States of Matter Experiments

Index Evaporation

4

Model of Molecular Motion

6

Moving Molecules

7

Mystery Eggs

8

Spaces Between Molecules

9

Volume of Shapes

12

Supply List

13

References

14

Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Literature

15

Notes

16

Boat Racers

6

Cartesian Diver

7

Density Bottles

8

Density of Solids

9

Hydrometers

12

Index Is the Glass of Water Full?

13

Supply List

14

References

15

Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Literature

16

Notes

16

Evaporation

Index

Evaporation is the change of a liquid to a gas. This experiment allows students to monitor the evaporation of liquids and compare the relative rates of evaporation of two different liquids.

Materials

4 plastic cups 1 straight pin 1 drinking straw 1 paper towel Water Safety goggles Isopropyl alcohol CAUTION: Isopropyl alcohol is poisonous and should not be swallowed. It is also flammable.

What To Do

Push a straight pin through the center of a plastic drinking straw. Suspend the pin across the two large cups to make a balance. The plastic straw should balance, if not, try adjusting the position of the pin in the straw until it balances. Cut two strips of paper towels 1” wide by 6” long. Put on safety goggles for work with isopropyl alcohol. Put enough water in one cup and enough isopropyl alcohol in another cup to be able to soak the paper towel strips, one strip in each. Soak one paper towel strip in the water and the other in the alcohol until they are completely wet. Hang the two strips on the opposite ends of the straw balancing on the other two cups, making note of which side the water soaked strip is hanging on and which side has the alcohol soaked strip. Let the excess drip off the paper strips. Rebalance the plastic straw across the cups, adjusting the positions of the towels so the straw will balance. Does the straw stay balanced?

Questions

1. Which side seems to be losing more weight? 2. What is causing this difference?

Summary

The attraction between isopropyl alcohol molecules is not as strong as that between water molecules. Therefore, isopropyl alcohol molecules evaporate faster than water molecules. The paper towel strip that was soaked in alcohol will dry faster than the strip soaked in water. A dry strip weighs less than a wet strip, so the straw will tilt down on the side with the water soaked strip since it will take longer to dry.

Extension

Evaporation and Condensation are opposite processes. In the winter when it is cold outside, water forms on the inside of windows of a house. In the summer when it is cooler inside the house, water forms on the outside of the windows. Explain this.

Source

“The Best of Wonder Science: Elementary Science Activities.” American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Physics, Delmar Publishers, 1997, ISBN 0-8273-8094-1. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Model of Molecular Motion

Index

toms and molecules are always in motion. Different types of motion take place in the three states of matter. This model depicts the changes in molecular motion when changing from solid to liquid to gas.

Materials

Bedbugs game Acrylic or plexiglass sheet (8.5” x 5.5”) 2 size C batteries 10 ohm rheostat

What To Do

Before the demonstration the game is modified so the rheostat controls the voltage applied to the motor. This allows fine control of the coupling between the motor blade and the bed of the game. First simulate the motion and structure of solids by placing bugs in a highly organized pattern and turn the voltage to the motor to a low value so the bugs are barely vibrating. Next turn up the voltage so that the bugs have significant vibrational motion but are clearly moving in a confined portion of the game. This simulates liquid molecular motion. Finally, turn up the voltage so that the bugs are moving throughout the bed of the game and even some of the bugs may jump out. This is a reasonable simulation of what happens in the gas phase.

Question

1. In the demonstration, the state of matter was changed by varying the voltage applied to the game. While it is true that phase changes happen when energy is applied or taken away, what is the common source of that energy? (Answer: Temperature)

Extension

Place different colored bed bugs on opposite sides of the game with a piece of cardboard in the center. Turn the game on and take the cardboard out. This simulates diffusion of one solution into another.

Summary

This demonstration should help students understand the influence of added energy on molecular motion in the three phases of matter.

Source

“Investigating Solids, Liquids and Gases with Toys: States of Matter and Changes of State.” Jerry Sarquis, Lynn Hogue, Mickey Sarquis, Linda Woodward, McGraw-Hill, 1997, ISBN 0-07-048-235-7. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Moving Molecules

Index

The purpose of this experiment is to observe molecular motion within liquids and the effect of temperature change on that motion will also be noted.

