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INTERNATIONAL "Nothing can be off-limits" in budget: OBAMA

Birthday of Queen Sonja N O R WAY - J u l y 4

Queen Sonja of Norway (née Sonja Haraldsen, born 4 July 1937) is the wife of King Harald V of Norway.

Prior to marriage

Sonja was born in Oslo on 4 July 1937 as the daughter of clothing merchant Karl August Haraldsen (1889–1959) and Dagny Ulrichsen (1898–1994). Queen Sonja grew up in the district of Vinderen in Oslo and completed her lower secondary schooling in 1954. She received a diploma in dressmaking and tailoring at the Oslo Vocational School, as well as a diploma from École Professionelle des Jeunes Filles in Lausanne, Switzerland. There, she studied accounting, fashion design, and social science. She returned to Norway for further studies and received an undergraduate degree (French,English and Art History) from the University of Oslo.

As Crown Princess of Norway

She became engaged to then Crown Prince Harald in March 1968. They had been dating for nine years, although this had been kept secret because of opposition to her non-royal status. The Crown Prince made it clear to his father, King Olav V, that he would remain unmarried for life unless he could marry her. This would in effect have put an end to the rule of his family and probably to the monarchy in Norway, as he was the sole heir to the throne. Faced with having to choose one of his relatives from the Danish Royal Family, the Dukes of Schleswig-Holsteinor even the Grand Dukes of Oldenburg as his new heir in place of his son, Olav V consulted the government for advice and the result was that the couple were wed on 29 August 1968, at Oslo Domkirke in Oslo. She thus acquired the style of Royal Highness and the title of Crown Princess of Norway. Immediately after the wedding, the new Crown Princess began to carry out her royal duties, traveling extensively in Norway and abroad. In 1972 she was involved in establishing Princess Märtha Louise’s Fund, which provides assistance to disQueen Sonja in Stavanger 2007 abled children in Norway. She has taken active part in large-scale initiatives to raise funds for international refugees and spent time in the 1970s visiting Vietnamese boat refugees in Malaysia. From 1987 to 1990, Crown Princess Sonja served as Vice President of the Norwegian Red Cross. She was responsible for the organisation’s international activities. She took part in a Red Cross delegation to Botswana and Zimbabwe in 1989.

The Queen Sonja International Music Competition

The then-Crown Princess Sonja established this music competition in 1988. It was originally for pianists, but in 1995 the competition became only for singers. The jury consists of diverse authoritative figures in opera and the winners receive a cash amount and prestigious engagements at Norwegian music institutions.

As Queen

Following the death of King Olav V on 17 January 1991, Sonja became Norway's first queen consort in 53 years. Queen Sonja accompanied King Harald V when he swore his oath to uphold the Constitution in the Storting on 21 January 1991. It was the first time in 69 years that a Norwegian queen had been present in the Storting. Queen Sonja has accompanied the King to the formal opening of the fall session of the Storting and the reading of the Speech from the Throne since his accession. In accordance with their own wishes, the King and Queen were consecrated in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 23 June 1991. Following the consecration, the King and Queen conducted a 10-day tour of Southern Norway. In 1992, the entire Royal Family conducted a 22-day tour of Norway’s four northernmost counties. The Queen accompanies the King on official state visits abroad. She acts as the hostess when foreign heads of state officially visit Norway. The Queen has also given lectures on Norway as a tourist destination on several occasions during official state visits abroad. In 2005, Queen Sonja became the first queen ever to visit Antarctica. The Queen was there to open the Norwegian Troll research station in the country's Antarctic dependency, Queen Maud Land. The Queen flew in on one of the Royal Norwegian Air Force's C-130H Hercules transport aircraft, landing at Troll airfield. The Queen is appointed a Rear Admiral in the Royal Norwegian Navy and a Brigadier in the Norwegian army. She has undergone a basic officer training course and has participated in exercises.

Queen Sonja’s School Award

Queen Sonja’s School Award was established in 2006 and is awarded to schools who have "demonstrated excellence in its efforts to promote inclusion and equality".

Independence Day US - July 4

"Fourth of July" redirects here. For the date, see July 4. For other uses, see 4th of July (disambiguation). Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, fairs, picnics, concerts, baseball games, family reunions, political speeches and ceremonies, and various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the national day of the United States.


During the American Revolution, the legal separation of the Thirteen Colonies from Great Britain occurred on July 2, 1776, when the Second Continental Congress voted to approve a resolution of independence that had been proposed in June by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia. After voting for independence, Congress turned its attention to the Declaration of Independence, a statement explaining this decision, which had been prepared by a Committee of Five, with Thomas Jefferson as its principal author. Congress debated and revised the Declaration, finally approving it on July 4. A day earlier, John Adams had written to his wife Abigail: The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forever more. Adams's prediction was off by two days. From the outset, Americans celebrated independence on July 4, the date shown on the much-publicized Declaration of Independence, rather than on July 2, the date the resolution of independence was approved in a closed session of Congress. Historians have long disputed whether Congress actually signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, even though Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin all later wrote that they had signed it on that day. Most historians have concluded that the Declaration was signed nearly a month after its adoption, on August 2, 1776, and not on July 4 as is commonly believed. In a remarkable coincidence, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, the only signers of the Declaration of Independence later to serve as Presidents of the United States, died on the same day: July 4, 1826, which was the 50th anniversary of the Declaration. Although not a signer of the Declaration of Independence, James Monroe, the Fifth President of the United States, died on July 4, 1831. Calvin Coolidge, the Thirtieth President, was born on July 4, 1872, and thus was the only President to be born on Independence Day.

St. Cyril & St. Methodius Day Czech Republic, Slovakia - July 5 The Canonization process was much more relaxed in the decades following Cyril's

death than today. Cyril was regarded by his disciples as a saint following his death. His following spread among the nations he evangelized and subsequently to the wider Christian Church, resulting in the renown of his holiness, along with that of his brother Methodius. There were calls for Cyril's canonization by the crowds lining the Roman streets during his funeral procession. Their first appearance in a papal document is Grande Munus by Leo XIII in 1880. The brothers are known as the "Apostles of the Slavs" and are still highly regarded by both Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians. Sts Cyril and Methodius' feast day is currently celebrated on 14 February in the Roman Catholic Church (to coincide with the date of St Cyril's death); on 11 May in the Eastern Orthodox Church (though note that for Eastern Orthodox Churches still on the Julian Calendar or 'old calendar' this is 24 May according to the Gregorian calendar); and on 7 July according to the old sanctoral calendar that existed before the revisions of the Second Vatican Council. The celebration also commemorates the introduction of literacy and the "Saints Cyril and Methodius holding the Cyrillic preaching of the gospels in the alphabet," a mural by Bulgarian icon-painter Z. Slavonic language by the brothers. Zograf, 1848, Troyan Monastery The brothers were declared "Patrons of Europe" in 1980. According to old Bulgarian chronicles, the day of the holy brothers used to be celebrated ecclesiastically as early as 11th century. The first recorded secular celebration of the Saints Cyril and Methodius Day as the "Day of the Bulgarian script", as it is traditionally accepted by Bulgarian science, was held in the town of Plovdiv on 11 May 1851, when a local Bulgarian school was named "Saints Cyril and Methodius," both acts on initiative of the prominent Bulgarian enlightener Nayden Gerov, although an Armenian traveller mentioned his visit at "celebration of the Bulgarian script" in the town of Shumen on 22 May 1803. The day is now celebrated as a public holiday in the following countries:  In Bulgaria it is celebrated on 24 May and is known as the "Bulgarian Education and Culture, and Slavonic Literature Day" (Bulgarian: Ден на българската просвета и култура и на славянската писменост), a national holiday celebrating Bulgarian culture andliterature as well as the alphabet. It is also known as "Alphabet, Culture, and Education Day" (Bulgarian: Ден на азбуката, културата и просвещението). SS Cyril and Methodius are patrons of the National Library of Bulgaria. A monument of them is present in front of the library. SS Cyril and Methodius are the most celebrated saints in the Bulgarian Orthodox church, and icons of two brothers can be found in every church.  In the Republic of Macedonia, it is celebrated on 24 May and is known as the "Saints Cyril and Methodius, Slavonic Enlighteners' Day" (Macedonian: Св. Кирил и Методиј, Ден на словенските просветители), a national holiday. The Government of the Republic of Macedonia took the decision for the statute of national holiday in October 2006 and Parliament of the Republic of Macedonia passed a corresponding law at the beginning of 2007. Before that it was celebrated only in the schools. It is also known as the day of the "Solun Brothers" (Macedonian: Солунските браќа). In the Czech lands and Slovakia, the two brothers were originally commemorated on 9 March, but Pope Pius IX changed this date to 5 July for several reasons. Today, "Sts Cyril and Methodius Day" is a national holiday in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.  In the Czech Republic it is celebrated on 5 July as "Slavic Missionaries Cyril and Methodius Day" (Czech: Den slovanských věrozvěstů Cyrila a Metoděje).  In Slovakia it is celebrated on 5 July as "St. Cyril and Metod Day" (Slovak: Sviatok svätého Cyrila a Metoda).  In Russia, it is celebrated on 24 May and is known as the "Slavonic Literature and Culture Day" (Russian: День славянской письменности и культуры), celebrating Slavonic culture and literature as well as the alphabet. Its celebration is ecclesiastical (11 May on the Church's Julian calendar), and it is not a public holiday in Russia. The saints' feast day is celebrated by the Eastern Orthodox Church on 11 May and by the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion on 14 February as "Saints Cyril and Methodius Day". The Lutheran Churches commemorate the two saints either on 14 February or 11 May.

Other commemoration

The national library of Bulgaria in Sofia, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopjein the Republic of Macedonia, St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo in Bulgaria and in Trnava, Slovakia bear the name of the two saints. In the United States, SS. Cyril and Methodius Seminary in Orchard Lake, Michigan, bears their name. St. Cyril Peak and St. Methodius Peak in the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica are named for the brothers. Saint Cyril's remains are interred in a shrine-chapel within the Basilica di San Clemente in Rome. The chapel holds a Madonna by Sassoferrato. The Basilica of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Danville, Pennsylvania (the only Roman Catholic basilica dedicated to SS. Cyril and Methodius in the world) is the Motherhouse chapel of the Sisters of SS. Cyril and Methodius, a Roman Catholicwomen's religious community of pontifical rite dedicated to apostolic works of ecumenism, education, evangelization, and elder care.

Firma Acta de Independencia Venezuela - July 5


 In 1777, thirteen gunshots were fired, once at morning and again as evening fell, on July 4 inBristol, Rhode Island. Philadelphia celebrated the first anniversary in a manner a modern American would find quite familiar: an official dinner for the Continental Congress, toasts, 13-gun salutes, speeches, prayers, music, parades, troop reviews, and fireworks. Ships were decked with red, white, and blue bunting.  In 1778, General George Washington marked July 4 with a double ration of rum for his soldiers and an artillery salute. Across the Atlantic Ocean, ambassadors John Adams and Benjamin Franklin held a dinner for their fellow Americans in Paris, France.  In 1779, July 4 fell on a Sunday. The holiday was celebrated on Monday, July 5.  In 1781, the Massachusetts General Court became the first state legislature Displays of fireworks, such to recognize July 4 as a state celebration. as these over the Washing In 1783, Moravians in Salem, North Carolina, held a celebration of July 4 with a challenging music program assembled by Johann Friedrich Peter. This work was titled ton Monument, take place "The Psalm of Joy". nationwide  In 1791 the first recorded use of the name "Independence Day" occurred.  In 1820 the first Fourth of July celebration was held in Eastport, Maine which remains the largest in the state.  In 1870, the U.S. Congress made Independence Day an unpaid holiday for federal employees.  In 1938, Congress changed Independence Day to a paid federal holiday.


Independence Day is a national holiday marked by patriotic displays. Similar to other summer-themed events, Independence Day celebrations often take place outdoors. Independence Day is a federal holiday, so all non-essential federal institutions (like the postal service and federal courts) are closed on that day. Many politicians make it a point on this day to appear at a public event to praise the nation's heritage, laws, history, society, and people. Families often celebrate Independence Day by hosting or attending a picnic or barbecue and take advantage of the day off and, in some years, long weekend to gather with relatives. Decorations (e.g., streamers, balloons, and clothing) are generally colored red, white, and blue, the colors of the American flag. Parades often are in the morning, while fireworks displays occur in the evening at such places as parks, fairgrounds, or town squares. Independence Day fireworks are often accompanied by patriotic songs such as the national anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner", "God Bless America", "America the Beautiful", "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", "This Land Is Your Land", "Stars and Stripes Forever", and, regionally, "Yankee Doodle" in northeastern states and "Dixie" in southern states. Some of the lyrics recall images of the Revolutionary War or the War of 1812. Firework shows are held in many states, and many fireworks are sold for personal use or as an alternative to a public show. Safety concerns have led some states to ban fireworks or limit the sizes and types allowed. Illicit traffic transfers many fireworks from less restrictive states. A salute of one gun for each state in the United States, called a “salute to the union,” is fired on Independence Day at noon by any capable military base. In 2009, New York City had the largest fireworks display in the country, with over 22 tons of pyrotechnics exploded. Other major displays are in Chicago onLake Michigan; in San Diego over Mission Bay; in Boston on the Charles River; in St. Louis on the Mississippi River; in San Francisco over the San Francisco Bay; and on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.. During the annual Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festival, Detroit, Michigan hosts one of the world's largest fireworks displays, over the Detroit River, to celebrate Independence Day in conjunction with Windsor, Ontario's celebration of Canada Day. While the official observance always falls on July 4th, participation levels may vary according to which day of the week the 4th falls on. If the holiday falls in the middle of the week, some fireworks displays and celebrations may take place during the weekend for convenience, again, varying by region. The first week of July is typically one of the busiest American travel periods of the year, as many people utilize the holiday for extended vacation trips.

