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magazine

Worcestershire

AUTUMN 2017

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ALISTAIR MCGOWAN Talks about his new album of solo classical piano music

BROADWAY, HERE WE COME

GWSR on extending the line into Worcestershire

PETER MARK ROGET The life of the famous polymath

DROITWICH Worth its salt ON THE CHARGE Electric vehicles; no longer if, but when

Autumn 2017

£3.95

THE FORGOTTEN PRINCE A dynastic event of outstanding international importance PLUS . . .

The Flashes at Christopher Cadbury Wetland Reserve | The Museum of Royal Worcester’s Wonderland | Fred Dancox VC, a Worcester hero | Tardebigge Flight | Red Windsor apple, a discovered gem | food review interiors | wine | fashion and lots more. . . .


Be transported back to the start of manufacturing in 1751 and learn about the workers, famous customers and a world class industry. Skilled craftsmen regularly work in the galleries and special talks, demonstrations and refreshment packages are available for groups. The Museum Shop sells vintage, antique and the largest range of new Royal Worcester in the City.

Open Monday to Saturday November to February: 10 am – 4 pm March to October: 10 am – 5 pm

Severn Street, Worcester WR1 2ND T 01905 21247 www.museumofroyalworcester.org

‘Royal Worcester’ and the C51 crown device are registered by and used under kind permission from Portmeirion Group UK Ltd to whom all rights are reserved.


magazine

Worcestershire

AUTUMN 2017

FOREWORD Production Director Pippa Sanderson BA (Hons) Features Editor Gerald Heys MA Media Executives Jenny Walsh Amelia Kinchin Editorial Contributors Ali Capper Wendy Carter Alan Cowpe Elaine Lewis Michele Longari Pershore Patty Philippa Tinsley Dan Wild Client Accounts Lissie Goble Accounts Katherine Baines BA (Hons) FCCA Publisher Peter Smith

WR magazine

Wyche Innovation Centre Walwyn Road Upper Colwall Malvern WR13 6PL worcestershire@wrmagazine.uk www.wrmagazine.uk

H

ave you ever wondered about why a French chateau sits majestically in the Worcestershire countryside near Droitwich? Or what that particular building has in common with the town’s long and illustrious association with salt? Well wonder no more because in this issue, we explore the history of salt production, an absorbing story that stretches back to the Iron Age. Keeping with the salt theme, the Worcestershire Wildlife Trust tells us more about the habitat of The Flashes at the Christopher Cadbury Wetland Reserve, an area containing saline pools and salt marshes at Upton Warren, near Droitwich. We also discover a new, serious side to impressionist and comic Alistair McGowan, who talks about his latest project: an album of solo classical piano music scheduled for release at the end of September. We take a leisurely trip on the Gloucestershire Warwickshire Steam Railway to learn about the extension to the line, which will take it all the way to Broadway. And on this railway theme, did you know that Isambard Kingdom Brunel, he of Clifton Suspension Bridge fame, was involved in the last pitched battle between two private armies on UK soil? Known as the Battle of Mickleton, it saw the forces of Brunel fight the law over a railway tunnel at Chipping Campden . . . and the law lost. We reflect on the life of the great polymath Peter Mark Roget, the author of the famous

Thesaurus, who is buried in West Malvern’s St James’ churchyard and also remember the forgotten prince, Arthur, elder brother of Henry VIII who died before his time and is buried at Worcester Cathedral. We report on the heroism of a Worcester World War I soldier, Private Fred Dancox VC, who is being honoured at the end of October with the unveiling of a plaque at the Army Reserve Centre building (Dancox House) in Pheasant Street, Worcester. Moving to more rural matters, we discover a relatively new variety of apple, with its roots in Worcestershire, which is becoming increasingly popular due to its rich tangy taste; and we also reveal the qualities of turmeric, known as the spice of life. The popularity of electric vehicles is gaining momentum and, this issue, we report on government initiatives to ban the sale of all new ICE (internal combustion engine) cars and discover the latest from manufacturers on how they’re embracing all things EV. We have the usual excellent contributions covering interiors, fashion and wine; and Pershore Patty samples and reviews the culinary delights of Ombersley’s The Venture In, which holds two AA rosettes and has entries in both the Michelin and Good Food Guides. Happy reading and have a great autumn. Pippa Sanderson Production Director

ISSN 2059-2965 WR magazine is published by International Business Press Ltd. Articles and other material appearing in this magazine may be reproduced only with the express written permission from the publisher. The views and opinions expressed in the articles herein are those of the authors concerned and are not endorsed by the publisher. While every care has been taken during the production process, the publisher does not accept any liability for errors that may have occurred, nor for the views expressed. © International Business Press Ltd. 2017

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COVER PHOTO: Arriving at Cheltenham. Image: Pippa Sanderson

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CONTENTS

AUTUMN 2017

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8 24 8. DRIFTING AROUND THE ROOM IN LEEDS

Evesham-born Renaissance man Alistair McGowan talks to Gerald Heys about his latest project: an album of solo classical piano music.

12. WORTH ITS SALT

The history of salt production in Droitwich Spa.

20. AN INLAND COAST

Discovering The Flashes at the Christopher Cadbury Wetland Reserve at Upton Warren.

22. THE MUSEUM OF ROYAL

WORCESTER’S WONDERLAND Several special, recently acquired items illustrate the design process at Royal Worcester.

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24. BROADWAY, HERE WE COME

Discovering the Gloucestershire Warwickshire Steam Railway as they prepare to expand operations into Worcestershire.

28. THE BATTLE OF CAMPDEN TUNNEL; OR, MARCHANT’S LAST STAND!

The story of Brunel’s Battle of Mickleton, the location for the last pitched battle between two private armies on UK soil.

30. LE MOT JUSTE

The life of the great polymath Peter Mark Roget, the author of the famous Thesaurus, who is buried in West Malvern’s St James’ churchyard.

34. THE FORGOTTEN PRINCE

The death of Arthur, an internationally important dynastic event.

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‘A real page turner from a natural storyteller.’ M C Beaton, New York Times’ Bestselling Author of the Agatha Raison series

review FICTION

book

Smooth Prague PI Harry Novák’s investigation of the disappearance of a Russian film star is about to run into the ground when he bumps into Olga Bradová, jazz singer and amateur sleuth. She’s determined to team up with Harry and cajole him into finding the missing girl, even if it means both getting bullied and smacked around by some of the nastiest guys in town.

‘T

his is a debut novel of exceptional quality by a gifted writer. It is written in a modern version of the classic noir style, like Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, Robert B Parker and Sue Grafton, but set in the exotic world of modern-day Prague. Narrated, for the most part, by the two main characters, Harry Nováck and Olga Bradová, Heys maintains a tantalising sexual tension between the two throughout. The story fairly barrels along, with pages populated with lots of fascinating characters like Czech women of easy virtue and Russian gangsters. If you like noir detective stories, this one is for you. If you appreciate polished writing, you won’t find anything better than this. And if you want to be in on the emergence of a sparkling new writing talent, grab a copy today. . . . Take a bow, Mr Heys.’ By Avid Reader

‘A great story that is beautifully written by an author who is well researched. The author is clearly well travelled and educated which shows through, balancing nicely against the grit that novels in this genre often require. Fix yourself a drink and get comfy before you sit down with the book, because you are unlikely to put it down until you get to the end.’ By Baillie L

‘Excellent read. Really brought Prague to life and kept me hooked until the end. Hope we’ll hear more from this very talented author. It would be nice to develop the main characters further in more mystery solving!’ By Mrs G Lawrence

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Available through

▷ www.amazon.co .uk

PHY A R G BIO

Gerald Heys was born in England but has spent a fair portion of his life living and working in Prague. He has worked as a teacher and an actor, and is currently a freelance journalist and editor of WR magazine.

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CONTENTS

AUTUMN 2017

38

46

34

38. A WORCESTER HERO:

46. RED WINDSOR

53. ON THE CHARGE: ELECTRIC

Remembering the heroism of one soldier who won the Victoria Cross during the Battle of Passchendaele in October 1917.

A relatively new variety of apple, with its roots in Worcestershire, is becoming increasingly popular due to its rich tangy taste.

News of the impending demise of the ICE.

48. TERRIFIC TURMERIC

58. WINE TASTING:

FRED DANCOX VC

42. FLIGHT OF FANCY

The Tardebigge Lock Flight is the longest flight of locks in the country and one of the longest in Europe.

44. INTERNATIONALLY

RENOWNED ARTISTS TO PERFORM AS PART OF BROMSGROVE CONCERTS’ CLASSICAL SEASON

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A DISCOVERED GEM

This vibrant spice, renowned across Asia for its multipurpose, nutritional qualities, is making an impact in the health and beauty industry in Worcestershire.

50. BRIGHT IDEAS

Top tips to light up your home.

VEHICLES; NO LONGER IF, BUT WHEN

56. THE VENTURE IN, OMBERSLEY Food review by Pershore Patty.

A BEGINNER’S GUIDE The low down on the basic principles of wine tasting so we can all look like pros.

60. STRIKE A DRAMATIC POSE THIS AUTUMN

The season’s fashion statements.

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Image: Christopher Dunlop; stylist: Michael Dye; fashion: Chester and Barrie, New and Lingwood, Paula Rowan

THE INTERVIEW

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Drifting around the room in Leeds Evesham-born Renaissance man Alistair McGowan talks to Gerald Heys about his latest project: an album of solo classical piano music

‘C

hronic remorse’, Aldous Huxley says in his introduction to Brave New World, does none of us any good. If you are haunted by regrets, he suggests, you should concentrate on doing better next time and not brood on past errors. Alistair McGowan is making amends in spades. Having given up the piano at the age of nine, for what he then felt were the more virile rigours of the football field, he has, for the last three years or so, been showing contrition by devoting himself to what he considers ‘the king of instruments’. His competitive urges appear to have taken a very satisfying turn. ‘As a child, I saw competition in terms of sport and beating other people, not in terms of getting the best out of yourself, which is now what I think is the best thing in life.’ Alistair is probably best known for The Big Impression, the BAFTA award winner that was, for four years, one of BBC1’s top-rated comedy programmes. But over the last 27 years, he has worked in almost every area of show business and the arts: impressionist, stand-up comic, actor, singer, writer of sketches, articles, and stage and radio plays. And it looks like there’s still plenty left in his creative tank. Though he rejected the piano as a boy, the instrument must have somehow entered his soul. He felt the urge to take it up again in his mid-30s: ‘I thought, Come on, you’ve got to do this. But

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Image: Christopher Dunlop; stylist: Michael Dye; fashion: Chester and Barrie, New and Lingwood, Paula Rowan

the Gymnopédies. Asked to nominate his favourite tracks, Alistair plumps for two: ‘There’s the Satie Gnossienne No. 3, which is very mysterious and not as well known as some of his more famous pieces. I love that; it has a real atmosphere to it. And also the Liszt, which was hard to get on top of in time. Liszt’s Consolation No. 3. It’s a real tear-jerker.’

it was – and this sounds stupid – rudely interrupted by The Big Impression, which was so all-consuming that for five years, there wasn’t a chance to sit down at the piano. Before that programme began, I was doing an hour’s practice a day.’ And at Leeds University, he says, apologising if it sounds pretentious, he would give the piano as an excuse for not going down the pub. ‘I said to one person, I get transported by lying on my bed in the student accommodation and listening to Grieg’s piano concerto. I just concentrate on every note and I drift around the room. And he looked at me like I was absolutely mad. And then I thought, Perhaps I am a bit mad. But that’s really what I like about this sort of music. It’s sometimes good to embrace that side of our emotions.’

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Listening is wonderful, of course, but it’s playing that lifts him the most. ‘Just the feeling of the music coming through your fingers. That’s the real incentive; that’s the real pleasure and joy: thinking that those pieces of music by Debussy or Grieg that I’ve listened to for decades – on everything from records to tapes to CDs to whatever – I’m now finding I can play some of those pieces myself. And it’s the biggest, biggest satisfaction. Emotionally, and in every sense.’ Alastair has written plays and presented BBC programmes about a couple of the composers who feature on his album, both of whom knock off his socks: John Field, the great Irish pianist credited with the invention of the nocturne; and Eric Satie, the eccentric Frenchman – he of

That’s right: Alistair McGowan, whose talents and energies have for years been dedicated to keeping you amused, now wants you to cry. ‘I’m a very minor key sort of person. I like a minor key. It’s the sadness I like, embracing the sadness in the music. We don’t do enough of that. . . . I’ve played a couple of tracks to friends and they both shed a tear, and I was really, really pleased. They said, That’s really, really moving. It meant more to me than all the laughs over the years.’ The album, though, has a purpose beyond imparting his passion for the piano and getting us all to well up. Alistair would also like it to demonstrate that, with perseverance, anyone can be a pianist. ‘These are pieces that aren’t that difficult to play. Hopefully, people will say this is wonderful: it shows that you can play pieces as beautiful as this at a level where you haven’t had to go to music college and put in 20 years of your life. Some of the tracks on my CD are certainly no harder than the Piano Grade 3 exam. So they are attainable.’ Even though Sony had shown confidence in Alistair’s ability by asking if he’d like to do the project, it still felt pretty nerveracking. ‘And, in a way, until there’s some sort of critical response to it, I’ll still be thinking, What have I done? What have I let myself in for? I know from talking to certain pianists that it’s very, very rare these days for people to come up to you and offer a chance to do an album. But when I was approached, I thought, I don’t want to make a complete fool of myself. Can I, can I, can I do it?’ To mitigate the doubts, a clause was put in the contract saying that if either side was dissatisfied with the finished article, it wouldn’t be

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THE INTERVIEW

AND HE LOOKED AT ME LIKE I WAS ABSOLUTELY MAD. AND THEN I THOUGHT, PERHAPS I AM A BIT MAD. BUT THAT’S REALLY WHAT I LIKE ABOUT THIS SORT OF MUSIC. IT’S SOMETIMES GOOD TO EMBRACE THAT SIDE OF OUR EMOTIONS. released. ‘So I knew I always had a kind of a get out.’ But everyone must have ended up happy, because after a lot of hard yakka, the album will be on the shelves, or at the end of a click, at the end of September. ‘It was just thrilling to work out how I was going to get all of these pieces together in time over four recording sessions. It was a long-running project, over a year alongside doing all my other work. The day it finished, I was exhausted and . . . [with mock pathos] bereft.’ But it isn’t, he says, the end, merely another step on the road. ‘Every pianist is learning, which was a great comfort to me, talking to and observing other pianists through the course of this. Even the best is trying to improve somehow, as you find in any discipline, whether it’s sport or acting or business. But I know I’ve still got a huge amount to learn and am certainly under no illusions as to where I stand on the piano ladder, which was why it was such a difficult decision to make.’ The pianist’s easy tone suggests, however, that, this time round, there are unlikely to be any regrets. ›

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B

ALISTAIR MCGOWAN – THE PIANO ALBUM

est known for his BAFTA-winning comedy show, Alistair McGowan’s Big Impression, in which he delighted audiences nationwide with pinpoint-accurate impersonations of celebrities such as David Beckham, Gary Lineker and Jonathan Ross, Alistair McGowan is now preparing for his most demanding role of all – that of pianist – as he releases an album of solo piano works for Sony Classical. This debut album features McGowan performing several short classical pieces, all chosen and learned by the actor/ impressionist (who could only ever play two pieces) but who then practised for up to six hours a day over a nine month period in his attempt to finally conquer this beautiful instrument, despite already being in his early 50s. McGowan said: ‘By taking on the idea of making an album, I hope to encourage people of any age to play the piano, but perhaps particularly those at an age where it’s easy to think that it’s all too late.’ McGowan had started out playing the piano as a boy, but gave it up after only two years in favour of tennis and football. He went on to train as an actor at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, and worked for many years on television, on radio and in the theatre (being nominated for an Olivier Award in 2006), as well as successfully performing around the country for almost 30 years as a stand-up comic.

pieces, which he felt that he – and others with similarly limited playing experience – could realistically manage. McGowan noted: ‘I have become so passionate about the piano over the past three years. It has really taken me over and I have made the time to practise (time I never thought I had) with a few simple lifestyle changes. This album contains a wealth of beautiful music that I think anyone can tackle, given time, passion and determination. Learning to play the piano has been an incredible challenge – often frustrating – but, ultimately, hugely enjoyable and emotional. It’s so satisfying when you realise that you are improving daily. I hope this encourages everyone who harbours a secret ambition take up music; it really is never too late!’ zz The album features music from composers as diverse as Bach, Chopin, Glass, Grieg, Liszt and Satie. zz Vocals by McGowan’s wife, Charlie, are featured on the final track, Gymnopedie 1, by Erik Satie zz McGowan was mentored by concert pianist Antony Hewitt zz While on a comedy tour around the UK, several celebrities let McGowan practise on their pianos at home, including fellow comedian, Jasper Carrott, and broadcaster, Gyles Brandreth zz At times, McGowan was practising for such long hours that he needed ice packs on his hands and knees zz The piano album is released on 29 September 2017

Having always yearned for the piano, in 2016, McGowan devised the one-man stage show, Erik Satie’s-faction, based on the French composer’s comedic writings, letters and music, for which he had to learn to play some short piano pieces by Satie and Debussy as an integral part of the show, the first time he had ever played in public. Emboldened by this wellreceived first public experience, it was not long before he was enthusiastically identifying and learning other short

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HERITAGE

The Worcestershire town of Droitwich Spa lies on the banks of the River Salwarpe and owes its existence to the natural brine springs that emanate from subterranean beds of pure rock salt located some 200 feet below the ground. The importance of the salt can be seen in the town’s motto – Sal Sapit Omnia – meaning ‘salt flavours all’. Pippa Sanderson uncovers its long and fascinating link with Droitwich Spa

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D

roitwich brine – with its 25 per cent solution of salt – is some 10 times saltier than seawater: a mere 3 per cent solution; its density and buoyancy in fact rivalled only by that of the Dead Sea.

