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Weather Experiments


Index Making a Barometer Making a Humidity Monitor Making Clouds Model of the Water Cycle Plants and Weather Rain Gauge Tornado! Weather Fronts Wind Vane and Anemometer Meteorology Supply List References Children’s Literature Notes


Making a Barometer

Index

Air envelops the earth. The earth’s atmosphere is approximately 370 miles thick.1Air has mass, and the mass of the gaseous atmosphere exerts a force on the earth. This force is called air pressure. Air is most dense near the earth and less dense higher in the atmosphere. An aneroid barometer is a metal box that has been evacuated (the air has been removed from the box). The expansion or contraction of the walls of the box is then used to measure changes in air pressure. Airplanes have aneroid barometers on board to measure changes in air pressure with height in the atmosphere. These barometers are called altimeters.2

Materials

1 drinking straw 1 large-mouth jar 1 large balloon (11 inch diameter or larger Duct tape or very large rubber bands Tape Paper Manila file folder Toothpick Marker

What To Do

Blow up the balloon first to stretch, then let the air out. Cut off the neck portion of the balloon and stretch the remaining balloon material across the top of the jar. Seal the balloon to the jar with duck tape or by using the large rubber bands. Make certain not to leave leaks between the balloon and jar. Tape a toothpick to one end of the drinking straw. Tape the other end of the straw to the center of the balloon. Fold the file folder so that it makes a large triangular prism. Make a measuring scale (ruled piece of paper the size of a six inch ruler) and glue it on the file folder. Use this ruler to monitor changes in the air pressure. The toothpick is the pointer at the end of the barometer that should point to positions along the ruler. If the pointer moves up, the air pressure has increased. If the pointer moves down the air pressure has decreased. Use this barometer to measure the barometric air pressure changes for an entire week.

Questions

1. When the air temperature decreases, the density of the air decreased. What direction do you expect the pointer to move for a temperature decrease? 2. If you took this barometer on a hike up a mountain, what changes in the measured air pressure would you expect to see?

Extension

Check this web site http://weather.noaa.gov to obtain the barometric pressure at the beginning of the data collection. As the air pressure changes from one day to the next, monitor the changes observed with your barometer and check the reported barometric pressure for your locations. Make a graph of pointer locations versus the reported barometric pressure. A linear relationship should result if your barometer is working well.

Source

“How Science Works.” J. Hahn, Dorling Kindersley, London, 1991. ISBN 0-7621-0249-7 “Science for Children.” 3rd ed., Williard J. Jacobsen, Abby B. Bergman, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1991. “Teaching Chemistry with Toys.” Sarquis, Sarquis and Williams, Terrific Science Press, 1995. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Grade Level: This experiment is expected to be appropriate for grades 3 and above.


Making a Humidity Monitor

Index

Humidity cannot be seen, but it has important effects on the weather. Leonardo da Vinci was the first to invent an instrument for measuring humidity, the amount of water in air. Around 1500 he developed the hygrometer to monitor the moisture in the air. A hygrometer uses temperature measurements from wet and dry thermometers to calculate humidity. This humidity monitor uses a chemical reaction to produce color changes that indicate changes in humidity.

Materials

White drawing paper or white coffee filter paper 10% cobalt chloride in water (Approximately 5 grams in 50 milliliters of water.) Scissors Goggles Double sided tape Tongs or large tweezers Hair dryer Spray bottle Water Shallow disposable foil baking pan

What To Do

Cut the filter paper into a desired shape. Put on goggles and gloves. Pour a small amount of cobalt chloride solution into the shallow pan. Dip the cutout into the solution of 10% cobalt chloride (This must be done by an adult.) Allow the dipped paper to dry. Continue using gloves when handling the paper until it is completely dry. Use a hair dryer to make sure that the filter paper shape is completely dry. Watch the color changes as the paper dries. Try spraying a little water on the dried paper to show the blue to pink color change.Place the humidity monitors in a couple of places around the classroom or home. Monitor color changes. Try placing one on mirror of the bathroom. Place one monitor outside on a window. CAUTION: Cobalt Chloride could be harmful if swallowed and students should not taste! Cobalt chloride could also cause skin irritation. If skin contact occurs, wash thoroughly. Once the humidity monitors are completely dry, it is safe for students to handle them.

