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Geology Experiments


Index Earth Beneath My Feet

3

Journey to the Center of the Earth

4

Making and Dating Fossils

6

Sedimentary Rocks

7

Supply List

8

References

9

Children’s Literatrue

12

Notes

13


Earth Beneath My Feet

Index

In this experiment, volunteers will help students build a model of the Earth’s crust using food. There are many layers of the earth’s crust, which are in turn made up of different types of rock. By describing what each layer of the sandwich represents, students should learn how the earth’s crust is developed and what materials have combined to form it.

Materials

Stack of paper plates Plastic knives Clear, empty film canister Dark rye bread Light brown bread White bread Apple butter mixed with raisins OR Crunchy peanut butter Cream cheese mixed with M & M’s OR White icing with colored chips Materials to sketch and label the sandwich (left side: names of food, right side: names of rocks and characteristics) Pictures of different layers of rocks, such as in the Grand Canyon

What To Do

The following steps will guide the making of a sandwich to explain the development of the earth’s crust. The first layer to put down is the stack of plates. This represents granite, which is the igneous rock that was laid down billions of years ago. We use a stack of plates because granite is so much thicker than the other layers of the crust. (If a stack of plates cannot be used be sure to mention that the layer of granite is very thick.) Next is the honey graham cracker. This represents sandstone, which would have been formed by a river. When a river flows over bedrock, over time it erodes the bedrock, creating small particles of sand. Eventually, with the mineral deposits from the water the sand becomes cemented together and forms sandstone on the river bottom. Now add the apple butter and sprinkle the apple butter with the raisins. A long time ago, a great flood occurred, which caused mud and rocks to be deposited over the sandstone. With time, this combination of mud and rocks eventually became a sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Now the cinnamon graham cracker is added to represent shale. As time continued, the river slowed down and carried small pieces of rock called silt. The silt accumulated and eventually became shale. Next add the icing to represent fossilized limestone. At this point in Earth’s history, an ice age ended. This means that the glaciers melted, the oceans rose, and water covered what was previously land. Creatures living in the ocean died and left their skeletons and shells on the ocean floor. The crust of the earth, the shells, and the skeletons cemented together over time, creating what is called fossilized limestone. Last, add a chocolate graham cracker. This represents topsoil, which covers the other rock layers many long years after the ocean and river have disappeared and the rock layers rose up. There are several processes which can cause the layers to rise. Ask students to name a few. Some answers might include earthquakes, tectonic plates shifting, and so forth. Now, distribute diagrams for each student and sketch the sandwich. Ask the students to tell you the order of the rock layers. Label the sketch as they answer correctly and allow time for them to fill in the corresponding food layers on their diagrams. Ask the class to help you label the food layers in the sketch to make sure they all have the correct answers. Deform the sandwich to show students what might happen during such occurrences like earthquakes. Cut the sandwich in different directions to reveal different patterns made by the rock layers. Show students the pictures of rock layers and compare with the sandwich.


Questions

1. What does each part of the sandwich represent? Do the materials match the character (look) of the actual sediments or sedimentary rock? In what environments do they form? (See “What To Do” for answers.) 2. How deep can we drill? (Oil companies dig as deep as 8 kilometers and this is in sedimentary rock. Igneous and Metamorphic rock has only been drilled to depths of 2 or 3 kilometers.) 3. What are the rock units in Ohio? (Eastern Ohio - Limestone, Sandstone, Siltstone and Coal Central Ohio Shale at surface Western – Limestone) 4. What patterns occur when the rocks are folded? When they are cut at angles? (See definition section on anticlines and synclines. Cutting the rock shows shifting of layers, which is similar to what would happen in an earthquake.) 5. How deep do these sedimentary rock layers go in Ohio? (700 meters on the west of Ohio and 4000 meters on the southeastern side.) 6. Do they contain resources? (Some gas and oil.)

