EUROPAGE SPECIAL EDITION
Was issued as part of the project Erasmus+ „The Media. What next?”
MARCH 2019 Dear readers!
Erasmus+ group, Tarnobrzeg, March 2019
Our team consists of young Poles, Lithuanians, Czechs, Slovaks and Croats. We are all elementary school students. We met in March 2019 in Tarnobrzeg, we were joined by the Erasmus+ program. Together we are realizing the project The Media. What next?. The newsletter you hold in your hands is the result of our weekly work. We write here about changes in the media over the centuries. Book, press, film, radio, television, internet that's all we're interested in. We also describe the moments spent together in Poland. We created Europage, we visited Tarnobrzeg and its surroundings, we practiced sport and we had many wonderful experiences at this time. We hope that you will enjoy reading our magazine. Team Erasmus+
FROM THE APPEARANCE OF SPEECH TO MULTIMEDlA A short history of the development of human communication forms The history of human communication begins with drawing and writing. These two forms of saving human thought were initially strongly connected. The development of speech and language took place a long time ago, it was between 90 000 and 35 000 BC. The oldest way to communicate were pictures. The paintings in the cave at Lascaux, which were created around 17 000 BC, are a good example of this. The invention of writing appeared around 2500 BC. It was a picture writing. The first alphabetical letter, which was used to save sounds and which resembles contemporary
writing, appeared in the 11th century BC. The second significant invention was printing. It was the work of Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century. The press (magazines and newspapers) appeared two hundred years later thanks to the printing. It created a completely new quality. Previously, reading was an orderly and completely activity. Reading books is such an activity. The newspaper can be started to read from the selected article. This is the continuous activity because the new numbers of newspapers are published every day and every week.
New inventions appeared in the 19th century. Photography, telephone, telegraph, gramophone, film – these are the inventions of that time. Speech can now be recorded not only in print but it can also be sent very far. Radio, television, computer – these inventions of the twentieth century – have prepared the basis for the development of modern multimedia. The Internet and mobile phones are developing today on a massive scale. What changes will the future bring in human communication? This is still unknown. Team Erasmus+
A LWAYS A B O O K From papyrus to e-book. How has the world changed with the change of the book's form? Human life is short, so the book has for many centruies been the way to convey the accumulated knowledge to future generations. One of the first media was the papyrus. It was known in ancient Egypt from the third millennium BC. The dissemination of papyrus occurred in the Hellenistic period. The main center of papyrus production was from the third century BC. The oldest surviving documents of the papyrus literature come from around 2400 BC. The symbol of medieval culture is parchment. According to legend, it was invented in the kingdom of Pergamum during the reign of Eumenes II (197-158 BC). At the end of the Middle Ages, papyrus was replaced by paper. Ink and a bird's feather were used for writing. A real revolution in the field of book making was due to printing. As we know, the first printed book comes from 1455. This is the Bible published by J. Gutenberg. Thanks to the invention of printing, the cost of the book has decreased, important ideas have been delivered faster to people.
Graphics that conquered the internet. It shows the development of man and book forms in a funny way.
Until 1714, a large printing machine was needed to print the book. That year, British engineer Henry Mill obtained a patent for a typewriter prototype. In 1914, J. Smather developed a typewriter powered by an electric. One man can print the book in his own house thanks to this machine. However, he has no chance to deliver his work to many readers. Books written on a typewriter went to few people. They were usually samizdat books. These books were published in countries where censorship was in force (for example, in Poland, in Soviet Union, in many Eastern European coun-
tries). Samizdat books were distributed secretly. The invention of a typewriter had a big impact on the construction of a computer. A new book type appeared with this device: an electronic book. This book has a digital form. To buy an e-book you don’t have to go to a bookstore, library or ask your friends to lend. You can get this book with one click of a computer mouse and after one minute you read it on the screen of your own computer. As a result, you can learn a lot and quickly. The online books market is growing every year. ■
T H E N E W S PA P E R WA S W R I T T E N About the development of the press. When and why did people start to reach for newspaper? The origin of the word newspaper is not entirely clear. It is probably derived from the Italian gazzetta - small coin, for which newspapers were purchased in the seventeenth-century Venice. The word gazza also means a magpie, whose likeness was often placed in Italian journals as a symbol of talkativeness and gossip. The first newspaper, the circula-
tion of which reached one million copies, was the French newspaper Le petit Jurnal (1890). The popularity of the press in the nineteenth century is demonstrated by the opera La gazzetta. It was written by Gioachino Rossini, Italian composer. Libretto refers to the publication in the newspaper. The press developed dynamically in the nineteenth century, but its
beginnings were very modest and date back to very distant times. In 59 BC Julius Caesar founded Acta Diurna Populi Romani. Newspapers in the proper sense of the word began to appear in 1609. The first one includes Relation a printed in Strasbourg and Aviso - printed in Wolfenbüttel. The first daily newspaper (appeared 6 days a week) appeared in Leipzig in
1650. interested in the press. Joseph Pulit- recipies, agony aunt column and othA modern newspaper is a Euro- zer was the pioneer in this field. Not ers. pean invention, so the press has only serious issues but also some Nowadays newspapers are still developed in every country on our sports information, crosswords and available in print. Due to the develcontinent. The first newspaper pu- funny pictures started to appear in opment of the Internet almost all blished in the Polish lands appeared newspapers. the editorial offices publish their in Gdańsk (1618). It was written in The are different types of news- newspapers in digital version. Every German the weekly Wöchentliche papers: country-wide and regional. year more and more readers read Zeitung, which in 1619 appeared The content is divided into various the newspapers in this version. ■ even three times a week. The first sections e.g. sports, cultural events, preserved, periodical newspaper published in Poland and published in Fot. Pixaby Polish was Mercury Polish Ordynaryjny It was issued for the first time in Krakow on January 3, 1661. At this time, Vilnius, Prague, Zagreb and Bratislava also became one of the most important centres of the press printing in Eastern and Central Europe. For many years the readers of the press were people who came from the upper class. In the first half of the twentieth century people talked about the beginning of the new journalism (New Journalism), which started to intensively seek Internet has developed, but many people are still waiting for the morning dose ways to broaden the circle of those The of press releases.