Materials

Clear plastic cups Red, blue, and green food coloring Hot water Room temperature water Ice water

What To Do

Place three plastic cups on a counter. Place hot water in one, room temperature water in another and ice water in the third. Have students measure the temperature in each cup. After measuring the temperature, leave the cups undisturbed for a couple of minutes. Add a drop of food coloring to the center of each cup and time how long it takes the dye to spread evenly throughout the cup. The children identify best with red food coloring in the hot water, blue in the cold water, and green in the room temperature water. Compare the diffusion of the colors in each of the three cups.

Questions

1. Did you observe a difference in the time it takes for the dye to spread throughout the cups? If there are observed differences, propose possible reasons for the differences. 2. Ask the students to make a statement about what changes in thermal motion to expect as the temperature is varied.

Summary

Diffusion is the random thermal motion of molecules in all phases of matter. The moving water molecules in the cup push drops of food coloring. The molecules in the hotter solution move faster than in the cooler solution. The observed faster dispersion of the food coloring in the hotter solution is the result of the faster molecular motion in the warmer solution.

Source

“Investigating Solids, Liquids and Gases with Toys: States of Matter and Changes of State.” Jerry Sarquis, Lynn Hogue, Mickey Sarquis, Linda Woodward, McGraw-Hill, 1997, ISBN 0-07-048-235-7. “Unseen Movement in Chemistry for Every Kid.” Janice Van Cleave, John Wiley, 1989, ISBN: 0-471-62085-8. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Mystery Eggs

Index

Differences in the properties of gases, liquids and solids will be explored in this experiment.

Materials

Plastic eggs Balloons Sand or salt Water Air Raw egg Boiled egg Blown eggshell

What To Do

Add sand into a balloon so that when it is placed in a plastic egg both halves of the egg are completely filled when the egg is closed. Do the same with water and air in two more balloons. Give each group of students three plastic eggs containing the three phases of matter. Let the students develop a hypothesis on how to test the difference between the mostly solid egg and mostly liquid egg. Students should record observations about each egg. What state of matter is in each egg? Open plastic eggs and discuss observed differences in the phases of matter. What methods did each group use to determine the states of matter within the plastic eggs? Have the students try to determine what state of matter is contained inside three real eggs. The students are asked to again decide which egg contains gas, liquid and solid (hard-boiled).

Questions

1. How did you decide what states of matter were contained in the plastic eggs? 2. Did these methods work for the real eggs as well? Why or why not? 3. Describe the difference in properties of gases, liquids, and solids.

Summary

Solids are rigid and not easily compressed; they have definite shape and definite volume. The particles in solids are packed very close together. The particles are constantly vibrating, but their relative location does not change. Liquids have definite volume, but they take the shape of their container. Liquids are fluid and difficult to compress. The particles in liquids are in constant motion and are in contact with adjacent particles, but they are not packed together quite so tightly as in solids, so the particles are able to move about relative to each other. Gases have neither definite volume nor definite shape. They will fill any container. Gases are fluid and easily compressed. The particles in gases are spread apart so they are not touching each other. Gas particles are free to move in any direction, and sometimes run into one another. The eggs that contain liquid exhibit a certain behavior that the solid and gas eggs will not. When the egg containing liquid is spun, then stopped briefly by a gentle touch that is immediately released, the egg will begin to spin again. The liquid inside the egg continues in the spinning motion even when the outer shell is momentarily stopped. When released the shell will begin to spin again as it is pulled back into motion by its contents. The difference between the solid and the gas is easily to tell by comparing the weights of the eggs. The solid eggs are significantly heavier than the eggs containing gas.

Source

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Investigating Solids, Liquids and Gases with Toys: States of Matter and Changes of State.â&#x20AC;? Jerry Sarquis, Lynn Hogue, Mickey Sarquis, Linda Woodward, McGraw-Hill, 1997, ISBN 0-07-048-235-7. ÂŠ S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Spaces Between Molecules

Index

This experiment illustrates that liquids contain spaces between the molecules.

Materials

Isopropyl alcohol Water Food coloring 2 100 mL graduated cylinders

What To Do

Designate one of the graduated cylinders the measuring vessel and one the receiving vessel. Measure 50 mL of water in the graduated cylinder designated for measuring and pour it into the cylinder designated for receiving. Add a drop of food coloring. Measure 50 mL of isopropyl alcohol in the measuring graduated cylinder. Add the isopropyl alcohol to the graduated cylinder that contains the colored water and mix. Observe the total volume of the water-isopropyl alcohol mixture.

Questions

1. What is the final volume of the solution in the 100 mL graduated cylinder that was used as a receiving vessel? 2. Explain what happened when the two solutions were mixed.

