, behavioral, cogni ve, mental health, economic prob‐ lems and even death. So it just makes sense that we would be thinking about preven on while also trying to remediate problems for children who have already experienced abuse or neglect. But what should we do? A 2009 summary of evidence‐ based child abuse preven on (available at h p:// www.friendsnrc.org/joomdocs/ eb_prog_direct.pdf) listed 30 preven on programs iden fied as adop ng promising or “proven” prac ces. Paren ng Wisely and Triple P – both referenced in this issue – are two of these prac ces. Obviously there is much work to be done to inform the field about these and other evidence‐based
prac ces. Such an eﬀort requires researcher‐ prac oner partner‐ ships to understand more about programs that show promise but lack suﬃcient research, to adapt exis ng programs to new popula‐ ons, and even to generate new approaches with rigorous measures. Our work with Family Resource Center, also featured in this issue, is an example of this type of partnership. We also need to eﬀec vely com‐ municate what we know and don’t know to policymakers and administrators so they can make the best possible decisions.
Director, Center for Violence and Injury Preven on
Crossing Boundaries (ConƟnued from page 1)
the hard work she was doing to provide for her children and oﬀered her a couple of days of care for her children. I o en received calls from parents who couldn’t get a job because they didn’t have anyone they trusted to watch their young children during the day and couldn’t receive subsidized day care be‐ cause they didn’t have a job.” Stories like this elucidate the cycle of diﬃcult cir‐ cumstances that contrib‐ ute to risk for child mal‐ treatment.
Preliminary data from an ongoing project to connect vulnerable fami‐ lies to early childhood supports found that the majority of the parents reported no friends and did not see family members as support mechanisms (Stahlschmidt, Seay & Jonson‐Reid, 2011). Understanding how to support vulnerable fami‐ lies seems a key factor in keeping children safe, healthy and developmen‐ tally on target.
In this issue of Taking Flight, you will see that exci ng research and field work are being done to innovate new ways of suppor ng parents to reduce the risk factors that play a role in child maltreatment.
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Engaging Fathers in Positive Parenting Children do be er when they have a posi ve rela onship with their father, regardless of whether he is living in the same home or elsewhere. Research consistently tells us that they have fewer behavior problems and engage in less risky behavior. However, when a child has been abused, her father is three mes more likely than her mother to have been the perpetrator. Despite these sta s cs, empirically supported parent training programs that aim to change paren ng behaviors and prevent child maltreatment do not target fathers for inclusion. Dr. Patricia Kohl, assistant professor at the Brown School, is developing strategies to engage fathers in one paren ng program, Triple P, developed by Ma Sanders over thirty years ago. “Societal norms have long viewed the father’s role as that of financial provider and eﬀorts to involve fathers have historically focused on child support enforcement. Only recently has an expanded view of fathers’ role lead to eﬀorts to increase their involvement in both prac ce and research related to paren ng,” says Dr. Kohl.
“Societal norms have long viewed the father’s role as that of financial provider and eﬀorts to involve fa‐ thers have historically focused on child support enforcement. Only recently has an expanded view of fathers’ role lead to eﬀorts to in‐ crease their involvement in both prac ce and research related to par‐ en ng,” Patricia Kohl Assistant Professor of Social Work Brown School Triple P, Posi ve Paren ng Program, is an evi‐ dence‐based paren ng interven on that is well ‐suited for use with vulnerable popula ons, but a great program must do more than just work for the people who show up. In order to eﬀec vely impact rates of child maltreatment, programs need to be able to recruit, retain, and engage the parents at greatest risk for perpetra ng maltreatment. Yet fathers are not o en targeted by standard Triple P interven‐ ons, nor are they the ones showing up for the paren ng classes.