Unique or historical celebrations

 Held since 1785, the Bristol Fourth of July Parade in Bristol, Rhode Island is the oldest continuous Independence Day celebration in the United States.  Since 1912, the Rebild Society, a Danish-American friendship organization, has held a July 4thweekend festival that serves as a homecoming for Danish-Americans in the Rebild section of Denmark.  Since 1916, Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest in Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York Citysupposedly started as a way to settle a dispute among four immigrants as to who was the most patriotic.  Since 1959, the International Freedom Festival is jointly held in Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario during the last week of June each year as a mutual celebration of Independence Day and Canada Day (July 1). It culminates in a large fireworks display over the Detroit River.  Numerous major and minor league baseball games are played on Independence Day.  The famous Macy's fireworks display usually held over the East River in New York City has been televised nationwide on NBC since 1976. In 2009, the fireworks display was returned to the Hudson River for the first time since 2000 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Henry Hudson's exploration of that river.  Since 1970, the annual 10 kilometer Peachtree Road Race is held in Atlanta, Georgia.  The Boston Pops Orchestra has hosted a music and fireworks show over the Charles River Esplanade called the "Boston Pops Fireworks Spectacular" annually since 1973. The event was broadcast nationally from 1987 until 2002 on the A&E Network, and has aired since 2003 on CBS.  On the Capitol lawn in Washington, D.C., “A Capitol Fourth,” a free concert, precedes the fireworks and attracts over half a million people annually.

Independence Day-ALGERIA - July 5 July 5 is celebrated in Algeria as Independence Day, in remembrance of actual independence from France in 1962. After being taken by the

French in 1830, Algeria remained under France's control for 132 years. History of Independence Day in Algeria. The French invaded Algiers in 1830 and slowly started to take over the whole territory of Algeria. The first years of French occupation were violent and, combined with epidemic diseases, the population of Algeria declined by one third from 1830 to 1872. During these years, many French citizens immigrated to Algeria to colonize the lands and create farms. In the early 1900s, General Guilain Denoeux managed to conquer the last Tuareg in West Africa. Algeria was already a part of France, and settlers took over the country coming from France, Spain, Malta, and Italy, building up farms along the coast of Algeria. Most of the native population of Algeria was taken away from their lands and deprived of schooling. In 1954, the Algerian National Liberation Front started the Algerian War of Independence against the French. In 1958, President Charles de Gaulle gave Algerians the choice of whether to gain independence or to remain as a French territory. Independence won by a landslide, and Algeria became independent on July 5, 1962, while over one million Algerians tried to escape to France. Algeria's Independence Day Traditions, Customs and Activities Independence Day in Algeria is marked by the diversity of cultural influences in the Algerian society. It is a day that is celebrated with passion. Algerians take to the streets and attend celebrations wearing the national color of green. There are military parades in Algiers. Concerts and cultural events are organized in the national stadium. In recent years, Algerians still celebrate Independence Day as one of the most important days on their calendar.


Human habitation of Venezuela could have commenced at least 15,000 years ago from which periodleaf-shaped tools, together with chopping and plano-convex scraping implements, have been found exposed on the high riverine terraces of the Rio Pedregal in western Venezuela. Late Pleistocene hunting artifacts, including spear tips, have been found at a similar series of sites in northwestern Venezuela known as "El Jobo"; according to radiocarbon dating, these date from 13,000 to 7000 BC. It is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish Conquest; it may have been around a million people, and in addition to today's indigenous peoples included groups such as the Auaké, Caquetio, Mariche and Timoto-cuicas. The number was reduced after the Conquest, mainly through the spread of new diseases from Europe. 15] There were two main north-south axes of preColumbian population, producing maize in the west and manioc in the east. Large parts of the llanos plains were cultivated through a combination of slash and burn and permanent settled agriculture.


Spain's colonization of mainland Venezuela started in 1522, establishing its first permanent South American settlement in the present-day city of Cumaná. The 16th century also saw fitful attempts at German colonization. Native caciques (leaders) such as Guaicaipuro (c. 1530–1568) and Tamanaco (died 1573) attempted to resist Spanish incursions, but the newcomers ultimately subdued them; Tamanaco was put to death by order of Caracas' founder Diego de Losada. In the 16th century, during the Spanish colonization, indigenous peoples such as many of the Mariches, themselves descendants of the Caribs rejected paganism and embraced Roman Catholicism. Some of the resisting tribes or leaders are commemorated in place names, includingCaracas, Chacao, and Los Teques. The early colonial settlements focussed on the northern coast, but in the mid-18th century the Spanish pushed further inland along the Orinoco River. Here the Ye'kuana (then known as the Makiritare) organised serious resistance in 1775 and 1776. Spain's eastern Venezuelan settlements were incorporated into New Andalusia Province. Administered by the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo from the early 16th century, most of Venezuela became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the early 18th century, and was then reorganized as an autonomous Captaincy General starting in 1776. The town of Caracas, founded in the central coastal region in 1567, was well-placed to become a key location, being near the coastal port of La Guaira whilst itself being located in a valley in a mountain range, providing defensive strength against pirates and a more fertile and healthy climate.


After a series of unsuccessful uprisings, Venezuela—under the leadership of Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan marshal who had fought in the American Revolution and the French Revolution—declared independence on 5 July 1811. This began the Venezuelan War of Independence. However, a devastating earthquake that struck Caracas in 1812, together with the rebellion of the Venezuelan llaneros, helped bring down the first Venezuelan republic. A second Venezuelan republic, proclaimed on 7 August 1813, lasted several months before being crushed as well. Sovereignty was only attained after Simón Bolívar, aided by José Antonio Páez and Antonio José de Sucre, won the Battle of Carabobo on 24 June 1821. José Prudencio Padilla and Rafael Urdaneta's victory in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo on 24 July 1823, helped seal Venezuelan independence. New Granada's congress gave Bolívar control of the Granadian army; leading it, he liberated several countries and founded Gran Colombia. Sucre, who won many battles for Bolívar, went on to liberate Ecuador and later become the second president of Bolivia. Venezuela remained part of Gran Colombia until 1830, when a rebellion led by Páez allowed the proclamation of a newly independent Venezuela; Páez became the first president of the new republic. Two decades of warfare had cost the lives of between one- fourth and one-third of Venezuela's population (including perhaps one-half of the white population), which by 1830 was estimated at about 800,000. The colors of the Venezuelan flag are yellow, blue and red, in that order: the yellow stands for land wealth, the blue for the sea that separates Venezuela from Spain, and the red for the blood shed by the heroes of independence.

Tynwald Day- Isle of Man- July 5

Tynwald Day (Manx: Laa Tinvaal) is the National Day of the Isle of Man, usually occurring on .5 July. On this day the Isle's legislature, Tynwald, meets at St John's, instead of its usual meeting place,Douglas. The session is held partly in the Royal Chapel of St John the Baptist and partly in the open air on the adjacent Tynwald Hill (an artificial mound). The meeting, the first recorded instance of which dates to 1417, is known as Midsummer Court. It is attended by members of the two branches of Tynwald: the House of Keys, and the Legislative Council. The Lieutenant Governor, the representative of the Lord of Mann, presides except on the occa- Tynwald Hill before the Tynsions when the Lord or another member of the British Royal Family is wald Day proceedings present. All bills that have received the Royal Assent are promulgated on Tynwald Day; any Act of Tynwaldwhich is not so promulgated within 18 months of passage ceases to have effect. Other proceedings include the presentation of petitions and the swearing in of certain public officials.

Anniversary of the Coronation of King Mindaugas

Lithuania-July 6

Mindaugas (ca. 1200 – fall 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania and the only King of Lithuania. Little is known of his origins, early life, or rise to power; he is mentioned in a 1219 treaty as an elder duke, and in 1236 as the leader of all the Lithuanians. The contemporary and modern sources discussing his ascent mention strategic marriages along with banishment or murder of his rivals. He extended his domain into regions southeast of Lithuania proper during the 1230s and 1240s. In 1250 or Mindaugas, as depicted in 1251, during the course of the chronicles of Alexaninternal power struggles, der Guagnini he was baptised as a Roman Catholic; this action enabled him to establish an alliance with the Livonian Order, a long-standing antagonist of the Lithuanians. During the summer of 1253 he was crowned King of Lithuania, ruling between 300,000 and 400,000 subjects. While his ten-year reign was marked by various state-building accomplishments, Mindaugas's conflicts with relatives and other dukes continued, and Samogitia (western Lithuania) strongly resisted the alliance's rule. His gains in the southeast were challenged by the Tatars. He broke peace with the Livonian Order in 1261, possibly renouncing Christianity, and was assassinated in 1263 by his nephew Treniota and another rival, Duke Daumantas. His three immediate successors were assassinated as well. The disorder was not resolved until Traidenis gained the title of Grand Duke ca. 1270. Although his reputation was unsettled during the following centuries and his descendants were not notable, he gained standing during the 19th and 20th centuries. Mindaugas was the only King of Lithuania; while most of the Lithuanian Grand Dukes from Jogaila onward also reigned as Kings of Poland, the titles remained separate. Now generally considered the founder of the Lithuanian state, he is also now credited with stopping the advance of the Tatars towards the Baltic Sea, establishing international recognition of Lithuania, and turning it towards Western civilization. In the 1990s the historian Edvardas Gudavičius published research supporting an exact coronation date – July 6, 1253. This day is now an official national holiday, Statehood Day.

Eino Leino Day FINLAND - July 6

Eino Leino, originally Armas Einar Leopold Lönnbohm, was a great Finnish poet and novelist, inspired by Finnish nature and cultural inheritance. His major work Helkavirsiä "Whit songs", (1903-1916), was based on the Kalevala. Eino Leino was born on 06.07-1878 in Paltamo, near Kajaani. His father, Anders Lönnbohm, was a surveyor, his mother Anna Emilia (Kyrenius) came from a priest and officer's family. Eino Leino grew up as the youngest son in a family of ten children. He was already writing poems at the age of 10 and was encouraged by his older brother Kasimir Leino, who too was a poet. In 1890, at the age of twelve, Eino Leino's poem Kajaanin linna, " The castle of Kajaani", was published in Hämeen sanomatnewspaper. At the same time Kasimir gave his brother the writers name Eino Leino. Eino Leino's father died when Eino Leino was 10 years old and the death of his mother five years later had a deep influence on his moods which is clearly expressed in his poems. Eino Leino translated Runeberg's texts into Finnish when he was only sixteen, and later on also translated Dante and German poetry to Finnish. His first actual collection of poems, Maaliskuun lauluja, " The songs of March", was published in 1896, when he was 18 years old. Eino Leino first studied in Kajaani, Oulu and afterwards in Hämeenlinna from where he graduated with good results in 1895. He matriculated at The University of Helsinki but failed an important scholar examination which would have assured an indigent student governmental support. This was a setback for the student, but not for the poet. In Helsinki he was introduced to leading personalities in the field of culture by his brother Kasimir. He was discussing highly topical cultural happenings and political development with persons such as Eero Erkko, Juhani Aho, Arvid Järnefelt, Jean Sibelius, Akseli Gallén, Pekka Halonen and Otto Manninen. He became a neo-romantic like most of the intellectual leaders at that time. In 1898 Eino Leino edited a magazine Nykyaika with his brother Kasimir, with the purpose of influencing Finnish cultural life by bringing European literature to the hands of ordinary people. When economical problems became insuperable in 1899, a free-minded magazine was suppressed and Eino Leino was heavily in debt. Between the years 1899-1905 he worked as a critic and journalist on the newspaper Päivälehti and afterwards on Helsingin Sanomat as a theatre critic and satirical feuilletonist. Writing to newspapers was his personal tool to communicate with people. In the beginning of his career, he was highly praised by the critics, but the more he was writing satires and openly targeted the money-, and power hungry members of the elite, the more enemies he earned for himself and the tide turned against him. Eino Leino wasn't very lucky in his love life which is shown in his poems. Eino Leino was married three times. With his first wife Freya Schoulz, he had a daughter Eya, but the marriage was basically over after one year, when he fell in love with a young poetess L. Onerva. Together with her Eino Leino, disappointed at his ungrateful fatherland, left Finland in 1908 planning to stay abroad for years. They ended up in Rome where Leino focused on translating Dante's Divine comedy. In Finland his works didn't have a favorable reception, which hurt an already sensitive poet. After a cold winter in Rome, Leino returned to Finland. His return after eight months, rather than years as he had said, was embarrassing. Already in Rome Leino had adopted the bohemian role, and back in Finland he was hiding behind a walking stick, brimmed hat and cape, which became his trademark. Society was no longer the same, and Leino devoted himself to his poetry and completely stopped working in regular offices. Nevertheless he still took part in social discussions and was a regular visitor in restaurants such as Kämppi, Catani and Kappeli in Helsinki. Eino Leino made a successful comeback in 1912, after having held poetry evenings around Finland to clear his reputation. In 1913, just a week before his true love L. Onerva got married with the young composer Leevi Madetoja, Leino married his second wife Aino Kajanus, a young harpist. Once again after a few months Eino Leino's married life was over. The Bohemian life style was in his blood and he couldn't bear the chains middle-class life brought with it. In December 1915 Eino Leino published his weekly newspaper Sunnuntai. This period of his life was very creative and he started to show an interest in politics again, also another big love of his life, Aino Kallas, a Finnish writer, came into his life. This relationship lasted from 1916-1919, and was a big scandal because she was married to an Estonian diplomat. The Finnish Civil War (1917-1918) caused Leino great confusion-whether be a monarchist or a republican. After the war, caused by his excessive consumption of alcohol, his sense of reality blurred from time to time and the combination of his rage of creation and self-destruction started to show signs. In spring 1921 Eino Leino traveled to Estonia together with an Estonian poet Gustav Suits and his Finnish wife Aino. The reception there was splendid, he was celebrated as a great poet, and large audiences turned out to listen to him which was a great contrast to how things where in Finland. After his trip to Estonia, Leino lived together with Aino Suits until he met Hanna Laitinen, who became his third wife. Even though this relationship did not last longer than a few days, they were legally married until Leino died on 10th of January 1926 in Tuusula, at the age of 47. The last years of his life were spent in various rest homes but he still visited his friends often. The death of this poet was an unexpected shock for the Finnish people, who had already forgotten him. Over the years Eino Leino has become the greatest national poet of Finland, although he was rejected during his lifetime. Eino Leino's literary production includes 32 collections of poems, 25 plays, 25 prose works, 16 translations and 1 screenplay. The statue of Eino Leino is erected in Esplanadi Park which lies between the market square and Mannerheimintie in Helsinki.