Questions

1. What happens to the color of the filter paper as heat is applied? 2. Which color corresponds to high humidity and which corresponds to low humidity? 3. What changes are observed from day to day for the monitor that is attached on the outside of the school or your house?

Summary

Cobalt chloride is blue. When cobalt chloride reacts with water forming cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl2 • H2O), this product is pink. For low humidity conditions the filter paper should appear blue, for moderate humidity the paper should appear purple and for high humidity it should change to pink.

Source

“Teaching Chemistry with Toys.” Sarquis, Sarquis and Williams, Terrific Science Press, 1995. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.

Grade Level: This experiment is expected to be appropriate for grades 1 and above with proper adult supervision.


Making Clouds

Index

Condensation occurs when nucleation sites are available; that is, condensation occurs on surfaces. Clouds are merely condensation well above ground level, and require surfaces on which to form. The surfaces that allow cloud formation are generally particles of dust, salt or soot that are typically found in the air. This experiment illustrates the formation of clouds by nucleating on smoke particles.

Materials

Clear 2 Liter bottle with a screw-on top Warm water Match

What To Do

Fill the bottom of the bottle to a depth of 2-3 cm with warm water. Place bottle on its side. Light a match. Let it burn about halfway and then blow it out. Quickly drop the match into the bottle. Screw the cap on the bottle. Swirl the water around on the sides to wash down the sides. Squeeze the bottle and then release several times. A cloud should be visible after releasing the bottle. Repeat the squeeze and release step to form more clouds. Try the same experiment without adding the smoke particles and compare the results.

Questions

1. Explain why the cloud forms and disappears as the bottle is squeezed and released. 2. How does the temperature of the air affect the formation of clouds? 3. What happened in this experiment when the smoke particles are not available?

Summary

Clouds are condensation that appears well above the earth’s surface. They appear fuzzy and diffuse. Clouds are also not light in mass. A mid-size cloud may have the mass of five elephants.

Source

“Making Clouds and Rain” in “Teaching Physical Science Through Children’s Literature.” Grentz, Portman, Sarquis, Terrific Science Press, 1996, p. 67. “Making Clouds” in “Science Is . . . A Resource Book for Fascinating Facts, Projects, and Activities.” S. Bosak, Scholastic Canada, 1998, p.278. “How Weather Works,” Michael Allaby, Reader’s Digest, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1995, p. 44. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.

Grade Level: This experiment is expected to be appropriate for grades K and above.


Model of the Water Cycle

Index

Condensation occurs when nucleation sites are available; that is, condensation occurs on surfaces. Clouds are merely condensation well above ground level, and require surfaces on which to form. The surfaces that allow cloud formation are generally particles of dust, salt or soot that are typically found in the air. This experiment illustrates the formation of clouds by nucleating on smoke particles.

Materials

Clear 2 Liter bottle with a screw-on top Warm water Match

What To Do

Fill the bottom of the bottle to a depth of 2-3 cm with warm water. Place bottle on its side. Light a match. Let it burn about halfway and then blow it out. Quickly drop the match into the bottle. Screw the cap on the bottle. Swirl the water around on the sides to wash down the sides. Squeeze the bottle and then release several times. A cloud should be visible after releasing the bottle. Repeat the squeeze and release step to form more clouds. Try the same experiment without adding the smoke particles and compare the results.

Questions

1. Explain why the cloud forms and disappears as the bottle is squeezed and released. 2. How does the temperature of the air affect the formation of clouds? 3. What happened in this experiment when the smoke particles are not available?

Summary

Clouds are condensation that appears well above the earth’s surface. They appear fuzzy and diffuse. Clouds are also not light in mass. A mid-size cloud may have the mass of five elephants.

Source

“Making Clouds and Rain” in “Teaching Physical Science Through Children’s Literature.” Grentz, Portman, Sarquis, Terrific Science Press, 1996, p. 67. “Making Clouds” in “Science Is . . . A Resource Book for Fascinating Facts, Projects, and Activities.” S. Bosak, Scholastic Canada, 1998, p.278. “How Weather Works,” Michael Allaby, Reader’s Digest, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1995, p. 44. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.

