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be required for double-acting function of a cylinder, for example. Further still, differential pressure regulators are offered by some manufacturers to maintain a set pressure differential between the two ports, rather than just maintaining downstream pressure. It should be noted that all pressure regulators are adjustable, most often with screws or knobs.

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FLOW CONTROLS Also common in pneumatic systems are valves to control flow. There are fewer available types of flow valves compared to pressure or directional valves, but most circuits apply them to make for easy adjustment to cylinder or motor velocity. Controlling velocity in pneumatic systems is more complex than in a hydraulic system because pressure differential between the work ports of a cylinder plays a larger part. Flow control valves for pneumatic systems are quite simple, usually available in two configurations used in two different ways. One configuration is merely a variable restriction, with a screw or knob adjustment to open and close a variable orifice, which is also often referred to as a needle or choke valve. The other type introduces a check valve, which allows free flow in one direction and restriction in the opposing direction. For whatever reason, this valve has hijacked the name flow control all for itself. Flow control valves are applied in two different ways: meter in or meter out. Meter in is the method of controlling the rate of airflow as it

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