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"Nothing can be off-limits, including spending in the tax code, particularly the loopholes that benefit very few individuals and corporations," the president said. Lawmakers and the administration

are seeking deficit cuts in the range of $2.4 trillion over the coming decade to balance a similar increase in the debt limit — one that's large enough to keep the government afloat past the November 2012 election. Currently the debt limit is $14.3 trillion, and Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner says it must be raised by Aug. 2 to avoid defaulting on the government's financial obligations for the first time in the nation's history. With both sides dug into their positions, it's not clear how compromise will be reached, though the Senate canceled its plans to take a July Fourth recess next week in order to stay in Washington and work on the problem. President Obama expressed confidence a deal could be made and instead of singling out Republicans

as the barriers to agreement, he directed his message to Democrats and Republicans alike. "We've got to cut the deficit, but we can do that while making investments in education, research and technology that actually create jobs," the president said. "We can live within our means while still investing in our future. That's what we have to do. And I'm confident that the Democrats and Republicans in Congress can find a way to give some ground, make some hard choices, and put their shoulders to wheel to get this done." Republicans used their weekly address to criticize Obama on the economy and renew their opposition to tax increases. "The president and Democrats in Congress must recognize that their game plan is not working. It's time to acknowledge that more government and higher taxes is not the answer to our problem," said Sen. Dan Coats, R-Ind. "It's time for bold action and a new plan to address our current crisis." Coats said that it was time for the government to "stop spending money we don't have and to enact policies that will grow our economy and get Americans back to work."

More airstrikes in western Libya: NATO (Google News) NATO said Saturday it has begun ramping up its airstrikes on military targets in the western part of Libya, where rebel forces claim a string of advances through territory still largely under Moammar Gadhafi's control. Gadhafi's regime is determined to stand firm against opposition fighters moving from southern and eastern fronts toward the capital Tripoli. The rebels have largely solidified control over the eastern third of Libya but have struggled to push out of pockets they hold in the west. NATO's latest comments suggest the alliance is hoping to tip the balance further in the rebels' favor despite threats by Gadhafi to carry out attacks in Europe unless the airstrikes stop. The coalition said it has destroyed more than 50 military targets in the west this week. It says it is targeting government forces in cities and along "major lines of communication." "We are engaging all military assets that are being used to indiscriminately target the civilian population throughout Libya," Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard, commander of NATO's Libya mission,

said in the statement sent Saturday but dated the previous day. NATO said more than 1.8 million civilians are at risk from a buildup of forces loyal to Gadhafi in western cities along the coast and in the Nafusa mountain range southwest of the capital. Rebels control several Nafusa mountain towns and the vital port city of Misrata. The rest of western Libya, including the heavily protected capital Tripoli, remain under Gadhafi's control. A coalition including France, Britain and the United States began striking Gadhafi's forces under a United Nations resolution to protect civilians on March 19, giving the rebels air support. NATO assumed control of the air campaign over Libya on March 31. It is joined by a number of Arab allies. In recent days, NATO said it has repeatedly hit Tripoli and Gharyan, a city at the eastern gateway to the Nafusa mountains and on a major road to capital. Gharyan sits about 50 miles (80 kilometers) south of Tripoli. It also claims to have struck a network of tunnels storing military equipment about 30 miles (50 kilometers) southeast of the capital.

NATO said in a separate statement it struck two armed vehicles Friday near Bir al-Ghanam, a town rebels from the mountains have been trying to take along a road leading toward the capital. Gadhafi threatened Friday to target European "homes, offices, families" unless NATO halts its bombing campaign. His defiant audio address was played to thousands of supporters packed into Tripoli's main square during on of the biggest pro-government rallies since the airstrikes began. It's not clear whether Gadhafi can make good on the threats. In the past, the Libyan leader supported various militant groups, including the IRA and several Palestinian factions, while Libyan agents were blamed for attacks in Europe, including a Berlin disco bombing in 1986 and the downing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, that killed 270 people, mostly Americans. Libya later acknowledged responsibility for Lockerbie. In recent years, however, Gadhafi was believed to have severed his ties with extremist groups when he moved to reconcile with Europe and the United States.

Syrian president sacks governor of restive province (Google News) The Syrian presi- Islam. The government allowed about dent sacked the governor of a Within the past three months, Pres- 200 activists and intellectuals, inrestive province, a day after tens of ident al-Assad discharged the gov- cluding some it had previously thousands of anti-government pro- ernors of Daraa and Homs as well. jailed, to hold a conference on testers took to the streets of its Syria has been wracked with democratic reform Monday at a capital. protests that began in Daraa and Damascus hotel, the first such President Bashar al-Assad dis- took hold across the country as gathering permitted by the regime. charged Dr. Ahmad Khaled Abdul- government forces cracked down The dissidents gathered in the Aziz from his post as governor of on peaceful demonstrations. hotel ballroom, including several Hama province, the third provincial The number of deaths in the anti- signatories of a 2005 declaration governor to be fired since the government demonstrations that called for a democratic transicountrywide protests tion. began in mid-March. Friday, On No reason was given government for the move, reminders esported on Saturday corted interby the state-run Syrnational ian Arab News journalists to Agency. anti-governHama city, the provinm e n t cial capital, has been protests. the scene of very But reports of large demonstrations violent reacand the outpourings tions to there have been compeaceful pared to the gatherdemonstraings in Cairo's Tahrir tors persist. Square, where daily Mark Toner, demonstrations ear- Syrian President Bashar al-Assad (R) and First Lady U.S. State lier this year forced Asma al-Assad in Damascus on June 30, 2011 Department the removal of Egyptspokesman, ian strongman Hosni Mubarak. across Syria on Friday stands at told reporters on Friday that deSecurity forces withdrew from the 24, according to the Local Coordi- spite a "little flicker of progress" this Hama city center last month and nation Committees, an activist week, there has been a "continued al-Aasi Square has been packed group. Most were in the Homs and clampdown by security forces on with protesters calling for the Idlib regions. peaceful protests." downfall of the regime, displays of Rami Abdelrahman, from the Lon- He said the United States wants to grassroots anger that have been don-based Syria Observatory for see "dialogue and a transition gaining momentum in recent days. Human Rights, said more than process" and echoed President There have been no recent reports 1,360 civilians and more 340 army Barack Obama's statement that if of violence in Hama, and observers and security forces have died in al-Assad can't lead a reform believe the government might have the violence. process, "he should get out of the been allowing the demonstrations International powers have con- way." in Hama because of the sensitivi- demned and sanctioned the Syrian Toner said the United States backs ties over the city's violent history. government for its crackdown, and the "universal human right" of The city was the scene of a 1982 there has been talk by some ob- peaceful protests and the right of brutal military crackdown targeting servers that the International Crim- freedom of expression. He said Sunni Muslims by the Alawite-dom- inal Court should investigate "arbitrary arrests of innocent civilinated government of Hafez al- possible crimes against humanity ians" must end, political prisoners Assad, Bashar al-Assad's late by the government. must be released, state-run media father. Thousands were killed. Amid the criticism, Syria has talked must stop incitement, and violence Sunni Muslims are the dominant about reforms and this week per- must end against peaceful protestreligious group in the country and mitted opposition members to hold ers. Alawites are an offshoot of Shiite a meeting.

Israel rejects allegations it sabotaged Gaza flotilla ships FM spokesman calls charges of sabotage 'ridiculous'; Turkish police investigation finds that damage to Irish ship was most likely not caused intentionally.

Gaza flotilla Gaza Gaza aid Turkey Israel has denied claims it sabotaged ships trying to breach its naval blockade of the Gaza Strip. Activists have accused Israel of damaging two ships docked in Turkey and Greece that are part of a flotilla attempting to reach the Palestinian territory with humanitarian aid. Efforts were further stalled Friday when Greece prevented ships from sailing. Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor on Saturday dismissed the sabotage charges as "ridiculous," calling them "sad conspiracy theories." The Turkish daily Hurriyet reported on Saturday that an investigation by Turkish police into the alleged sabotaging of an Irish ship set to

take part in the flotilla to Gaza revealed that the damage to the ship occurred before it docked in Turkey. Flotilla organizers have claimed that the ship was docked in Turkey’s territorial waters when the alleged tampering occurred. Hurriyet reported Turkish diplomats as saying that the investigation revealed that the damage done to the ship had occurred before it docked, and was most likely not caused intentionally. According to an activist, the engine of the Irish vessel was damaged in such a way that would have caused the ship to sink in the middle of the ocean and cause fatalities. The flotilla spokesman, Dror Feiler, told Army Radio that he has no proof that Israel was responsible for the damage, but that Israel would do everything in its power to prevent the ships from heading to Gaza. “I saw the damage and it is clear that it was done in a planned and

professional way,” he said. “The Israeli government is the only one that could benefit from this.” On Monday, the propeller of the Greek-Swedish ship "Juliano" was found broken, and Gaza flotilla organizers said they believed it was deliberate sabotage by Israel. Due to the vandalism, flotilla participants have organized guard duty rosters for each ship that is due to sail for Gaza. Meanwhile in Greece, the government issued a statement on Friday, saying that the departure of ships with Greek and foreign flags from Greek ports to the maritime area of Gaza has been prohibited. The statement explained that this is in a bid to prevent a breach of Israel’s naval blockade. The flotilla is set to head toward Gaza a little over a year after Israeli naval commandos intercepted another pro-Palestinian flotilla on its way to Gaza. Nine activists died in the clashes that broke out after commandos boarded the Mavi Marmara ship.

Texas warns against travel to Mexican border town (Google News) "According to the information we have received, the Zetas are planning a possible surge in criminal activity, such as robberies, extortions, carjackings and vehicle theft, specifically against U.S. citizens," said Steven McCraw, director of the Texas Department of Public Safety, in a press release.

McCraw said U.S. citizens should avoid Nuevo Laredo during the Fourth of July holiday. The city is across the Rio Grande river from Laredo, Texas. Texas has previously warned Americans about travel to Mexico during holidays and other peak vacations times. The latest bulletin comes just weeks after a

complaint from Mexico's tourism chief Rodolfo Lopez Negrete, who said some of the warnings are "ludicrous" and "misinformed." High-profile violence has stained the image of Mexico's large tourist centers, although the majority of violence tends to happen away from tourist destinations. More than

37,000 people have been killed in Mexico since late 2006 when President Felipe Calderon sent the armed forces to crush powerful drug cartels battling for lucrative smuggling routes to the United States. The U.S. State Department says 111 Americans were reported murdered in Mexico last year, up from 35 in 2007.