Summary

The earth is made up of three different major sections: the crust, the mantle, and the core. The crust beneath the continents averages at about 30 km, and beneath the ocean at about 5 km. The mantle is about 2900 km thick. The outer core, made up of liquid, is approximately 2200 km thick. The inner core, which is made up of very hot, very dense solid metal, is about 1250 km thick. Under large mountain ranges like the Alps and the Sierra Nevada, the crust of the earth may be up to 100 km thick. Rocks are composed of tiny bits of minerals. They are formed naturally over millions of years. Sometimes there are natural occurrences such as a river flowing over rock, which cause the rock to break down. This creates sediment, or small pieces of rock. The sediment may then be cemented together with minerals to become sedimentary rock. The different types of sedimentary rock include shale, sandstone, conglomerate, coal, and chemical. Shale is made up of cemented silt and clay. Sandstone is made of sand and mineral deposits found in the water. Conglomerate rock is made of cemented round gravel. Coal is from plant material. Limestone is made of chemicals like calcium carbonate, often precipitated from warm shallow seawater. Generally, newer sedimentary rock is found above older sedimentary rock. However, sometimes this is not the case due to folds in rock. These are bends or wavelike features found in rocks, which may be caused by the ground rising, especially during earthquakes.

Extensions

1. Deformation of layers: Folds and faults (or leave for later) 2. Measurement of Porosity of Sand 1. Take a graduated cylinder and measure a known volume of dry sand (50mL). 2. Place this dry sand in a cup. 3. Measure a known volume of water (100 mL). Slowly add the water to the sand. Where is it going? Continue to add the water to the sand until the sand is completely saturated with the water. Do not overfill the sand with water. How much water was used to fill the air spaces between the sand particles? This describes the pore volume of the sand. Groundwater is found in sedimentary deposits like what was just made. As much as 40-50% of the total volume may be filled with water. The porosity is calculated by placing the pore volume over the total volume.


Vocabulary

Sediment-the product of the breakdown of rock Sedimentary Rock-rock formed from the cementing of sediment together by mineral deposits Sediments and sedimentary environments (lake, swamp, river, dune, reef, beach, glacial) Shale-fine grain (1/16 mm diameter sedimentary rock formed by cementing silt and clay. Has laminations and can be split into pieces Sandstone-a medium grain rock with grains sizes from 1/16 mm to 2 mm in diameter. This is formed by cementing sand grains together. Conglomerate-a course grained sedimentary rock with grains coarser than 2 mm. This is formed by cementing rounded gravel. Gravel-rounded rock particles > 2 mm in diameter Coal-a sedimentary rock formed from the consolidation of plant material Age relationships . . . .superposition-typically, the deeper the layer the older the rock Folds are bends or wavelike features of rocks. These are similar in structure to layers of blankets that have been pushed into arches and troughs. This is what happened with the final step of the sandwich-making. An anticline is an upward arching fold. A syncline is a trough-like fold.

Sources

Presentation, “Sandwich Geology” Trisler et al., 2001, SECO Cincinnati. “Science Is . . . A Resource Book for Fascinating Facts, Projects, and Activities.” S. Bosak, Scholastic Canada, 1998, p.229. “Magic School Bus: Inside the Earth.” Joanne Cole, Teacher Created Materials, Inc., p.12. “Physical Geology.” Plummer, McGeary and Carlson, McGraw-Hill, 1999. GEOEDGROUP- The Ohio State University USGS website, http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/inside.html © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.what would happen in an earthquake.) How deep do these sedimentary rock layers go in Ohio? (700 meters on the west of Ohio and 4000 meters on the southeastern side.) Do they contain resources? (Some gas and oil.)

Summary

The earth is made up of three different major sections: the crust, the mantle, and the core. The crust beneath the continents averages at about 30 km, and beneath the ocean at about 5 km. The mantle is about 2900 km thick. The outer core, made up of liquid, is approximately 2200 km thick. The inner core, which is made up of very hot, very dense solid metal, is about 1250 km thick. Under large mountain ranges like the Alps and the Sierra Nevada, the crust of the earth may be up to 100 km thick. Rocks are composed of tiny bits of minerals. They are formed naturally over millions of years. Sometimes there are natural occurrences such as a river flowing over rock, which cause the rock to break down. This creates sediment, or small pieces of rock. The sediment may then be cemented together with minerals to become sedimentary rock. The different types of sedimentary rock include shale, sandstone, conglomerate, coal, and chemical. Shale is made up of cemented silt and clay. Sandstone is made of sand and mineral deposits found in the water. Conglomerate rock is made of cemented round gravel. Coal is from plant material. Limestone is made of chemicals like calcium carbonate, often precipitated from warm shallow seawater. Generally, newer sedimentary rock is found above older sedimentary rock. However, sometimes this is not the case due to folds in rock. These are bends or wavelike features found in rocks, which may be caused by the ground rising, especially during earthquakes.