The Center for Disease Control and Preven on (CDC) put out a call for research that would examine ways of engaging fathers in evidence‐ based paren ng programs, and Dr. Kohl re‐ sponded. She collaborated with the Father’s Support Center of St. Louis to develop Engaging Fathers, a program designed to be used in conjunc on with Triple P. “Working with the Fathers’ Support Center was a natural fit. Both Halbert Sullivan, the CEO, and I recognized the importance of including fathers in evidence based paren ng programs to enhance paren ng behaviors, reduce paren‐ tal stress and prevent child maltreatment. He has always emphasized that work with fathers is also about improving the lives of their children. Our combined exper se has led to a very strong team and an exci ng research pro‐ ject. He brings years of experience working with fathers, while my research and clinical experi‐ ence has always focused on paren ng.” In order to develop a strategy that would draw in, retain, and engage fathers in the Triple P program, Dr. Kohl conducted interviews and focus groups with fathers and service providers. Fathers in the study were African‐American, 18 years or older, and had children between 4 and 12 years old. The interviews and focus groups were used to ascertain what barriers were keeping fathers from exis ng paren ng pro‐ grams as well as what would get them there and keep them there. Fathers and service providers alike made it clear that logis cs like transporta on, food, child care, and loca on can serve as barriers to par cipa on, and as such, these needs must be met if fathers are going to come. However, removing logis cal barriers is not enough. Many fathers stay away from par‐ en ng programs because of nega ve percep‐ ons. Every focus group brought up that they did not perceive paren ng programs to be for “people like them.” Indeed, they thought of paren ng programs as being designed for teen parents, mothers, wealthy white parents, and abusive parents. In addi on to not matching up with the fathers’ own iden es, some of the types of people, like abusive parents, that fa‐ thers perceived paren ng programs to be de‐ signed for also carry some s gma, making them even less a rac ve to poten al par cipants who are fathers.
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Some mes mispercep ons about the purpose of the program also become obstacles in ge ng fathers to a end. If fathers believe that part of the program will be child support en‐ forcement or if they mistrust the program for any other reason, they may not come. Stressors that fathers face outside of the pro‐ gram may also make it more diﬃcult for them to devote me and energy to a endance at a paren ng program. Fathers cited the high crime and low resources of an urban environ‐ ment along with unemployment and financial strain and troubled rela onships with the mother of their children as external sources of stress. Some fathers simply may not be mo ‐ vated or interested in changing or open to new ideas about paren ng, while others may feel that they have bigger issues to deal with like substance abuse, incarcera on, homelessness, or depression that need to be dealt with first. Dr. Kohl and her colleagues iden fied strategies for recruitment and reten on based on the data they collected from fathers and service providers. They found that fathers would be more likely to show up if outreach for the pro‐ gram happened where fathers already are, if rela onships were built with poten al referral agencies that fathers are already u lizing, and if fathers heard about the program from other fathers they know who have been through the program. Making paren ng programs one piece of an array of programs that meet other needs that fathers have would serve to recruit more fathers to the program and would also keep them there. Fathers also expressed a need for facilitators they could iden fy with. Skilled facilitators, along with opportuni es to build a support network with other fathers and flexible content that can be tailored to the indi‐ vidual men in the group and meets their inter‐ ests and needs were shown to be the best strategies for reducing drop‐out once fathers have been recruited to the program. Dr. Kohl projects that “we have used the valua‐ ble insight provided by fathers to develop an engagement strategy and will soon be entering the field to test this strategy. Given what we have learned about father’s percep ons and needs, we believe that fathers receiving the enhanced interven on will be more engaged in the program and demonstrate more posi ve outcomes.”
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Behind the Scenes Dr. Patricia Schnitzer, Scien fic Advisory Team Member
Shortly a er the Center was funded by the Center for Disease Control, Dr. Patricia Schnitzer, associate professor in the School of Nursing at the University of Missouri, was asked to join the Center’s Scien fic Advisory Team, which serves as an oversight board, charged with ensuring that the Center true to its goals and objec ves. In addi on to her teaching and re‐ search work at the university, Dr. Schnitzer serves as a member of the State Child Fatality Review
Advisory Panel in Missouri and the Boone County (Missouri) Child Fa‐ tality Review Panel Path to Childhood Injury Preven on. A er years of pretending to be a teacher as a child, Dr. Schnitzer did not pursue a degree in educa on, but in nursing. It was a er finishing nursing school that she discovered epidemiology, which she describes as her “true calling,” but this path brought her back to teaching a er all, only this me, instead of grading papers submi ed by her brother and sister in their makeshi class‐ room at home, she imparts her knowledge and her passion for childhood injury preven on to nursing students. “My research interests, broadly, are the epidemiology and preven on of childhood injuries and injuries due to child abuse and neglect,” says Dr. Schnitzer. She has completed studies on risk factors for fatal child abuse and neglect in young children and has worked on the development of public health surveillance for fatal and non‐fatal child maltreatment and studied strategies for improving case ascertainment.