(Google News) July 2, 201, Buried to the rescue were killed by another deadliest month for noncombatants bombs killed 30 Afghan civilians in bomb, police said. since it began keeping track five a 48-hour span in years ago, with the latest grim illus368 civilians killed tration of the danin war-related viofaced by gers lence. That month noncombatants as coincided with the the season's fighting start of the Taliban heats up. spring offensive. Insurgents routinely Military fatalities, seed roads and too, have been pathways with IEDs, higher. edging or improvised exploWestern troop sive devices -- their deaths -- 65 in weapon favored June, according against Western to the independtroops. But most ent website icasuoften, those killed which and injured by the tracks combat fahidden bombs are in talities Civilians have been dying in record numbers as vio- Afghanistan and civilians. The latest casual- lence ratchets upward across Afghanistan. Above, Iraq -- reached ties came Saturday U.S. medical personnel treat a boy wounded by a their highest levin Zabul province, in bomb blast els of the year last southern Afghanistan, when a van The Taliban and other insurgents month. Forty-six of those were filled with travelers struck a road- often plant bombs close together, in Americans. side bomb. Thirteen people were hopes of killing troops and then NATO's International Security Assiskilled, including four children and those who rush to the rescue. tance Force on Saturday anfour women, said a spokesman for The bombings in Zabul and Kanda- nounced the deaths of two more har followed another deadly service members, one in western the provincial government. On Friday evening, two separate episode on Thursday night in Afghanistan and another a day earbombs planted close together killed nearby Nimroz province, a roadside lier in the south. The NATO force did four people in the rural Maruf district bomb that killed 13 people and in- not disclose the nationalities inof volatile Kandahar province. One jured about three dozen others. volved, but Italian media reports was apparently triggered by a don- Civilians have been dying in record said Saturday's death was that of an key, and two people riding or lead- numbers as violence ratchets up- Italian soldier. ing the animal died in the explosion. ward across Afghanistan. The Then two more people who rushed United Nations said May was the


Libyan Rebels Accept African Peace Plan (Google News) Libya’s National Transitional Council accepted an African Union plan for peace talks with the government it is battling to overthrow, saying it paves the way for a transition without Muammar Qaddafi. The 53-member union yesterday announced a plan for a cease- fire between Libya’s warring parties, coupled with negotiations in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, which will forge a transitional administration and outline a plan for new elections. The proposal excludes Qaddafi from the talks. “Not being part of the negotiations means that he’s not going to be part of the future of Libya,” Mansour Sayf Al-Nasr, the NTC’s representative to France, told reporters today in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea. “The African Union is saying to

Qaddafi ‘That is it’ -- that is the way we understand it.” The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has supported the NTC rebels since March by bombing Qaddafi’s forces, who it said were targeting the North African nation’s civilian population. Tens of thousands of refugees have fled the fighting and the price of crude oil soared because of the conflict in the country with Africa’s biggest oil reserves. NATO’s air strikes and French weapons drops to the rebels flared the conflict, while an International Criminal Court arrest warrant for Qaddafi, one of his sons, and his military intelligence chief, have undermined the prospects of a peaceful settlement, most African leaders say. The AU proposal, which came at the end of a two-day summit in Mal-

abo, also called for international peace keepers to monitor the cease-fire and asked the United Nations Security Council to lift a freeze on Libyan assets. Slamming the ICC warrants as discriminatory against Africans, AU members agreed not to enforce them and demanded that the Security Council annuls them. An amnesty law should also be part of the Libyan transition, they said. The TNC, whose representatives were granted access to the AU conference, will need to assess under what conditions they can start pulling their fighters back, Al-Nasr said. “Surely we won’t have a cease-fire before certain conditions are met,” he said.

Bin Laden document trove reveals strain on al-Qaeda (Google News) Toward the end of his decade in hiding, Osama bin Laden was spending as much time exchanging messages about al-Qaeda’s struggles as he was plotting ways for the terrorist network to reassert its strength. Over the past year, the al-Qaeda leader fielded e-mails from followers lamenting the toll being taken by CIA drone “explosions” as well as the network’s financial plight, according to U.S. officials who have completed an exhaustive review of the trove of bin Laden files collected at his compound after the May 2 U.S. raid that killed him. Bin Laden approved the creation of a counterintelligence unit to root out traitors and spies, only to receive a complaint in mid2010 from the unit’s leader that it was losing the “espionage war” and couldn’t function on its paltry budget. Just months before the Arab Spring took hold, bin Laden warned affiliates in Yemen and elsewhere that it was too soon to create an Islamic state. The Saudi native, whose family had made its fortune in construction, concluded that there wasn’t

“enough steel” in al-Qaeda’s regional support structures to warrant even tentative steps toward reestablishing the caliphate. Such sober assessments and references to setbacks are among the fine-grained details that U.S. intelligence analysts have gleaned to assemble a new and more nuanced portrait of alQaeda and its founder in the aftermath of the raid on bin Laden’s compound in the Pakistani city of Abbottabad. Analysts at the CIA and other agencies are likely to continue poring over the bin Laden files for years. But the multi-agency task force that was set up to review what officials have described as the largest cache of terrorism records recovered to date finished its job and was disbanded last month. “We believe the materials will continue to yield new insights on al-Qaeda for years to come,” said a U.S. counterterrorism official familiar with the task force’s work. “But the task force is done.” The group produced more than 400 intelligence reports in a span of six weeks and prompted public warnings of al-Qaeda plots

against trains and other targets. U.S. officials said the findings also triggered a small number of operations overseas, including arrests of suspects who are named or described in e-mails that bin Laden received. But officials said that the main value of the data is in enabling analysts to construct a more comprehensive portrait of alQaeda and that many of the most recent files found on bin Laden’s computers depict an organization beset by mounting problems even as its leader remained singularly focused on delivering a follow-up to the Sept. 11, 2001, strikes. “The trove makes it clear that bin Laden’s primary goal — you can call it an obsession — was to attack the U.S. homeland,” said a senior U.S. counterterrorism official. “He pushed for this every way he could.” The official was one of several who agreed to discuss the conclusions of the bin Laden task force — and provide new details on specific messages sent and received by the al-Qaeda leader — on the condition of anonymity, citing the sensitivity of the subject.

Aquino signs ARMM Malacanang lauds a Zamboanga Polls Postponement prosecutor for bag- Act (PR) President Benigno S. Aquino III ging US State Dep’t signed law Republic Act 10153, Global Trafficking in an Act into Providing for the Synchroof the Election in the AuPersons Hero Award nization tonomous Region in Muslim (PR) Malacanang commended a Zamboanga prosecutor for receiving the United States (US) State Department’s Global Trafficking in Persons Hero Award. In a statement issued on Wednesday, Presidential Spokesperson Edwin Lacierda said they commended Darlene Pajarito, Assistant Zamboanga City Prosecutor, for bagging the award. “Justice must be done, not only swiftly, but successfully. Atty. Pajarito’s efforts are proof that with official support, investigatory thoroughness and zeal, the filing of cases can result in convictions,” Lacierda said. “Let us keep working together against human trafficking. Government and civil society, the bureaucracy and the citizenry, together, can help make sure that no person works under conditions or circumstances that are against their will,” he said. Lacierda, meanwhile, said President Benigno S. Aquino III will write to United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to thank her for citing the Philippines as among the “countries that have made a lot of progress” in the global campaign against human trafficking. “The President will be writing to US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to thank her for her encouraging remarks about the administration’s efforts against human trafficking. These are of particular significance as they come from a committed advocate of liberating persons om he ev s o human a ck ng Lac e da sa d

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Mindanao (ARMM) with the National and Local Elections and for other purposes. In his speech following the signing of the landmark legislative measure on Thursday the President stressed the government’s all-out efforts in curbing the irregularities in governance in ARMM. He also thanked the administration allies in both Houses of Congress for supporting and pushing for the passage of the law saying that the new measure serves as proof of the cooperation of the legislative and executive branches of government. “Upang mahinto ang mga iregularidad sa pamamahala sa ARMM, isinulong natin ang pagpapaliban ng ARMM elections para isabay na natin ito sa lokal at pambansang halalan,” the President said. “Maraming salamat po sa ating mga kaalyado sa Senado at Kongreso sa pamumuno po ni Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile at House Speaker Sonny Belmonte at sa mga nanguna at sumuporta sa pagsulong ng batas na ito dahil sa pakikiisa at pagkakaisa ng lehislatura at ehekutibo pinagtibay na natin ang repormang ngayon na tunay na matatanglaw demokrasya sa ARMM,” he added. The Chief Executive said that RA 10153 also aims to let the real voice of the people be heard and put a halt on the unscrupulous acts of some political clans during elections. “Malinaw ang ating hangarin para sa ARMM… upang marinig ang tunay na saloobin ng taong bayan. Tutuldukan na natin ang pag-hahariharian ng mga political na angkan na pasimuno ng dayaan sa eleksyon,” the President stressed. He added that a reformative roadmap for the region will be applied by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) to make sure that the rule of law prevails during the electoral process in the region. “Isasakatuparan din ng DILG ang isang roadmap para sa mga reporma sa rehiyon, tungo sa tunay na kaunlaran at kapayapaan sa ARMM. Kaakibat po ng repormang electoral na ating isinusulong dito lilinisin natin ang voters’ list sa pamamagitan ng muling pagpapatala ng mga botante at pagiging modern ng eleksyon,” President Aquino said. The government will also encourage the participation of civil society groups that will conduct voters’ education efforts and will serve as watchdogs. In simple ceremonies held at the Rizal Ceremonial Hall of the Malacanang Palace, President Aquino signed RA 10153, in the presence of Senate president Juan Ponce Enrile, Senate Majority Leader Vicente Sotto III, House Speaker Feliciano Belmonte Jr., House Majority Leader Neptali Gonzales II, Executive Secretary Paquito Ochoa Jr., and other government officials. In the House of Representatives, the new measure was principally authored by Representative Bai Sandra Sema with Speaker Belmonte, Deputy Speaker Maria Isabelle Climaco, Majority Leader Gonzales, among others, as co-authors. At the Senate, Senator Franklin Drilon was its principal author and sponsor with the following as co-authors: Senate President Enrile, Senate President Pro-Tempore Jinggoy Estrada, Majority Leader Sotto, Senator Francis Pangilinan, Senator Manuel Lapid, Senator Gregorio Honasan, and Senator Antonio Trillanes, among others. Apart from upholding the Philippine Constitution and reflecting the ideals of true democracy, the synchronization of ARMM elections is a first step towards ensuring sustainable peace and stability in the region. It also gives power to the President to appoint officers-in-charge (OICs) for the regional elective officers from among the recommendations submitted by a screening committee. The OICs shall perform the functions pertaining to their respective offices until the officials are duly elected.

Palace says DOLE to clarify ban of OFWs in Saudi Arabia (PR) Malacanang assured the public on Friday that the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) is continuously working with its counterparts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to clarify the ban of Filipino workers there before the implementation of its new labor policy this coming September. Presidential Deputy Spokesperson Abigail Valte issued the assurance as the implementation of a new abor policy – aptly called Nitagat - in Saudi Arabia looms. Under the new policy, the Saudi government will prioritize employment of its nationals over foreign workers in Saudi-owned firms. “We have been constantly working with counterparts of Secretary Baldoz with the KSA officials and we are trying to find a viable solution to the problem,” Valte said. “Nagsalita na kaninang umaga si Secretary Rosalinda Baldoz and the DOLE is now in constant communication with its counterparts in KSA. May mga informal discussions na and they (DOLE officials) are waiting for the official notice (from the KSA) of the policy to be implemented,” Valte said in an interview on Friday in

Malacanang. Valte said that the Philippine labor department wanted to clarify whether the new policy will be intended only for new applicants. Valte added that Baldoz is now encouraging affected OFWs to avail of the “government’s alternative livelihood packages" back home such as food processing, garments, beauty shops or computer shops. She said the Aquino administration has already released some P27 million for Filipino domestic the helpers. Presidential Earlier, Spokesperson Edwin Lacierda said the Labor Department will be sending a labor attaché to Saudi Arabia to “verify these things." Malacanang is concerned that the ban could possibly affect the Philippine economy, since Saudi Arabia is one of the top destination of overseas Filipino workers and the biggest source of dollar remittances outside the United States. As of 2009, Saudi Arabia contributed 52 percent to the Middle East deployment and nearly 30 percent to worldwide deployment of Filipino workers, according to the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration.