Summary

There are spaces between the molecules of liquid water. The alcohol molecules fit between the molecules in the water solution. This causes the final volume of the mixture to be less than the sum of the initial volumes.

Source

“Unseen Movement in Chemistry for Every Kid.” Janice Van Cleave, John Wiley, 1989. ISBN: 0-471-62085-8 © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Volume of Shapes

Index

Liquids take the shape of their containers. This experiment will allow the comparison of the relative volumes of six geometric shapes in addition to allowing the students to observe the properties of liquids.

Materials

Water Food coloring Clear plastic volume set, includes: sphere, cone, cylinder, cube, square pyramid, and rectangular prism (Learning Resources, Inc., LER 0240). These objects all have 4” bases or diameters. Graduated cylinders

Preparation

Before the presentation begins, fill each three-dimensional object approximately half full with water and add food coloring. The volume that corresponds to half of the volume of each object is listed below. Geometric Object ½ Total Volume Equation to Calculate Total Volume Cone 137 mL V = 1/3 (r2 h) Sphere 275 mL V = 2/3 (r2 h) Cylinder 412 mL V = r2 h Cube 524 mL V = l x w x h Square Pyramid 175 mL V = 1/3 s3 Rectangular Prism 262 mL V = l x w x h

What To Do

Fill the containers with the amount of water listed above.Ask the students to decide which contains the most water and which contains the least. Using a funnel and a graduated cylinder measure how much water is in each container.

Questions 1. 2. 3. 4.

What does the word volume mean? What is the relationship between the volume contained in the square pyramid and the cube? Compare the volumes contained in the other geometric objects. If the volume of one object is known, is it possible to predict the volume of the other containers?

Summary

The molecules of a liquid are loosely connected and move around to take the shape of each container. This is clearly illustrated with each of the different geometric objects used.

Source

“Solids, Liquids and Gases.” The Ontario Science Centre, 1995. ISBN 1-55-74-195-0 © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Index

Supply List Evaporation

4 plastic cups 1 straight pin 1 drinking straw 1 paper towel Water Safety goggles Isopropyl alcohol

Model of Molecular Motion:

Bedbugs 60â&#x20AC;? of copper tubing (any diameter) Broom handle Tape String Scissors 2 large nails Hacksaw

Moving Molecules

Clear plastic cups Food coloring of different colors

Mystery Eggs Plastic eggs Balloons Sand or salt Water Air Raw egg Boiled egg Blown eggshell

Spaces Between Molecules Isopropyl alcohol Water Food coloring 2 100mL graduated cylinders

Volume of Shapes

Water Food coloring Clear plastic volume set, includes: sphere, cone, cylinder, cube, square pyramid, and rectangular prism (Learning Resources, Inc., LER 0240). These objects all have 4â&#x20AC;? bases or diameters. Graduated cylinders

References

Index

“The Best of Wonder Science: Elementary Science Activities.” American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Physics, Delmar Publishers, 1997, ISBN 0-8273-8094-1 “Investigating Solids, Liquids and Gases with Toys: States of Matter and Changes of State.” Jerry Sarquis, Lynn Hogue, Mickey Sarquis, Linda Woodward, McGraw-Hill, 1997, ISBN 0-07-048-235-7 “Unseen Movement in Chemistry for Every Kid.” Janice Van Cleave, John Wiley, 1989, ISBN: 0-471-62085-8 “Solids, Liquids and Gases.” The Ontario Science Centre, 1995. ISBN 1-55-74-195-0

Children’s Literature

Index

“The Magic School Bus Ups and Downs: A Book About Floating and Sinking.” By Jane Mason, illustrated by Nancy Stevenson. Book adaptation of an episode of the animated TV series The Magic School Bus, based on the series by Joanna Cole and Bruce Degan. Scholastic, Inc.: New York, 1997. ISBN 0-590-92158-4. “Starting With Science: Solids, Liquids, and Gases.” By The Ontario Science Centre, photographs by Ray Boudreau. Kids Can Press: Buffalo, 1995. ISBN 1-55074-195-0. “A Drop of Water.” By Walter Wick. Scholastic Press: New York, 1997. “Liquid to Gas and Back.” By J.M. Patten. The Rourke Book Co., Inc.: Vero Beach, 1995. ISBN 1-55916-129-9. “Matter Really Matters.” By J.M. Patten. The Rourke Book Co., Inc.: Vero Beach, 1995. ISBN 1-55916-124-8. “The Usborne Illustrated Encyclopedia: Science and Technology.” Usborne Publishing: London, 1996. “The Usborne Internet-Linked Library of Science: Materials.” By Alastair Smith, Phillip Clarke, and Corrine Henderson. Usborne Publishing: London, 2001. “What is the World Made of? All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases.” By Kathleen Weidner Zoehfeld, illustrated by Paul Meisel. HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1998. ISBN 0-06-445163-1.