Sources

Presentation, “Sandwich Geology” Trisler et al., 2001, SECO Cincinnati. “Science Is . . . A Resource Book for Fascinating Facts, Projects, and Activities.” S. Bosak, Scholastic Canada, 1998, p.229. “Magic School Bus: Inside the Earth.” Joanne Cole, Teacher Created Materials, Inc., p.12. “Physical Geology.” Plummer, McGeary and Carlson, McGraw-Hill, 1999. GEOEDGROUP- The Ohio State University USGS website, http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/inside.html © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.


Journey to the Center of the Earth

Index

Materials

Apple Sharp Knife Marbles for core Paint or markers 4” diameter Styrofoam sphere Blue plastic wrap Brown paper from shopping bags

What To Do

Cut apple into 2 pieces (or 4 pieces) from the stem, through the core to the base. Note differences in composition between the skin of the apple, the interior of the apple and the core. Show skin, body, and the core of the apple. Measure the thickness of each unit. Go to Discussion. Cut the Styrofoam ball into two halves. Cut out the sections of the earth and pin them to the interior flat surface of the Styrofoam ball. Take off one ring of the paper form at a time, and paint or color in with markers that section of the Styrofoam. If using paint, let the paint dry. When paint is dry, put the sphere back together with a marble in the middle to represent the core and cover with blue plastic to represent the crust. Cut continents using template provided for tracing on brown paper (or have them trace continents from globe). They only need to do � earth and another group can do the other half, so that when the spheres are joined, we have a full set of continents. Pin continents on globe. If too difficult . . . place them anywhere, illustrating they do move. They can label the continents with a pen.

Questions

1. What do the parts of the Styrofoam model represent in the interior of the Earth? Crust, Mantle, and Core. The combination of the mantle and the crust makes up approximately 85% of the total volume of the earth. 2. What do the parts of the apple represent in the interior of the Earth? How do the sizes of each unit compare to the sizes for the Earth (ratios)? 3. How thick should the ocean (the continents?) be in the model? Tissue thin. 4. Why are there different layers? Discuss. Parts have different properties (and names) because of temperature, pressure, composition, density, and state. With increasing depth, the increased temperature and pressure causes the elements present in the earth’s layers to compact into denser material and causes phase changes. The inner core is composed of solid iron with very low levels of nickel. It has a radius of approximately 750 miles (1220 km) and has a temperature of 8,000 ºF (4,400-7000 ºC). The outer core is approximately 1400 miles (2,240 km) thick and has a temperature of 8000-11,000 ºF (4,400-6,100 ºC) and is liquid iron and nickel. The lower mantle is approximately 1400 miles (2240 km) thick as measured from the end of the core to the beginning of the upper mantle. The temperature of the lower mantle varies from 1600 ºF to 8000 ºF (870-4400 ºC) and the upper mantle is 400 miles (640 km) thick and the crust is 2-75 miles (3-120 km) thick and is solid rock. 5. Which parts of the model have the densest material? The density increases with depth. The crust has a density of approximately 2.7-3.0 g/cm3; the mantle density varies from 3.7-5.5 g/ cm3 with the density increasing with depth; the density of the outer core varies from 10-12 g/ cm3; and the density of the inner core varies from 12-13 g/cm3. The average density of the earth is 5.5 g/cm3.


6. Hottest material? See question number 4. 7. What is the composition of these materials in the Earth? See question number 4. 8. How do we know what is inside the earth? Scientists use data from earthquake waves to determine this information. The speed and direction of travel of the waves through the earth provides this information. 9. How deep has anyone gone inside the earth? How deep have we drilled? Oil companies dig as deep as 8 kilometers in sedimentary rock. Igneous and metamorphic rocks have only been drilled to depths of 2 or 3 kilometers. The deepest well to date has been dug in Russia’s Kola Peninsula, which is now approximately 7.5 miles deep. It is important to note that this is still far from getting to the mantle layer.

Vocabulary

Crust Mantle Core(s) Oceans Continents Movement of Plates Geology models

Extension

Label the interior parts with names on paper. Give thicknesses. Label depth range for earthquakes. Discuss the sources of molten material in mantle. Discuss the inner and outer core.

Sources

Presentation, “Eating the Earth” Trisler et al., 2001, SECO Cincinnati. “Magic School Bus: Inside the Earth.” Joanne Cole, Teacher Created Materials, Inc., p.12. “Physical Geology.” Plummer, McGeary and Carlson, McGraw-Hill, 1999. GEOEDGROUP- The Ohio State University © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.