Ochoa: Organized crime threat to national security and economy

(PR) Organized criminal activities are threats to the economy and national security and should be dealt with a clear, well-defined and integrated policy, Executive Secretary Paquito N. Ochoa Jr. said on Tuesday. Ochoa told Strictly Politics in an interview on ANC that the Presidential Anti-Organized Crime Commission (PAOCC) recently reorganized by President Benigno Aquino III under Executive Order No. 46 is envisioned to combine the resources and expertise of various law enforcement agencies in order to craft solid policies and guidelines against organized crimes. “The seriousness and magnitude of our problems involving organized crimes would need strong and resolute actions,” said Ochoa, who now chairs the PAOCC. To illustrate the magnitude and economics of criminal activities by organized syndicates, Ochoa said the illegal drug trade alone has been estimated to be worth over P300 billion a year, or three times the size of the entire Philippine pharmaceutical industry, which is worth around P100 billion. This crime, taken together with carnapping, illegal gambling, kidnap-for-ransom, human trafficking and smuggling, among others, endanger peace and national security, he said. “Organized crime has a huge economic, social, cultural and political impact,” said Ochoa, who also heads of the Cabinet cluster on security, peace and justice. “Organized crime also thrives in part because of the corruption of our political system and society. And it feeds this corruption to perpetuate itself.” The Executive Secretary said eliminating these threats require strong policies that are clear and coherent to ensure that the “room for errors in implementing programs and in enforcing the laws become smaller.” “If law enforcement agencies follow these polices, guidelines and targets, they will know how to act accordingly,” he explained. Ochoa outlined the following proposed programs the PAOCC will prioritize: • Rationalize the anti-crime programs of law enforcement agencies to eliminate redundancy and maximize government resources; • Establish central base crime index to consolidate data on crime and to better assess resources to be allocated; • Strengthen existing laws like the Anti Money Laundering Act to enable prosecution of organized crime elements; • Link up, coordinate and share resources with the AntiTerrorism Council and the Philippine Center on Transnational Crime (PCTC), which are under the supervision of the Office of the Executive Secretary; • Improve prosecution rates; • Direct the special envoy on transnational crime to step up liaison work and information sharing with other countries; • Strengthen the Witness Protection program; • Address the killings of journalists and political activists; • Enhance police training on exercises and proper legal procedures and increase performance standards; and • Link Metro Manila CCTV systems. PAOCC is composed of the secretaries of the Departments of Justice, the Interior and Local Government, National Defense and Foreign Affairs, as well as the national security adviser, chief of staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, director general of the Philippine National Police, director general of the National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, director of the National Bureau of Investigation, and the executive director of the PCTC.

U.S. retrieves militants hit in Somali air strike (Google News) Nairobi, Kenya -U.S. military forces landed in Somalia to retrieve the bodies of dead or wounded militants after a U.S. drone strike targeted a group of insurgents, Somalia's defense minister said Friday. The operation is at least the second time U.S. troops have landed in Somalia after a targeted strike, though no forces have been stationed there since shortly after the "Black Hawk Down" battle that left 18 Americans dead in 1993. Defense Minister Abdulhakim Mohamoud Haji Faqi called on the United States to carry out more air strikes against the al Qaeda-linked

militants, though he admitted that Somali officials appear not to have been informed about the June 23 operation near the southern coastal town of Kismayo beforehand. "But we are not complaining about that. Absolutely not. We welcome it," Faqi said. "We understand the U.S.'s need to quickly act on its intelligence on the ground," he said. U.S. officials have increased their warnings that the threat from Somalia's al-Shabab militant group is growing and that militants are developing stronger ties with the Yemen-based al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.

Obama Chooses New Counterterror Chief (Google News) July 02, 2011, WASHINGTON - President Barack Obama's choice for his next counterterrorism chief is Matthew Olsen, a former prosecutor with extensive experience in intelligence matters for the federal government, the White House announced Friday. Olsen, if confirmed by the Senate, would direct the National Counterterrorism Center, an agency born in the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001 terror attacks on America. That agency is charged with analyzing and integrating information gathered across the intelligence comand then providing munity assessments to the president and other senior policymakers. "Matt will be a critical part of my national security team as we work to tirelessly thwart attacks against our nation and do everything in our power to protect the American people," Obama said a statement. Olsen, 49, currently serves as the general counsel for the National Security Agency. He has also held high-level roles in overseeing intelligence matters at the Justice Department and the FBI. From 2009 to 2010, Olsen directed the task force that, on Obama's orders, reviewed the intelligence on detainees held at the Guantanamo Bay prison in Cuba.

Olsen would replace Michael Leiter, the former Navy pilot who served in the director's job under Obama and President George W. Bush. Leiter was leaving on a high note after the intelligence success and covert operation by U.S. commandoes in Pakistan that led to the killing of alQaida terrorist leader Osama bin Laden. Leiter, who has worked with Olsen closely, called him a proven leader and good friend. "His background and experience in working some of our country's toughest national security issues make him eminently qualified to serve as the center's next director," Leiter said. "I have the utmost confidence that Matt will lead the men and women of NCTC with distinction." Olsen's job would also require him to oversee operational planning for counterterrorism activities across the federal government. He would report directly to the president and the director of national intelligence. Michael Chertoff, who served as homeland security secretary under Bush and has worked with Olsen, called him a smart, dedicated public servant who would "capably carry on the outstanding work of Mike Leiter" if confirmed by the Senate.


damage the image of the Sovereign, as a result of damaging that of Miss Wittstock, and bear down on this happy event." Albert's adviser, Christiane Stahl, told CNN affiliate BFM-TV that the two were "completely disappointed" by the story. The couple announced their engagement last summer, having first met at a swimming event in Monaco in 2000. The 53-year-old prince and ruler of Monaco, the only son of Princess Grace and the late Prince Rainier, has never married before. Like his 33-year-old fiancee, Albert is also an Olympian, having competed in five Olympic Winter Games -- from Calgary in 1988 to Salt Lake City in 2002 -- in bobsledding. She swam in the 2000 Sydney Olympics. In 2005, Albert publicly acknowledged he had fathered a son with a flight attendant, and he has also acknowledged a daughter, now in her late teens. He formally became Monaco's ruler following the death of his father in 2005 and has two sisters, Princesses Caroline and Stephanie. Monaco, a sovereign principality, is one of the smallest countries in the world, measuring just under 2 square miles. It sits on the French Riviera and is bordered on three sides by France. It has a population of about 33,000.



royal wedding (Google News) The tiny principality of Monaco celebrated Friday the beginning of festivities for ruler Prince Albert, who wed his South African fiancee Charlene Wittstock, a forOlympic mer swimmer. The pair married in a civil ceremony at the palace Friday afternoon, which was followed by a picnic outside the palace and a concert by musician Jean Michel Jarre. A religious ceremony will take place Saturday, with an official dinner and a fireworks display lined up for later in the evening. The guest list for the wedding includes heads of state and the rich and famous, including French President Nicolas Sarkozy, British model Naomi Campbell, fashion designer Giorgio Armani and British business mogul Richard Branson. However, the United Kingdom's royal newlyweds -- Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge -missed it as they are on an official tour of Canada. Preparations for the lavish event have been overshadowed this week by a report in the French news magazine L'Express that Wittstock was getting cold feet about the wedding after finding her fiance's private life was "not as exemplary as she imagined." The paper's claims were strongly denied by the palace as "false allegations", intended only "to seriously

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John Huss Day Czech Republic - July 6

Jan Hus (Czech pronunciation: [ˈjan ˈɦus] ; c. 1369 – 6 July 1415), often referred to in English as John Hus or John Huss, was a Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague. He is said to have influenced the reformation. He is famed for having been burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of theCatholic Church, including those on ecclesiology (the branch of theology concerned with the nature, constitution and functions of the Church) the Eucharist (the most important Christian sacrament) and other theological topics. Hus was a key predecessor to the Protestant movement of the 16th century, and his teachings had a strong influence on the states of Europe, most immediately in the approval for the existence of a reformist Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. Between 1420 and 1431, the Hussite forces defeated five consecutive papal crusadesagainst followers of Hus. Their defense and rebellion against Roman Catholics became known as the Hussite Wars.

Early life

Hus was born in Husinec, Kingdom of Bohemia in 1369. He traveled to Prague at an early age where he supported himself by singing and serving in churches. His conduct was positive and his commitment to his studies was remarkable. In 1393, Hus earned a degree of Bachelor of Arts from the University of Prague and he earned his master's degree in 1396. In 1400, he was ordained as a priest and became rector of the university in 1402–03. He was appointed a preacher at the newly built Bethlehem chapel around the same time. Hus was a strong advocate for the Czechs, and therefore the Realists, and he was influenced by the writings of John Wycliffe. Although many works of Wycliffe were proscribed in 1403 by the church, Hus translated Trialogus into Czech and helped to distribute it.


John Hus or John Huss

Papal schism

Kutná Hora

At the instigation of Hus and other Bohemian leaders, King Wenceslaus issued a decree (while in the city of Kutná Hora) that the Bohemian nation should now have three votes (instead of one) in all affairs of the university, while the foreign nations (Bavarian, Saxon, and Polish) should have only one vote. As a consequence, somewhere between five thousand and twenty thousand foreign doctors, masters, and students left the university in 1409. This exodus resulted in the founding of the University of Leipzig, among others. Thus, Prague university lost its international importance and became only a Czech school. The emigrants also spread news of the Bohemian "heresies" throughout the rest of Europe. Archbishop Zajíc became isolated and Hus was at the height of his fame. He became a rector of the Czech university, and enjoyed the favor of the court. At around this time, the doctrinal views of the English theologian, John Wycliffe were becoming increasingly influential.

Jan Hus at the stake

In 1409, in an attempt to end the papal schism, the Council of Pisa met to elect a new pope. This did not succeed, and the pope they elected, Alexander V, did not end loyalty to the other two popes. The Roman Catholic Church now considers Alexander V an antipope. Hus, his followers, and Wenceslaus transferred their allegiance to Alexander V. Under pressure from King Wenceslaus, Archbishop Zajíc did the same. Zajíc then brought his complaints before Alexander V's Papal See, accusing the Wycliffites of ecclesiastical disturbances.

Excommunication of Hus

Alexander V issued his papal bull of 20 December 1409, which empowered the Archbishop to proceed against Wycliffism. All books of Wycliffe were to be given up, his doctrines revoked, and free preaching discontinued. After the publication of the bull in 1410, Hus appealed before Alexander V, but in vain. All books and valuable manuscripts of Wycliffe were burned, and Alexander V excommunicated Hus and his adherents. Riots ensued in parts of Bohemia. The government took the side of Hus, and the power of his adherents increased from day to day. Hus continued to preach in the Bethlehem Chapel. The churches of the city were put under the ban, and the interdict was pronounced against Prague, but without result.


Archbishop Zajíc died in 1411, and with his death the religious movement in Bohemia entered a new phase, where the disputes concerning indulgences assumed great importance.

Crusade against Naples

Antipope John XXIII succeeded Pope Alexander V after his death in 1410. In 1411, John XXIII issued a crusade against King Ladislaus of Naples, the protector of Gregory XII. This crusade was preached in Prague as well, and preachers of indulgences urged people to crowd the churches and give their offerings. This developed a traffic in indulgences that to some were a sign of the corruption of the church.

Condemnation of indulgences and Crusade

Hus spoke out against indulgences, but he could not carry with him the men of the university. In 1412, a dispute took place, on which occasion Hus delivered his address Quaestio magistri Johannis Hus de indulgentiis. It was taken literally from the last chapter of Wycliffe's book, De ecclesia, and his treatise, De absolutione a pena et culpa. The pamphlet stated that no pope or bishop had the right to take up thesword in the name of the Church; he should pray for his enemies and bless those that curse him; man obtains forgiveness of sins by true repentance, not money. The doctors of the theological faculty replied, but without success. A few days afterward, some of Hus' followers, led by Vok Voksa z Valdštejna, burnt the Papal bulls. Hus, they said, should be obeyed rather than the Church, which they considered a fraudulent mob of adulterers and Simonists.


In response, three men from the lower classes who openly called the indulgences a fraud were beheaded. They were later considered the first martyrs of the Hussite Church. In the meantime, the faculty had condemned the forty-five articles and added several other theses, deemed heretical, which had originated with Hus. The king forbade the teaching of these articles, but neither Hus nor the university complied with the ruling, requesting that the articles should be first proven to be un-scriptural. The tumults at Prague had stirred up a sensation; papal legates and Archbishop Albik tried to persuade Hus to give up his opposition Equestrian statue of the to the papal bulls, and the king made an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two parties. Hussite leader Jan Žižka

Attempts at reconciliation

Solomon Islands (/ˈsɒləmən ˈaɪləndz/) is a sovereign state in Oceania, east ofPapua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands. It covers a land mass of 28,400 square kilometres (10,965 square miles). The capital, Honiara, is located on the island of Guadalcanal. The nation of the Solomon Islands is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The Solomon Islands are believed to have been inhabited by Melanesian people for many thousands of years. Spanish navigator Alvaro de Mendaña discovered the islands in 1568 and named them Islas Salomon. The United Kingdom established a protectorate over the Solomon Islands in 1893. In the Second World War there was fierce fighting between the Americans and the Japanese in the Solomon Islands campaign of 1942–45, including the Battle of Guadalcanal. Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence two years later. The Solomon Islands is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of the Solomon Islands, at present Elizabeth II, as the head of state. Danny Philip is the tenth and current Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands. He was elected on August 2010.

Independence Day ARGENTINA - July 9 Argentina Independence Day, the 9th of July, is a public holiday in Argentina. In Argentina the day is known as the Acta de la Declaración de la Independencia Argentina.


Argentina was discovered by European explorers in the 16th century. Historians have long debated whether Amerigo Vespucci, Juan Diaz de Solis, Ferdinand Magellan or Sebastian Cabot landed and laid claim to the land.

in Prague.