Notes

Index

There are currently no notes on this unit. If you have suggestions or changes to make on the experiments or units, please email us! Our address is wow@chemistry.ohio-state.edu. ÂŠ S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Copyright ÂŠ 2002-2010 by S.Olesik, Wonders of Our World Project (WOW), the Ohio State University. Permission to make digital or hard copies of portions of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page in print or the first screen in digital media. Abstracting with credit is permitted.

Boat Racers

Index

Water has very high surface tension, which results from water molecules’ strong attraction toward each other. The molecules on the surface of the water and those below them are attracted to each other so tightly that a sort of “skin” forms on the surface. It is surface tension that allows some objects that are more dense than water to float on it and insects are able to walk on water thanks to surface tension. This experiment will explore a way to break surface tension.

Materials

Index cards Tin foil containers Detergent Toothpick Water Ruler Scissors

What To Do

To make a boat cut out a rectangle from the index card that is 3 inches by 2 inches. The boat will be three inches long from front to back. At the end of the rectangle that will be the front of the boat cut off the corners so that the front gently curves then tapers to a point. In the middle of the back end of the boat cut a notch that is extends 1/2 inch into the body of the boat and is almost 1/2 inch wide. Fill the foil pan with water. Carefully place the boat on the surface of the water so that it floats. The back of the boat should be at the edge of the pan. Dip the toothpick into the detergent. Touch the toothpick to the water in the notch of the boat. What do you expect to happen? Can you explain what does happen?

Extension

Try boat races with similar boats in the bathtub at home before any soap is added to the water.

Summary

The surface tension is lower where the detergent was dropped because the detergent disrupts the water’s attractive forces. Therefore the lightweight boat is pulled across the surface of the water by the attraction of the water molecules on the surface that were not affected by the detergent.

Source

“Teaching Chemistry with Toys: Activities for Grades K-9.” Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis, John P. Williams, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-064722-4. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Cartesian Diver

Index

This is a great toy that illustrates the difference in density between water and air. Density is a measure of mass per volume. Water has a density of one gram per milliliter. Substances with densities greater than water will sink in water, and substances with densities less than that of water will float in water. Using the Cartesian diver students will be able to determine whether airďż˝s density is greater or less than the density of water.

Materials

2 Liter pop bottle Water Eyedropper

What To Do

Start with a clean 2 Liter pop bottle with labels removed. Fill the bottle completely with water. Fill an eyedropper half-full with water. Drop it in the bottle of water. If the dropper sinks, remove the dropper from the bottle and squeeze some of the water out of the dropper then try again. When the dropper is floating on top of the water, screw on the cap of the bottle. Squeeze the pop bottle with both hands.

Questions

1. Carefully watch the eyedropper (or diver). What changes do you observe? 2. Can you use your understanding of density to explain what is happening?

Summary

Density is a measure of mass per volume. Objects that are less dense than water can float in it, but objects that are more dense than water will sink. The diver originally floats because the dropper contains part air and part water. Air is less dense than water, meaning that one liter of air has less mass than one liter of water, thus the diver is initially lighter or less dense than water. When the bottle is squeezed the water level in the dropper increases, which causes the density of the eyedropper to increase to the point that it is more dense than water. This causes it to sink to the bottom of the bottle.

Source

Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University ÂŠ S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Density Bottles

Index

This is an experiment that can introduce the concepts of density and immiscibility to young students.

Materials

Clear plastic 0.5 Liter soft drink bottle 250 mL of water 250 mL of vegetable oil Food coloring

What To Do

Fill the bottle halfway full with water. Add a similar volume of vegetable oil. Add the food coloring to the mixture, and then cap the bottle. Students can mix the contents of the bottle together by shaking the bottle. The food coloring will not dissolve in the oil, but will cling to itself until sinking to the bottom of the bottle and dissolving in the water.