Grade Level: This experiment is expected to be appropriate for grades K and above.


Plants and Weather

Index

Plants take up water through their roots. This water is typically filled with nutrients that the plant needs. Plants use some of the water to produce food. The water continues to rise in the plant by capillary action to the leaves. Excess water that the plant does not need is released by the plant through a stoma (which is a port at the bottom of a leaf that opens to allow evaporation of water. The average birch tree transpires about 80 gallons of water each day into the atmosphere.1 This experiment will show the uptake of water by a plant and will also allow the measurement of transpiration (the release of water to the air by plants).

Materials

Celery or white flower Potted plant Clear plastic bag String or large rubber band Glass Food coloring

What To Do

Cut the bottom section of a piece of celery. Place the piece of celery (or the flower) in a glass of water that is colored with food coloring. Check the celery or flower twice each day. Count the number of leaves on the potted plant. Water the potted plant with a water dish below the plant. Wrap the clear plastic bag around the plant. Make sure the bag is tightly sealed around the plant. Make a “control bag.” Use the same size bag, and inflate by holding it open in the air. Close off the bag with the same type of tie as used for the plant. Place the plant and the control bag in a warm location. Leave the bags to sit there for a couple of days. Observe them closely each day.

Questions

1. After two days, what is different about the contents of the two bags? 2. Measure the amount of water collected from the bag that was wrapped around the plant. Divide that volume of water by the number of leaves. This will tell you how much water each leaf is releasing to the atmosphere in two days time.

Extension

Compare how much water is collected from the plant during after daytime conditions or after nighttime conditions. Is the amount different?

Source

“How Weather Works,” Michael Allaby, Reader’s Digest, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1995, p. 44. “Science Is . . . A Resource Book for Fascinating Facts, Projects, and Activities.” S. Bosak, Scholastic Canada, 1998, p.278. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.

Grade Level: This experiment is expected to be appropriate for grades K and above.


Rain Gauge

Index

This experiment describes the generation of a rain gauge, which can be used to monitor the amount of precipitation.

Materials

2 Liter plastic bottle Marbles or rocks Duct tape Small-width colored tape Scissors Ruler

What To Do

Cut the top off of the plastic bottle at the point where the diameter of the bottle starts to decrease when moving from the bottom of the bottle to the top. Keep the top portion of the bottle that was just cut off. Cover all the cut edges with duct tape to cover sharp edges. On the bottom part of the bottle use a ruler to make a scale of horizontal colored lines from two inches above the bottom to two inches from the top, separated by 1/2 inch. Place the marbles or rocks in the bottom portion of the bottle to steady the base. Add water to the bottle up to the first line of the scale. Turn the top portion of the bottle upside down and place inside the opening of the bottom portion of the bottle to form a funneled lid. The rain gauge is now ready for use. Take the rain gauge outside and monitor the change of the water level when it rains.

Questions

1. Why is it important to measure the amount of rainfall?

Source

“How Weather Works,” Michael Allaby, Reader’s Digest, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1995, p. 44. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.

Grade Level: This experiment is expected to be appropriate for grades K and above.


Tornado!

Index

Tornadoes are extremely violent wind storms capable of wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour. Although tornadoes are relatively small in area and short lived, they contain very large amounts of energy and can have devastating effects. Severe thunderstorms provide the conditions necessary for tornado formation, including quickly changing wind speeds and directions and warm, moist, fast-rising air colliding with incoming cool, dry air. Let’s take a closer look at how these conditions allow tornadoes to form . . .

Materials

Hot plate Round metal baking dish (8 inch diameter) Water Cardboard tube, 2-3 feet long, 4-inch diameter Wooden kitchen matches Black Construction Paper, 2 - 7 1/2 inch squares and 4- 9-inch X 1-inch rectangles Tape Tornado box Base: 1 Metal 9-inch square with upward-opening grooves along all sides, with 6-inch diameter circle cut from the center of the square. Sides: 4 Plexiglas 8-inch squares Top: 1 Metal 9-inch square with downward-opening grooves along all sides, with 4-inch diameter circle cut from the center of the square. Assembly Instructions: Place the base on a flat surface with the grooves facing up. Slide one Plexiglas piece into the groove on each side of the base. (There will be openings at the corners of the box) Position the top so that each of the Plexiglas sides fits into a downward- facing groove.