The king made efforts to harmonize the opposing parties. In 1412, he convoked the heads of his kingdom for a consultation and, at their suggestion, ordered a synod to be held at Český Brod on 2 February 1412. It did not take place there, but in the palace of the archbishops at Prague, in order to exclude Hus from participation. Propositions were made to restore peace in the Church, with Hus requiring that Bohemia should have the same freedom in regard to ecclesiastical affairs as other countries and that approbation and condemnation should therefore be announced only with the permission of the state power. This is wholly the doctrine of Wycliffe (Sermones, iii. 519, etc.). There followed treatises from both parties, but no harmony was obtained. "Even if I should stand before the stake which has been prepared for me", Hus wrote at the time, "I would never accept the recommendation of the theological faculty." The synod did not produce any results, but the King ordered a commission to continue the work of reconciliation. The doctors of the university demanded approval of their conception of the Church, according to which the Pope is the head, the Cardinals are the body of the Church from Hus and his followers. Hus protested vigorously. The Hussite party seems to have made a great effort toward reconciliation. To the article that the Roman Church must be obeyed, they added only "so far as every pious Christian is bound". Stanislav ze Znojma and Štěpán Páleč protested against this addition and left the convention; they were exiled by the king, with two others.

Writings of Hus and Wycliffe

Of the writings occasioned by these controversies, those of Hus on the Church, entitled De Ecclesia, were written in 1413 and have been most frequently quoted and admired or criticized, and yet their first ten chapters are but an epitome of Wycliffe's work of the same title, and the following chapters are but an abstract of another of Wycliffe's works (De potentate papae) on the power of the pope. Wycliffe had written his book to oppose the common, but mistaken (from a Catholic point of view) position that the Church consisted only of the clergy, and Hus now found himself making the same point. He wrote his work at the castle of one of his protectors in Kozí Hrádek, and sent it to Prague, where it was publicly read in the Bethlehem chapel. It was answered by Stanislav ze Znojma and Páleč with treatises of the same title. After the most vehement opponents of Hus had left Prague, his adherents occupied the whole ground. Hus wrote his treatises and preached in the neighborhood of Kozí Hrádek. Bohemian Wyclifism was carried into Poland, Hungary, Croatia, and Austria. In January 1413, a general council assembled in Rome which condemned the writings of Wycliffe and ordered them to be burned.

Council of Constance

To put an end to the papal schism and to take up the long desired reform of the Church, a general council was convened for 1 November 1414, at Konstanz (Constance). Sigismund of Hungary, brother of Wenceslaus, and heir to the Bohemian crown, was anxious to put an end to religious dissension within the church; Hus likewise was willing to make an end of all dissensions and agreed to go to Constance, under Sigismund's promise of safe passage.

Imprisonment and preparations for trial

It is unknown whether Hus knew what his fate would be, but he made his will before setting out. He started on his journey on 11 October 1414; on 3 November 1414, he arrived at Constance, and on the following day, the bulletins on the church doors announced that Michal z Německého Broduwould be opposing Hus. In the beginning, Hus was at liberty, living at the house of a widow, but, after a few weeks, his opponents succeeded in imprisoning him, on the strength of a rumor — more than likely spread by themselves — that he intended to flee. He was first brought into the residence of a canon and then, on 8 December 1414, into the dungeon of the Dominican monastery. Sigismund was greatly angered, as the guarantor of Hus' safety, and threatened the prelates with dismissal; however, the prelates convinced him that he could not be bound by promises to a heretic. On 4 December 1414, Antipope John XXIII had entrusted a committee of three bishops with a preliminary investigation against Hus. As was common practice, witnesses for the prosecution were heard, but Hus was not allowed an advocate for his defense. His situation became worse after the downfall of the antipope, who had left Constance to avoid abdicating. Hus had been the captive of John XXIII and in constant communication with his friends, but now he was delivered to the Archbishop of Constance and brought to his castle, Gottlieben on the Rhine. Here he remained for 73 days, separated from his friends, chained day and night, poorly fed, and ill.


On 5 June 1415, he was tried for the first time, and for that purpose was transferred to a Franciscanmonastery, where he spent the last weeks of his life. He declared himself willing to recant if his errors should be proven to him from the Bible. Hus conceded his veneration of Wycliffe, and said that he could only wish his soul might some time attain unto that place where Wycliffe's was. On the other hand, he denied having defended Wycliffe's doctrine of The Lord's Supper or the forty-five articles; he had only opposed their summary condemnation. King Wenceslaus admonished him to deliver himself up to the mercy of the Council, as he did not desire to protect a heretic. At the last trial, on 8 June 1415, there were read to him thirty-nine sentences, twenty-six of which had been excerpted from his book on the Church, seven from his treatise against Páleč, and six from that against Stanislav ze Znojma. The danger of some of these doctrines to worldly power was explained to the emperor to incite him against Hus. Hus again declared himself willing to submit if he could be convinced of errors. He desired only a fair trial and more time to explain the reasons for his views. If his reasons and Bible texts did not suffice, he would be glad to be instructed. This declaration was considered an unconditional surrender, and he was asked to confess: that he had erred in the theses which he had hitherto maintained; 1. that he renounced them for the future; 2. 3. that he recanted them; and 4. that he declared the opposite of these sentences. He asked to be exempted from recanting doctrines which he had never taught; others, which the assembly considered erroneous, he was not willing to revoke; to act differently would be against hisconscience. These words found no favourable reception. After the trial on 8 June, several other attempts were purportedly made to induce him to recant, which he resisted.


The condemnation took place on 6 July 1415, in the presence of the assembly of the Council in the Cathedral. After the High Mass and Liturgy, Hus was led into the church. The Bishop of Lodi delivered an oration on the duty of eradicating heresy; then some theses of Hus and Wycliffe and a report of his trial were read.

Refusals to recant

An Italian prelate pronounced the sentence of condemnation upon Hus and his writings. Hus protested, saying that even at this hour he did not wish anything, but to be convinced from Holy Scripture. He fell upon his knees and asked God with a low voice to forgive all his enemies. Then followed his degradation — he was enrobed in priestly vestments and again asked to recant; again he refused. With curses his ornaments were taken from him, his priestly tonsure was destroyed, and the sentence was pronounced that the Church had deprived him of all rights and delivered him to the secular powers. Then a high paper hat was put upon his head, with the inscription "Haeresiarcha" (meaning the leader of a heretical movement). Hus was led away to the stake under a strong guard of armed men. At the place of execution he knelt down, spread out his hands, and prayed aloud. Some of the people asked that a confessorshould be given to him, but one priest exclaimed that a heretic should neither be heard nor given a confessor.


The executioners undressed Hus and tied his hands behind his back with ropes, and bound his neck with a chain to a stake around which wood and straw had been piled up so that it covered him to the neck. At the last moment, the imperial marshal, Von Pappenheim, in the presence of the Count Palatine, asked him to recant and thus save his own life, but Hus declined with the words "God is my witness that the things charged against me I never preached. In the same truth of the Gospel which I have written, taught, and preached, drawing upon the sayings and positions of the holy doctors, I am ready to die today." He was then burned at the stake, and his ashes thrown into the Rhine. Anecdotally, it has been claimed that the executors had some problems scaling up the fire. An old woman came closer to the bonfire and threw a relatively small amount of brushwood on it. Hus, seeing it, then said, "Sancta Simplicitas!" (Holy Simplicity!) This sentence's Czech equivalent ("svatá prostota!", or, in vocative form "svatá prostoto!") is still used to comment upon a stupid action.

Aftermath Hus' scholarship and teachings

Hus left only a few reformatory writings in the proper sense of the word, most of his works being polemical treatises against Stanislav ze Znojma and Štěpán Páleč. He translated the Trialogus, and was very familiar with his works on the body of the Lord, on the Church, on the power of the pope, and especially with his sermons. There are reasons to suppose that Wycliffe's doctrine of the Lord's Supper had spread to Prague as early as 1399, with strong evidence that students returning from England had brought the work back with them. It gained an even wider circulation after it had been prohibited in 1403, and Hus preached and taught it, although it is possible that he simply repeated it without advocating it. But the doctrine was seized eagerly by the radical party, the Taborites, who made it the central point of their system. According to their book, the Church is not that hierarchy which is generally designated as Church; the Church is the entire body of those who from eternity have been predestined for salvation. Christ, not the pope, is its head. It is no article of faith that one must obey the pope to be saved. Neither internal membership in the Church nor churchly offices and dignities are a surety that the persons in question are members of the true Church. To some, Hus' efforts were predominantly designed to rid the Church of its ethical abuses, rather than a campaign of sweeping theological change. To others, the seeds of the reformation are clear in Hus' and Wycliffe's writings. In explaining the plight of the average Christian in Bohemia, Hus wrote, “One pays for confession, for mass, for the sacrament, for indulgences, for churching a woman, for a blessing, for burials, for funeral services and prayers. The very last penny which an old woman has hidden in her bundle for fear of thieves or robbery will not be saved. The villainous priest will grab it.” (Macek, 16) After Hus' death, his followers, then known as Hussites, split off into several groups including the Utraquists, Taborites and Orphans. Nearly six centuries later in 1999, Pope John Paul II expressed "deep regret for the cruel death inflicted" on Hus. Cardinal Miloslav Vlk of the Czech Republic was instrumental in crafting John Paul II's statement. Hus was a key contributor to Protestantism, whose teachings had a strong influence on the states of Europe and on Martin Luther himself. The Hussite Wars resulted in the Basel Compacts which allowed for a reformed church in the Kingdom of Bohemia—almost a century before such developments would take place in the Lutheran Reformation. Hus' extensive writings earn him a prominent place in Czech literary history. He is also responsible for introducing the use of diacritics (especially the háček) into Czech spelling in order to represent each sound by a single symbol. Today, the Jan Hus Memorial can be seen at the Prague Old Town Square (Czech Staroměstské náměstí). A church and a theatre in Manhattan, located at 351 East 74th Street, are named for Hus: respectively the Jan Hus Presbyterian Church and the Jan Hus Playhouse. Although the church and theatre share a single building and management, the Playhouse's productions are usually non-religious or non-denominational. A statue to Jan Hus was erected in the Union Cemetery in Bohemia, New York (on Long Island) by Czech immigrants to the New York area in 1893. The statue was the first memorial in the United States to honor a foreign-born person. The John Hus Moravian Church, located at 153 Ocean Avenue in Brooklyn, New York.


It is believed that Papuan speaking settlers began to arrive around 30,000 BC. Austronesianspeakers arrived c. 4000 BC also bringing cultural elements such as the outrigger canoe. It is between 1200 and 800 BC that the ancestors of the Polynesians, the Lapita people, arrived from the Bismarck Archipelago with their characteristic ceramics. The first European to visit the islands was the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, coming from Peru in 1568. The people of Solomon Islands were notorious for headhunting and cannibalism before the arrival of the Europeans. Missionaries began visiting the Solomons in the mid19th century. They made little progress at first, because "blackbirding" (the often brutal recruitment of labourers for the sugar plantations in Queensland and Fiji) led to a series of reprisals and massacres. The evils of the labour trade prompted the United Kingdom to declare a protectorate over the southern Solomons in June 1893. This was the basis of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate. In 1898 and 1899, more outlying islands were added to the protectorate; in 1900 the remainder of the archipelago, an area previously under German jurisdiction, was transferred to British administration apart from the islands of Buka and Bougainville, which remained under German administration as part of German New Guinea. Solomon Island warriors with Traditional trade and social intercourse between the spears in ornamented war western Solomon Islands of Mono and Alu (the Short- canoe in 1895 lands) and the traditional societies in the south of Bougainville, however, continued without hindrance. Under the protectorate, missionaries settled in the Solomons, converting most of the population to Christianity. In the early 20th century, several British and Australian firms began large-scale coconut planting. Economic growth was slow, however, and the islanders benefited little.


Local councils were established in the 1950s as the islands stabilised from the aftermath of the Second World War. A new constitution was established in 1970 and elections were held, although the constitution was contested and a new one was created in 1974. In 1973 the first oil price shock occurred, the increased cost of running a colony became apparent to British administrators. Following the independence of neighbouring Papua New Guinea from Australia in 1975, the Solomon Islands gained self government in 1976. Independence was granted on 7 July 1978. The first Prime Minister was Sir Peter Kenilorea, and the Solomon Islands re- The National Parliament buildtained the Monarchy. ing was a gift from the United

Civil War

Argentina was divided into different areas until 1776. Over the next 50 years, the land that came to make up Argentina were gradually reunited. On April 15, 1814, a revolution declared that a General Congress be assembled. Representing 15,000 people from each province, a delegate deputies were chosen to meet on March 24, 1816. With 33 deputies, the General Congress assembled in the city of Tucuman. Argentina’s independence movement began in earnest on May 25, 1810, which is celebrated as Revolution Day. That date marked the beginning of a long, protracted military struggle, fought under the leadership of

José de San Martín, Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru the revolutionary and military strategist Gen. José de Martin born in 1778 and who died in 1850. He was regarded as the father of his country. July 9, 1816 was an important turning point. On this day, the Congress of Tucuman passed a resolution declaring independence from Spain of the Provincias Unidas de America del Sur which also included Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia. Juan Martin de Pueyrredon was declared supreme director. Argentina’s spell under martial rule was finally broken in 1983. The previous year General Galtieri had attempted to divert attention from his governance by invading the Falkland Islands in 1982. The resulting defeat by Britain sealed Galtieri’s fate and he was succeeded by President Carlos Menem who instituted a series of wide-ranging economic reforms, selling off state-owned industries, and opening up the economy to foreign investors.