Questions

1. What do you expect to happen when the oil is added to the water? 2. If the vegetable oil were added first, would the liquid on the bottom of the bottle be different? 3. Is there anything that changes the liquid that is on the bottom of the bottle?

Summary

Density - weight per unit volume Mixture - the combination of pure substances Miscibility - the ability for pure substances to combine to form a mixture Immiscibility - the condition that corresponds to substances that will not mix Because the vegetable oil is less dense than water it will float on the water, occupying the top portion of the bottle. The food coloring will only be able to color the water in the bottle, so it clearly shows which layer is the water.

Source

“Teaching Chemistry with Toys Activities for Grades K-9.” Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis, John P. Williams, McGraw-Hill, 1995, ISBN: 0-07-064722-4. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Grade Level: This experiment is expected to be appropriate for grades K and above.

Density of Solids

Index

his experiment demonstrates that different solids have different densities. It also illustrates a means of measuring the volume of irregular objects. The identity of unknown metal samples will be determined using density measurement.

Materials

Metal samples Triple beam balances Chain necklace or other object of unknown composition Graduated cylinders Water

What To Do

Measure the weight of each metal cube using a triple beam balance. Discuss possible ways of determining the volume of the cubes. Decide on a method to determine the volume of the cube. Method 1: Measure the dimension of the cube and calculating the volume. Method 2: Fill a graduated cylinder half full with water, then gently slide the metal of unknown volume into the graduated cylinder. Then measure the volume increase caused by adding the metal to the graduated cylinder.Using the known densities displayed on the overhead slide, determine the composition of each metal sample. Label each cube with the correct identity. If time permits, take a metal chain and determine if it is really made of gold using the methods you used to study the composition of the metal cubes.

Questions

1. Is it possible to report the relative densities of the metal cubes with just the weight measurement of each cube? Why or why not? 2. What are the advantages of using the water displacement method?

Source

M. Bailey, OSU Chemistry Dept. Demonstrator.

Metal Density (g/cm3) Iron 7.87 Lead 11.3 Copper 8.92 Aluminum 2.70 Gold 19.3 Silver 10.5 Density of Other Matter of Interest (g/cm3) Water 1.00 Air 0.001 S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Hydrometers

Index

A hydrometer is one of the simplest ways to compare the density of different liquids. A hydrometer measures the density of liquids relative to that of water. When this is done the density is actually reported as the specific gravity, which is the density of the liquid measured divided by the density of water.

Materials

Straight drinking straws Modeling clay Ruler Permanent markers Transparent cup Vegetable oil Water Salt

What To Do

To make a simple hydrometer, take a drinking straw and cover one end of the straw with modeling clay, which is to seal the straw and to hold it upright in a solution. With a permanent marker, mark lines on the side of the straw at every centimeter. Try to measure the relative density or specific gravity of water, salt water and cooking oil. Fill three cups to exactly the same volume with the three liquids. First place the hydrometer into the water. Count the number of marked lines that are submerged under the water. Record this information. Do the same measurement in the salt water and the vegetable oil. The hydrometer should sink lower in the vegetable oil than in the water and should be higher in the salt-water solution. The hydrometer sinks deep in the lower density liquid and raises in more dense liquids. Therefore the vegetable oil is lower in density than water and water is lower in density than the salt-water solution.

Question

1. What is another way that the density of a liquid could be measured and compared to that of water?

Extension

Determine the density of two of the solutions using the triple beam balances and the graduated cylinders.

Source

“Making a Hydrometer: How Science Works.” Judith Hann, 1991, Dorling Kindersley Limited, London. ISBN 0-7621-0249-7. “Pencil Hydrometers: Teaching Chemistry with Toys, Activities for Grades K-9.” Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis, John P. Williams, McGraw-Hill, 1995, ISBN: 0-07-064722-4. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Is the Glass of Water Full?

Index

This experiment illustrates the large surface tension of water. Water molecules tend to attract each other. In the bulk of the solution, water molecules pull on each other equally in all directions. But at the surface the water molecules are pulled into the water because there are no water molecules above the surface to pull in the opposite direction.

Materials

Plastic cup 80-100 paper clips Water Liquid detergent

What To Do

Fill the plastic cup of water “completely” full of water. Have students predict what will happen if a paper clip is carefully added to the cup. Try it. Now have students predict how many paper clips may be added before the cup overflows. Ask the students to keep track and add as many paper clips as possible. Add soap to the cup of water and try the experiment again.