What To Do

Tape a piece of construction paper to the outside surface of two adjacent sides of the tornado box. This will help make the tornado more visible once it forms. Fill the baking dish most of the way with water and place the dish on the hot plate. Position the tornado box on top of the baking dish so that the 6-inch hole in the base of the box is centered over the baking dish. Place the cardboard tube on top of the box, centered over the 4-inch circular opening. The tube will serve as a chimney. Turn the hot plate on and set it at medium high. BE CAREFUL! The hot plate, baking dish, and the base of the tornado box will become VERY HOT. Because these surfaces will be very hot through out the activity, only adults should be touching the set up. Students can watch closely, but they SHOULD NOT TOUCH ANY PART OF THE TORNADO SET UP. Allow time for the water to warm and begin to heat and humidify the air inside the tornado box. Watch carefully. The air inside the box will begin to move and its currents will be faintly visible against the black background on the back sides of the box. When the air in the box is swirling rapidly light a match. Away from the corner openings of the tornado box blow out the match, but while it is still smoking hold it near one of the openings. The smoke will help make the moving air inside the box more visible. Can you see the tornado? Remove the chimney. Use another match to help see the movement inside the box. Can you still see the tornado? Think about why or why not. Replace the chimney and wait a few moments for the air currents to reestablish themselves. After the tornado has formed again you may proceed to the next step. Slide one of the Plexiglas sides over to create a very large opening in the front of the tornado box. Use another match to help see


the movement inside the box. Can you still see the tornado? Think about why or why not. Replace the side and wait a few moments for the air currents to reestablish themselves. After the tornado has formed again you may proceed to the next step. Tape a paper rectangle loosely over each of the corner openings of the box. Wait a few moments. Use a match to help see the movement inside the box. Can you still see the tornado? Think about why or why not. Remove the paper corner coverings and wait a few moments for the air currents to reestablish themselves. After the tornado has formed again you may proceed to the next step. Can you think of any other changes you would like to test? Before testing them, make a guess about how you expect that change to affect the tornado inside the box. Then, test your hypothesis. When all changes have been tested, turn off the hot plate and allow the tornado set up to cool before dissembling it.

Questions

1. What are two of the things needed for a tornado to form? How were those two things simulated in our tornado model? 2. Why did the tornado in the box change when the chimney was removed? When the side was opened wide? When the side openings were covered?

Summary

Tornadoes are formed when warm humid air quickly rises and cool dry air rushes in to replace it. Currents in the air begin to swirl around the storm’s low-pressure center at high speeds. Dust and debris are lifted by the storm’s fierce winds and much destruction results. Tornadoes can uproot trees, pull the roofs off houses, and demolish almost anything in their paths. The tornado box used here helps see how tornadoes are formed. As the water in the baking pan is warmed it warms the air in the tornado box. Evaporation of the water in the pan makes the warm air in the box very humid, as well. Warm air rises due to its’ low pressure, and the chimney attached to the opening in the top of the box helps the warm humid air rise quickly. The openings at the box’s corners allow the cooler, drier air from the rest of the room to rush into the box to replace the warm air. The cool air and the warm air interact inside the box to form swirling currents, and before long a funnel shaped cloud of condensing water is visible. The cloud is made more visible by allowing lightweight particles of smoke to be drawn into the box. Changing the conditions by altering any part of the tornado box assembly will change the behavior of the air inside the box. For example, removing the chimney prevents the warm air from rising as quickly, so less cold air is drawn in, and the air currents needed for the tornado do not form.

Source

Jym Ganahl - tornado box design How the Weather Works © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.


Weather Fronts

Index

In the atmosphere surrounding the earth air is constantly moving. A large area of air that moves together and has constant temperature and humidity is called and air mass. Air masses of different conditions do not easily mix. The boundary between air masses of different conditions is called a front. Let’s explore fronts and interacting air masses.