TA L K I N G A B O U T T H E WO R L D W I T H A C A M E R A See you at the cinema. Why did the movie conquer the world? Everybody likes watching films. There are many types of films e.g documentaries, educational, feature films. They provide entertainment and they let to have a good time. They also teach us something. Thanks to them we can find out about other cultures, how people’s life look like nowadays and how it looked like in the past. Sciencefiction films are also fascinating. They tell us about the future. The invention of photography was before the film. The first motion picture on the earth was called The horse In Motion. It was made in 1878 by Eadweard Muybridge. This one was without sound and text. This groundbreaking motion photography was accomplished using
multiple cameras and assembling the individual pictures into a a single motion picture. It’s something that you could do today, using a few cameras that are set to go off at an exact moment. The movie was made to scientifically answer a popularly debated question during this era: Are all four of a horse’s hooves ever off the ground at the same time while the horse is galloping? The video proved that they indeed were and, more importantly, motion photography was born. The Lumière brothers were the creators of the first films. They were very short, they were about one minute long. They presented everyday life e.g. the arrival of the train, the workers who finished
their work at the factory . The first show of their films took place on 21st December 1895 in Paris. It lasted 15 minutes and there were
Fot. Pixaby Slate. Without it it’s difficult to make a movie. They allow to find movie shots. This is important when editing a movie.
35 viewers. Georges Méliès was called the wizard of the screen, he was the first real film director. He introduced special effects. The first movie with sound was relased in October 6, 1927. The movie was produced by Warner Bros. The first star in the talking film was AI Jolson. The movie was called Al Jolson the Jazz singer. This film was still black and white. The first colour film entitled The cat and the Fiddle was made in 1934. Traditional cinema is flat, con-
sisting of two-dimensional imagery. Avatar by James Cameron is the first 3D film that was released in 2009. It is one of the most profitable films. There are also 5D films aimed at entertaining. Film is still developing. New technology of saving sound and image appears. Film makers follow the development of technology because people still love watching films. They watch them in different places: at the cinema and at home in front of the TV screen or computer screen.
Films more and more replace books. Nowadays we can watch the classics from literature on the screen. We are willing to watch the Homer’s heros fighting for a beautiful Helena in the film Troy. The actor Benedict Cumberbatch won the hearts of the viewers as the most famous detective all over the world called Sherlock Holmes, who is known from Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel. Romeo and Juliet by Baz Luhrmann has produced a great deal of excitement. The heros are presented in a quite new form. ■
WORLD FROM SOUNDS It moves voice across the oceans, records concerts, talks. Radio - a real juggler of mass imagination. Twenty years after the telephone was invented and music was first sent down to a telephone line, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals. This Italian physicist and constructor was fascinated by Heinrich Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it could be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as wireless telegraphs. The date of the radio's establishment is 1901 when Marconi transmitted a radio signal across the Atlantic. A few years later he received the Nobel Prize for it. The Serb, Nicola Tesla also wanted to be called the creator of the radio because he had previously constructed a high-voltage coil sending strong electromagnetic waves that Marconi used to build his radio. The Italian constructor did it without asking for the permission of its creator. Both constructors have been in dispute for many years. Finally, in 1945, the Supreme Court in the US patent rights to the radio admitted Tesla, but it happened only after his death. That is why Guglielmo Marconi is considered to be a pioneer of radio broadcasting. The invention of the radio revolutionized the media world. Thanks
Fot. Pixaby Today there are about 32 281 radio stations in the world so everyone can listen to whatever he wants.