How it all began

According to Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service’s Derek Hurst in his 1992 book, Savouring the Past. The Droitwich Salt Industry, there are indications that brine was being exploited in the area as early as the Iron Age (between 800 BC to 43 AD). Indeed, mankind has understood the importance of salt for a very long time. As we evolved as a species, moving from a nomadic hunter–gatherer existence to settled agricultural communities exploiting the land, salt became important, not just as a condiment to add flavour to a cereal diet, but to preserve meat and fish, and in manufacturing processes including tanning and pottery (potters sometimes glazed their wares with salt from the thirteenth century onwards). Salt was even used as currency.

Image: Pippa Sanderson

At that time, most salt was obtained almost exclusively by evaporating seawater, so those living inland, including in Worcestershire, found salt difficult to obtain and, as a result, it was a highly prized commodity not just in Britain but worldwide; in fact, the ancient Greek author Homer regarded it as a divine gift.

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According to Savouring the Past. The Droitwich Salt Industry by J D Hurst from Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service (1992): ‘The story of Droitwich brine began about 200 million years ago, when the area was being periodically flooded with seawater. In the prevailing hot climate, the seawater evaporated, leaving behind the salt. As this process was repeated, the salt became concentrated into thick deposits. In the course of time, rock salt was buried under a deep bed of clay. . . . As the clays were folded by movements of the earth’s crust, the rock salt beds were tipped, leaving the salt closest to the surface

directly under Droitwich. As ground water permeated into the rock salt beds, salt was dissolved and underground streams of brine [were] created. As a result of natural pressure, the brine was forced back to the surface through clay fissures, to emerge at the surface as brine springs. Since the brine appeared on the surface in springs, it was easily available, no doubt an important factor leading to the early development of salt making.’ Salt-making equipment used in this nascent industry included large, clay-lined brine tanks, hearths for boiling the brine and containers known as briquetage, coarse ceramic evaporation vessels that not only dried the salt, but were used to transport the precious commodity as well.

Roman Droitwich

The town, known during late Roman times as ‘Salinae’, translates as ‘the place of salt works’. Salt was so important that Roman soldiers were given a quantity of salt – a salarium – as part of their payment. This payment later on became monetary, but the name remained and it is where we get the name ‘salary’ from today. During the Roman occupation, the town was situated along the principal road between Worcester and Birmingham (today, the A38) and was ideally placed for the purposes of trade. Alongside a fort and villa, the Romans built a number of ancient roads, later known as saltways, from Droitwich. Many of the Iron Age production techniques continued until the second century, when the Romans constructed substantial engineering works around the brine springs. A century later, there’s evidence of brine storage tanks being used, which were constructed from halves of larch and silver fir barrels that had originally held wine.

Anglo-Saxon Droitwich

During the Anglo-Saxon period (fifth to eleventh centuries), ‘a series of brine boiling hearths were built over the decayed remains of Roman structures. Unlike the earlier hearths, these were long, stone-lined channels, above which lead pans were set. Wind breaks of wattle fencing were erected alongside, as boiling would need to have been

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carefully controlled to prevent the lead from melting.’ Savouring the Past. The Droitwich Salt Industry by J D Hurst from Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service (1992). The first documentary evidence we have of salt production in Droitwich is contained within a 716 AD charter from the King of Mercia, Ethelbald, who granted the Church of Worcester land on the south side of the River Salwarpe, so that it could construct salt works, including six furnaces and three buildings for the purposes of salt extraction, in exchange for a salt works north of the river. Also in this year, Eafe, a nun, was granted a portion of a building and two salt furnaces in (Droit)wich. A 717 AD charter makes reference to Saltwic as a place of salt production and a charter dating to the tenth century outlines the ‘arrangement of three distinct brine well centres in Droitwich, namely Netherwich, Middlewich and Upwich. These places were named in relation to their respective positions along the River Salwarpe. So Upwich was furthest upstream with Netherwich downstream; Middlewich lay in between.’ Savouring the Past. The Droitwich Salt Industry by J D Hurst from Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service (1992). The brine springs were held in such high esteem that they were regarded as the fourth wonder of Saxon Britain, an accolade noted by the ninth century writer, Nennius in the Historia Brittonum, or The History of the Britons, thus: ‘The fourth wonder is the salt springs . . . from which springs salt is boiled, with which various foods can be salted; and they are not near the sea, but emerge from the ground.’ The importance of Droitwich during the Anglo-Saxon period is evidenced by its tax yield which, in 1066, was second only to London.

cartloads of wood in the time of Edward the Confessor for the 300 mitts of salt they produced [one mitt equated to around eight bushels, or a horse load]. Northwick manor had in Droitwich one Medieval period saltpan rendering 100 mitts of salt for Domedsay mentions the town’s link to salt production 100 cartloads of wood. The Bishop several times. According to the 1086 book, Wich or of Worcester had woodland Wyche, operated five brine wells, which were in Fladbury supplying fuel controlled by the King, William the Conqueror, for the saltworks. Finally, who owned the largest share worth £76.00, a Droitwich has been Westminster Abbey’s huge sum in those days. The book records known by a number of manor of Hussingtree that William took over all brine pits and names in antiquity, including rendered annually 100 salt pans, but allowed certain individuals Salinae, Saltwich, Saltwic, cartloads of wood.’ rights to them. A salt tax was imposed Salinis, Wic, Wiche, Wich, at town gates around the country as Wych, Wichium, Drightwich, The most important area the commercial activities of Droitwich Drutwich and Dertwich for salt production was at expanded. During the Domesday period, Upwich brine pit (the two some 1,000 tons of salt were being produced other areas being Netherwich each year, far outweighing local requirements. and Middlewich) although, during To fuel the ever-hungry brine boiling hearths, large the thirteenth century, the well dried up amounts of wood had to be sourced and cartloads were numerous times. During one such dry sometimes brought in from several miles away. spell, the Bishop of Chichester, Droitwichborn Richard de Wych, was called in to According to CBA Research Report No 81, Iron Age and help. He blessed the well and, according Roman Salt production and medieval town of Droitwich, to legend, it flowed again and de Wych was edited by Simon Woodiwiss (1992): ‘The saltworkers made a saint. belonging to Bromsgrove are said to have been given 300

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Previous spread: Chateau Impney, built just outside Droitwich between 1873–75 for the homesick wife of Salt King John Corbett. Above: A medieval salt-production scene. Next page top: The medieval town of Droitwich showing several brine pits in operation, the largest of which was Upwich brine pit (just to the right of centre). Both illustrations courtesy of Droitwich Spa Heritage Centre. Next page bottom: A modern reconstruction of the Upwich brine pit.

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HERITAGE The blessing of Upwich brine pit by Richard de Wych in the thirteenth century was so important that, at the end of April each year, the town continues to celebrate the blessing of the well with the Festival of Saint Richard, where he is thanked for bringing the brine back to the well.

Image: Pippa Sanderson

Post-medieval period

Salt production was seasonal; lasting from June until December. ‘Extraction of brine was by a large bucket (the ‘common bucket’) attached to a winch or crane (known as a ‘rydhoc’). . . . Once lifted, the brine could be poured for temporary storage into barrels beside the well.’ Savouring the Past. The

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Droitwich Salt Industry by J D Hurst from Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service (1992). The town grew as the wealth generated from salt production increased. Many half-timbered buildings dating from the fourteenth century were constructed and can still be seen in the High Street today.

The industry evolved and new techniques resulted in improvements and efficiencies including, for some, the use of iron pans (rather than lead) for boiling the brine; and coal began to be used instead of wood to fuel the furnaces. According to Savouring the Past. The Droitwich Salt Industry by J D Hurst from Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service (1992): ‘By the second half of the seventeeth century, up to 3,000 tons of salt were being produced annually. As production increased, it became more important than ever to have cheaper transportation for the salt. In the mid to late seventeenth century, attempts were made to improve the navigability of the River Salwarpe between Droitwich and the River Severn. By 1678, daily brine output from the Upwich brine well was reported to be sufficient to make about 10 tons of salt a day. Many salt makers were still using lead pans made from a single sheet of lead measuring 1.68 x 0.91 metres (5.5 x 3 feet), several pans being heated together on a hearth. Six types of salt were being made, including ‘white salt’

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AMES

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RIVE

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HERITAGE (salt loaves made in baskets), ‘clod salt’ (scraped off the bottom of the pan) and ‘knockings’ (formed on the outside of the baskets). Droitwich salt was praised at this date for its purity.’

The industrial age

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The ancient salt ways radiating from Droitwich, adapted from a map by F T S Houghton (1932).

After 1695, Droitwich opened up its salt production to private enterprise thanks to the efforts of Robert Steynor who, although mounting a successful challenge to the town’s monopoly to extract salt, bankrupted himself in the process. New private brine wells opened at different sites around the town, with shafts lined with bricks sunk to depths not witnessed before. ‘By 1725, some of these shafts were about 61 metres (200 feet) deep, tapping into the underground brine stream itself’. Savouring the Past. The Droitwich Salt Industry by J D Hurst from Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service (1992).

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According to Worcestershire: The Little Guides, by F T S Houghton (1922): ‘In 1725, it was discovered that brine of great strength could be drawn from a deeper stratum than had up to that time been tapped, and there followed a great increase in production. A hundred years later, brine was tapped in borings made near Stoke Prior. This has now become the only seat of the industry in Worcestershire, for all the salt works at Droitwich are now closed, the last chimney of the last remaining works having been felled in 1923.’

been boiled off.

The brine pit at Upwich fell into decline during the early eighteenth century and, in 1767, Droitwich Council appointed famous canal engineer James Brindley to survey a route for a canal linking Droitwich Spa with the River Severn at Hawford Mill. In 1768, construction began of the Droitwich Barge Canal, which opened on 12 March 1771 and included a wharf adjacent to the pit.

dry, were taken to

Female salt workers packing cut lumps of salt. During the 1920s, a female packer could earn up to 4½d (pence) a day for 144 cubic lumps packed, equivalent to just over 2p in today’s money. Next page middle: Salt men shovelling salt out of the stoves after the water has Next page bottom: Salt workers ‘blocking’ salt in the Drying House (when the salt is pressed into solid cubic blocks ready for distributing elsewhere). The salt blocks were kept in the Drying House for one day and, once the women to pack. Images (next page) courtesy of Droitwich Spa Heritage Centre.

Seasonal salt extraction became year round and production increased greatly during the eighteenth century, with new steam-powered engines incorporated to pump out the brine. During the nineteenth century, several salt factories were built adjacent to the canal to make use of the water system for distribution by boat and extraction

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producer because he bought out his rivals. Born in 1817 at Brierley Hill, he worked in his father’s canal business until, in 1853, he sold his share of the business to purchase six acres of land from the British Alkali Company, made up of a derelict brine works outside Stoke Prior near Bromsgrove on the banks of Brindley’s Worcester and Birmingham canal. In 1854, Corbett began building his own salt works, which became the largest, most modern and most successful in Europe, earning him the title of ‘Salt King’. In 1855, Corbett met his future wife Anna O’Meara in Paris, where she lived with her French mother and Irish father. The following year they married and were to have six children. Now resident in the county, Anna missed the elegance of France, so Corbett commissioned a French architect to design a French-style chateau – the Chateau Impney – to appease her melancholy. Building started in 1873 and cost an estimated cost of £7 million in today’s figures. Chateau Impney still stands today, as a wellknown landmark just outside Droitwich Spa. But despite this lavish and romantic gesture, the couple separated after nearly 30 years of marriage. By 1886, Corbett’s works spanned an area of some 30 acres and production of salt reached between 200,000 to 300,000 tons a year. The high-quality table salt was sold under the brand of the Black Horse and, by 1888, Corbett controlled nearly 50 per cent of Britain’s salt producing industry.

Next page: The Stoke Prior Salt Works in the late 1800s. The ‘big chimney’ can be seen on the left while, to the right, are the salt works’ chimneys. Bottom left of the photograph, six women can be seen along a footpath. Image courtesy of Droitwich Spa Heritage Centre.

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was undertaken on an industrial scale. Brine arrived at the factory in wooden (later cast iron) pipes. Entire families were involved in the production of salt, which was undertaken on a 24-hour a day basis throughout the year and, at its peak in 1872, Droitwich’s salt factories were producing some 120,000 tons. The arrival of the railways in the mid-nineteenth century provided a far quicker means of distribution and acquisition for evereager consumers.

The Salt King

In the late nineteenth century, John Corbett became Droitwich’s principal salt

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Corbett, a great philanthropist, helped change a grim industrial town into a fashionable spa in the late nineteenth century. The therapeutic qualities of brine had previously been discovered in the 1830s when sufferers of cholera had been cured by hot brine immersion and, in 1838, the Saline Baths, later renamed the Royal Brine Baths, opened in Queen Street (closed in 1930). This was followed by the opening of Salters Hall (1881–1933), St Andrew’s Brine Baths (1887–1974 and now St Richard’s House, home to the Droitwich Spa Heritage Centre) and the Worcestershire Brine Baths Hotel (opened in 1891, the hotel was once described as ‘the finest in Britain’. It closed in the 1980s and was demolished at the turn of the twenty-first century), which were all built around Victoria Square, and the Raven Hotel was converted from the old St Andrew’s Manor House. The GWR railway station, of the old Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton Railway, was rebuilt and visitors flocked to the town to use the spa facilities. At the time of Corbett’s death, on 22 April 1901, it was estimated that he owned or part-owned nearly half the town. He is buried in the churchyard at St Michael’s in Stoke Prior. Immersion in brine was soon prescribed for a range of complaints, including sciatica, lumbago and gout, which made Droitwich Spa a popular destination for visitors from both home and abroad. Along with other spa towns and resorts, Droitwich saw a gradual decline in popularity after World War II; eventually, the brine baths closed and no spa facility existed for more than 10 years. The re-emergence of interest in health and leisure resulted in the new Brine Bath complex opening in 1985, Britain’s biggest spa

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HERITAGE be seen showing a raven, usually within the framework of gable ends.