Currently, Dr. Schnitzer is involved in analyzing child death review data on sudden unexpected infant deaths from nine states over a three year period, looking specifically at diﬀerences in child, caregiver, and sleep environment characteris cs across cause of death classifica on and race/ethnicity. A Significant Public Health Problem Dr. Schnitzer says that “child mal‐ treatment is an enormous public health problem, but so few people in epidemiology or public health are working on this issue. I keep work‐ ing in this area in hopes of shedding some light on this significant prob‐ lem in the public health arena.” Award‐Winning Baker When she is not thinking about child maltreatment preven on, you can bet her mind is on the oven or the road. Her interest in baking has resulted in her crea on of award‐ winning cookie recipes, and as an avid bicyclist and lover of travel, she is always on the move. The Center is fortunate to have Dr. Schnitzer and her boundless energy on board.
Professional Development Opportunities Clinical aspects of discharge planning for in‐ pa ents admi ed as suicidal Friday, February 17, 2012 8:30 a.m.—11:30 a.m. Goldfarb 132 Features: Eric Caine, M.D., University of Rochester
Free Community Lecture: Eric Caine will give an addi onal lecture on public health strategies around suicide preven on that is open to the public following the workshop.
Friday, February 17, 2012 1‐2:30 p.m. Brown Lounge
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Meet the Center Research Assistants As the new school year begins, we would like to introduce the student research assistants who are a part of the life of our center. Not listed is Aubrey Edwards, who was featured in our news‐ le er last fall and is s ll with us.
ley Indian Reserva on in Northern California. In the future she plans to work with Na ve commu‐ ni es and Na ve youth to prevent violence com‐ mi ed against Na ve women. Britani Hollis: A Brown School MSW student, Britani is interested in non‐violent communica‐ on and conflict resolu on, women’s issues, and weaving spirituality into community social work. She completed her undergraduate degree in Eng‐ lish Literature at DePauw University, and then spent a year coordina ng the children’s feeding programs at a food bank in Tacoma, Washington, while living in inten onal community with other volunteers through Jesuit Volunteer Corps. Britani is currently doing her concentra on RAs, from le to right: Aubrey Edwards‐Luce, prac cum at Community Conflict Services, where Jenna Hailey, Jessica Davidson, Britani Hollis, and she facilitates talking circles and teaches conflict Heather Burg. resolu on skills with students as part of the School Restora ve Jus ce Program. Jenna Hailey: Jenna is an MSW student at the Heather Burg: Heather Burg is a second year Brown School with an individualized concentra‐ on in Violence Against Women and American MPH student at Saint Louis University. Her con‐ Indian Communi es. She graduated with honors centra ons are Behavioral Health/Health Educa‐ from Stanford University in 2010 with a BA in on and Epidemiology. Heather received her BA in anthropology with a specializa on in biologi‐ Feminist Studies, focusing on Gender, Violence, and Coloniza on. She is from the Hupa, Yurok, cal/physical anthropology from the University of and Karuk tribes, and grew up on the Hoopa Val‐ Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign in 2009. She has
worked as a research assistant for the Center since the start of 2011. Upon gradua on, Heather plans to work with adolescents on STI and HIV/AIDS preven on. Jessica Davidson: A second year MSW student at the Brown School, Jessica is focusing her studies on violence, youth, and family. She received her BA in Intercultural Studies with both Linguis cs and Urban Ministry concentra ons from Hough‐ ton College in New York. Jessica has worked with St. Louis Center for Family Development to devel‐ op an innova ve method to address cases of educa onal neglect; she has taught English in both Thailand and Peru, as well as to refugees in Buﬀalo, NY; she has also worked with survivors of domes c violence in various se ngs. Ul mately, she hopes to synthesize her knowledge and expe‐ rience to improve the lives of adolescents as they age out of foster care.
Project Overview: Veteran, Trauma, and
Battering Program In July, the Veterans, Trauma, and Ba ering Project hosted a violence preven on planning mee ng with 55 par cipants. Led by Dr. Peter Hovmand and Dr. Monica Ma hieu; the goal of the project was to develop a community preven on strategy to address violence among military, veterans and families aﬀected by trauma. In this project, the Brown School’s Social System Design Lab developed innova ve methods for involving stakeholders in the process of building and using a system dynamics model. Par cipants included community members and professionals from the military, VA, vic m advocates, criminal jus ce system, and social service organiza ons. The methods drew on the Social System De‐ sign Lab’s exper se in group model building TAKING FLIGHT — ISSUE FIVE
(GMB) and system dynamics modeling. GMB is a way to involve par cipants in the process of crea ng system dynamics models, which are a way to understand systems and how they change, giving stakeholders a be er tool for seeing the overall system and plan‐ ning new strategies, policies, and programs. Innova ve in this project was the develop‐ ment of a tool for defining and documen ng GMB exercises called Scriptapedia and the applica on of GMB to developing community violence preven on strategies. The planning mee ng in July provided an overview of the model that many par cipants had been involved in building earlier in the year through a series of group model building sessions. The sessions were designed and facilitated by a core modeling team with rep‐ resenta ves from the Veterans Health Ad‐ ministra on, RAVEN, St. Patrick Center, and
U.S. Proba on’s Oﬃce. Results highlighted a number of cri cal issues including the: vicious cycles that veterans with trauma face with alcohol, violence and the criminal jus ce system; importance of being able to provide services to family members; ability to create be er systems to prevent and respond to military sexual trauma; and the need to prevent and respond to trauma that occurred prior to enlistment. Star ng in fall 2011, the Social System Design Lab and Center will host a series of workshops based on the results from the this project. The workshops will help community agencies use the model to refine and then implement the preven on strategy.