Argentina is not like the USA in celebrating their Independence Day. There are political parades in the capital and the schools are closed but there are not the fireworks and festivities that many other countries observe. On both Independence Day and when Revolutionary Day, special services are held at the Cathedral in the series and dramatic performances take place in the Colon Theater.


Commonly referred to as the tensions or the ethnic tension, the initial civil unrest was mainly characterised by fighting between the Isatabu Freedom Movement (also known as the Guadalcanal Revolutionary Army) and the Malaita Eagle Force (as well as the Marau Eagle Force). (Although much of the conflict was between Guales and Malaitans, Kabutaulaka (2001) and Dinnen (2002) argue that the 'ethnic conflict' label is an oversimplification. In late 1998, militants on the island of Guadalcanal commenced and had a campaign of intimidation and violence towards Malaitan settlers. During the next year, thousands of Malaitans fled back to Malaita or to the capital, Honiara (which, although situated on Guadalcanal, is predominantly populated by Malaitans and Solomon Islanders from other provinces). In 1999, the Malaita Eagle Force (MEF) was established in response. The reformist government of Bartholomew Ulufa'alu struggled to respond to the complexities of this evolving conflict. In late 1999, the government declared a four month state of emergency. There were also a number of attempts at reconciliation ceremonies but to no avail. He also requested assistance from Australia and New Zealand in 1999 but this was rejected. In June 2000, Ulufa'alu was kidnapped by militia members of the MEF who felt that although he was a Malaitan, he was not doing enough to protect their interests. Ulufa'alu subsequently resigned in exchange for his release. Manasseh Sogavare, who had earlier been Finance Minister in Ulufa'alu's government but had subsequently joined the opposition, was elected as US marines rest in the field Prime Minister by 23-21 over Rev. Leslie Boseto. How- during the Guadalcanal Camever Sogavare's election was immediately shrouded in paign in 1942. controversy because six MPs (thought to be supporters of Boseto) were unable to attend parliament for the crucial vote (Moore 2004, n.5 on p. 174). In October 2000, the Townsville Peace Agreement, was signed by the Malaita Eagle Force, elements of the IFM and the Solomon Islands Government. This was closely followed by the Marau Peace agreement in February 2001, signed by the Marau Eagle Force, the Isatabu Freedom Movement, the Guadalcanal Provincial Government and the Solomon Islands Government. However, a key Guale militant leader,Harold Keke, refused to sign the Agreement, causing a split with the Guale groups. Subsequently, Guale signatories to the Agreement led by Andrew Te'e joined with the Malaitan-dominated police to form the 'Joint Operations Force'. During the next two years the conflict moved to the Weathercoast of Guadalcanal as the Joint Operations unsuccessfully attempted to capture Keke and his group. New elections in December 2001 brought Sir Allan Kemakeza into the Prime Minister's chair with the support of his People's Alliance Party and also the Association of Independent Members. Law and order deteriorated as the nature of the conflict shifted: there was continuing violence on the Weathercoast while militants in Honiara increasingly turned their attention to crime and extortion. The Department of Finance would often be surrounded by armed men when funding was due to arrive. In December 2002, Finance Minister Laurie Chan resigned after being forced at gunpoint to sign a cheque made out to some of the militants. Conflict also broke out in Western Province between locals and Malaitan settlers. Renegade members of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) were invited in as a protection force but ended up causing as much trouble as they prevented. The prevailing atmosphere of lawlessness, widespread extortion and ineffective police prompted a formal request by the Solomon Islands Government for outside help. With the country bankrupt and the capital in chaos, the request was unanimously supported in Parliament. In July 2003, Australian and Pacific Island police and troops arrived in the Solomon Islands under the auspices of the Australian-led Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). A sizable international security contingent of 2,200 police and troops, led by Australia and New Zealand, and with representatives from about 20 other Pacific nations began arriving the next month under Operation Helpem Fren. Since this time some commentators have considered the country a failed state. However, other academics argue that rather than being a 'failed state', it is an unformed state: a state that never consolidated after decades since independence. In April 2006, allegations that the newly elected Prime Minister Snyder Rini had used bribes from Chinese businessmen to buy the votes of members of Parliament led to mass rioting in the capital Honiara. A deep underlying resentment against the minority Chinese business community led to much of Chinatown in the city being destroyed. Tensions had also been increased by the belief that large sums of money were being exported to China. China sent chartered aircraft to evacuate hundreds of Chinese who fled to avoid the riots. Evacuation of Australian and British citizens was on a much smaller scale. Further Australian, New Zealand and Fijian police and troops were dispatched to try to quell the unrest. Rini eventually resigned before facing a motion of no-confidence in Parliament, and Parliament elected Manasseh Sogavare as Prime Minister.

Hungary in step with China The Great Plain & the Great Wall

of Commerce, Wan Jifei, signed a deal with Hungarian magnate and head of the National Association of Entrepreneurs and The two-day visit was the first by a Chi- Employers (VOSZ) Sándor Demján to set nese leader since 1987, when Hungary up a bilateral business council. was still a communist dictatorship. Orbán said after private talks and the signing of signed covered air and water the deals: “I consider today to be an ex- Other deals mutual cultural endeavours and tremely important milestone and success transport, agreement on fostering closer ties befor Hungary's renewal.” China's Ministry of Commerce and Wen said China plans to purchase an un- tween Hungarian equivalent, as well as coopspecified amount of Hungarian sovereign its eration logistics and development in debt - this slightly less than three years Hungaryinand the region. after Hungary became the first EU country to require an international rescue and just one year after Orbán's newly elected gov- An unspecified deal on railway and transernment cut its ties with the International port development was signed by Minister Monetary Fund. Furthermore, Wen an- for National Development Tamás Fellegi. nounced that the Chinese state investment The minister spoke during a recent visit to bank will put up a EUR 1 billion loan to China of the possible participation of the support joint ventures between Chinese China Railway Construction Corporation in and Hungarian firms. developing and modernising Hungary's rail network.

Making connections

Dozen deals signed durJobs going places ing visit Fellegi also inked a deal with technology

Second World War

With the outbreak of the Second World War, most planters and traders were evacuated to Australia, and most cultivation ceased. Some of the most intense fighting of the war occurred in the Solomons. The most significant of the Allied Forces' operations against the Japanese Imperial Forces was launched on August 7, 1942, with simultaneous naval bombardments and amphibious landings on the Florida Islands at Tulagi and Red Beach on Guadalcanal. The Battle of Guadalcanal became an important and bloody campaign fought in the Pacific War as the Allies began to repulse Japanese expansion. Of strategic importance during the war were the coast watchers operating in remote locations, often on Japanese held islands, providing early warning and intelligence of Japanese naval, army and aircraft movements during the campaign. Sergeant-Major Jacob Vouza was a notable coast watcher who after capture refused to divulge Allied information in spite of interrogation and torture by Japanese Imperial forces. He was awarded a Silver Star by the Americans. Islanders Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana would be noted by National Geographic for being the first to find the shipwrecked John F. Kennedy and his crew of the PT-109. They suggested using a coconut to write a rescue message for delivery by dugout canoe, which was later kept on his desk when he became the president of the United States. The Solomon Islands was one of the major staging areas of the South Pacific and was home to the famous VMF-214 "Black Sheep" Squadron commanded by Major Greg "Pappy" Boyington. The Slot was a name for New Georgia Sound, when it was used by the Tokyo Express to supply the Japanese garrison on Guadalcanal. Of more than 36,000 Japanese on Guadalcanal, about 26,000 were killed or missing, 9,000 died of disease, and 1,000 were captured.


Transport links

The country's official name, as established in the Constitution of Solomon Islands and as used by government as well as by the country's press, is "Solomon Islands", with no definite article. Its name is thus reflected in international organisations such as Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands. In other English-speaking countries, however, the definite article is often added.

The University of Prague around 1408 was being torn apart by the ongoing papal schism, in which Pope Gregory XII and Avignon Pope Benedict XIII both laid claim to the papacy. King Wenceslaus felt Pope Gregory XII might interfere with his plans to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor; thus, he renounced Gregory and ordered his prelates to observe a strict neutrality toward both popes, and said he expected the same of the university. Archbishop Zajíc remained faithful to Gregory. At the university, only the "Bohemian nation" (one of four voting blocs), with Hus as its leader and spokesman, avowed neutrality.

Alexander V becomes Antipope

Independence Day SOLOMON ISLAND-July 7


Hus took an active role in the movement for reform in the church by attacking the morals of clergy, episcopate, and papacy from his pulpit. Archbishop Zbyněk Zajíc was lenient with Hus and appointed him as preacher to the biennial synod. On June 24, 1405, Pope Innocent VII, however, directed the archbishop to counter the heretical teachings of Wycliffe, especially the doctrine of impanation in the Eucharist. The archbishop complied by issuing a synodal decree against Wycliffe as well as any further attacks on the clergy. In 1406, a document was brought by two Bohemian students to Prague bearing the seal of the University of Oxford and eulogizing Wycliffe. Hus proudly read the document from his pulpit. Zbyněk received a letter from Pope Gregory XII, in 1408, stating that the church in Rome had been informed of Wycliffe's heretical words and King Wenceslaus's sympathies for non-conformists. This prompted the king and the university to clear themselves of heretical suspicion. All writings of Wycliffe were ordered surrendered to the archdiocesan chancery for correction and Hus obeyed declaring that he condemned the errors in these writings.


(Google News) WASHINGTON — President Barack Obama said Saturday that "nothing can be off-limits" in the budget debate — even though Republicans have said tax increases are. The president said every tax break and federal program must come under scrutiny. With an Aug. 2 deadline looming to raise the governborrowing ment limit, the president used his weekly radio and Internet address to call on Congress to make a deal. He also renewed his call for Congress to eliminate some tax breaks for the welloff as part of any agreement. Republicans want deep spending cuts without any tax increases while Mr. Obama and Democrats call for what they term a "balanced" approach. That means one that also includes new revenue in the form of higher taxes for some, though Democrats steer clear of using phrases like "tax increases" or "higher taxes." "Now, it would be nice if we could keep every tax break, but we can't afford them," President Obama said. "Because if we choose to keep those tax breaks for millionaires and billionaires, or for hedge fund managers and corporate jet owners, or for oil and gas companies pulling in huge profits without our help — then we'll have to make even deeper cuts somewhere else."

Buried bombs take increasingly deadly toll on Afghan civilians

Juan Perón and his influential wife, Eva.

Saba Saba TANZANIA - July 7 Saba Saba Day on July 7 celebrates (among other things) the 1954 founding of the Tanzanian political party, TANU, the Tanganyika African National Union. Saba Saba means "seven seven" in Swahili, the national language of Tanzania (and of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two countries whose union created the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964). Saba Saba also may refer to the Dar es Salaam International Trade Fair. The fair is held every year at this date [7/7] in Saba Saba grounds near Kurasini in Dar es Salaam.


– Chemical firm BorsodChem, in the deprived northeast, signed a USD 1.1 billion financing deal with the Bank of China. The firm has been fully controlled by China's Wanhua Industrial Group since February. – Chinese air-transport group HNA signed a strategic cooperation deal with Magyar Tõketársaság Zrt (Hungarian Capital Company Zrt). – The president of the Chinese Chamber

company Hanwua over its planned European logistics hub development in Hungary. The centre could employ some 3,000. In terms of new facilities, a deal was signed over China's CANYI New Lighting setting up a European light-bulb production centre in Hungary, and the central city of Szolnok will get a citric acid factory capable of producing 60,000 tonnes a year.

Hungary's Ambassador Hands Over EU Presidency to Polish Counterpart in Sofia (Google News) Bulgaria has made a huge towards its step Schengen accession, said Hungarian Ambassador Judith Lang at Thursday's ceremony for the symbolic handover of the EU rotating presidency to Polish counterpart Leszek Hensel. Poland takes over the EU Council's sixmonth rotating presidency on July 1, 2011. On Jan. 1, 2012 the presidency will be taken over by Denmark and, after six months by Cyprus. The Hungarian Ambassador reminded Thursday of the situation when her country had taken over the rotating presidency, stressing that the government had managed to deal with the challenges through coop-

eration and a flexible policy. The problems Europe faces are identical to the problems plaguing Hungary, Lang explained, adding that the country had managed to summon 99% support for the proposed economic measures, at the same time preserving national priorities like the targeted return to growth levels and a budget stability. Lang dwelled exhaustively on the Danube strategy, which she defined as a positive initiative with a substantially improved resource management and coordination. In her words, the success of the Danube strategy depends on its implementation. The Polish Ambassador to Bulgaria pre-

sented the new "extremely positive" logo, which said was a symbol of the natural disposition of all Poles. He called for paying special attention to the situation in the Eurozone and on the financial markets, adding that Poland was ready to be brave in the name of European values. Hensel summarized the approach and the priorities of Poland as the new EU head in three words- growth, security and transparency. He vowed to press for the expansion of the capacity of EU's Warsaw-based agency for external border security, Frontex, which he said would allow to overcome the existing challenges.