The end of salt production in Worcestershire

Many thanks to Derek Hurst from the Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service for permission to include extracts from his book, Savouring the Past. The Droitwich Salt Industry, which can be purchased from Amazon, other online stores and the Droitwich Heritage Centre. His new book – WESTWARD on the HIGH-HILLED PLAINS. The Later Prehistory of the West Midlands – can be purchased from W H Smith, Amazon and the Explore the Past desk at The Hive library and history centre in Worcester (where it is £20.00 instead of £30.00).

development this century. Unfortunately these baths are not open to the public at present. A campaign to build and open new brine baths is ongoing. Corbett was generous elsewhere in the UK. Family holidays were taken at Towyn on the west coast of Wales. The town’s promenade was rebuilt by Corbett and a plaque can be seen at the northern end to commemorate this fact. In nearby Stourbridge, he offered his Georgian mansion, The Hill, Amblecote, for conversion into a hospital. The offer was accepted and the hospital was opened in 1893. Making a play upon his name (the French word for a raven is corbeau), John Corbett adopted the raven as part of his family crest and many buildings constructed or sponsored by John Corbett in and around Droitwich Spa can

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According to Savouring the Past. The Droitwich Salt Industry by J D Hurst from Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service (1992): ‘Salt production finally ceased in the town in 1922, alleviating the pollution for which Droitwich had become notorious. However, another problem was to emerge as a result. It was not realised until too late that the pumping of brine at Stoke Prior was to have serious consequences for Droitwich. For the first time, subsidence occurred within the town and evidence of this can be seen especially in the High Street, where many of the buildings are leaning. The ending of salt production at Stoke Prior has, however, reduced the possibility of further subsidence taking place.’ Stoke Prior Salt Works finally closed in 1972 because of cheaper imports from abroad.

Salt ways

Salt was originally distributed from Droitwich by way of pack horse along tracks, known as salt roads or salt ways, which radiated from the town to a wide range of locations, including Ireland (for the salting of herring), south Wales and London. According to Salt-ways, by F T S Houghton (1932): ‘The earliest knowledge that we have of the routes along which salt was conveyed from Droitwich to various places in the south Midlands is contained in pre-Conquest charters. In these documents there are 15 references to Salt streets, Salters wells, Salters fords etc, dating from 777 to 1042.’ The salt was contained within conical wicker baskets and loaded on packhorses; the weight of the load being known as a ‘mitt’. According to Religion and Literature in Western England, 600–800, by Patrick Sims-Williams (1990), ‘A further system of communications was provided by the spider’s web of saltways which radiated far outside the Hwiccian kingdom from its vital brine springs at Droitwich. The reconstruction of these “salterstreets” depends mainly on late Anglo-Saxon or later allusions, but seventh-century royal grants of rights over brine pits and salt pans at Droitwich imply that many of the saltways which carried the salt from Droitwich (Roman Salinae), and brought the fuel to its furnaces, were very old.’ ›

The Salt Museum The whole development of Droitwich, from ancient salt making centre to the present day can be explored at the Droitwich Heritage Centre. The Salt Museum is located inside the heritage centre and includes artefacts dating from the Roman period onwards to the nineteenth century. Droitwich offers plenty to see and do in order to keep the whole family entertained. The recently restored Droitwich canal network is a haven for walkers, cyclists and nature lovers; and the open air lido and acres of green parks have enough play areas to keep the children occupied. A spot of retail therapy and a coffee can be enjoyed in the St Andrews shopping centre or at one of the town’s many markets that regularly take place. Numerous well-established festivals take place throughout the year, including Salt Fest in September, which celebrates the town’s salt heritage. Take a virtual tour of the heritage centre and to look through the town guide to see what Droitwich Spa has on offer. Visit ▷ www. visitdroitwichspa.com and ▷

www.droitwichspa.gov.uk/ about-droitwich-spa.html for more information.

Droitwich Spa Heritage Centre St Richards House Victoria Square Droitwich Spa Worcesershire WR9 8DS

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Image: Andy Harris

FLORA & FAUNA

Left: The Flashes. Below clockwise from top left: Little ringed plover; volunteers clearing channels for avocets; an avocet chick; and sea spurrey. Next page: A shoveler family out for a swim at Upton Warren.

An inland

Over the years, however, the area of open water has steadily been increasing at the expense of the salt marsh, which has been decreasing. This has probably been caused by the cessation

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Image: Wendy Carter

Image: Pete Walkden

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he inland salt-marsh is a rare feature and one of only a handful in the whole of the UK; the salttolerant and salt-dependent plants are supported by brine from underground seepage. The salt marsh and saline pools attract an important mix of waterfowl and wading birds; it’s the significance of both the plants and birds that has resulted in the nature reserve’s designation as a Site of Special Scientific Importance.

Image: Wendy Carter

It may be hard to believe, but we do have a slice of the seaside right here in Worcestershire. The Flashes, the southern pools of the Christopher Cadbury Wetland Reserve at Upton Warren in Wychbold hold a rare habitat. The underlying salt deposit, the Droitwich halite, was formed around 200 million years ago and subsequent underground brine extraction caused subsidence and consequent flooding. As a result, the saline pools of The Flashes and the salt marsh were born. Wendy Carter, Worcestershire Wildlife Trust’s Communications Manager, tells us more

Image: Pete Walkden

coast

of brine extraction for salt production, which occurred in 1972, resulting in both further underground subsidence and a rising water table. During the past few years, we have been studying the hydrology of The Flashes and have been reassured that the salinity of the site is stable. We have concluded that a gradual lowering of the water level will enable the salt marsh to re-colonise the pool edges. In conjunction with this, we will dredge channels and parts of the pool to improve the habitat for waders and provide retreat

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Image: Vern Wright

areas for the birds in times of drought. To help the birds further, we intend to restore islands that have collapsed. The key is to maintain a balance of shallow water for the waders, with open mud salt marsh and grassland around. The salt marsh includes plant species such as sea spurrey and reflexed salt marsh grass that are extremely scarce away from the coast. The muddy margins of the salt marsh and water are home to numerous invertebrates at all stages of their life cycle and it’s this mass of food, along with the salinity, that attracts the birdlife. In 2003, Upton Warren became the summer home of the UK’s first inland breeding avocets and the birds have been returning in greater numbers every year since. Incredibly, these attractive pied waders were lost as a breeding bird in Britain in Victorian times, but returned to our east coast as beaches were closed for the war effort in the 1940s; the Trust and the birding community of Worcestershire were over the moon when a pair settled down to breed at Upton Warren. This year, 22 pairs of avocet settled at Upton Warren and they managed to fledge 27 chicks. In another first for Worcestershire, 2017 has also seen the first breeding Mediterranean gulls in the county at Upton Warren; one chick successfully fledged. Shovelers, a scarce UK breeding duck, bred on the freshwater pools (The Moors) of Upton Warren in 2014 – the first time in Worcestershire since 1947 – and this year there have been two families at The Flashes. Other breeding successes include little ringed plover,

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With both saline and freshwater pools, Upton Warren is the place to visit if you’re interested in birds. There are two car parks just off the A38 between Droitwich Spa and Bromsgrove: one at Aztec Adventure’s sailing centre (along with a cafe, the Boatshack) that gives access to The Flashes and another a few hundred metres away that provides access to The Moors. The reserve is open seven days a week and visitors must either carry their Wildlife Trust membership card or purchase a day permit (£3.00) from the Trust, volunteers on site or the Boatshack cafe. There are usually visitors and volunteers in the birdwatching hides, who will happily help you identify what’s what if you’re a little unsure. More information can be found at ▷ www.worcswildlifetrust.

co.uk/reserves/upton-warren Anyone interested in volunteer opportunities at Upton Warren or with the Wildlife Trust should visit ▷

www.worcswildlifetrust.co.uk/ volunteer or call 01905 754919.

lapwing and redshank. The Flashes are also remarkable for the birds that drop in while migrating to and from summer breeding grounds (often in the Arctic and Scandinavia) to wintering grounds (often Africa). Spring and summer can see wood sandpiper, black-tailed godwit, ruff and green sandpiper pass through and rarities in the past have included birds like osprey, red-necked phalarope and even two American wading birds, Baird’s sandpiper and least sandpiper.

To give our wildlife a helping hand, there is a dedicated and hard-working team of volunteers; from coppicing trees to provide flight lines for ducks and managing vegetation on the islands to ensure optimum space for birds to breed, to clearing silt from channels to help maintain plenty of feeding areas for the birds, they’ re on hand to help out. ›

Want to discover more about our wildlife? Why not try one or more of the following events: The Geopark Way: Bridgnorth to Gloucester with Mike Brooks Mon 9 October, 7.30pm Droitwich Methodist Church. Apples & orchards of Worcestershire by Wade Muggleton Tue 10 October, 7.30pm Wulstan Hall, Pershore. Join the log lobbers! Volunteering at Tiddesley Wood, Pershore Sun 15 October Booking 01905 754919. Nature in focus by Rosemary Winnall Fri 20 October, 7.30pm St Saviour’s Church, Hagley. Autumn Adventures. Family fun at Lower Smite Farm Wed 25 October, 2.00–4.00pm Booking 01905 754919. £3.50 Bees, plant and the environment by Celia Davis Wed 1 November, 7.30pm Broadheath Village Hall. Bredon Hill through the year by Roger Umpleby Thu 2 November, 7.30pm Holy Innocents’ Community Hall, Kidderminster. Lantern Walk: Family fun with Wyre Forest Wildlife Watch Sun 19 November, 10.00–4.00pm Booking 01562 745550. £1.50.

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HERITAGE

The Museum of Royal Worcester’s

WONDERLAND The Museum of Royal Worcester houses the world’s largest and most significant collection of Worcester porcelain and its associated archives. Philippa Tinsley, Consultant Curator, Museum of Royal Worcester, tells us more about several special, recently acquired items that illustrate the design process at Royal Worcester. 22 |

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he collections extend far beyond the porcelain currently on show and include pattern books, employment records, film, photographs and an emotive collection of audio recordings of factory workers memories before the factory closure. The museum was recently successful in receiving a grant of more than £1 million from the Heritage Lottery Fund to undertake the project Celebrating 250 Years of Innovation, Industry and Craftsmanship.

Doughty, one of Royal Worcester’s most important twentieth century designers. It’s a real insight into the first stage of the design process and the work is both delicate and uncompromising in its aesthetic. The Cheshire Cat is particularly menacing! A series of drawings already in the museum archive take us on the next step of the design journey. Doughty worked from her studio in Cornwall, so the next stage took place in the factory in Worcester.

This project will redisplay the worldfamous porcelain and aims to bring Worcester Porcelain alive by focusing on stories drawn from more than two centuries of history and factory community. Cases exhibiting porcelain and its designs will illustrate the skills, techniques and ambition of this remarkable factory. New hands-on interactives will include recordings with workers describing both camaraderie and rivalries, and will show just how many pairs of talented hands each piece took to create. As well as highlighting gems from the museum’s existing collection, we have also recently acquired some special items that illustrate the design process at Royal Worcester.

These designs show a softening and commercialisation of Doughty’s interpretation of the characters. Here we can see the Dodo morphs into a more smiling version and becomes more of a venerable old man. It’s particularly nice to see the note on the White Rabbit’s design, illustrating the decision to tone down the colours to a more pastel version.

The first is a small maquette – a threedimensional sketch – of a group of Alice in Wonderland figures, made in the 1950s not long after the Disney film of the books. This model was made by Dorothy

The second new acquisition shows us the end of the design process: the figure of the Dodo as it was commercially made for sale. By now he has become positively sweet and cuddly, and the colours would have felt much more at home in a 1950’s china cabinet than Doughty’s original maquette. These two items, together with our original archives, bring to life a technical process in a way that all our audience can enjoy. They are a great addition to the collection, and will be used in a section of the new displays set aside for families to enjoy storytelling activities. The Museum of Royal Worcester will close to visitors at the end of October to enable the redevelopments to take place. During the closed period, the popular Museum Shop will relocate to Worcester’s Guildhall to ensure visitors to Worcester can still source their Made in Worcester porcelain. The museum site will re-open in early summer 2018 with an innovative educational programme alongside the new displays. We hope you will visit and enjoy everything the redeveloped museum has to offer . ›

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HERITAGE

THEN, TWO YEARS AGO, A SHARE APPEAL WAS LAUNCHED THAT RAISED MORE THAN THE £1.25 MILLION THEY NEEDED TO GET TO BROADWAY, WHERE THEY WILL BE OPEN FOR BUSINESS FROM EASTER 2018.

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BROADWAY, here we come

Gerald Heys takes a trip on the Gloucestershire Warwickshire Steam Railway as they prepare to expand operations into Worcestershire

J

ust before 10.00am and the engine, chuffing expectantly, waiting to depart. It’s close to impossible not to be smitten by the sights, sounds and smells of these beautiful machines. A blisteringly hot day, the hottest of the year so far, but cool under the canopy of Toddington station as we climb aboard. Settling down in the meticulously restored 1950’s buffet car over a cuppa, Colin Fewell, commercial director of GWSR and involved with the railway for some 20 years, chats about its history and its future.

saying this was originally the GWR station of Monmouth Troy in Wales. On this spot in 1984, there was, he says, ‘nothing, absolutely nothing. A desolate wasteland.’ But they numbered each and every Monmouth Troy brick and transported them here to reassemble the entire station and, in the process, save it from demolition.

A slurp of tea, a toot of the whistle, and we’re off to Cheltenham Racecourse via Hayles Abbey Halt, Winchcombe and Gotherington, names redolent of the Flanders and Swann song ‘The Slow Train’ that lists those stations (Kirby Muxloe . . . Blandford Forum . . . Trouble House Halt) axed in the 60s. But the original closure of this stretch of line, Colin explains, cannot be blamed on Beeching’s cuts. The Honeybourne to Cheltenham route survived until 1976, when a big landslip near Winchcombe persuaded British Rail to close it down. The track was taken up, the buildings demolished, and BR walked away. But the enthusiasts got together, as enthusiast do, and bought the track bed that goes from just south of Cheltenham Racecourse to just north of Broadway. . . .

There’s a surprise as we pull alongside Winchcombe platform: a crowd of schoolchildren kitted out as WWII evacuees; the boys in caps, the girls in period frocks, gas mask boxes around their necks, holding hands in pairs, snacking on biscuits and apples. And they clamber on board, escorted by John Broomfield – Farmer Broomfield today, he says. The children are from Churchdown but making believe they are escaping from wartime Gloucester, where aircraft factories were a target for the Luftwaffe. ‘Later on today,’ John says, ‘they’re going to suffer an air raid and put out fires with stirrup pumps.’ And somewhere on the train a German spy is lurking whom the kids are going to

Previous page: Arriving at Cheltenham. Image courtesy of Pippa Sanderson. Top left: Broadway station, Jan 2016. Image courtesy of Ian Crowder. Top right: Broadway

Winchcombe is coming up now, with its handsome brick signal box and the carriage and wagon workshop where many of the GWSR’s army of over 900 volunteers work: the carpenters; plumbers; upholsterers. Colin points out the station building,

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station in 1960.