Questions

1. How many paperclips can be added before the water spills? What is keeping the water from spilling? 2. Look at the interface of a solution of water and air. Put a piece of black paper behind the container you are studying to see the interface more clearly. Describe what you see at the top layer of the water solution. This indentation of the liquid is called the meniscus of the solution.

Summary

The surface tension causes the surface of the liquid to act like a thin film on top of the liquid. This thin film keeps the water from flowing over the edge of the cup. Liquid detergent lowers the attraction between the water molecules and therefore, the water overflows quickly with the addition of paper clips.

Extension

Water striders use the surface tension of water to “walk” across the liquid surface of ponds and rivers. Check out how these insects live. What would happen to them if the water in the stream became polluted with detergents?

Source

“Science Is . . . A Source Book of Fascinating Facts, Projects and Activities.” Susan V. Bosak, Scholastic, 1991, ISBN 0-590-74070-9. “Teaching Chemistry with Toys: Activities for Grades K-9.” Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis, John P. Williams, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-064722-4. “How Science Works.” J. Hahn, Dorling Kindersley, London, 1991, ISBN 0-7621-0249-7. “The Science Explorer: Exploratorium.” Pat Murphy, Ellen Lages, Linda Shore, and The Exploratorium, Henry Holt and Company, 1996, ISBN 0-8050-4536-8. © S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Supply List Boat Racers

Index cards Tin foil containers Detergent Toothpick Water Ruler Scissors

Cartesian Diver 2 liter pop bottle Water Eyedropper

Density Bottles

Clear plastic 0.5 L soft drink bottle 250 mL of water 250 mL of vegetable oil Food coloring

Density of Solids

Metal samples Triple beam balances Chain necklace or other object of unknown composition Graduated cylinders Water

Hydrometers

Straight drinking straws Modeling clay Ruler Permanent markers Transparent cup Vegetable oil Water Salt

Is the Glass of Water Full? Plastic cup Paper clips Water Liquid detergent

Index

References

Index

“Teaching Chemistry with Toys: Activities for Grades K-9.” Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis, John P. Williams, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-064722-4 “How Science Works.” Judith Hann, 1991, Dorling Kindersley Limited, London. ISBN 0-7621-0249-7 “Science Is . . . A Source Book of Fascinating Facts, Projects and Activities.” Susan V. Bosak, Scholastic, 1991. ISBN 0-590-74070-9 “The Science Explorer: Exploratorium.” Pat Murphy, Ellen Lages, Linda Shore, and The Exploratorium, Henry Holt and Company, 1996. ISBN 0-8050-4536-8 M. Bailey, OSU Chemistry Dept. Demonstrator. Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University.

Children’s Literature “The

Index

Magic School Bus Ups and Downs: A Book About Floating and Sinking.” By Jane Mason, illustrated by Nancy Stevenson. Book adaptation of an episode of the animated TV series The Magic School Bus, based on the series by Joanna Cole and Bruce Degan. Scholastic, Inc.: New York, 1997. ISBN 0-590-92158-4.

“Starting With Science: Solids, Liquids, and Gases.” By The Ontario Science Centre, photographs by Ray Boudreau. Kids Can Press: Buffalo, 1995. ISBN 1-55074-195-0. “A Drop of Water.” By Walter Wick. Scholastic Press: New York, 1997. “Liquid to Gas and Back.” By J.M. Patten. The Rourke Book Co., Inc.: Vero Beach, 1995. ISBN 1-55916-129-9. “Matter Really Matters.” By J.M. Patten. The Rourke Book Co., Inc.: Vero Beach, 1995. ISBN 1-55916-124-8. “The Usborne Illustrated Encyclopedia: Science and Technology.” Usborne Publishing: London, 1996. “The Usborne Internet-Linked Library of Science: Materials.” By Alastair Smith, Phillip Clarke, and Corrine Henderson. Usborne Publishing: London, 2001. “What is the World Made of? All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases.” By Kathleen Weidner Zoehfeld, illustrated by Paul Meisel. HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1998. ISBN 0-06-445163-1.

Notes

Index

There are currently no notes on this unit. If you have suggestions or changes to make on the experiments or units, please email us! Our address is wow@chemistry. ohio-state.edu. ÂŠ S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000.

Copyright ÂŠ 2002-2010 by S.Olesik, Wonders of Our World Project (WOW), the Ohio State University. Permission to make digital or hard copies of portions of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page in print or the first screen in digital media. Abstracting with credit is permitted.

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