to it, information could also be received by poorly educated and poor people who had little money to buy newspapers regularly. Radio allows to transmit information over long distances so many politicians did not hesitate to use it for their own purposes. Famous speeches by Adolf Hitler could be an example. Who are radio’s heavy listeners? Most of the people who listen to the radio are 55-64 years old. They
are more often men than women. Teenagers listen to the radio the least. They prefer listening to music on the phone. What are the advantages of modern radio? Certainly diversity. Some stations broadcast information, other popular music, and others – classical music concerts. Everyone will find something interesting. ■
G L O B A L V I L L AG E A N D V I S I O N We can see every event anywhere in the world in our home. About television. Each of us knows what television is. When we were born, it had already existed. It is a telecommunication media used to transmitting moving images and sound in an electronic way. Many eminent scientists and inventors contributed to its creation. They were mainly physicists and enthusiasts of technology. The first television broadcast, from London to New York, took place in January 1928. In July of the same year in London there was a television broadcast in colour. The creator of both inventions was John Logie Baird. His inventions were pioneering and nobody predicted that they would conquer the world. Television gained real popularity only after the Second World War. Today, television has an international dimension. One program may be available in many countries. For example, the Eurosport station created in France simultaneously broadcasts in 20 languages and reaches over 200 million viewers in 59 countries in Europe and North Africa. We can say that thanks to television, the world has become a global village.
Fot. Shutterstock Television is a very attractive medium and it is still able to provoke the attention of people around the world.
The metaphor of the global village was invented in 1962 by Herbert Marshall McLuhan, Canadian communications theorist. In the book The Gutenberg Galaxy, he predicted a modern world in which mass electronic media cross time and spatial barriers, enabling people to communicate on a mass scale. In this sense, the globe becomes a small space that gives millions of people the occasion to experience the same events at one time. Since the beginning of its exi-
stence, television caused a lot of interest and mobilized to watch. It is still one of the most popular media. Concurrently, it evokes many critical voices. Viewers ask questions about the objectivity of television and the truth of the world that it shows. This is one of the important reasons why nowadays pupils don’t want to watch television. Today, pupils see social sites and YouTube. That's true that television often creates an alliance with the Internet. It is changing before our eyes. ■
N E W G R E AT N E T WO R K The Internet and a mobile phone - it's time to start the media revolution. Everything started in 1966. The Merit Network has been founded. For 33 years the Internet was only on computers. In 1999 Nokia 7110 apeared. It’s the first mobile phone with the Internet. At these times using the Internet wasn’t very comfortable and it was really limited. Low Internet packages caused that using was not very popular and liked. With every year a bigger packages were coming and they became cheaper.
In 2007 the first iPhone and the first phone with touchscreen was produced and sold. From that time the Internet is growing up and making better and better. Then, in 202008 T-Mobile G1 (or HTC Dream) released the phone that made a revolution. The phone users started to operate Google. The Great Race of Apple and Google has just started. Now we are in our times. The Internet is one of the best resources of knowledge. It has real-
ly big power, as it is said: Big power is big responsiblity. There are millions of people who use the Internet in their everyday life. They cannot imagine their existence without their mobile phones and the Internet. Apart from being very useful, having a lot of advantages, it has also some disadvantages. We need to know how to use it correctly and how to not get addicted to it. That is why we have to be educated and use it wisely. ■
Here are some rules and tips for you: 1. Use antivirus software. 2. Open emails only from people you know. 3. Download files carefully. 4. Don’t open unknown links, files attached to emails etc. 5. Don’t share your personal data, passwords or private photos. 6. Keep your social media safe. 7. Use hard passwords. 8. Read regulations and rules of websites. 9. Check SSL security of website. 10. You need to know that the Internet people aren’t always the same as in real life.
Contemporary teenagers cannot spend a single day without their mobile phones. Unfortunately, such a strong commitment to mobile devices is dangerous to their health and lives. This addiction is called phonoholism. The teenagers were asked a question: What you do if you forgot to take your phone? A large number of teenagers answered that they would definitely go back home.
Arek: The Internet is great, if European Union will not stop with ACTA 2.0 we can lose it forever! Stop, Brussel! SamuelI: I think that the Internet is good to make new friends but don’t forget about real contact. Artur: The Internet is useful. We can read there news instead of buying a newspaper everyday! Agnieszka: I think the Internet is one of the best things that people made. Julie: I think the Internet is helpful and can be fun, but it’s wrong if people haven’t got some limit. Auguste: I think the Internet is very good because you can search for information.