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Clockwise from top: No. 7820 Dinmore Manor. Image courtesy of Malcolm Ranieri; nos. 7903 and 1450 draw the crowds at Toddington; Chris Irving, the train driver, living the dream on the footplate, where it can reach 100 degrees Fahrenheit; and Colin Fewell, commercial director of GWSR.

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rumble and capture. History coming alive courtesy of the GWSR. After Winchcombe, the line curves into a 693-yard tunnel, the second longest in private railway ownership. We emerge to head to Gotherington, where we don’t stop at the station itself, which is privately owned – the waiting room is now the owner’s lounge – but at a ramblers’ halt where five Cotswold footpaths converge. And, just like in Edward Thomas’s poem ‘Adlestrop’, there’s a lull as we wait in the heat, with nobody getting on or off as the birds sing into the distance. The train

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moves on, and we admire the old railway station that’s now a home, the terracotta pots and the wheelbarrows brimming with flowers. The view opens up. It’s hazy, but on a clear day, Colin says, you can see for over 50 miles: from Tewkesbury Abbey, to the Malverns, Offa’s Dyke Path, Hay Bluff and the Black Mountains. At Cheltenham, Leslie Last, the station master, is ready with his old GWR watch, happy, he says, that this is infinitely better than sitting out retirement at home, where he’d never get the benefit of meeting ‘lots of lovely people’. And up at the magnificent green engine, driver Chris Irving is living the dream on the footplate, where it can reach 100 degrees Fahrenheit, keeping an eye on the signals, the steam pressure, the vacuum gauge. A big engine, this, he says, six-foot-two wheels, and the product of 35 years of restoration work. Every loco belongs to a local owners’ group who

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HERITAGE

A BIG ENGINE, THIS, HE SAYS, SIX-FOOTTWO WHEELS, AND THE PRODUCT OF 35 YEARS OF RESTORATION WORK.

raise the money to repair, rebuild and maintain it. The railway then pays the owners for its use. The evacuee kids take their turns on the footplate with the driver and the fireman. Opening the regulator produces a deafening but deeply satisfying rush of steam. On our return to Toddington, Colin says that 2016’s record number of passengers put them into the top league of tourist attractions in the area. He adds that they have events that cater for everyone: appearances by Thomas the Tank Engine; the tremendously successful Wartime in the Cotswolds weekend, celebrating the period in a light, nostalgic way with singers, dancers, big bands and more spies on the train; official galas with guest engines for serious steam and diesel fans; the Santa Special, almost fully booked up by the end of October; the Boxing Day Mince Pie Special; and the packed carriages taking racegoers down to the Cheltenham Festival. Added to all this, the railway is in constant demand for filming the likes of Father Brown for the telly. Colin says that even though extending the line to Cheltenham back in 2003 put them into the upper bracket of heritage railways in length, they always wanted to go further. In 2012, they reached Laverton. Then, two years ago, a share appeal was launched that raised more than the £1.25 million they needed to get to Broadway, where they will be open for business from Easter 2018. The station won’t at first be fully kitted-out, but it will be part of a 15-mile-long stretch of track: the optimum length, according to The Heritage Rail Association, for a family day out. Colin adds that Broadway welcomes 750,000 visitors a year, so in terms of the increased numbers of passengers they might expect, extending the line seems daunting. But, as always, they are more than ready for the challenge. It’s perpetual work, Colin says. Neverending. But full of rewards. A turnover of almost three

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million, and a profit made every year. ‘A bit of old England, but still run on professional lines.’ It’s the only railway around that’s run primarily by volunteers, he says, and the only one that’s opening two new stations in the space of 12 months. One of which, Hayles Abbey Halt, is now coming up on our journey, a tiny request stop that happily came into operation just as Hailes Abbey (the unaccountable difference in spelling a charming quirk) opened its museum. ‘I love this,’ Colin says as the fields and hills roll by. ‘A lovely run.’ He’s on the buffet tomorrow, he adds, doing the teas, coffees and bacon rolls. And clearly looking forward to it like nobody’s business. ›

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Top: Silhouette of no. 1450 and auto trailer: The Coffee Pot. Image courtesy of Jack Boskett. Above: Track laying towards Broadway. Image courtesy of Jo Roesen.

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HERITAGE

Left: The tunnel, location for the last pitched battle between two private armies on UK soil. Next page: Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who fought the law.

WORDS: GERALD HEYS

THE BATTLE OF CAMPDEN TUNNEL; OR, MARCHANT’S LAST STAND! DRAMATIS PERSONAE: Mr. Isambard Kingdom Brunel . . . . . Chief Engineer of the GWR and OWW Mr. Robert Marchant . . . . . The Contractor building the Tunnel Mr. Richard Varden . . . . . The Railway Company’s Agent Mr. Cowdery . . . . . A Leader of a Gang of Navvies Messrs. Peto and Betts . . . . . Contractors for the rest of the OWW Line Supporting characters: Magistrates of Chipping Campden; over three doz. Constables; Privates of the Gloucestershire Artillery; 200 Navvies under Mr. Marchant; 2,000 Navvies under Mr. Brunel; and the Troops of the Coventry Barracks

FIGHTING RAILWAY NAVIGATORS!

THE RIOT ACT!! SAVAGERY IN THE COTSWOLD HILLS!!! 28 |

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C

hipping Campden, July 1851. Over three of the hottest days of the year, the greatest engineer of his day escalated a dispute over the building of a railway tunnel to the point of open warfare. The Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton Railway (OWW) was formed on 4 August 1845. It was to run north-west to Wolverhampton from Wolvercote Junction, passing through Honeybourne, Evesham, Worcester, Droitwich Spa, Hartlebury, Kidderminster and Stourbridge. It was never a great success: poor management and some very nasty accidents earned the company the nickname of ‘The Old Worse and Worse’. Brunel is synonymous with the GWR, but he was also the OWW’s Chief Engineer. Indomitable, indefatigable, and a man of global ambition and astonishing energy, he had little time for those who stood in the way of his plans. Such a man was Robert Marchant. The construction of the railways involved extensive contracting out. From 1846, Marchant had been responsible for the building of the tunnel between Mickleton Halt and Chipping Campden. The work went painfully slowly; and by 1851, Marchant was also in hot dispute with the company over money and the ownership of the plant. The OWW decided to hand over the work to Peto and Betts, the contractors for much of the rest of the line. Marchant

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refused to yield. Several attempts were made by the company to take possession of the works, but each was driven off by Marchant and his navvies. Brunel was charged with seizing the tunnel for the company – by any means necessary. Friday, 20 July, Brunel and Richard Varden, the OWW’s agent, went to the tunnel with a considerable body of men. But Marchant had called the local magistrates, who were present to warn Brunel to keep the peace. Brunel withdrew but returned the following morning, hoping the magistrates would, by then, be gone. He found that not only were they still on site, but they were now accompanied by a number of police furnished with cutlasses. Brunel and his navvies faced Marchant and his men. A fight seemed imminent. The situation was serious enough for the magistrates to read the Riot Act: Our Sovereign Lady the Queen chargeth and commandeth all persons being assembled immediately to disperse themselves, and peaceably to depart to their habitations, or to their lawful business, upon the pains contained in the Riot Act. God Save the Queen! The law required the above section of the act to be read out verbatim to those gathered. Failure to disperse within

BRUNEL’S NAVVIES BATTERED HIS MEN WITH THEIR FISTS AND APPLIED SPADES TO THE SKULL OF A MAN WHO PULLED A PISTOL. an hour of the reading meant that the authorities could then use whatever force was required – including deadly force – to restore order. The threat that the act promised and the sharpness of the police cutlasses persuaded Brunel and his navvies to again retreat. Brunel and Varden plotted a surprise attack. To them, physically seizing the works was entirely legitimate, but they didn’t fancy a scrap with the peelers. They decided to do now what they had failed to do before: trick the magistrates into believing they had given up hope of taking the works and then, once the magistrates had sauntered home, come down on Marchant like avenging angels. The magistrates eventually left. Saturday evening and all day Sunday, Brunel’s navvies sat idly by. Brunel used Sunday to swell the ranks of his men. In the dark of Sunday night and early Monday morning, parties of workers on the GWR and OWW payrolls tramped through the surrounding countryside to the tunnel. Accounts suggest that the brigade Brunel summoned was eventually around 2,000 strong. Brunel’s plan was simple: to overawe Marchant by force of numbers. At three o’clock on Monday morning, Brunel’s men started to close in on the tunnel. From the Worcester end, a Mr Cowdery and 200 Evesham and Wyre Piddle men were met by Marchant, who, brandishing pistols, said he would shoot the first man who came any closer. Cowdery warned his men not to strike any blows as yet, but the navvies accompanying him were spoiling to take on Marchant’s workers. Brunel’s army, pickaxes and shovels poised, waited for

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their orders. Brunel sounded the attack. Marchant, who did not shoot, could only watch as Brunel’s navvies battered his men with their fists and applied spades to the skull of a man who pulled a pistol. Though no one was killed, there were broken heads and dislocated shoulders. With Brunel now in possession of the tunnel, Marchant left the scene of the fray. An hour later, however, he was back with three dozen policemen, some privates of the Gloucestershire Artillery and two magistrates, who immediately reread the Riot Act. As they did, a brawl started out on an embankment overlooking the tunnel. This time, there were several broken limbs and one John M Grant was nearly trampled to death. Seeing that it was Marchant who was under attack, the magistrates took his side. They suggested he set his men to work on the tunnel. He did so, but Peto and Betts’ men were ordered to stop them. In the following melee, one little finger was bitten off and one head badly wounded. Intermittent fighting continued until Marchant, recognising that he stood no chance, went to arbitration with Brunel. Not long after, troops from Coventry, called in to help the police, arrived. But the Battle of Mickleton, as it became known (the last pitched battle between two private armies on UK soil), was by then, over. The tunnel, now between Honeybourne and Moreton-in-Marsh stations, was completed in 1852. Next time you pass through on you way to Oxford or Paddington, look into the darkness at the brawling phantoms and consider that it was perhaps here that Isambard Kingdom Brunel fought the law. And the law lost. › NB: The above version of events does not mention the brave intervention of James Ashwin, a magistrate from Bretforton, who, according to Berrow’s Worcester Journal and other sources, persuaded Brunel to arbitration and castigated him for the illegality of his actions. Either way, Brunel was clearly prepared to go to very extreme lengths indeed in order to get what he wanted.

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HERITAGE

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Le mot juste St James’ churchyard in West Malvern is the last resting place of the great polymath Peter Mark Roget, the author of the famous Thesaurus. Gerald Heys finds out more about him and why he was so celebrated . . . acclaimed . . . revered . . . renowned . . .

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ust about everyone is familiar with his eponymous reference book, but not so many are acquainted with the other achievements of a man who contributed to the sum of human knowledge with a combination of brio and diligence that few can match. Roget (1779–1869) was born in London’s Soho. His father, John, was a pastor and native of Geneva, and his mother, Catherine, was of Huguenot descent. At 14, Roget entered Edinburgh University to study medicine, graduating in 1798. The breadth of his subsequent interests and enthusiasms, and the esteem in which he was held, can be shown by simply listing (and Mr Roget loved lists) the eminent societies and institutions to which he belonged. Roget was a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, the Fullerian professor of physiology and comparative anatomy at the Royal Institution, and a fellow and secretary of the Royal Society. He was a member of the Royal Geological Society, the Zoological Society, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Geographical Society, the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Entomological Society, the Institution of Civil Engineers, the Medico-Chirurgical Society and the Atheneum. He was a founder of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, where he was its editor of publications and for which he wrote manuals on electricity, galvanism, magnetism and electromagnetism (more than half his publications were on non-medical subjects). After taking an active part in the establishment of

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the University of London, he became an examiner in physiology and comparative anatomy, and chairman of the medical faculty; and was a member of the senate until his death.

Peter Mark Roget, circa 1865. Image courtesy of the Wellcome Library, London. Next page top:

He contributed to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, Rees’s Cyclopaedia, and the Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine. His most famous publication before the Thesaurus was Animal and Vegetable Physiology Considered with Reference to Natural Theology (1834), a twovolume work which supported the idea of the natural adaptation of organisms a generation before the publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species. Though Roget, a deeply religious man, was at pains to place the Creator at the centre of what was essentially an argument for intelligent design in the natural world.

Roget by Thomas Pettigrew, 1843. Image courtesy of the Wellcome Library, London. Next page bottom: Roget’s final resting place in St James’ Church, West Malvern.

In 1825, an observation of his was published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society as ‘Optical deception in the appearance of the spokes of a wheel

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seen through vertical apertures’. Roget noted that if a moving carriage wheel was viewed through a vertical Venetian window-blind, it would still appear to be in constant movement despite the bars of the blind. He hypothesised that an image observed in this way remains briefly on the retina, so that there seems to be no space between images. First adapted to toys such as the zoetrope, his discovery was later used in the development of the motion picture. He was also the inventor of the log-log slide rule, which calculated the roots and powers of numbers and stayed in wide use until the advent of the pocket calculator. He retired from medical practice in 1840 and began working in earnest on the project that would bring him fame beyond the world of science: Roget’s Thesaurus of English words and phrases, classified and arranged so as to facilitate the expression of ideas, and assist in literary composition. He had started this as early as 1805 and spent the intervening years amassing copious and detailed lexicological notes to assist in its completion. Using the principles of zoological classification, he divided words into six classes: I. Abstract Relations II. Space III. Matter IV. Intellect V. Volition VI. Affections The book began with the following:

CLASS I – WORDS EXPRESSING ABSTRACT RELATIONS SECTION I – EXISTENCE 1. BEING, IN THE ABSTRACT 1. Existence N. existence, being, entity, ens [Lat.], esse [Lat.], subsistence. reality, actuality; positiveness &c adj.; fact, matter of fact, sober reality; truth &c 494; actual existence.

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‘Existence’ is the first of the work’s 1,000 numbered headwords; the second is ‘Inexistence’; number three is ‘Substantiality’. Before publication, he added an alphabetical index, allowing it to be used as a conventional book of synonyms. It was published by Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans in a run of 1,000 copies on 17 January 1852 at a cost of 14s. each, Roget receiving 12 free copies and half the profits. Since then it has never been out of print. He was constantly revising his Thesaurus (Latin for ‘treasury’ or ‘treasure’) and continued to work on it until his death some 28 editions later. According to Joshua Kendall’s The Man Who Made Lists: Love, Death, Madness, and the Creation of Roget’s Thesaurus, in its early years it was a hit mainly with scholars, who admired its erudition and the amount of work that had clearly gone into it. An anonymous contributor to the Westminster Review in 1853 suggested, though, that not only could Roget’s book be read through as though it were rattling good yarn, in time ‘Roget will rank with Samuel Johnson as literary instrumentmaker of the first-class.’ And, indeed, a number of writers have shown their gratitude for Roget’s assistance in their search for the right word – the one that will do

the job better than any other. J M Barrie was a great admirer, mentioning Roget with approval in the stage directions for Peter Pan (1904), and allowing that Captain Hook could not be wholly evil because he kept a Thesaurus in his cabin. Poet Sylvia Plath said that she would rather have her Thesaurus with her on a desert island than a bible, and confessed herself to be ‘Roget’s strumpet’. The manuscript of Dylan Thomas’ last poem, ‘Poem on his birthday’, puzzled literary critics and academics for many years by its being covered with a series of seemingly random numbers, until it was realised that they related to Roget’s numbered concepts. When the crossword was introduced in the 1920s, the Thesaurus became essential for every avid cruciverbalist and made Roget a household name everywhere in the English-speaking world. Roget spent most of his early summers in Ilfracombe, but later in life, he began to holiday in Malvern, particularly enjoying the hiking and the views of the Severn. On 12 September 1869, the 90-year-old Peter Roget died during a heat wave in West Malvern and was buried in St James’ churchyard. His daughter, Kate, was buried under the same tombstone when she died some 36 years later. ›


A simple Will?