Materials

Aquarium Water Red and blue food coloring 2 plastic beakers Washers

What To Do

Fill the aquarium almost to the top with room temperature water. Place a few washers in the bottom of each beaker, and fill one beaker with very cold water. Fill the other beaker with very hot water. Add two drops of blue food coloring to the beaker of cold water and add two drops of red food coloring to the beaker of hot water. Pick up one beaker in each hand and position them over opposite ends of the aquarium. At the same time drop each of the beakers carefully in the water. Watch how the colored water from each beaker moves throughout the water in the aquarium.

Questions

1. In what direction did the hot water move? In what direction did the cold water move? 2. What does this tell you about how the weather works? How does hot air move? How does cold air move?

Summary

Much of our observable weather is caused by the interactions of different air masses. Warm air is less dense than cold air, so warm air rises and warm air exerts less pressure than cold air. As air cools, it becomes denser, so it sinks and also exerts greater pressure. A mass of warm air, or a low-pressure region, usually brings rain or snow because in low pressure regions air is being warmed and is rising. As the air rises the water vapor it contains condenses. A mass of cold air, or a high-pressure region usually means dry weather. The boundaries between air masses, or fronts, can be classified as either warm or cold fronts. If the air behind the front is warmer than the air ahead of it, it is a warm front. At a warm front the warm air rises up over the cold air at a gentle slope. The moisture in the warm air condenses as it rises, forming clouds, making rain or snow possible. If the air behind the front is cooler then it is a cold front. At a cold front, the cold air wedges under the warm air, causing the warm air to rise quickly. The moisture in the quickly rising warm air condenses to form thick clouds and storms.

Source

Michael Allaby. How the Weather Works. The Readers Digest Association, Inc. Pleasantville, New York, 1995. ISBN 0-7621-0234-9 Š S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.


Wind Vane and Anemometer

Index

This experiment teaches students about measuring wind direction and speed.

Materials

2 colors of cardstock Modeling clay Double-sided tape Straw Scissors Protractor 1 wooden barbecue skewer, cut in 2 pieces about 3 ½” from the pointed end Ruler Marker Pen

What To Do

Cut the cardstock into different sizes of rectangles, one color 7” x ½”, and the other color 4” x 9”. Draw a center line across each rectangle, splitting them in half lengthwise (i.e. the small piece will have a line at 3 ½” and the large one will have a line at 4 ½”. Draw a line on the large rectangle to the right of the center line. Tape the long part of the skewer along the off-center line of the large rectangle, leaving about ½” of the skewer sticking out above the rectangle. Fold the large rectangle along the center line, and tape the insides together using the double-sided tape. Tape a ½” straw on the center line of the small rectangle. Fold the rectangle over the straw and tape the insides together. Thread the short skewer through the straw in the small rectangle. With a pen point, make a small hole in the top corner of the large rectangle, next to the skewer. Using the protractor, draw a 90 degree arc near the bottom corner of the large rectangle that is opposite the hole, marking it at 15 degree intervals. Stand the rest of the straw upright in some modeling clay to hold the stick of the large rectangle. Put the other stick (with the small card on it) through the small hole in the corner. Use modeling clay on the ends of the skewers to secure them. When wind blows, the large card will show direction and the small card will show speed.

Source

“How Weather Works,” Michael Allaby, Reader’s Digest, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1995. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.

Grade Level: This experiment is expected to be appropriate for grades 2 and above.


Meteorology

Index

• Meteorology comes from the Greek word meaning “description of what happens in air.” • • Aristotle was the first to write about weather some 2000 years ago! • • A hygrometer is an instrument that measures humidity. It was first invented by Leonardo DaVinci around 1500. • • The barometer was invented in 1644 by Evangelista Torricelli (he was an assistant to Galileo.) • • The thermometer was invented in 1714 by Gabriel Daniel Farenheit - the scale we use to measure temperature is named after him. • • Weather Forecasting - a Norweigan team headed by Vilhelm Bjerknes showed how fronts form between masses of air at different temperatures and how raindrops grow in 1920.

© S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.