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Supporting Parents: Family Resource Center Innova ve, evidenced‐based programming and strong academic partnerships have been key to the long‐term success of Family Re‐ source Center, one Missouri’s largest and oldest family counseling agencies. Family Resource Center (FRC) has been serv‐ ing the St. Louis area since 1974. From its incep on as a collabora ve project with Brown School faculty and students, FRC has focused on growth and development of eﬀec‐ ve programs that are designed, tested, and taken to scale so that kids in the child welfare and mental health systems of care get be er and be er services. Today it is a $6,000,000 child welfare agency serving more than 8,000 child and parent clients annually. The agency is widely recognized for its innova ve pro‐ grams focused on preven ng child abuse and neglect. PathBuilders is one of these innova ve pro‐ grams. PathBuilders is a unique approach to breaking the genera onal cycle of child abuse and neglect while helping parents keep their at‐ risk children at home rather than having them placed in foster care. The program supports and develops parents through a combina on of home‐based coaching and parent educa‐ on and counseling. The program uses evi‐ dence‐based interven ons such as Paren ng Wisely and Parent Child Interac on Therapy. In addi on, an advocacy team works with the parents to address material needs like food,
shelter, and employment; while also helping the parents become increasingly more self‐ suﬃcient and reduce some of the external stressors related to child maltreatment. According to Greg Echele, FRC’s chief execu‐ ve oﬃcer, it is important to work closely with the parents because “kids are the vic‐ ms, but parents and other adults don’t see themselves as perpetrators. O en these parents were raised in the midst of extreme physical discipline themselves and this behav‐ ior toward children is considered normal. Compounding this problem is the fact that some parents lose the ability to cope with the normal struggles of raising kids because of poverty and other stresses. This is especially true if they abuse alcohol or drugs while li le kids are ac ng out or, say, having toilet train‐ ing issues.” PathBuilders began 2 years ago when clinical and administra ve leadership at FRC and Brown School faculty decided to use their collec ve knowledge and experience to de‐ velop a solu on to child abuse treatment and preven on that would benefit both clients and society at large. “It was a wonderful planning process that really pulled everyone together around use of evidence‐based prac ces as the founda on of all our future clinical work at FRC,” said Echele. Thanks to support from Missouri Congress‐
We’ve Moved! You can now find the BCVIP on Washington University’s North Campus: CB 1007 700 Rosedale St. Louis, MO 63112
man Russ Carnahan, PathBuilders received some federal support for a start up opera on. Since 2009, services have been provided to about 10 families from St. Louis City and County. The Brown School’s Center for Vio‐ lence and Injury Preven on is conduc ng the evalua on of the program. Interest in the PathBuilders model has been expressed by the Annie E. Casey Founda on and the Missouri Children’s Division, pending funding support from private founda ons and the State of Missouri. Given the economic recession of the past few years, new funding has been hard to obtain. However, a number of Missouri Legislators are interested in the model because of its poten al eﬀec veness and because long term, it may save expendi‐ tures on child welfare services. In addi on to PathBuilders, FRC has six clinical programs, all aimed at trea ng or preven ng some form of child maltreatment. They in‐ clude Family Treatment, Day Treatment Pre‐ school, Foster Care and Adop on, Missouri Mentoring, Intensive In‐Home Services, and Parent Partners.
Each newsletter highlights an organization involved in Center projects and activities. Family Resource Center is one of the Center’s Partner Agencies. For information about upcoming events, please visit: http://frcmo.org/
Save the Date! Scenarios for success conference: Best prac ces in early childcare March 30‐31 Call for proposals for speakers on Vision for Children at Risk website
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Publications Here is a par al list of publica ons by our Center aﬃliates (bolded) from the past 12 months. The featured publica ons relate to this issue’s theme of child maltreatment.