THERE’S NO SUCH THING

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’ve lost count of the number of times people have said to me: ‘My financial affairs are really straight forward, all I want is a simple Will.’ I find myself explaining, in this day and age, there really is no such thing as a simple Will and, if you have one, you may well find that you don’t achieve the end goals you were hoping for. Many couples think by having a standard mirror Will (one that leaves everything to their partner and, on the death of the second party, to the children) they have sorted everything out. Unfortunately, this assumes you’re not concerned about any of the following: zz Your children losing out on their inheritance should your partner remarry and die without having made a new Will. zz Loss of assets from paying care fees. zz Adding to the financial burden of your wealthy children by giving them more of an inheritance tax worry. zz Your hard-won wealth being lost when one of your children goes through divorce. zz The inheritance never reaching your intended beneficiary; for example, if they have been declared bankrupt, the inheritance would pass straight to their creditors. zz Making provisions for such things as education for your younger children. I am sure you would be concerned about these things, which is why a good Will should only be

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prepared once the Will writer has explored all your circumstances and fully understood what you want to achieve by making a Will. The increase in the number of second marriages, stepchildren and increasingly fragmented family dynamics means that making a Will can be more complicated than ever before.

subject and this tends to put people off. But the fact is that you have worked hard to build up your assets and it is sensible to have a say where they are to go. We offer fixed fees for our services.’

The government’s new Residential Nil Rate Band (RNRB) came into effect at the beginning of April; there are many families across the UK who could potentially lose out on this valuable new additional inheritance tax allowance unless they make significant changes to their Will. It makes sense to review your Will now. The right Will, with appropriate trusts, gives you choice and security in today’s complex social and financial society. If you’re concerned that your Will may not fully protect your interests, or feel it might need to be updated due to a change in your, or your family’s circumstances, give us a call on 0121 445 5874. Sue Jenden is a solicitor and an affiliate member of the Society of Trust and Estate Practitioners. The firm is a member of, and is regulated by, the Institute of Professional Will writers. Based at Lickey, they cover the whole of Worcestershire and deal with a broad range of work, including Wills, inheritance tax planning, trusts and administration of estates. In addition, they advise clients about powers of attorney and Court of Protection issues. Sue and her colleague, Jane Villarreal, work closely with other professional advisers to ensure that all aspects of estate planning are covered and that clients’ objectives are achieved. Sue says: ‘We visit clients in their own homes, which our elderly clients prefer, as making a Will can be a daunting prospect. It seems a morbid

SJA Tel: 0121 445 5874 info@suejendenasscoiates.co.uk www.suejendenassociates.co.uk This firm complies with the IPW Code of Conduct

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HERITAGE

The forgotten prince

The death of Arthur, Prince of Wales, elder brother of Henry VIII and occupant of one of two royal tombs at Worcester Cathedral, has been described as ‘a dynastic event of outstanding international importance.’ Professor Steven Gunn, in conversation with Gerald Heys, puts Arthur into his historic context

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ad he lived, Arthur would have been the second king of the Tudor House. Professor Gunn points out, however, that he could be considered as almost more important than Henry VII, the first of the Tudor kings. Henry had brought peace to England by defeating Richard III in 1485, but he had also married Elizabeth of York, the daughter of Edward IV, the first Yorkist king. In Arthur, Yorkist and Lancastrian lines were thus combined, making him a very reliable rock on which to secure the dynasty.

Above: Arthur, Prince of Wales, wearing a collar composed of red and white Tudor roses and hat with a hat badge bearing the figure of St John the Baptist and two rosette-shaped cap hooks. Circa 1500.

The name Arthur was almost certainly chosen to connect with the King Arthur of legend, and it appears that the boy’s birth was engineered to take place in Winchester, one of the putative locations of Camelot and the principal city of Alfred the Great’s kingdom.

Next page: Inside Prince Arthur’s Chantry. Photo by permission of Peter Smith / Jigsaw Design and

Winchester, in addition, was, and remains, the home of an impressive Arthurian-style round table dating from the thirteenth century. Such echoes of past glories, real or symbolic, were surely calculated to bolster the Tudor cause. Henry VIII would later have his own image and a huge Tudor rose added to the round table that now hangs in Winchester’s Great Hall, following his father in associating himself and his house with a golden era when the nation was at one. Henry VII, Professor Gunn adds, went to great lengths to promote ‘a degree of unity, a degree of chivalrous heroism . . . [and] won his throne at the point of a sword, and had all these different badges that symbolised his

Publishing; and the Dean and Chapter of Worcester Cathedral.

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of my son, who is going to succeed me as a very powerful king.’ A stage was built in the cathedral along which the couple paraded in front of the thousands gathered. Henry was also speaking to his own subjects by presenting this happy, healthy couple, signalling the end of a series of less than ideal rulers. Money was handed out to the people and fountains ran with wine. ‘But also, if you look at the detailed descriptions of the pageantry, they had London completely covered with Tudor branding. There were Tudor roses everywhere, and the portcullis, which was the sign of Henry’s descent from his mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort. All these different symbols said, We’re the royal house now and we’re here to stay.’ Within a year, though, Arthur was dead and buried, with great pomp, in Worcester Cathedral.

claim to the throne, many of which appear on the side of Arthur’s chantry chapel at Worcester.’ Furthermore, the legendary Arthur was also a Welsh hero, and Henry VII had a lot of Welsh support on his way to throne. ‘If you were Henry VII, you would want every argument you could possibly find piled up behind why people should do what you say.’ Henry VII’s consolidation of international power was intended to be largely realised via the marriage of Arthur to Catherine of Aragon. Her parents, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, the rulers of the two major Spanish kingdoms, had united to create a new state in Mediterranean Europe. Henry saw that to ally himself with them could act as a counterweight to the power of France, the most powerful continental monarchy. ‘That marriage was a key step in Henry’s securing his family and showing that he could look after the wider interests of England by making alliances with the rising powers of the continent. And obviously that was all gone when the marriage ended with Arthur’s death. And that was why Henry was so keen to maintain it that he then tried to marry Arthur’s widow to his next son, Henry VIII.’ Arthur and Catherine’s wedding at St Paul’s Cathedral was a spectacular event, designed to make an impact on the Continent. ‘Henry wanted to say, I don’t want anybody messing with any more pretenders to my throne, because look at this: I’m a very powerful king and here are all my loyal subjects celebrating the wedding

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A number of reasons have been suggested to explain this unusual choice of resting place for a prince. First, there is the argument that as there was already a king buried there, even one as bad as John, another royal interment would not be inappropriate. Then there is the view that a location distant from the capital covered up a degree of royal embarrassment: ‘If you were a king, particularly if, like Henry VII, you placed a lot of weight on the idea that your rule had been validated by God’s approval for everything you did, and you had just had the Big Wedding in London, you wouldn’t then want the Big Funeral at Westminster Abbey. You would have to then start explaining what had gone wrong

HENRY WAS ALSO SPEAKING TO HIS OWN SUBJECTS BY PRESENTING THIS HAPPY, HEALTHY COUPLE, SIGNALLING THE END OF A SERIES OF LESS THAN IDEAL RULERS. MONEY WAS HANDED OUT TO THE PEOPLE AND FOUNTAINS RAN WITH WINE. Autumn 2017

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and why.’ It was therefore better for such a burial to take place out of the limelight. The choice of Worcester may, though, have been simply a practical one, determined by the cathedral’s closeness to Arthur’s residence at Ludlow Castle, but there is a possibility that a burial in the West Midlands was part of fostering the Tudor presence across the land: ‘If what he was doing was putting up beacons of Tudor rule in different parts of the kingdom – in the way that, for example, the room where Henry VII himself was born in Pembroke Castle was decorated with Tudor badges to symbolise that was where this new line of kings came from – then he might have thought that Worcester was a good place to add another Tudor beacon, just as Worcester Cathedral became important in the Reformation in Henry VIII’s reign.’ Worcester was, after all, a symbolic and strategic centre and a big market town with routes into Wales.

Because he had a younger brother, Arthur’s death was not the complete catastrophe it might have been. ‘But it was pretty catastrophic in the sense that he was the son and heir on the verge of adulthood, so he would have been getting ready to succeed his father. And he had been trained up by being sent to Ludlow and elsewhere to govern Wales and the Marches, to learn how to be a king. All that training was gone when he died.’ Speculation about what kind of king Arthur would have become is, of course, mere conjecture. What is certain is that the combination of Arthur’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which forged an alliance that Henry VII was desperate to maintain, and Arthur’s premature death, shaped the future profoundly. In 1532, Henry VIII, seemingly convinced that the ills of the kingdom and his lack

THE CHOICE OF WORCESTER MAY, THOUGH, HAVE BEEN SIMPLY A PRACTICAL ONE, DETERMINED BY THE CATHEDRAL’S CLOSENESS TO ARTHUR’S RESIDENCE AT LUDLOW CASTLE. of a male heir were a consequence of marrying his brother’s wife, broke with Rome and changed everything forever. ›

Professor Steven Gunn is Fellow

Image: John Cairns

and Tutor in History at Merton College, Oxford. His books include Early Tudor Government, 1485–1558 (1995), Henry VII’s New Men and the Making of Tudor England (2016) and The English People at War in the Age of Henry VIII (in press). He edited Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales: Life, Death and Commemoration (2009) with Linda Monckton and is currently writing a book on everyday life and accidental death in sixteenth-century England.

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HERITAGE

Worcester Cathedral is open daily from 7.30am–6.00pm. Admission is free. Royal tombs, early twelfth century Chapter House, Norman crypt and medieval cloister. Daily tours 11.00am and 2.30pm March–November. See ▷ www.

worcestercathedral.co.uk for more.

Above: Worcester Cathedral, final resting place of Prince Arthur. Image courtesy of Pippa Sanderson. Left: Winchester is the home of an impressive Arthurian-style round table dating from the thirteenth century. During his reign, Henry VIII added his own image and a huge Tudor rose to it. Image courtesy of Joe Low and The Great Hall, Hampshire County Council. Far left: Side view of the outside of Prince Arthur’s Chantry in Worcester Cathedral. Image courtesy of the Dean and Chapter of Worcester Cathedral.

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HERITAGE

A Worcester hero

Fred Dancox VC On Saturday 21 October 2017, a plaque will be unveiled on the Army Reserve Centre building (Dancox House) in Pheasant Street, Worcester, in memory of a Worcester hero, Private Fred Dancox, who won the Victoria Cross during the Battle of Passchendaele in October 1917. This will be followed by a dinner in the Guildhall to commemorate the event. Alan Cowpe, researcher with the Mercian Regiment Museum (Worcestershire), explains

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THE BRITISH ARMY RELIED HEAVILY ON THE EXTENSIVE USE OF ARTILLERY TO BATTER DOWN THE DEFENCES, BUT THIS HAD THE EFFECT OF DESTROYING THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS WITH THE RESULT THAT NORMAL SUMMER RAINS CONVERTED THE WHOLE AREA TO A QUAGMIRE. SEPARATED FROM HIS COMPANIONS, HE CONTINUED TO GO FORWARD ALONE. CONDITIONS WERE EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS. Previous spread: A painting by Gilbert Holiday showing Private Dancox poised to throw his hand grenade as he orders his prisoners out of their bunker. Above: Frederick George Dancox VC.

I

Images courtesy of the Trustees of the Mercian Regiment Museum (Worcestershire).

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n autumn 1917 the British army was engaged in a grim struggle around Ypres in Belgium to capture the higher ground which dominated the town and the British positions which defended it. This offensive had begun on July 31 with sweeping ambitions to drive deep into German-occupied Belgium, capture important rail communications networks and German U-boat bases on the coast, and defeat the German army in a decisive battle which would strike a war-winning blow. After the failure of the initial ambitious attacks, the objectives were progressively scaled back and, by October, the target for the whole operation had become simply the capture of the Passchendaele ridge, which it had originally been planned to seize in the first phase of the campaign.

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Ypres is surrounded by low-lying ground with a high water table, which depends on man-made drainage systems to maintain normal human activities, and it was recognised that effective military action would be possible only in the summer provided the weather was not wet. So the offensive began in the summer. The British army relied heavily on the extensive use of artillery to batter down the defences, but this had the effect of destroying the drainage systems with the result that normal summer rains converted the whole area to a quagmire. Movement and supply was agonisingly slow; men and pack animals alike frequently drowned in the swamp if they slipped off the wooden tracks laid to provide roadways through the wilderness. Accurate artillery fire was virtually impossible as the guns sank into the mud when fired; and soldiers frequently waded to the attack through glutinous mud. Moreover, the offensive continued into the late autumn, by which time the prospect of dry weather had long since disappeared.

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HERITAGE

In these conditions, a normal Great War defensive system of trenches was impossible; they simply flooded. Ever resourceful and adaptable, the German army had an answer. They built large numbers of reinforced concrete pillboxes or bunkers, impervious to anything but a direct hit by very large shells which, given the technology of the time, was virtually impossible to achieve. Moreover ‘pill-box’ understates the formidable nature of many of these edifices, which often held up to 50 men, manning machine guns which swept the surrounding terrain with fire. These were the obstacles that confronted the 4th battalion of the Worcestershire Regiment on 9 October 1917 near Langemarck as they struggled forward, with progress measured in yards. And they were pinned down by one such fortification, with advance impossible. Nobody, least of all he, would claim that Fred Dancox was anything other than an ordinary man; but as so often, it is ordinary people who do extraordinary things. He was born in Worcester and was an agricultural worker before the war. Already in his late 30s with a family, he had joined the army in response to Lord Kitchener’s appeal for volunteers early in the war. He had joined the 4th battalion in Gallipoli in 1915, and remained with them throughout. Now he had originally been in a party of 10 trying to find a way forward. Separated from his companions, he continued to go forward alone. Conditions were extremely hazardous. The ground was swept by machine gun fire from other bunkers and British artillery fire rained down. Somehow he survived all this and worked his way to the rear entrance of a bunker. He then chose the riskiest of options and went in brandishing hand grenades. He was no linguist, but his meaning and his determination were clear; the Germans surrendered. His fellow

HE WAS NO LINGUIST, BUT HIS MEANING AND HIS DETERMINATION WERE CLEAR; THE GERMANS SURRENDERED. soldiers were surprised when a column of some 40 Germans emerged from the bunker with their hands up, accompanied by Fred Dancox now in possession of their machine gun. Fred Dancox’s medals, including

Fred Dancox never received his VC. A reception committee with civic dignitaries, enthusiastic crowds, flags, and his wife and four children waited for him at Shrub Hill Station on his return to Worcester. He did not appear; his leave had been cancelled and he was killed in action on 30 November, the day he had been scheduled to receive his medal from the King. He has no known grave, but he has his own memorial at Langemark,erected by the Western Front Association. ›

his VC, feature in a special exhibition at The Worcestershire Soldier Gallery in the Worcester City Museum and Art Gallery. Image courtesy of the Trustees of the Mercian Regiment Museum (Worcestershire).

For more information about the regiment, visit ▷ www.

worcestershiresoldier.org.