Index

Supply Lists Making a Barometer

1 drinking straw 1 large-mouth jar 1 large balloon (11 inch diameter or larger Duct tape or very large rubber bands Tape Paper Manila file folder Toothpick Marker

Making a Humidity Monitor

White drawing paper or white coffee filter paper 10% cobalt chloride in water (Approximately 5 grams in 50 milliliters of water.) Scissors Goggles Double sided tape Tongs or large tweezers Hair dryer Spray bottle Water Shallow disposable foil baking pan

Making Clouds

Clear 2 Liter bottle with a screw-on top Warm water Match

Model of Water Cycle

Water cycle model (Fisher Science Education CVS45140A) 60 Watt Light Water Salt Ice

Plants and Weather

Celery or white flower Potted plant Clear plastic bag String or large rubber band Glass Food coloring

Rain Gauge

2 Liter plastic bottle Marbles or rocks Duct tape Small-width colored tape Scissors Ruler

Tornado!

Hot plate Round metal baking dish (8 inch diameter) Water Cardboard tube, 2-3 feet long, 4-inch diameter Wooden kitchen matches Black Construction Paper, 2 - 7 1/2 inch squares and 4- 9-inch X 1-inch rectangles Tape Tornado box

Weather Fronts

Aquarium Water Red and blue food coloring 2 plastic beakers Washers

Wind Vane and Anemometer

2 colors of cardstock Modeling clay Double-sided tape Straw Scissors Protractor 1 wooden barbecue skewer, cut in 2 pieces about 3 1/2� from the pointed end Ruler Marker Pen


References

Index

“Teaching Chemistry with Toys.” Sarquis, Sarquis and Williams, Terrific Science Press, 1995. “How Science Works.” J. Hahn, Dorling Kindersley, London, 1991. ISBN 0-7621-0249-7 “Science for Children.” 3rd ed., Williard J. Jacobsen, Abby B. Bergman, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1991. “Teaching Physical Science Through Children’s Literature.” Grentz, Portman, Sarquis, Terrific Science Press, 1996. “How Weather Works,” Michael Allaby, Reader’s Digest, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1995. “Science Is . . . A Resource Book for Fascinating Facts, Projects, and Activities.” S. Bosak, Scholastic Canada, 1998. Information supplied with the water cycle model.


