Page 1

Table of Contents Wild Life____________________________________________________________________Pg.1-3 - Wild life by Chase

Pg. 1-2

- Wild life by Austin

Pg. 3

Volcanoes___________________________________________________________________Pg.4-6 - Volcanoes by Jonathan

Pg. 4-5

- Volcanoes by Yahya

Pg. 6

All About Chocolate_____________________________________________________________Pg.7-11 - All About Chocolate by Sol

Pg. 7-9

- All About Chocolate by Nicole

Pg. 10-11

The Diversity of Volcanoes

Composite Volcanoes As a composite volcano, it has a very aggressive nature. It's eruption is usually more explosive than normal. The sad thing is, it is also most common type of volcano. It usually has a dangerous steep sides and a bowl-shaped crater at the very top. Most composite volcanoes form where the magma is thick and slow moving. When the magma thicker, than normal, it cools very quickly and plugs the vent. Since the lava and gases can't get out, it starts to build pressure as more and more of it gets trapped. Eventually, the volcano builds enough pressure that it can't hold the pressure any more. Finally, the volcano blows up, in a very destructive manner. Remember, try your best to stay away from these types of volcanoes!

This is what Mount Saint Helens looked like before, during and after the eruption.

Shield Volcanoes

Here is Mauna Loa, the biggest shield volcano on earth.

This is Olympus Mons, the biggest volcano in the SOLAR SYSTEM

You might of seen a video of a volcano spraying bright orange from the tip of the volcano. If so, that volcano should be a shield volcano. This type of volcano is rather gentle than explosive, but the lava flow is still very destructive. Sometimes, these volcanoes contains hot gasses, which sprays from the crater, creating a bright orange lava fountain. The thing about shield volcanoes that is quite interesting is that they can remain quite for long periods at a time. During that time, the volcano spews out tiny amounts of lava at a time, which hardens quickly. After some time, the volcano builds up, bit by bit, but soon becomes enormous. One volcano that is shield are Mount Loa. Rising from the bottom the sea, it stands a mouth dropping hight of 9170 meters. These volcanoes are sure tall!

Did You Know?

All shield volcanoes have a diameter of 3-4 miles!

Cinder Cones & Lava Domes

Sometimes, volcanoes are not active long enough to form full fledge volcanoes. Instead, these volcanoes often form cinder cones or lava domes. Lava Domes are mounds of earth that sprays tiny bits of lava at at time, which quickly hardens, making the volcano grow bit by bit. Since lava domes contain lots of gases, it is a possibility that it can explode while erupting. Cinder cones, on the other hand, only erupt once. Cinder cones are found near shield volcanoes and calderas. Also, these volcanoes have a bowl shaped

Cinder Cone

Lava Dome

DATE: November 4 2013

Volcanoes and Their Destruction The Eruption Of Vesuvius A long time ago few people in Pompeii cared about the earthquakes. On August 24th an earthquake shook the ground, and dust, ash and melted rock fell from the sky. Lava wrecked the things that were in its way. Buildings fell down from the stones and ash. There was a huge surge cloud of hot dust and poisonous gas that fell down on the city. More surge clouds buried the city of Pompeii, and it would not be discovered for 1000 years.

This is the volcano that erupted in AD 79.

Where And Why Volcanoes Form Volcanoes form at the edge of the plates of the earth's crust. Hot rock under the crust melts into magma. The plates float on the magma, and they bump against each other. When pressure is released by the crashing plates, earthquakes form cracks in the earth's crust and the lava comes out, forming volcanoes. NAME: Yahya

 Magma blows way up to the sky.

All About You know that one of your favourite things to eat is chocolate. Have you ever wondered where they are from and how they are made?

Different types of chocolate that you can eat. .

Where is chocolate from?

Did you ever know that chocolates grow on trees? It doesn't mean that a bar of chocolate just grows on trees. It takes a lot of process to make chocolate. Chocolate is made from a tree called Cacao trees. Cacao trees grow near the equator where it's hot and wet. Now most cacao trees grow on farms called plantations. They have little flowers that bloom during the year. They also have pods on the trees that is shaped like a football. They are green when they are first formed but they turn gold and reddish as they grow. There are about 20-50 beans inside the pods that will be used to make chocolate.

These are pods that grow on cacao trees. These pods are golden.