Located at The Worcester City Museum and Art Gallery, Foregate St, Worcester WR1 1DT, the Worcestershire Soldier Gallery tells the story of the men of our county regiments from 1694 to the present. Open Monday to Saturday 10.30am–4.30pm. No charge for admission. The Worcestershire Soldier is administered by the Mercian Regiment Museum (Worcestershire) Trust, a Registered Charity no 276510. For further details, contact: John Paddock or Pamela Langford on 01905 721982 or email: ▷ museummercian@

btconnect.com

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HERITAGE

Flight of fancy Situated on the Worcester & Birmingham Canal, just south-east of Bromsgrove, the Tardebigge Lock Flight boasts 30 narrow locks spanning a distance of two miles. It is the longest flight of locks in the country and one of the longest in Europe

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t 29 miles (46.7 kilometres) in length, the Worcester & Birmingham Canal links Britain’s industrial heartland at Gas Street Basin in Birmingham to Worcester at Diglis Basin. Construction began in 1792 and the stretch between Birmingham and Tardebigge Old Wharf, which had no need of locks, was navigable by March 1807.

Left: Looking east along the flight from Stoke Pound.

In 1812, work on the final phase – the descent of 428 feet (130 metres) in 16 miles to Worcester – began. It was a huge operation, with 58 locks, tunnels, reservoirs, bridges, wharfs, warehouses and lock-keepers’ houses to build. When the canal opened fully in 1815, it had cost the equivalent of £42 million to construct.

Tardebigge Old Wharf Image: Pippa Sanderson

With its dry dock, maintenance yard, workers’ cottages and historic warehouse, Tardebigge Old Wharf remains the main base for maintenance on the canal, and is a great place from which to start a walk. After Tardebigge Old Wharf, the 580 yard (530 metres) Tardebigge Tunnel runs through solid rock to the ‘New’ Wharf, just above Lock 58.

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Below: Lock 54, nearly at the top of the flight. Next page top: Map of the Tardebigge Lock Flight. Next page bottom right: Tardebigge reservoir side sluice. Next page bottom left: Tardebigge Tunnel viewed from the Tardebigge New Wharf end.

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Tardebigge Lock Flight The 30 locks that make up the Tardebigge Lock Flight begin at Lock 58 and descend 220 feet (67 metres) through some glorious parts of the Worcestershire countryside to finish, two miles later, at Lock 29 in Stoke Prior.

Tardebigge Vertical Lift Most locks are between six and 10 feet deep but the Tardebigge Top Lock –

Owned by The Landmark Trust, this holiday getaway is located adjacent to Lock 31. For more information, visit

▷ www.landmarktrust.org.uk/ search-and-book/properties/ lock-cottage-11416/. ›

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Lock 58 – is unusual in that it has a rise of 11 feet. It was constructed in 1815 to replace an experimental vertical boat lift that was invented by John Woodhouse and completed on 24 June 1808. The Tardebigge Vertical Lift was a 64 ton wooden lifting chamber, sealed at each end by guillotine gates. Although initially successful, it was considered too fragile for continuous use and was replaced by Lock 58. The lift mechanism is no longer present but the outline of its balancing pit is visible near the lock-keeper’s cottage.

Tardebigge Engine House

Situated next to the immaculate towpath near Lock 57, the Tardebigge Engine House was originally built to pump water up from Tardebigge Reservoir. The original steam engine, however, has gone and the Grade II-listed water pumping station has since been converted into a holiday property called Lock Haven. The impressive reservoir that lies adjacent to locks 50–54 was one of a number of water supplies for the canal.

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CULTURE

Internationally renowned artists to perform as part of Bromsgrove Concerts’ classical season

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romsgrove Concerts’ forthcoming season is once again attracting attention for the calibre of its internationally renowned guest artists, who will be bringing an enterprising selection of styles and periods to suit all musical tastes. Concerts take place at the town’s purpose-built Arts Centre, Artrix, from September 2017 until March 2018. Audience favourites, visiting during the 2017–18 season, include guitarist Craig Ogden, who brings his own particular warmth and proficiency to an engaging programme of works both new and old, and leading British pianist, Leon McCawley, who brings a classic programme of Haydn, Beethoven, Schubert, and Hans Gál – the often overlooked Austrian composer – who he has recently recorded. Two outstanding String Quartets, the Castalian, following visits to the Esbjerg International Chamber Music Festival and the Wigmore Hall; and the Kodaly, ambassadors of Hungarian string quartet culture, bring major works by Haydn, Beethoven, Schumann, Dohnanyi, Kodaly and Thomas Adès. Internationally acclaimed Austrian cellist, Florian Kitt, and pianist, Carlos Rivera-Aguilar, bring the cello into focus with an adventurous programme of works by Beethoven, Prokofiev, Britten, Takemitsu and Austrian contemporary composer, Friedrich Cerha. Period instrument Ensemble DeNOTE (clarinet, violin, viola, cello and fortepiano), give their own individual insight into works by Haydn and Mozart, including an arrangement of the ‘Gran Partita K361’, in a programme they will personally introduce. The gifted young Eblana String Trio – violin, viola and cello – showcase lyrical British works by Purcell, Finzi, E J Moeran and

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David Matthews. The trio won all the major chamber music prizes during their time at the Royal Northern College of Music and have recently enjoyed a debut performance at London’s Wigmore Hall for the Park Lane Group.

Above: The Eblana String Trio. Next page top: The Kodaly Quartet. Image courtesy of Kende Mittel. Next page middle:

The Van Kuijk Quartet from France – currently a BBC Radio 3 New Generation Artist – with guest Charlotte Bonneton (second viola), bring the season to a close with a programme of works by Brahms, Ligeti and Mozart’s remarkable ‘G Minor Quintet K516’. Winners of a string of awards, including 1st prize, Haydn prize and Beethoven prize at the 2015 Wigmore Hall International String Quartet Competition, the group are in demand internationally and have played throughout Europe, the United States, South East Asia and Australia during the past season.

The Van Kuijk Quartet. Image courtesy of Nikolaj Lund. Next page bottom left: Craig Ogden. Next page bottom right: Leon McCawley. Image courtesy of Clive Barda.

‘At Bromsgrove Concerts, we aim to provide programmes that are easily enjoyable while offering a varied and imaginative repertoire, and to regularly introduce audiences to unfamiliar contemporary pieces,’ explained Janet Upward, Chair of the Committee. ‘Responses from our audience suggest that hearing contemporary pieces alongside more traditional works enhances the listening experience of

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CONCERT DATES Friday 29 September 2017 Castalian String Quartet

Friday 20 October 2017 Florian Kitt and Carlos Rivera-Aguilar

Friday 17 November 2017 Ensemble DeNOTE

Friday 1 December 2017 Kodaly String Quartet

Friday 19 January 2018 Craig Ogden

Friday 9 February 2018 Leon McCawley

Friday 2 March 2018 Eblana String Trio

Friday 16 March 2018 Van Kuijk String Quartet with Charlotte Bonneton

All concerts start at 8.00pm and tickets are available in advance and on the door from: Artrix Arts Centre, Slideshow Drive, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire B60 1PQ Box Office Tel: 01527 577 330 boxoffice@artrix.co.uk www.artrix.co.uk

both. This season, we are particularly keen to extend an invitation to those who may be first-time visitors from across the region; offering a friendly welcome and opportunity to mingle socially. We regularly link up with compatible arts enterprises to encourage those interested to come along and bring their friends. For regular concert goers, there is a cost-effective season ticket, which allows access to all concerts priced at a discounted rate, or a flexible Rover ticket.’ ›

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FLORA

RED WINDSOR

a discovered gem A relatively new variety of apple, with its roots in Worcestershire, is becoming increasingly popular due to its rich tangy taste. Ali Capper, Chairman NFU Horticulture & Potatoes Board from Stocks Farm in Suckley, tells us more

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Images this article: Pippa Sanderson

AVOIDING CONFUSION Today’s Red Windsor apples should not be confused with Early Windsors as they’re different in taste and appearance. Early Windsors are a cross between a Geheimrat Dr Oldenburg apple and a Cox’s Orange Pippin. Red Windsors were discovered in Suckley and are a natural genetic mutation of Alkmene and Cox’s Orange Pippin noticeably redder and less Cox-like in appearance than Early Windsors.

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he Red Windsor apple; a wonderful, red, juicy, crisp apple, was first discovered by a Dutch fruit farm manager in Suckley, Worcestershire in 1993 although its history can be traced back much further than this to 1978 when his predecessor had planted new apple orchards in the village. In the 1970s and ‘80s, the most popular eating apple in the UK was Cox’s Orange Pippin and when the Dutch fruit farmer expanded his farm, he was looking for pollinators for a new Cox’s Orange Pippin orchard. As such, he imported the Alkmene apple tree from Holland, a good pollinator because it is regarded as ‘an early Cox type of apple’. This was the first time Alkmene trees had been grown in the UK and he planted alternating rows – three rows of Cox and one row of Alkmene – throughout his orchard. By the early 1980s, the Alkmene apples were coming into full fruit production in Suckley but the farm had been bought by a company called Fox Fruit. The farm manager, another Dutchman, was finding it very hard to sell a new variety of apple that no one knew and which had a strange name, so it was decided it would be renamed, firstly as ‘Fox Delight’ and then as ‘Early Windsor’. Although the original farm where Red Windsors were discovered now no longer exists, Stocks Farm, located nearby,

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has recently become one of the most significant growers of this wonderful, red, juicy, crisp apple. In 2014 and 2015, the farm planted 23,287 Red Windsor trees in three of its apple orchards following extensive research into its history, and because it grows well in Worcestershire, cropping heavily. As it was discovered in the county, it is perhaps not surprising that growing conditions are extremely conducive. In Worcestershire, the apple is more tolerant to pest and disease and, while it is related to Cox’s Orange Pippin, it has a much better skin finish and is less challenging to grow. Red Windsor is one of the first apple varieties each season to start flowering and the blossom is still out many weeks later, a stunning sight with the Malvern Hills as the perfect backdrop. Not only that, it is a valuable pollinator for many of the other apple varieties and ripens early, so it is one of the first English apples available at the start of the harvest.

The apples at Stocks Farm have to be picked extremely carefully to avoid bruising and they are then packed equally carefully and sent off to Tesco for sale. The supermarket chain has been keen to stock Red Windsor as part of its British Apple packs and shoppers should be able to get their hands on a Red Windsor in most Tesco stores during October and November 2017. Due to the recent rise in popularity of Gala and Braeburn apples, to the detriment of Cox’s Orange Pippin, it is thought that Red Windsor will thrive as a replacement as it has a good, robust apple flavour with aromatic qualities. It is sweet and tangy, and its taste is complex and well balanced. Red Windsor is once again growing in Suckley, where it started its life, and it is a pleasure to be introducing it to the wider community through Tesco. We look forward to hearing your thoughts on this delicious new variety. Contact us at ▷ www.stocksfarm.net, or follow us on Twitter: @redwindsorapples. ›

RED WINDSOR IS ONE OF THE FIRST APPLE VARIETIES EACH SEASON TO START FLOWERING AND THE BLOSSOM IS STILL OUT MANY WEEKS LATER, A STUNNING SIGHT WITH THE MALVERN HILLS AS THE PERFECT BACKDROP Autumn 2017

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HEALTH

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terrific turmeric Turmeric, a vibrant spice renowned across Asia for its multipurpose, nutritional qualities, is making an impact in the health and beauty industry in Worcestershire today

under different names; for example, in Japan, it is known as Kyoo; Hawaii, Olena and, in Hindi, Haridra.

Uses

If you’re a fan of Asian cuisine, no doubt you’ll have tasted this delightful, aromatic spice in many dishes. In ancient times, however, its healing and cleansing properties, along with its nutritional value, were widely understood. Indians would describe it as strengthening and warming, and it is known for promoting proper metabolism. A natural astringent, a clothes dye and a big part of body painting and decoration are just a few of the other uses for this versatile plant. In Hawaii, islanders believe it prevents sinus infection and they use it for treating ear infections (swimmer’s ear) and gastrointestinal ulcers.

Culture and tradition

Turmeric plays a part in many religious and cultural ceremonies across Asia, as it represents life, purity and prosperity. The day before a Punjabi wedding, for example, the couple’s families, in their respective homes, rub yellow turmeric paste onto their faces, arms and legs while they sit on a patri (wooden plank). The singing of songs accompanies this traditional mayain (preparation ceremony) and it is the reason the bride’s face may take on a distinctive soft, bright, yellow hue.

Modern ideas

Previous page: Turmeric, the spice of life, in tuber and powder form. Image: Matin – Fotolia. Above: It’s thought a turmeric face pack can work wonders for your skin, but be careful about quantities.

Finding its roots

Part of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), turmeric is native to southern Asia and flourishes in a tropical, hot climate. It is widely produced, dried and packed in India, and shipped across the world, boosting the country’s economy and feeding a growing market. Turmeric is a herbaceous perennial with dull yellow flowers, the root tuber being that which is desired. These orange tubers grow up to two feet in length and are rectangular in shape. If you’re lucky enough to be able to taste fresh turmeric, it exudes a sweet nutty flavour before the bitter, but likeable, undertones come through. Of course, in Britain – and Worcestershire – we can buy the more familiar bright yellow, ground version, which is readily available in large supermarkets. Turmeric is used in lots of dishes across the world, but is known

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Recently, nutrition, health and beauty experts have popularised turmeric, devising many ‘new’ products and uses for it, including those to counter the ageing process. These, of course, come from centuries of working knowledge and substantial proof of its many benefits. As for anti-ageing properties, you’d probably have to continue a regime for a substantial amount of time and then be your own judge. Questionably, some also claim that regular use helps with depression. More practically, research recipes including tasty curries and tagines, skin enhancers and ‘golden milk’ drinks for yourself, exploring this tantalising, exotic spice. Beware though; don’t overdo it on the required quantities thinking more is better, especially when it comes to applying it to the skin: this spice really can stain anything it comes into contact with, putting self-tan products in the shade! ›

Simple face pack

Experiment with this tried and tested, simple-to-blend, turmeric-based face pack and let us know what you think. zz Mash or puree half an avocado. zz Add half a level teaspoon of ground turmeric. zz Mix in a level dessert spoon each of live yoghurt and honey.

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Apply to the neck and face, avoiding the eyes, and leave on for 6–8 minutes while you lie back, close your eyes and enjoy. Rinse off with lukewarm water and gently pat the face dry. You should be gleaming. . . .

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INTERIORS

bright Proper lighting makes it easier to enjoy our homes by creating the right ambience. Knowing which style and type of light and its location will make a significant difference to your home’s overall appeal. Worcestershire interior designer, Elaine Lewis, offers up top tips and 2017 trends for lighting your perfect home

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ave you ever walked into a room, looked in a mirror and thought, ‘Wow, I look good’ . . . and then turned round and noticed that everyone else looked fabulous too? Lighting is the ‘magic dust’ of interior design and should never be overlooked. Incorporating lighting into your home defines the mood of the space and the definition of its usage; and it has a huge impact on perception.

Layer the lighting

If you play by the rule that you layer at least three types of light in every room, you can’t go far wrong. Start with ambient lighting, which fills the room and usually bounces off the ceiling, softening the shadows on people’s faces. It is akin to the daylight that travels through windows and doors, which flows naturally into a

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room. This form of indirect light makes people feel comfortable and gives a sense of warmth.

Top: Toronto pendant. Image courtesy of The

Remember then to add in at least two other light sources in the form of lamps, task lighting, floor lamps, picture lights, cabinet lighting or just some simple uplighters to give warmth and glow to a favourite ornament in the corner of a room.

Choose the right task lighting

Anything that requires a certain amount of concentration, such as cooking, reading or illuminating your work space, benefits hugely from the correct amount of task lighting. In kitchens, these lights are generally found under the cabinets, lighting up the work space where you prepare food. In a bedroom, it takes the form of being by the bed for late night readers or over a desk when it’s time to work. In bathrooms, it is frequently on either side of the bathroom mirror, illuminating the space for careful make-up application or shaving.