Making and Dating Fossils

Index

Ice cream is partially frozen foam with an air content of 40 - 50% by volume. The foam consists of liquid and solid water (ice crystals) and fat globules; it exists as an emulsion, a stabilized mixture of immiscible droplets or particles. These experiments will look at the properties of ice cream when it is made by chilling it to the very low temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 oC). In addition, the change of nitrogen from gas phase to liquid phase will be observed.

Materials

2 Stainless Steel large mixing bowls 2 Wooden Spoons 2 Measuring cups or Beakers 2 Cups Heavy Whipping Cream 2 Cups Half and Half 4 Cups Skim Milk 3 Tablespoons Vanilla 2 Cups Sugar 1 Small Dewar 1 5-Liter Dewar 5 Liters of Liquid Nitrogen Balloons Racquet Balls Ping Pong Balls Tongs Styrofoam or Plastic cups Spoons Napkins

Safety

Liquid nitrogen can cause severe burns. All participants in these experiments must wear goggles at all times. Anyone touching the metal bowl must be wearing cryogloves. Only experienced adult scientist should dispense the liquid nitrogen.

History

Folk tales claim that the cook of the French king Charles I was the first to invent ice cream in the early 1600s. Charles was so pleased that he wanted the recipe to be kept a secret, so the dessert could only be served at his table. The cook did not keep his promise of secrecy, and the recipe for ice cream spread widely.

What To Do

Conversion of gaseous nitrogen to liquid nitrogen. Blow into a balloon until it is approximately four inches in diameter. Fill the small dewar with liquid nitrogen. Place the balloon in the dewar. Cover the dewar and let the balloon remain there for 15 20 minutes. Use tongs to remove the balloon. Observe the balloon for a few minutes.

QUESTIONS

1. What is observable in the bottom of the balloon? 2. What happens as the balloon warms to room temperature?


Summary

The air inside the balloon was cooled enough by the liquid nitrogen to change from gas to liquid. As the balloon warms up and begins to expand a small amount of liquid air should be visible inside the balloon. Since air is mostly nitrogen it is mostly liquid nitrogen that can be seen inside the balloon. The volume change associated with the phase change from gas to liquid is dramatic because the molecules in liquids are so much closer together than in gases.

Changing the Properties of a Racquet Ball

Have a student bounce a racquet ball. Use tongs to place the racquetball in a dewar of liquid nitrogen. Allow it to remain there for 5 minutes. Ask students what will happen when the ball is removed and bounced again. Use tongs to remove the racquetball from the dewar. Away from the students, but still in their view, drop the ball on the floor.

Question

1. Why did that happen to the ball?

Summary

The racquetball at room temperature bounces easily, but when it is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature it becomes very hard and brittle. When dropped to the floor the ball shatters like glass.

Liquid Nitrogen and Ping Pong Ball Behavior With a small pin puncture a ping-pong ball by pushing it into the ball at an angle. Cool the ping-pong ball by immersing it in liquid nitrogen for a few minutes. Use tongs to carefully dunk the ball under the surface of the liquid. Use tongs to move remove the ping-pong ball and place it on a table or some other smooth surface. Observe carefully as the ball begins to warm up.

Questions

1. What is observable in the bottom of the balloon? 2. What happens as the balloon warms to room temperature?

Summary

The air inside the balloon was cooled enough by the liquid nitrogen to change from gas to liquid. As the balloon warms up and begins to expand a small amount of liquid air should be visible inside the balloon. Since air is mostly nitrogen it is mostly liquid nitrogen that can be seen inside the balloon. The volume change associated with the phase change from gas to liquid is dramatic because the molecules in liquids are so much closer together than in gases.

Conversion of Gaseous Nitrogen to Liquid Nitrogen

Blow into a balloon until it is approximately four inches in diameter. Fill the small dewar with liquid nitrogen. Place the balloon in the dewar. Cover the dewar and let the balloon remain there for 15-20 minutes. Use tongs to remove the balloon. Observe the balloon for a few minutes.