FAC E B O O K S O I M M E D I AT E LY O N L I N E My new digital identity. The contemporary times and our communication needs. Facebook was founded by a group of students from Harvard University leading by Mark Zuckerberg in the USA in 2004. They called it TheFacebook. The aim of this social networking service was to enable students to find friends and to share some information. Nowadays it is popular all over the world. There are over 2,2 billion users. They can create some groups, chat with friends and make new ones. They can also post photos and share their thoughts with their
friends. We asked our friends how do they use facebook. These are the results of this interview: Krystof (Czech Republic): I think Facebook is bad for little children, because they can get addicted to social media. Klaudia (Poland): In my opinion Facebook is good, because you can make new friends without going out. Paulina (Lithuania): I think Facebook is a good way to communicate with a lot of different people, but now I prefer Messenger more than Facebook, because it is easier to use. Kamil (Poland): I use Facebook mostly for chatting with my classmates. It is also used by me to watch funny videos and memes. Meme is the name of photo with funny comment. The theme of the meme is based on what do Fot. Pixaby people make fun of at the time. Facebook is very famous social networking service.
Maja (Poland): Thanks to Facebook I know more things about my hobbies. I can easily contact with people who are interested in the same things as me. I find out really fast about things that happen all over the world. It is very easy to communicate via Facebook. The users don’t have to write anything. They can just use the like button. It is stylized as a thumbs up icon. It was first activated on February 9, 2009. It enables users to interact with comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. Once clicked by a user, the designated content is more likely to appear in friends' News Feeds. The button displays the number of other users who have liked the content. The like button was extended to comments in June 2010. Facebook expanded Like into Reactions, choosing among five pre-defined emotions, including Love, Haha, Wow, Sad, or Angry. Recently, Facebook is being criticized for collecting data of its users. ■
IN OUR FREE TIME Five days in Tarnobrzeg Erasmus + means that you have the chance to experience an interesting adventure. We experienced it in Tarnobrzeg. The program Erasmus+ connects students from different countries. The topics of our partnership is The Media, What next?. We spent five beautiful days in Tarnobrzeg, Poland. These days were full of different activities. After our first plane ride from Zagreb to Rzeszow we arrived to Tarnobrzeg late Monday. During these five days we had lots of tasks connected with the topic of our project. On Monday we presented our local activities, we have done in our schools. In Ante Kovačić primary school, which is the school we come from, we made big posters
with a lot of information about the schools that take part in this partnership. Then we made a survey among our students and their habits of using media in their everyday life. We were also looking for old newspapers and found one from 1966. It was interesting for us because there was an article about our student who won the prizes for their creative work. We also had a meeting with a local journalist, mister Željko Slunjski. He compared the conditions of journalism 30 years ago and now. All of these activities were presented in the first issue of our Erasmus + newspaper. The students and the teachers presented in the
assembly hall what they did in their schools. On this very first day we visited the museum of Tarnobrzeg in the Dzikow Castle, The Dominican Church of The Assumption of the Virgin Mary and at the end of the day, we visited the main library in Tarnobrzeg. On Wednesday we were creating a common newspaper, we wrote articles about different parts of media. Two days were dedicated to visiting nearby cities and sights. The most important part for us is that we met a lot of new friends with who we will stay in touch, talking trough different media. ■ Team from Croatia
That surprised us Each country has got a different language, culture and customs. How do you live in Poland? Is it different than in our countries? Media. What next? includes five European countries: Check Republic, Croatia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia. We all are Europe but each country has got a different language, culture and customs. Having spent five days in Poland we noticed some similarities and differences between our countries. Although Lithuania and Poland are neighbouring countries, we are not similar. Firstly, we have different languages – Polish language belongs to slavic language group whereas Lithuanian language is one from two Balts languages. Secondly, Polish people eat different food. For example, they like cabbages very much, use lots of sauces (in our kitchens we saw big bottles of various sauces), like spreading butter on san-
dwiches and do not have brown bread. Thirdly, the Poles are more religious. Each classroom has a cross on the wall, a priest teaches religion, families have the Bible at home. Finally, Lithuanian people usually shorten their distance walking along the paths, whereas people in Tarnobrzeg use pavements. Despite all differences, we are similar. We found similar words: arbata – herbata, kava – kawa, miestas – miasto, citrina – cytryna. Long time ago we had the same country and the same king. To summarize, all countries are different but they are connected by the same project and the same media. And the most important thing is WE ALL ARE FRIENDS :)) ■ Team from Lithuania
E R A S M U S
motion eal ction mile emories nusual hare
Table of contents : From the appearance of speech to multimedia
Always a book
The newspaper was written
Talking about the world with a camera
World from sounds
Global village and vision
New great network
Facebook so immediately online
Five days in Tarnobrzeg
That surprised us
Five days in Tarnobrzeg
W a s i ss u e d as p a rt of
Project co-financed under the European Union's Erasmus+ programme
School newsletter - the effect of pupils' work as part of the "Media. What's next?" project