Lite Spot. Above: Lighting collections. Image courtesy of Still View Photography. Next page left: Give your home the ‘wow factor’ with a chandelier. Next page middle: Copper easy fits and table lamps. Image courtesy of The Lite Spot. Next page right: Candles, courtesy

As you design and build your home, go room by room and consider what ‘tasks’ you’re likely to accomplish in each, then

of Still View Photography.

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‘live a life less ordinary’

elainelewisdesigns Interior Design 07816 369 895 info@elainelewisdesigns.co.uk www.elainelewisdesigns.co.uk Malvern, Worcestershire www.wrmagazine.uk

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Chandeliers, pendants, wall sconces, lanterns, and bath and ceiling lights, are all designed and crafted to take you to the cutting edge of interior design.

choose your lighting appropriately, remembering that most rooms serve more than one function; so once again, make sure you layer your light sources.

Give your home a little bling

Decorative lighting is exactly that. It is designed to provide a decorative visual statement for a space, setting the mood and drawing people in. It is the architectural jewellery, the ‘wow’ chandelier above the dining table or at the top of a staircase that forms an eye-catching fixture hovering indiscreetly in its true beauty and form. It does not necessarily provide the kind of light by which to perform tasks, but certainly tells the world what kind of family live there and what story they are trying to tell.

Pick the right accents

Just about every room has something worthy of a spot light. Possibly a piece of art you’ve acquired, a sculpture or collection of glassware. Whatever it is, accent lighting can help you draw attention to it. While it certainly highlights objects, accent lighting also creates depth and dimension, providing an extra special ‘layer of light’ to a room. Usually this type of lighting is adjustable, giving you a certain degree of flexibility, such as track and recessed lighting, but the trick is to use it sparingly as filling a room with too many ‘special’ highlights will ensure they quickly lose their sparkle. Instead, use your accent lighting to draw the eye towards your most extraordinary pieces.

2017 2017TRENDS TRENDS Geometric shapes

Whether they’re hexagonal, cylindrical or spherical, geometric shapes are the current lighting trend. Lighting designers are adding clever twists to familiar geometric patterns and incorporating these in new and exciting ways.

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Wire mesh cages, like geometric light fittings, are especially on-trend right now, as are sophisticated chandeliers with rustic frames and bronze hardware that contrasts with beautifully shaped shades. Another big light fitting trend for 2017 is to mix your metals, incorporating multiple tones of distressed gold, black, silver and bronze.

Smart LED

Clever LED bulbs, introduced in 2016, have some great features. The colour of the light they emit can be changed and some even have built-in audio speakers.

Retro

Much of today’s interior design incorporates retro and vintage elements, so it is no surprise it has been carried through to lighting. Adding an Edison-style bulb or two brings character to blend perfectly with any setting.

LED lighting

2017 is believed to be the year that sees most people switch to LED lighting. It is far superior to other bulbs, being long lasting, environmentally friendly and incredibly energy efficient. Lastly, remember there are never any set rules in design, just guidelines to help you create a home you can love and enjoy. › Elaine Lewis has been professionally styling residential and commercial interiors for over a decade. She lives in Malvern with her family. See ▷ www.elainelewisdesigns. co.uk for more information. Follow her on Instagram.com/ elainelewisdesigns and Facebook. com/elainelewisdesigns

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MOTORS

On the charge

electric vehicles; no longer if, but when

The newspaper headline that Volvo is to cease production of internal combustion engine (ICE) only cars by 2019 raised awareness of their impending demise even more than the announcement by the French Government banning production of ICE cars by 2040 and India’s plans to ban sales of ICE cars from 2032. However, there’s no need to panic says ElectrAA founding member Dan Wild

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ow our own government has announced that no new ICE cars will be able to be sold after 2040. With the uptake of EVs growing exponentially, this target will probably be met way ahead of that date. A new report from Bloomberg New Energy Finance, a research group, suggests that the price of plug-in cars is falling much faster than expected, spurred by cheaper batteries and aggressive policies promoting zero-emission vehicles in China and Europe. Professor Tony Seba, a well-respected industry analyst, predicts the end of production for ICE cars as early as 2025. He suggests the rate of change will emulate the rate of change from film to digital cameras, and motor manufacturers who fall behind will end up like Kodak.

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Changes are afoot; there is a lot of information to assimilate and nearly as much misinformation to sift. Entrenched positions are defended and there is natural resistance to change, although recent events are going a long way to persuading the public that this change is now inevitable. As a volunteer body with no commercial interests, ElectrAA is ideally placed to promote understanding of the factors that influence the time when motorists consider making the switch. This will range from: ‘I’m old, my car is new so it will see me out,’ to ‘I must make the change soon as my ICE car will tumble in value and, in a year or so, I won’t be able to sell it.’ The Ambassadors arm of ElectrAA have prepared a talk on the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) and the factors that

influence the decision and its timing. They are available to visit clubs and societies in Worcesetershire and beyond, and often recruit other ElectrAA members to bring additional EVs for demonstration rides. ElectrAA Ambassadors have talked to Probus clubs and civic societies, and even a Nissan main dealer, to give a userperspective to sales staff. Invitations have also been accepted to village fetes, where having several members’ cars of different makes and specifications on display generates lively interest. The ambassadors have produced a website at: ▷ www.evanswers.co.uk, which is pitched at answering potential converts’ questions and reservations, without being a sales pitch other than for the change of lifestyle brought about through electric driving. If you think your club or society would enjoy learning about EVs, contact them directly. ›

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EV NEWS UK FOSSIL FUEL CAR BAN BY 2040 Following France’s lead to ban the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2040 and, as part of plans to tackle air pollution, the UK Government has announced that, by 2040, it will also end the sale of all new conventional petrol and diesel cars, and vans. Environment Secretary Michael Gove said: ‘This is one element of the government’s £3 billion programme to clean up the air and reduce vehicle emissions,’ while Transport Secretary Chris Grayling added: ‘We are determined to deliver a green revolution in transport and reduce pollution in our towns and cities. We want nearly every car and van on UK roads to be zero emission by 2050, which is why we’ve committed to investing more than £600 million in the development, manufacture and use of ultra-low emission vehicles by 2020.

VOLVO CARS TO GO ALL ELECTRIC Volvo Cars has announced that every Volvo it launches from 2019 will have an electric motor, marking the historic end of cars that only have an internal combustion engine (ICE) and placing electrification at the core of its future business. The announcement represents one of the most significant moves by any car maker to embrace electrification and highlights how over a century after the invention of the internal combustion engine, electrification is paving the way for a new chapter in automotive history. Volvo Cars will introduce a portfolio of electrified cars across its model range, embracing fully electric cars, plug in hybrid cars and mild hybrid cars. It will launch five fully electric cars between 2019–21, three of which will be Volvo models and two high-performance electrified cars from Polestar, Volvo Cars’ performance car arm. These five cars will be supplemented by a range of petrol and diesel plug in hybrid and mild hybrid 48 volt options on all models, representing one of the broadest electrified car offerings of any car maker.

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This means that there will in future be no Volvo cars without an electric motor, as pure ICE cars are gradually phased out and replaced by ICE cars that are enhanced with electrified options.

BP IN TALKS ABOUT SERVICE STATION EV CHARGE POINTS According to Reuters, BP is in talks with EV manufacturers to offer charge points at its global network of service stations. As the move to electric begins to gather pace, BP has recognised the threat to its oil business, which could begin having an impact as early as the late 2020s. To offset this, the oil giant is examining various ways to become involved in the EV sector now as it believes there could be some 100 million EVs by 2035.

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However, it’s behind it rival Royal Dutch Shell, which has already initiated a pilot scheme to install EV charge points at several of its service stations in the UK and Netherlands. BP’s Chief Executive, Bob Dudley, told Reuters: ‘We have discussions going on with a lot of the EV manufacturers to have a tie-up with our retail network for charging,’ adding that: ‘We’ll be ready for this world but we’re not going to dive in too deeply,’ making reference to BP’s previously unsuccessful forays into renewables, including solar.

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the future’s electric BMW ANNOUNCES PLANS FOR ELECTRIC MINI, TO BE BUILT IN OXFORD

2025, the BMW Group expects electrified vehicles to account for between 15–25 per cent of sales. However, factors such as regulation, incentives and charging infrastructure will play a major role in determining the scale of electrification from market to market. The group currently produces electrified models at 10 plants worldwide; and it has invested more than €100 million in electro-mobility at the Dingolfing site to date, with investment continuing as the BMW Group’s range of electrified vehicles further expands.

The BMW Group has announced that a new battery-electric MINI, set to be produced in Oxford, will be a variant of the brand’s core three-door model. ‘The electric MINI’s electric drivetrain will be built at the BMW Group’s e-mobility centre at Plants Dingolfing

and Landshut in Bavaria before being integrated into the car at Plant Oxford,’ a statement from BMW said. This fully electric car will go into production in 2019, increasing the choice of MINI powertrains to include petrol and diesel internal combustion engines, a plug-in hybrid and a battery electric vehicle. By

Electrification of all brands and model series continues The new, fully-electric MINI is one of a series of electrified models to be launched by the BMW and MINI brands in the coming years. In 2018, the BMW i8 Roadster will become the newest member of the BMW i family. The all-electric BMW X3 has been announced for 2020 and the BMW iNEXT is due in 2021. The company has committed to selling 100,000 electrified vehicles in 2017 and will have a total of 200,000 electrified vehicles on the roads by the end of the year.

JAGUAR I-PACE CONCEPT NAMED MOST SIGNIFICANT CONCEPT VEHICLE OF 2017 The Jaguar I-PACE Concept has been named Most Significant Concept Vehicle of 2017 at the 16th North American Concept Vehicle Awards. As well as achieving the highest overall score to take away the top honour, Jaguar’s all-electric performance SUV also won the Production Preview Concept of the Year category. Praised for its beautiful and futuristic design, the I-PACE Concept was described by judge Ashly Knapp as a ‘landmark in automotive technology’. Juror Lauren Fix said: ‘Jaguar has completely improved the brand in so many ways, and the I-PACE Concept presents the new direction.’ One of the most visually arresting concepts ever produced by Jaguar, the all-electric performance SUV takes full advantage of the packaging freedom offered by electrification. It previews Jaguar’s first electric vehicle, the Jaguar I-PACE, which will be on the road in the second half of 2018. ‘Our challenge was to design an electric vehicle that’s distinctively and unmistakably a Jaguar and one which demonstrates that an electric vehicle

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can be visually dramatic as well as practical. I think that the Jaguar I-PACE Concept has done exactly that, and is clearly at the forefront of the trend for more beautiful, more desirable electric vehicles. We’re very proud of it, and we’re delighted that the North American jurors have recognised us for succeeding in our mission by awarding the I-PACE Concept the 2017 Concept Car of the Year,’ said Ian Callum, Jaguar’s Director of Design. ›

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REVIEW

The Venture In, Ombersley

BY PERSHORE PATTY

A

ssed with sha io, dre ved acc pa p r rm ca f es e e a B

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. ves lea nd

charming black and white fifteenth century My soup of the day starter is gazpacho with a prawn and basil tian. medieval house on the main road in The strikingly bright pink broth is bursting with Mediterranean Ombersley, occupied by fine-dining restaurant flavours. The tian, consisting of prawns, tomatoes and fresh The Venture In since 1998, the restaurant holds herbs, tastes wonderfully refreshing. Across the table, the two AA rosettes and has entries in both beef carpaccio is looking vibrant, dressed with shaved the Michelin and Good Food Guides, as well as parmesan, balsamic, olive oil, green peppercorns g , r l e i e o n pep live per ic, o c m having an impressive five-star TripAdvisor and rocket leaves. The distinctive peppery o rn lsa sa ba , rating. All of these accolades have been taste is a talking point as the blend of n retained since being first awarded flavours are a match made in heaven. them within the first few months of opening, 19 years ago. We both order specials for our main courses, mine being the sea bass Head chef and owner, Toby with truffle mash, lobster bisque Fletcher, has a philosophy of and scallops. The fish is cooked a sourcing as much local produce little too long for my preference, but as possible to create his inventive every other component on the plate Anglo-French cuisine dishes. makes up for this, in particular the Inspired by a year spent in Australia, truffle-infused mash, which is divine. Toby’s love for seafood gave him the My partner’s assiette of fish is served in idea to host fortnightly fish evenings every a tomato and fennel-based bouillabaisse, other Wednesday, as well as offering daily fish surrounded by butter beans. Both fish dishes specials using, of course, fresh fish sourced from a are served with an intense yellow saffron, curried local fish market. aioli and a plate of tempura vegetables, with the light batter seasoned with a cumin crumb. Fixed price menus are changed regularly and include lunch of two courses for £29.00, or three for £33.00; and £43.00 for Overhearing restaurant manager Jonathan Hancock telling the three-course dinner menu, including filter coffee, infusions the couple sitting behind us that the lemon tart is particularly and petit fours. On the dinner menu, you can expect to see good, I can’t resist ordering one for myself. The elegant tart is dishes such as roast octopus and chorizo with roast spiced red made with a sharp lemon curd encased in a thin homemade pepper, balsamic and basil oil dressing to start. Main courses pastry shell and finished with crispy caramelised sugar on include roast breast of Gressingham duck with an apple and top. It comes with a delicate biscuit basket, filled with sweet sage bob bon, port jus and pickled apple. A market-fresh fish meringue ice cream. We also opt for the Valrhona chocolate option is available, along with an additional, tantalising four and raspberry marquise, with raspberry ripple ice cream. The specials not listed on the main menu. taste reminds us of the yummy screw ball from the ice-cream van we had both loved so much as kids. We pass on the coffee When we visit, the welcoming bar area is occupied with guests and ask for our petit fours to take home, which arrive at our sitting on the comfortable leather sofas next to the open table in a swan-shaped foil parcel. fireplace. We order pre-dinner drinks and are handed smoked salmon, cream cheese, horseradish and dill scone canapés. The real beauty of The Venture In is the restaurant’s traditional There is plenty of choice on the menu and we are also told old-world charm. The cooking is not about fancy techniques about the four extra starter and fish main course specials. but letting the fresh, quality ingredients shine. ›

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is qu e, scallo ps an d s

My mother has always been an amazing cook. As a child, she encouraged me to bake with her; she taught me to make all of the basics from scratch and I still do a mean chilli con carne.

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ABOUT PERSHORE PATTY

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ON THE DINNER MENU, YOU CAN EXPECT TO SEE DISHES SUCH AS ROAST OCTOPUS AND CHORIZO WITH ROAST SPICED RED PEPPER, BALSAMIC AND BASIL OIL DRESSING TO START

I’ve such fond memories of licking the bowl after the Victoria sponge mix went into the tin and salivating as I waited for the cake to rise in the oven. I loved the magic of how a few simple ingredients could transform themselves into something that not only smelled and tasted extraordinary, but also looked so incredibly beautiful too.

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ss w

Although my Mum did cook for our family, my

parents also had a business that required them to travel the world and entertain clients, which meant they ate out . . . a lot. I was fortunate enough to dine with them at some unforgettable restaurants, pubs, tucked-away eateries (best kept secrets known only to the locals) and, from a young age, I learned all about fine dining.

Valrh o n

Food has always excited me. The journey of reading the words on a menu and picturing in your mind how that plate of food might look, smell and taste. Then it arrives at your table and the clever chef who’s designed and made this piece of art completely blows your mind with their creation. It’s entirely fascinating. It’s not just fine dining and Michelin star restaurants that impress me though, one of my quests is to find the perfect burger, if there is such a thing.

a ch ocol a

Living in Pershore, my passion for food and burgers has inspired me to start a food blog called Pershore Patty. I post simple recipes that I cook at home, updates on visits to food places both locally and during my travels and, of course, photos of lovely burgers. The quest continues.