Questions

1. What is observable in the bottom of the balloon? 2. What happens as the balloon warms to room temperature?


Summary

The air inside the balloon was cooled enough by the liquid nitrogen to change from gas to liquid. As the balloon warms up and begins to expand a small amount of liquid air should be visible inside the balloon. Since air is mostly nitrogen it is mostly liquid nitrogen that can be seen inside the balloon. The volume change associated with the phase change from gas to liquid is dramatic because the molecules in liquids are so much closer together than in gases.

Source

“Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry.” Vol. 3., Bassam Shakhashiri, University of Wisconsin Press, 1989. “Science Is.” Susan V. Bosak, Scholastic Press, 1991. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2002.


Sedimentary Rocks

Index

In this experiment, students will learn about sedimentary rocks, how they are formed, and how they are classified. They will then make pieces of sandstone, limestone, and conglomerate rocks, and learn to compare and contrast the different types of rock.

Materials

Classification Office supplies such as: erasers, pencils, paper clips, pens, rubber bands, paper, post-its, markers, alligator clips (binder clips), tape, ruler, measuring tape, highlighters, etc. Sedimentary rocks such as: shale, sandstone, conglomerate, and other sedimentary rocks Making a piece of sandstone Dry Sand Cementing Solution (2 parts water to 1 part Epsom salt) Paper cups Making a piece of conglomerate rock Shoebox Garbage bag Paper cups Sandwich baggies Dry Cement Dry Sand Water Pebbles Spoons Measuring Cup Making a piece of limestone Shoebox Garbage bag Paper cups Sandwich baggies Plaster or Paris Water Pieces of shells (optional) Spoons Measuring Cup

What To Do

Classification 1. Take bag full of office supplies, all mixed together. 2. Dump contents in front of students and ask how they might classify, or organize, the different supplies. 3. Let the students sort the supplies. Suggest sorting by size, shape, color, use, etc. 4. Explain that geologists have to sort rocks in much the same way. There are several different ways to classify, and geologists, like the students, must decide which way is best to sort first. 5. Show students the sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and other rocks. Explain that these are part of a classification called sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are most often formed in the presence of water. Ask students what kinds of water might be used. Suggest answers like rivers, lakes, and oceans. Making a piece of sandstone 1. Fill a small paper cup halfway with sand. 2. Slowly add the cementing solution until the sand is wet all the way through. 3. Put the sandstone mixture in a warm place until it is completely dry (about 3 days)


Making a piece of conglomerate rock 1. Line the shoebox with plastic. 2. Add one cup of dry cement, one cup of dry sand, and one cup of cold water. Mix thoroughly. 3. Add rocks to the mixture, again mixing thoroughly. 4. Pour into small cups lined with plastic, one for each child. 5. Place cups in a warm area that will not be disturbed for two or three days, until the mixture is dry. Making a piece of limestone 1. Line the shoebox with plastic. 2. Add plaster and water (2 parts dry plaster to 1 part water). Mix thoroughly. 3. Add shells and mix together with the plaster. Fossils are commonly found in limestone because the rock is formed from the calcium found in bones and shells. 4. Pour into small cups lined with plastic, one for each child. 5. Place cups in a warm area that will not be disturbed for two or three days, until the mixture is dry. Once rocks are dry (2-3 days later) 1. Teachers should have students remove their sandstone from the cup – probably by tearing the cup. 2. Students should then remove their conglomerate rock from the cup. Remove the plastic from the rock. If the small pebbles in the conglomerate rock are not visible from the exterior break the rock open. 3. Students should then remove their limestone from the cup. Remove the plastic from the rock. 4. Use a magnifying glass to compare and contrast the different types of rock.

Questions

1. What are rocks made up of? (Minerals) 2. How do we classify different types of rock? Sedimentary rock? (By grain size, what they’re made up of, etc.) 3. What materials make sedimentary rocks? (Silt, clay, sand, gravel, plant materials) 4. What size breaks might we use for each category? (The size breaks used to distinguish different sedimentary rocks are: Shale-fine grain (1/16 mm diameter) sedimentary rock formed by cementing silt and clay. Has laminations and can be split into pieces. Sandstone-a medium grain rock with grain sizes from 1/16 mm to 2 mm in diameter. This is formed by cementing sand grains together. Conglomerate-A course grained sedimentary rock with grains coarser than 2 mm. This is formed by cementing rounded gravel. Gravel-rounded rock particles > 2mm in diameter. Coal-A sedimentary rock formed from the consolidation of plant material. Limestone-precipitated from aqueous environments. Example: limestone is made up of mostly calcium carbonate. It is often precipitated from warm shallow seawaters. Till is a mixture of all possible grain sizes. This mixture is caused by glaciation and is present beneath the topsoil of Ohio.) Topsoil is loose sediment laying above the other forms of sedimentary rocks. 5. Where does the glue (cement) come from in nature? (Solutions of dissolved minerals like calcium carbonate.) 6. What might cause folds (crooked-looking layers) in sedimentary rock? (Earthquakes, tectonic plates shifting, and so forth.) 7. Why do you think there are not layers in limestone? (Limestone is formed by chemical reactions, so it looks like it is all one large piece.)