Ready to Ship! After the bean is out of the tree the first step is to cut the beans open. The person using a large blade called machete cuts the pod. They scoop out Step 1. Cut it open! This is a pod that is cut opened by a machete.

all the beans from the pod. The beans are cream coloured and covered with soft pulp. The beans are piled up together in a box and as they have contact with air, they start to turn purple. They change also inside. This is a process called fermentation. After they are fermented the dry them they can either dry them inside or outside. Once they are all dried they are wrapped in a large cloth bag and shipped to the factories of

chocolate. That was a big process but it still does Step 2. Take a look not smell or taste like chocolate yet! :) at the beans! This is a pod that is cut opened. These beans will be used to make chocolate.

Step 3. Getting it fermented! This is the step of fermenting; the workers are . fermenting the beans together. Step 5. Ship it to the factories! They are shipped to the factories of chocolate

Step 4. Dry it off! The workers are drying These are pods that grow on cacao trees. These pods are red. the beans outside.

True Fun Fast Fact! Did you know that candy eaters actually live almost a year longer than those who abstain?

In the Factory! When the beans arrive to the factory, the first thing they do is cleaning the beans. It removes all the pulps and little pieces from the pods. The makers blend different sorts of beans so that the chocolate has the right flavour of its need. In order to bring out the chocolate flavour the beans are roasted. That is the step when it starts to smell like chocolate. When they are roasted the thin shells from the beans grow brittle. A machine cracks the shells and the fan blows all the pieces away. After the shells are removed, only the meaty part of the bean remains, which is called nibs. The nibs get crushed and grounded until they become a liquid. They pour it into molds and they are bitter and not sweet. They pressure it until the cocoa butter comes out. It drains through a screen and collect it so that we can eat it. After the cocoa butter is removed, the hard part of the bar is grounded up into a powder for dairy products. Then they mix others ingredients (sugar, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, etc...) together until it gets soft and smooth. It is poured into molds and cooled. The last step, when the chocolate is solid it would be wrapped in a package and be shipped to stores all around the world!

This is a Hershey chocolate factory. The little bars on top of the machine are the chocolate bars we eat now.

Funny Little Jokes! 7 days without chocolate make one weak! HaHaHa

All About Chocolate By: Nicole Pettigrew

Many%of%people%enjoy%chocolate%and% its%heavenly%taste%but%do%you%know% where%it%came%from,%how%it’s%made,% or%where%chocolate%even%all%started?%% !


! !



Christopher%Columbus%first%sailed%to%America% in%1502,%he%brought%cacao%beans%back%to% Europe%where%the%royal%family%thought%it%was% useless%and%had%no%value%so%they%threw%the% cacao%beans%in%to%sea.%

Christopher%Columbus% introducing%cacao% beans%to%the%royal% family%

%Only%in%1528%a%Spanish%explorer%named%Hernando%Cortez%began%to%see%the%value%in% the%beans%and%started%to%use%the%beans%as%a%term%of%currency.%He%grew%cacao%trees% in%his%back%yard,%this%is%where%the%term%“money%grows%on%trees’%came%from.%%They% used%the%cacao%beans%to%make%a%bitter%coffee%like%drink%in%1502.%Not%until%1657%they% became%to%make%the%chocolate%we%consume%today.% % !!!

Spain%is%where%Hernando% Cortez%brought%the%bean% after%his%exploration%from% North%America%where%he% started%to%see%the%value%in% ! the%cacao%beans.% !

Hernando%Cortez% Introducing%chocolate% to%Spain.%


Now%that%you%know%where%chocolate%came%from,%tell%me%that%the%next% time%you%eat%a%bar%of%chocolate%think%of%how%that%bar%became%what% you%are%holding%in%your%hand.%%

Glossary cacao: a tree that we get chocolate from part of speech: noun

cacao bean: the bean from which we get chocolate from part of speech: noun

chocolate: a small brownish sweet treat part of speech: noun

coexist: to live in peace and respect another species part of speech: verb

explode: to burst forth with sudden violence or noise from internal energy part of speech: verb

ferment: to change, to be in a state of intense activity part of speech: verb

injured: to be hurt or harmed part of speech: verb

magma: molten rock in earth's crust part of speech: noun

rehabilitate: to restore it's health or/and function part of speech: verb

rescue: to save from danger, or evil part of speech: verb

sweet: a treat that is very pleasing to taste part of speech: adjective

tectonic plates: the plates that make up the earth They slowly move, and when they collide, they create a volcano. part of speech: noun

wildlife: living things, not human or a house pet part of speech: noun

volcano: a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth, and usually erupts part of speech: noun

volcanologists: people who study volcanoes part of speech: noun

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