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To read about Pershore Patty’s culinary exploits, visit:

▷ www.pershorepatty.com Facebook: /pershorepatty Twitter: @pershorepatty Instagram: pershorepatty

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FOOD & DRINK

Wine tasting:

a beginner’s

Michele Longari, sommelier for the Greater Malvern Wine Society (GMWS) and Hay Wines, gives us the low down on the basic principles of wine tasting so that we can all look like pros

guide

W

ine tasting is often perceived as an unapproachable, almost daunting, exercise. But, as long as you understand the basic principles behind it, and learn what to look out for, it can be quite a rewarding activity. Firstly, the most important thing you need to know is that there are four basic steps to wine tasting:

1. Look: A visual inspection of the wine under neutral lighting 2. Smell: Identify aromas through orthonasal olfaction (aka breathing through your nose);

3. Taste: Assess both the taste structure and flavours derived from retronasal olfaction (breathing with the back of your nose)

4. Think: Develop a complete profile of a wine that can be stored in your long-term memory. Let’s now take a closer look at what each single step means, and what you should do to be a semi-pro (or at least look like one).

1

Check out the colour, opacity and viscosity (wine legs). Remember that, the more a white wine is golden, the more it is aged and complex; the more a red wine is garnet, the more it is old and deep. While swirling the wine, pay attention to the resistance of the wine in your glass. If you have the same ‘weight’ sensation as if it was water, then this means the wine is very light and fresh (e.g. high in acidity). However, if the wine is very dense, almost ‘syrupy’, this means the wine will be very rich, full bodied,and probably also high in alcohol.

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seconds on this step. A lot of clues about a wine are buried in its appearance but, unless you’re tasting it blindly, most of the answers those clues provide can be found on the label!

2

SMELL

The golden rule of wine tasting: your nose is the key to your palate. Once you learn how to describe and understand a wine through your nose, you will begin to develop the ability to anticipate what a wine should be tasting like. Indeed, 50 per cent of taste comes from the smell and a large amount of information (and satisfaction) can be gained from smelling a wine before you drink it. By swirling the wine before you taste it, you release many wine aromas, which normally fall under three general categories:

1. Primary aromas: Aromas from the type of grape and the

LOOK

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CHEEKY TIP: you do not really need to spend more than 10

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terroir. They are usually focused around fruit, herbal and floral notes

2. Secondary aromas: These are from the winemaking process. Secondary aromas include (but are not limited to) notes such as fresh baked bread as well as sour cream and yogurt

3. Tertiary aromas: These are aromas from ageing in oak or in the bottle. Cloves, vanilla, baking spices, roasted nuts, tobacco, dark leather, caramel and chocolate are just a few of the typical tertiary aromas you can easily find in oak-aged wine.

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3

Wine body, tannicity and acidity are perhaps the most crucial aspects to consider when tasting a wine. They affect important aspects of wine tasting, like food pairings and the style of the wine itself.

your lips stick to your teeth? Tannins are typical of young red wines and they will always have a certain degree of intensity to the palate. Sometimes they may be quite harsh (very young wines, or very tannic grapes) but, on other occasions, they can also be very fine and velvety, representing a most desirable aid for balanced food matchings.

BODY

ACIDITY

Think about how the wine feels in your mouth. Is it heavy or light? Is it sharp or creamy? The body is perhaps the most obvious note, but it is extremely helpful to build in your mind the profile of the wine you’re tasting.

Acidity is how tart or puckering a wine is. For instance, a wine with high acidity (low on the pH scale) will have acidity similar to citrus fruit; whereas lower acidity wines are closer to the light acidity of milk. It is crucial to assess the overall acidity of a wine, because this is what creates sensations like freshness and lightness, which are especially relevant in white and sparkling wines.

TASTE

TANNICITY Now, just focus on the texture of the wine. Does it have a lot of grip to it? Does it make

All of these wines are available to purchase at Hay Wines, Ledbury: ▷ haywines.co.uk If you want to learn more about this fantastic world, or just want to spend an evening tasting good wine, why not imbibe in one – or more – of these interesting local events and activities:

Tuesday 19 September, 7.30pm

The Greater Malvern Wine Society, Manor Park Majestic Wine tasting

Friday 29 September, 7.30pm

Hay Wines, Ledbury Shop Weird & wonderful blind wine tasting

Tuesday 24 October, 7.30pm

The Greater Malvern Wine Society Swan at Newlands restaurant wine list tasting

Friday 13 October, 7.30pm Hay Wines, Ledbury Shop Gin tasting

Friday 27 October, 7.30pm

Hay Wines, Ledbury Shop Award-winning wines tasting

Friday 3 November, 7.30pm

Hay Wines, Ledbury Shop French cheese & wine tasting

4

Tuesday 21 November, 7.30pm

The Greater Malvern Wine Society, Manor Park Portfolio tasting

THINK

What is really important to assess while tasting a wine is its actual balance, and our overall idea of it. The balance between fruit and sugar must be in accordance with acidity and tannin levels. For instance, too much fruit or sugar and the wine will seem too heavy; too much acidity or tannin will leave the wine almost unapproachable. Each component has to harmonise, creating a beautiful tasting

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experience that starts from your nose and elegantly develops on to your palate. However, we need to remember that wine must be a pleasure, and therefore what is really important to consider is what you personally think about it. At the end of your tasting, always write down your sensations, your subjective comments and considerations. This will help you decide what bottle you shall be opening next. ›

Friday 24 November, from 5.00pm Hay Wines, Ledbury Medieval Market House Annual portfolio tasting 2017 For more information, visit: Hay Wines at ▷ haywines.co.uk/

wine-tasting/

and Greater Malvern Wine Society at ▷ sites.google.com/site/

thegreatermalvernwinesociety/

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FASHION

Strike a dramatic pose Check out this season’s dramatic blacks in a variety of styles and shades . . . from smart checks to imaginative hems and ruches, you’re sure to make a fashion statement this season. . . .

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4 3

5 1. Grey check ruched dress: £40.00 from River Island, 35 High Street, Worcester WR1 2QL ▷ www.riverisland.com | 2. Black check coat: £80.00 from River Island, 35 High Street, Worcester WR1 2QL ▷ www.riverisland.com | 3. Black bow detail pencil skirt: £35.00 from River Island, 35 High Street, Worcester WR1 2QL ▷ www.riverisland.com | 4. Black peplum hem long sleeve dress (also available in red): £40.00 from River Island, 35 High Street, Worcester WR1 2QL ▷ www.riverisland.com | 5. Black and white zebra effect necklace: £11.50 from zoehandmadejewellery@gmail.com or ▷ facebook.com/uniquejewellerybyzoe

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7

this Autumn

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We’ve found these lovely desirable bags and accessories in a range of bright fabrics, patterns and styles to suit a variety of needs. From beautiful tweeds to eye-catching Liberty prints and glass beads, we’re sure you’ll want to add them to your ‘must have’ list. . . .

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6. Georgio Scottish Harris Tweed Bonafanti Washbag: £89.00 from ▷ www.attavanti.com | 7. Bonafanti Designer Liberty Print Handbag (also available in pink, blue and Betsy patterns): £175.00 from ▷ www.attavanti.com | 8. Georgio Fedon Amelia Backpack – copper (also available in green and blue): £225.00 from ▷ www.attavanti.com | 9. Black and pink heart bracelet: £8.50 | 10. Purple mixed jem chunky bracelet: £8.00 | 11. Square multi-coloured necklace and matching bracelet set: £16.50 | 12. Lime glass necklace and bracelet set: £24.50 | 13. Heart earrings and black striped earrings: £6.00 each. Jewellery prices include postage and packaging and are available from zoehandmadejewellery@gmail.com or ▷ facebook.com/uniquejewellerybyzoe.

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UNIQUE

WAT E R S I D E H O M E S i n A N I C O N I C L O C AT I O N

Following the release of Parian House, this exclusive collection of just sixteen 1, 2 and 3 bedroom high specification, beautifully refurbished apartments and duplexes offers a rare opportunity. Enjoy modern luxury living alongside the quirks, fascinating details and charm of a period home. Each apartment features spacious open-plan interiors, double bedrooms throughout, stylish en-suites as well as unique original features, all while finished to Berkeley’s award-winning standards. Established in the city of Worcester in 1751, the iconic Royal Worcester Porcelain Works closed its doors in 2009 to the production of its world famous porcelain leaving the magnificent factory to sit without purpose until Berkeley Homes, seeing potential in these remarkable 62 |

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buildings, undertook to renovate them into beautiful new and refurbished homes, located just a 10 minute walk from Worcester city centre.

Original features can be found in select apartments at Parian House.

Along with the help of a number of specialists and master craftsmen the characterful Victorian architecture of the original building has been carefully conserved, bringing Parian House back to its former glory. Inside, the refurbished apartments showcase a number of the building’s original features such as intricate cornicing, decorative feature roof trusses, vaulted ceilings and roof lanterns creating homes that have a unique character all of their own. It is a painstaking and fascinating project, one that will transform a historic building into a collection of exclusive homes. www.wrmagazine.uk


Today Berkeley has breathed life back into this historic site, transforming it into a collection of unique and distinctive apartments and duplexes. Now a bustling community once more, the development is the perfect mix of original buildings that have been lovingly restored into stylish apartments, alongside newly built homes, many enjoying picturesque views over the river and canal.

1 , 2 A N D 3 B E D R O O M A PA R T M E N T S F R O M ÂŁ 1 7 0 , 0 0 0

For more information call 01753 307543 or email sales.oxford@berkeleyhomes.co.uk. Visit our Sales & Marketing Suite and Showhomes, open daily 10.00am - 5pm. The Waterside, Severn Street, Worcester WR1 2NE CGI of Parian House, indicative only. Internal images of current showhome at The Waterside. Journey time taken from Google Maps. Canal views and original features to select apartments only. Price correct at time of print.

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Distinct Quality Since 1880

DISTINCT QUALITY, OUTSTANDING LOCATIONS IN WORCESTERSHIRE

80% SOLD The Cotheridge (above), 4 bedroom home Prices from £360,000 with offers available.

SPRING MEADOWS

Last chance to buy

Spring Meadows, Drakes Broughton Stonebow Road, Drakes Broughton, Pershore, WR10 2AS

Last chance to buy at this popular development with a range of 4 and 5 bedrooms homes available. Showhome Open: Thursday to Monday, 10am - 4pm

For more information call 01905 840 629

The Milton, 5 bedroom home £519,950 with offers available

The Albury, 5 bedroom home £567,450 with offers available

Tel: +44 (0)1384 446 200 www.kendrickhomes.co.uk 64 |

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PROPERTY

Kendrick Homes announces new Worcestershire development A brand new luxury home in an outstanding Worcestershire location could soon be yours!

F

ollowing the success of previous developments at Cropthorne and Drakes Broughton, Kendrick Homes has announced that its new homes at The Fieldings in Lower Moor will be available to reserve off-plan from 5 October 2017. Its latest development of 11 new homes will comprise two-bedroom bungalows and four and five-bedroom houses, all built to Kendrick Homes’ high-quality specifications. The homes all benefit from energy efficiency features, which means lower running costs compared to older properties and, for customers who reserve off-plan, there is the

option to personalise each home with a wide range of tiles, floor coverings and kitchen cabinets. Located in the delightful village of Lower Moor, the village offers an idyllic countryside setting while being close to the historic town of Pershore where there is a good selection of shops, tea rooms, restaurants and entertainment for the whole family. It is also conveniently located close to the M5 with links to the West Midlands and south-west. James Rennison, Kendrick Homes’ managing director, commented, ‘We are absolutely delighted with the huge

interest that we have received for our properties in Worcestershire. ‘The level of interest makes it clear to me that we are building the correct mix of homes to accommodate both individual taste and size of property. The locations are ideal and give easy access to Worcestershire, the West Midlands and beyond.’ Prospective homebuyers can visit the show home located nearby at Drakes Broughton, where a selection of four and five-bedroom homes remain available for sale. Kendrick Homes has offers and incentives available on the remaining homes at Drakes Broughton and the Government’s Help to Buy scheme is also available on homes of up to £600,000. For more information, please visit ▷ kendrickhomes.co.uk. ›

Co So mi on ng

The Fieldings, Lower Moor, Blacksmiths Lane, Lower Moor, Nr. Pershore WR10 2PA

A delightful collection of 11 new homes with a range of 2 bedroom bungalows and 4 and 5 bedroom houses. Each home has been individually designed with a superb specification.

THE FIELDINGS

Register your interest at www.kendrickhomes.co.uk

Launching on 5th October 2017

Computer generated images and interior images are indicative only, details may vary. Help to Buy is available on homes up to £600,000, terms and conditions apply. Prices correct at time of print. Showhome opening times may vary, please call before starting your journey.

View floor plans and brochures at: www.kendrickhomes.co.uk Distinct Quality Since 1880

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LEGAL

Almost there . . .

the £1,000,000 tax-free estate

W

hen a person dies, the basic rule relating to Inheritance Tax (IHT) is that the first £325,000 of the value of their estate is free of tax and this is known as the nil rate band (NRB). Married couples and civil partners are also entitled to transfer their own unused NRB to the survivor on their death, meaning that the survivor would be entitled to up to two NRBs, totalling £650,000. From 6 April 2017 a new nil rate band has been introduced, this being known as the residence nil rate band (RNRB). Its purpose is to give tax relief where the family home is left to specified descendants. So we now have four acronyms to get used to: the NRB, the transferable nil rate band (TNRB) and the RNRB, and not forgetting the transferable residence nil rate band (TRNRB) available to a surviving spouse or civil partner, which potentially doubles the relief available as with the TNRB. The RNRB is being increased over the next four years from the current level of £100,000, increasing by £25,000 each

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tax year until 2021, when the maximum relief available for an individual will be £175,000. However, this is subject to a number of conditions. Firstly, it relates to property and this must have been the residence of the deceased at some time and only one property can attract relief. If a couple have their main residence and a holiday cottage, their executors can elect which property on which to claim relief. Secondly, the property must be left to direct descendants, usually children, grandchildren, step-children, adopted and foster children.

persons are covered by the rules, general discretionary trusts, for example, are not. Given the complicated rules surrounding these nil rate bands, it is vital that professional advice is sought to take proper advantage of all the reliefs available. It is the writer’s view that it would perhaps have been more straightforward if the existing NRB had simply been subject to an increase, in place of the RNRB, but the good news is that, for a significant proportion of the population, we will shortly reach the £1 million tax-free estate. ›

Thirdly, the relief will be capped. Where the overall value of the estate is worth over £2 million, the allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 that the estate exceeds the limit. So if an estate is worth more than £2.2 million at present, no relief at all will be available. By April 2021, this limit will increase to £2.35 million. The use of trusts incorporated in wills must be carefully considered as well; while trusts for many children and disabled

Ralph Cross is a consultant solicitor at Russell & Co in the Private Client team.

▷ www.russellandcosolicitors.co.uk

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24 hour test drives available, contact: Richard Dean: rdean@rybrookbmw.co.uk | 01926 333888

Rybrook Warwick

Heathcote Lane, Heathcote, Warwick CV34 6SP 01926 333 888 www.rybrookwarwickbmw.co.uk

Profile for WR Magazine

WR magazine-Autumn 2017  

In this packed issue, we explore the history of salt production in Droitwich. We also discover a new, serious side to impressionist and comi...

WR magazine-Autumn 2017  

In this packed issue, we explore the history of salt production in Droitwich. We also discover a new, serious side to impressionist and comi...