Children’s Literature

Index

Wind and Weather.” Time-Life Books: Alexandria. 1989. ISBN 0-8094-4829-7. “Sunshine.” By Miranda Ashwell and Andy Owen. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing: Chicago, 1999. ISBN 1-57572-791-9. “Watching the Weather.” By Miranda Ashwell and Andy Owen. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing: Chicago, 1999. ISBN 1-57572-792-7. “Wind.” By Miranda Ashwell and Andy Owen. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing: Chicago, 1999. ISBN 1-57572-793-5. “Can It Rain Cats and Dogs? Questions and Answers About Weather.” By Melvin and Gilda Berger. Illustrated by Robert Sullivan. Scholastic Reference: New York, 1999. ISBN 0-590-13083-8. “How’s the Weather? A Look at Weather and How It Changes.” By Melvin and Gilda Berger. Illustrated by John Emil Cymerman. Ideal’s Children’s Books: Nashville, 1993. ISBN 0-8249-8641-5. “Down Comes the Rain.” By Franklyn Mansfield Branley. Illustrated by James Graham Hale. HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1997. ISBN 0-06-025338-X. “Flash, Crash, Rumble, and Roll.” By Franklyn Mansfield Branley. Illustrated by Barbara and Ed Emberley. Thomas Y. Crowell: New York, 1985. ISBN 0-690-04425-9. “The Magic School Bus Inside a Hurricane.” By Joanna Cole. Illustrated by Bruce Degan. Scholastic, Inc.: New York, 1995. ISBN 0-590-44686-X. “Thunder and Lightning.” By David Cutts, illustrated by David Henderson. Troll Communications: 1998. ISBN 0-8167-4445-9. “Lightning! and Thunderstorms: Exciting Eyewitness Accounts, Facts, and Photos.” By Mike Graf. Simon & Schuster Childrens Publishing Division: New York, 1998. ISBN 0-689-82018-6. “Hurricanes: Earth’s Mightiest Storms.” By Patricia Lauber. Scholastic Press: New York, 1996. ISBN 0-590-47406-5. “A Rainy Day.” By Sandra Markle. Illustrated by Cathy Johnson. Orchard Books: New York, 1993. ISBN 0-531-08576-7. “Why Does Lightning Strike? Questions Children Ask About Weather.” By Terry Martin. DK Publishing: New York, 1996. ISBN 0-7894-1123-7. “River of Life.” By Debbie Miller. Illustrated by Jon Van Zyle. Clarion Books: New York, 2000. ISBN 0-395-96790-2. “The Magic School Bus Wet All Over: A Book About the Water Cycle.” By Pat Relf. Illustrated by Carolyn Bracken. Book adaptation of an episode of the animated TV series The Magic School Bus, based on the series by Joanna Cole and Bruce Degan. Scholastic, Inc.: New York, 1996. ISBN 0-590-50833-4. “Where Do Puddles Go?” By Fay Robinson. Children’s Press: Chicago, 1995. ISBN 0-516-06036-8. “The Biggest Snowball Ever!” By John Rogan. Candlewick Press: Cambridge, 1988. ISBN 0-7636-0485-2. “Clouds.” By Gail Saunders-Smith. Capstone Press: Mankato, 1998. ISBN 0-56065-777-4. “Lightning.” By Gail Saunders-Smith. Capstone Press: Mankato, 1998. ISBN 0-56065-779-0. “Rain.” By Gail Saunders-Smith. Capstone Press: Mankato, 1998. ISBN 0-56065-778-2. “Sunshine.” By Gail Saunders-Smith. Capstone Press: Mankato, 1998. ISBN 0-56065-780-4. “Discovering El Nino: How Fable and Fact Together Help Explain the Weather.” By Patricia Seibert. Illustrated by Jan Davey Ellis. The Millbrook Press: Brookfield, 1999. ISBN 0-7613-1273-0. “On the Same Day in March: A Tour of the World’s Weather.” By Marilyn Singer. Illustrated by Frane Lessac. HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 2000. ISBN 0-06-028187-1. “Magic Monsters Learn About Weather.” By Sylvia Root Tester. Illustrated by Patricia McMahon Boman. The Child’s World: Elgin, 1980. ISBN 0-89565-120-3. “Weather Legends: Native American Lore and the Science of Weather.” By Carole Garbuny Vogel. The Millbrook Press: Brookfield, 2001. ISBN 0-7613-1900-X.


“The Magic School Bus Kicks Up a Storm: A Book About Weather.” By Nancy White. Illustrated by Art Ruiz. Book adaptation of an episode of the animated TV series The Magic School Bus, based on the series by Joanna Cole and Bruce Degan. Scholastic, Inc.: New York, 2000. ISBN 0-439-10275-8. “A Drop of Water: A Book of Science and Wonder.” By Walter Wick. Illustrated with photographs by the Author. Scholastic Press: New York, 1997. ISBN 0-590-22197-3. “Lightning.” By Seymour Simon, photographs by Warren Faidley, Johnny Auterly, Peter Menzel, Thomas Ives, Dan Osborne, F.K. Smith, and R. Lewis. Morrow Junior Books: New York, 1997. ISBN 0-688-14639-2. “Tornadoes.” By Seymour Simon, photographs by David Hoadley, Howard Bluestein, Phil Degginger, Joseph H. Bailey, Chris Jones, E.R. Degginger, Harald Ritcher, and Jim Reed. Morrow Junior Books: New York, 1997. ISBN 0-688-14647-3.


Notes

Index

There are currently no notes on this unit. If you have suggestions or changes to make on the experiments or units, please email us! Our address is wow@chemistry.ohio-state.edu. Š S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.

Copyright Š 2002-2010 by S.Olesik, Wonders of Our World Project (WOW), the Ohio State University. Permission to make digital or hard copies of portions of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page in print or the first screen in digital media. Abstracting with credit is permitted.

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Weather Experiments Making a Barometer Making a Humidity Monitor Making Clouds Model of the Water Cycle Plants and Weather Rain Gauge Refere...

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