Summary

Rocks are composed of tiny bits of minerals. They are formed naturally over millions of years. Sometimes there are natural occurrences such as a river running or wind blowing over rock, which cause the rock to break down. This creates sediment, or small pieces of rock. The sediment may then be cemented together with minerals to become sedimentary rock. This occurs only under huge amounts of pressure. In our sandstone experiment, the Epsom salt (a type of mineral) took the place of the mineral deposits found in water that bond the sediment together. Other sedimentary rocks are different in that they may be formed by chemicals bonding together.


The different types of sedimentary rock include shale, sandstone, conglomerate, coal, and limestone. Shale is made up of cemented silt and clay, otherwise known as dirt and mud. Sandstone is made of sand and mineral deposits found in the water. Sandstone is often formed by an extinct beach – many of the minerals come from the water, and the sand from the old beach. Conglomerate rock is made of cemented round gravel. Coal is from plant material. These sedimentary rocks are formed under great amounts of heat and pressure. Limestone is made of chemicals like calcium carbonate, often precipitated from warm shallow seawater. Limestone is not formed like other sedimentary rocks in that it has no “glue,” since it is completely composed of chemicals bonded together. These chemicals are calcium and carbonate, which come from materials such as shells. Because limestone is formed by chemicals bonding, geologists do not see layers of limestone – it all looks like one big piece! Generally, newer sedimentary rock is found above older sedimentary rock – this is called the Law of Superposition. However, sometimes this is not the case due to folds in rock. These are bends or wavelike features found in rocks, which may be caused by the ground rising, especially during earthquakes.

Extensions

1. Students may research different uses for sand and sandstone. 2. Students may study porosity by adding water to sand in a jar. Where does the water go before it overflows the sediments at the surface?

Source

“Physical Geology.” Plummer, McGeary, and Carlson, McGraw Hill, 1999. “Rocks and Minerals: Make your own sandstone.” Albert, Toni and Ling, George, 1994, Carson-Dellosa Publ, p. 40. “Stories in Stone Formation of Sedimentary Rocks.” Cuff. Kevin, 1995, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California Berkeley, p. 65. GEOEDGROUP-OSU (Amanda Cavin, Alison Laughbaum, Garry McKenzie, Christina Millan, Rachel Tayse) © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.


Index

Supply List Earth Beneath My Feet

Stack of paper plates Plastic knives Clear, empty film canister Dark rye bread Light brown bread White bread Apple butter mixed with raisins OR Crunchy peanut butter Cream cheese mixed with M & M’s OR White icing with colored chips Materials to sketch and label the sandwich (left side: names of food, right side: names of rocks and characteristics) Pictures of different layers of rocks, such as in the Grand Canyon

Journey to the Center of the Earth Apple Sharp Knife Marbles for core Paint or markers 4” diameter Styrofoam sphere Blue plastic wrap Brown paper from shopping bags

Making and Dating Fossils

Learning About Fossils Cards with fossil diagrams for “determining age of cards” Common Ohio fossils obtained from OSU Orton Museum: 3 Oysters (Cretaceous) 14 brachiopods, approximate identifications (Devonian) 7 Paraspifera 3 Mucrospifera 4 Rafinesquina 1 snail (Devonian) 3 corals (Devonian) 1 Belemnite (Jurassic) 4 Crinoid (Devonian) 1 shark’s tooth age =? Making a Fossil Modeling clay Plastic bowl (small disposable) Plaster of Paris Water Mixing bowl

Measurig cup Chalk or string Meter stick Geologic Time Line Geologic events on cards for time line Sheet of paper (possibly use a 6’ long sheet of brown wrapping paper