Aron, S. B., McCrowell, J., Moon, A., Yamano, R., Roark, D. A., Simmons, M., . . . Drake, B. (2010). Analyzing the rela onship between poverty and child maltreatment: Inves ga ng the rela ve performance of four levels of geographic aggrega on. Social Work Research, 34(3), 169‐179. Drake, B., & Jonson‐Reid, M. (2011). NIS interpreta ons: Race and the na onal incidence studies of child abuse and neglect. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 16‐20. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.08.006 Drake, B., Jolley, J. M., Lanier, P., Fluke, J., Barth, R. P., & Jonson‐Reid, M. (2011). Racial bias in child protec on? A comparison of compe ng explana ons using na onal data. Pediatrics, 127(3), 471‐478. doi:10.1542/peds.2010‐1710 Jonson‐Reid, M., Emery, C. R., Drake, B., & Stahlschmidt, M. J. (2010). Understanding chronically reported families. Child Maltreatment, 15(4), 271‐281. doi:10.1177/1077559510380738 Kohl, P. L., Jonson‐Reid, M., & Drake, B. (2011). Maternal mental illness and the safety and stability of maltreated children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35 (5), 309‐18. Lee, B. R., Bright, C. L., Svoboda, D. V., Fakunmoju, S., & Barth, R. P. (2011). Outcomes of group care for youth: A review of compara ve studies. Research on Social Work PracƟce, 21(2), 177‐189. doi:10.1177/1049731510386243 Millet, L., Lanier, P., & Drake, B. (2011). Are economic trends associated with child maltreatment? Preliminary results from the recent recession using state level data. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(7), 1280. Schnitzer, P. G., Slusher, P. L., Kruse, R. L., & Tarleton, M. M. (2011). Iden fica on of ICD codes sugges ve of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 3‐17. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.06.008 Williams, J. H., Van Dorn, R. A., Bright, C. L., Jonson‐Reid, M., & Nebbi , V. E. (2010). Child maltreatment and delinquency onset among african american adolescent males. Research on Social Work PracƟce, 20(3), 253‐259. doi:10.1177/1049731509347865
Act Fast: The Brain Injury Association of Missouri 7th Annual Statewide Conference October 20‐22, 2011 St. Charles Conven on Center St. Charles, Missouri Focus: Caring for individual with brain injury and their families Register online now. For more informa on visit www.biamo.org, email firstname.lastname@example.org or call the Brain Injury Associa on of Missouri oﬃce at 314‐426‐4024 or 800‐444‐6443.
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Next Issue Our February issue will focus on: In mate Partner Violence.
The Brown School’s Center for Violence and Injury Preven on was
Our bu erfly icon represents transforma on and symbolizes the
founded in 2009 with a grant from the Centers for Disease Control
developmental aspect of our mission to advance evidence‐based
and Preven on. The Center conducts research, training, and
primary preven on of violence and injury among young families,
outreach to prevent and ameliorate harm related to:
and interven on for childhood vic ms of violence to prevent poten al later perpetra on of violence toward themselves or
child maltreatment (CM)
others as they transi on to adulthood. Our colors represent
in mate partner violence (IPV)
those typically used by community organiza ons working in
sexual violence (SV)
these four areas.
suicide a empts (SA)
Director Melissa Jonson‐Reid, PhD
The Center is an open and dynamic collabora on with researchers from mul ple disciplines and mul ple universi es.
Co‐Director John N. Constan no, MD
While it is not possible to acknowledge all our individual colleagues, we want to recognize our other university partners
Administra ve Assistant Diane Wi ling
outside of Washington University who have had a par cularly
Research Assistant Britani Hollis
instrumental role in the CVIP. These include the Saint Louis University Schools of Social Work and Public Health; the
Special thanks to Taking Flight contributors.
University of Missouri at St. Louis Schools of Criminology and
Criminal Jus ce and Social Work; and the University of Missouri
at Columbia Schools of Nursing and Social Work.
Visit us online at h p://cvip.wustl.edu Opinions or views expressed in this newsleƩer do not necessarily reflect those of the funding agency.
700 Rosedale Avenue | Campus Box 1007 | St. Louis, MO 63112| Ph: 314‐935‐6683 | Fax: 314‐935‐3051 | E‐mail: email@example.com TAKING FLIGHT — ISSUE FIVE
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