Sedimentary Rocks

Classification Office supplies such as: erasers, pencils, paper clips, pens, rubber bands, paper, post-its, markers, alligator clips (binder clips), tape, ruler, measuring tape, highlighters, etc. Sedimentary rocks such as: shale, sandstone, conglomerate, and other sedimentary rocks

Making a Piece of Sandstone

Dry Sand Cementing Solution (2 parts water to 1 part Epsom salt) Paper cups Making a Piece of Conglomerate Rock Shoebox Garbage bag Paper cups Sandwich baggies Dry Cement Dry Sand Water Rocks Making a Piece of Limestone Shoebox Garbage bag Paper cups Dry plaster Water Pieces of shells Once Rocks Are Dry (2-3 days later) Magnifying glass


References

Index

Presentation, “Sandwich Geology” Trisler et al., 2001, SECO Cincinnati. Presentation, “Eating the Earth” Trisler et al., 2001, SECO Cincinnati. “Science Is . . . A Resource Book for Fascinating Facts, Projects, and Activities.” S. Bosak, Scholastic Canada, 1998, p.229. “Magic School Bus: Inside the Earth.” Joanne Cole, Teacher Created Materials, Inc., p.12. “Physical Geology.” Plummer, McGeary and Carlson, McGraw-Hill, 1999. GEOEDGROUP- The Ohio State University USGS website, http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/inside.html “The Best of Wonder Science: Elementary Activities: Fabricate Some Fabulous Fossils.” (p. 319) Delmar Publishers, ITP, Cincinnati, p 531. “Fossils, A Golden Guide.” Frank Rhoads, H.S. Zim, and Paul R. Schaffer, St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Fossils of Ohio “Rocks and Minerals: Make your own sandstone.” Albert, Toni and Ling, George, 1994, Carson-Dellosa Publ, p. 40. “Stories in Stone Formation of Sedimentary Rocks.” Cuff. Kevin, 1995, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California Berkeley, p. 65. Kentucky Foundation Website, http://www.coaleducation.org/ lessons/geology.html


Children’s Literature

Index

“A Journey to the Center of the Earth: Wishbone Classic #4.” Retold by Bill Aronson, Harper Press: 1996. ISBN 0-06106-496-3. “Rocks, Minerals, and Fossils.” By Rebecca Hunter. Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers: Austin, 2001. ISBN 0-7398-3250-6. View summary “First Look: Under the Ground.” By Daphne Butler. Gareth Stevens Children’s Books: Milwaukee, 1991. ISBN 0-8368-0507-0. View summary “Let’s Go Rock Collecting.” By Roma Gans, illustrated by Holly Keller. HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1997. ISBN 0-06-027283-X. View summary “Story in the Stone: The Formation of a Tropical Land Bridge.” By Tom Gidwitz. Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers: Austin, 2001. ISBN 0-7398-2217-9. View summary “Stories in Stone: The World of Animal Fossils.” By Jo S. Kittinger, Franklin Watts, Inc.: 1998. ISBN 0-531-20384-0. View summary “Rocks & Minerals.” By Neil Morris. Crabtree Publishing Company: New York, 1998. ISBN 0-86505-835-0. View summary “Rand McNally Picture Atlas of Prehistoric Life.” By Robert Muirwood and Tim Hayward: 1992. ISBN 0-528-83525-4. View summary “Shaping the Earth.” By Dorothy Hinshaw Patent, photographs by William Munoz. Clarion Books: New York, 2000. ISBN 0-395-85691-4. View summary “National Audubon Society First Field Guide: Rocks and Minerals.” By Edward Ricciuti and Margaret W. Carruthers. Scholastic Inc.: New York, 1998. ISBN 0-590-05484-8. View summary “Earth and Beyond.” By Robert Snedden. Heinemann Library: Des Plaines, 1999. ISBN 1-57572-867-2. View summary “Rocks and Minerals.” By Dr. R. F. Symes and the staff of the Natural History Museum, London. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.: New York, 1988. ISBN 0-394 99621-6. View summary “Journey to the Center of the Earth.” By Jule


Notes

Index

There are currently no notes on this unit. If you have suggestions or changes to make on the experiments or units, please email us! Our address is wow@ chemistry.ohio-state.edu. Š S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Copyright Š 2002-2010 by S.Olesik, Wonders of Our World Project (WOW), the Ohio State University. Permission to make digital or hard copies of portions of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page in print or the first screen in digital media. Abstracting with credit is permitted.

Geology Book  

A collection of all WOW geology experiments.