Opel Announces It Will Launch a Fuel Cell Vehicle in 2015 (Google News) 07/1/11 During a recent visit of Hungarian Prime Minister and EU Council Chairman Viktor Orbán to Opel aimed at learning about the company’s strategy for sustainable mobility, the automaker quietly revealed plans to launch a fuel cell vehicle by 2015. Opel is

hard at work downsizing its engines and putting its first electric cars on the road this year,

but the more dramatic move to fuel cells is a sign that GM Europe is taking a shift to green vehicles seriously. During Prime Minister Orbán’s tour of the facilities, Opel also confirmed it is investing 11 billion Euros (16 billion USD) in several electric models it will release in 2014.

A statue of Ronald Reagan, the 40th president of the United States from 1981-89, was unveiled on Szabadság tér on Wednesday Goog e News P me M n s e V k o O bán sa d a he ce emony ha he Repub can p es den s p oo a comp e e enewa s n deed poss b e and ha we can change ou ves ou des ny ou wo d we a e b ave enough we accep he e spons b y as P es den Reagan d d o p onounc ng he d s nc on be ween good and ev hen we can succeed O bán sa d He added ha n Hun ga y he e a e s wa s o be o n down o ee ou se ves om he pas and u n Hunga y n o a s ong success u and p oud coun y Condo eezza R ce sec e a y o s a e unde

he Geo ge W Bush a e no a one we s and adm n s a on sa d a by hem L s en ng o b oadcas s om Rad o F ee Eu ope du ng he 1956 Up s ng many ee dom gh e s hough ha he US wou d back hem n he gh aga ns he Sov e s The cava y neve came P es den Reagan was p a sed o h s e o s o b ng down commu n sm and he Sov e Un on ca ng he ev emp e As a Ho y he ce emony ha wood ac o he s e cou d neve aga n hap membe ed o h s ne pen ha we abandon n he 1942 m K ngs hose gh ng o he Row Whe e s he es eedom n h s o me? a e wak ng squa e ook ng a h s om anaes hes a o s a ue we mus swea nd ha a sad s c su ha he cause s no geon has ampu a ed os R ce sa d They bo h h s egs


Hungary hosting Aviagen’s successful Central European seminar

(Goog e News) Av agen K Av agen s Hungaran bus ness un recen y he d he r 5 h sem nar or Cen ra European (CE) Paren S ock cusomers A ended by over 220 gues s rom 17 coun r es he success u hree-day even cons s ed o a m x ure o reg ona coun ry upda es prac ca managemen adv ce and op ca presen a ons Coun ry rev ews o he CE reg on nc ud ng Hungary Serb a & Bosn a Roman a Czech & S ovak a Bu gar a and S oven a & Croa a g ven by Av agen s oca represen a ves h gh gh ed he con nued ncrease n demand or Ross produc s n he reg on Barr e F em ng Reg ona Consu an Ve er naran upda ed he aud ence on u ure deve opmen s n use o an b o cs and prob o cs Nu r on s Leonardo L nares presen a on was we -rece ved by he aud ence as covered he op ca sub ec o H gh Feed Cos s A erna ves Leonardo eva ua ed poss b e ways o decrease cos s by us ng a erna ve raw ma er a s o comba he cha eng ng r se n eed cos s San ago Avendano D rec or o G oba Gene cs gave an ns gh n o he breed ng programme or he nex ve years ocus ng on se ec on s ra eg es or u ure success T mea Torma QA Manager us ra ed prac ca oo s o max m se ha chab y and ch ck qua y wh ch nc uded a o o adv ce ava ab e n Av agen s ser es o "How To documen s" The Sem nar a so ea ured he presen a on o he Reg ona Ross PS ock awards adress ng per ormance and ch ck ou pu The award or bes overa per ormance wen o Mar n Hrva n rom Ja a Emona S oven a who ach eved an ou s and ng resu o 146 ch cks o 60 weeks The aud ence a h s year s CE Sem nar or he rs me nc uded cus omers rom Georg a Uzbek s an and Azerba an Ne C ark Area Techn ca Manager summar sed he sem nar ” Br ng ng so many cus omers oge her prov des a un que a mosphere or shar ng exper ence and adv ce The Sem nar was a grea p a orm o exchange n orma on and work oge her or he u ure grow h o he brand am de gh ed w h he resu s our cus omers are ach ev ng and wou d ke o hank hem or he r comm men and ded ca on o he con nued success o Ross n he reg on ”

Condoleezza Rice helps unveil statue of Ronald Reagan in Hungary

(Google News) Jun 29, 2011, Budapest - Former US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice joined Prime Minister Viktor Orban in the Hungarian capital Wednesday to unveil a statue of former US president Ronald Reagan. In an ironic twist, the statue stands near a monument to the Soviet soldiers who died while 'liberating' Hungary from Nazi occupation at the end of the Second World War. Reagan, who would have turned 100 this year, is widely credited in Hungary and other Eastern European countries for helping bring about the collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist dictatorships it propped up in the region. Rice's successor, current US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, was due to meet Orban on Thursday during a visit to Budapest for the opening of the Tom Lantos Institute, named after the Hungarian-American Democrat congressman who died in 2008.

Six Azerbaijani boxers reach semifinal of European championship in Hungary

(Goog e News) Sa 02 Ju y 2011 S x Azerba an boxers passes he quarer na s age success u y and ensured a eas bronze meda s o hemse ves n he we gh ca egory be ow 46 kg Araz Gu mammadov bea Roman a s Georg an Tudor (13-6) n he sem na ARAZ s o come up aga ns Ukra ne s Svya os av Demk n Orkhan A yev (50 kg) bea Ukra ne s V ad s av Ku epov (15-9) H s nex opponen w be Russ a s Yusup Gazzayev Nasradd n Mammadov (52 kg) made a br an v c ory over Georg a s A eko Lursamanashv n he quar er na by knock ng h m ou n he second round Now Mammadov w come up aga ns boxer Dan Shamasu d nov Nur an Nag yev (57 kg) a so reached he sem na He bea srae Ta Ahronov -16-10 H s nex opponen w be Ukra ne s Arsen Ab ayev Rah Mammad (80 kg) bea r sh Pa r ck Ga e (12-6) and n he sem na he w come up aga ns Be arus V a y Khor n Our super-heavywe gh Magomeda Tah rov (over 80 kg) urned s ronger han Eng sh Dan e W ams – 13-9 n he gh or he na Tah rov s o mee Croa an Ma a Hrgov ch



Medvedev to meet NATO's Rasmussen in Sochi (PR) Russian President Dmitry Medvedev plans to hold a personal meeting with NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen in Sochi, Dmitry Rogozin, Russia's NATO envoy, said on Friday. "A personal meeting of the NATO Secretary General and the Russian president will

take place," Rogozin said. The Russian Black Sea resort city of Sochi will host an offsite session of the Russia-NATO Council on July 4, the Kremlin press service said late last month. Rogozin said NATO representatives are expected to arrive to Sochi late on July 3. Russia is expected to dis-

Russian sailboat Pallada set for international trans-Pacific expedition

(PR) The Russian sailing vessel Pallada sets off on Friday from Vladivostok in Russia's Far East for an over three-month international transPacific xpedition, a spokesman for the Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University, which owns the vessel, said. The expedition is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of Yury Gagarin's first space flight and to the 270th anniversary of discovery of the Russian America by Russian seafarers. "The new expedition of the Pallada will last over three months. The route of the sailboat stretches along the coast of North America, the lands that were discovered by Russian seamen in the middle of the 17th

cuss with the alliance agreements made during the NATO-Russia Council summit in Lisbon in November 2010 on the European missile shield cooperation. NATO insists the shield should have two independent systems that exchange information, while Russia favors a joint system

century and which are Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The sailboat with cadets onboard will pay visits to ports of the United States, Canada and Japan," the spokesman said. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, who paid a visit to Vladivostok on Thursday, also visited the Pallada and met with the cadets and the crew of the vessel. The threemast Pallada is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the fastest sailing vessel in the world, with a speed exceeding 18 knots. The sailing ship, the winner of many international festivals and races, has performed over 100 international trips over 13 years. It has also been visited by many famous people, including Chan and Arnold Jackie Schwarzenegger.

Putin arrives in Yekaterinburg to attend United Russia conference (PR) Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has arrived in the Urals city of Yekaterinburg, where he is expected to attend a regional conference of the ruling United Russia party. The forum that opened on Wednesday is dedicated to working out a development strategy for the Urals Federal District for the next ten years. The event will for the first time also gather members of the All-Russia People's Front, a

Russia to build nuclear aircraft carrier by 2023

(PR) Russ a s Un ed Sh pbu d ng Corpora on and sae arms expor er Rosoboronexpor have s gned a dea w h A ger a o bu d wo new T ger c ass corve es he corpora on sa d on Thursday The agreemen was s gned on he s de nes o he ongo ng n erna ona

new association that analysts say Putin created in a bid to head off a potentially damaging poor showing by United Russia at the December elections. Putin announced the formation of the People's Front in early May, saying it would broaden United Russia's electoral base with "non-party people," including trade unions, NGOs, business associations and youth groups.

Mar me De ense Show MDS-2011 n S Pe ersburg The b enn a nava show o ers exh b s rom 300 compan es nc ud ng 30 ore gn ones "We have s gned wo agreemen s oge her w h Rosoboronexpor o se wo corve es o A ger a and hree gh Mo n ya m ss e corve es o a ormer Sov e repubc " sa d Roman Tro senko head o he sh pbu d ng corpora on He sa d he con rac s

with full-scale interoperability. The NATO-Russia Council was established in 2002. It provides bilateral cooperation and consultations on current security problems, including the fight against terrorism, Afghanistan cooperation, missile defense, and non-proliferation of weapons.

Russian, Belarus, Kazakh PMs to meet in Moscow mid-July

(PR) The prime ministers of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, Vladimir Putin, Mikhail Myasnikovich and Karim Masimov agreed to hold a three-sided meeting in Moscow on July 12, Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov said on Friday. According to Peskov, Putin held talks by telephone with the prime ministers of Belarus and Kazakhstan during his working visit to Ulan-Ude. The countries have removed all customs checkpoints on the borders of the three countries, Peskov said. The diplomats said that after removing the checkpoints, Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus have fulfilled all their bligations on the formation of a common customs space, Peskov added.

Medvedev to hold APEC summit preparation meeting in Far East

(PR) Russian President Dmitry Medvedev will on Thursday hold a meeting to discuss preparation for an APEC summit in the Russian Far Eastern city of Vladivostok, presidential spokeswoman Natalya Timakova said. Timakova said the president will inspect facilities being built for the summit, including a bridge to the Russky Island and a campus of the Far Eastern Federal University. The summit preparation program also includes the construction of an international air terminal and two five-star hotels, wastewater urification facilities, as well as modernization of the water supply system and the power grid. Vladivostok will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in 2012.

s gned a he show so ar were wor h $1 3 b on and more con rac s were expec ed be ore he show c oses on Ju y 3 Russ a s exh b ng or he rs me s newes S eregushchy c ass (Pro ec 20380) corve e he Soobraz e ny a he show The corve e can be dep oyed o des roy enemy sur ace sh ps submar nes and a rcra and o prov de arery suppor or beach and ngs The demons ra-

on par o he show nvo ves 15 comba sh ps o he Russ an Navy and hree ore gn warsh ps German r ga e FGS Hamburg Du ch r ga e HMS Van Ams e and U S Navy r ga e USS Carr The program o he show nc udes exh b on r ng rom 10 sh p ar ery moun s and demons ra on gh s o aeroba c eams he copers and unmanned aer a veh c es

FM Sergey Lavrov Speaks to Acting Head of the Republic of Yemen , VP Abd-Rabbu Mansour AlHadi by Telephone A telephone conversation took place on June 29 between Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov and Yemen’s Vice President AbdRabbu Mansour Al-Hadi, acting head of the Yemeni state. During their conversation Lavrov and AlHadi discussed in detail the situation in the Republic of Yemen, characterized in recent months

by tension and by confrontation between different political forces. The Russian side expressed its support for efforts to launch a dialogue that would nsure a return to normalcy in the country and kick-start an in-depth discussion on ways to reform the political, social, and economic life of Yemeni society. Lavrov emphasized in this connection that

the Russian Federation will be eady to identify itself with the decisions about overcoming the negative consequences of the crisis that Yemeni political forces themselves will reach on the basis of national consensus. The Russian side reaffirmed its support for the steps to facilitate stabilizing the situation in the RY that are being undertaken by

Russian MFA Press and Information Department Comment in Relation to the Taliban Attack on the Intercontinental Hotel in Kabul (PR) We have received with great concern the news of the attack by Taliban militants on the Intercontinental Hotel in Kabul, with reports of mostly civilians killed. We strongly condemn this terrorist act. The actions of militants suggest that the Taliban, while continuing to pursue the goal to destabilize the situation in Afghanistan and to undermine efforts by the international community for post-conflict reconstruction in the country, despite the statements of some of their leaders, have no re-

gard hatsoever for the real needs of the Afghan people, who want lasting peace, harmony and prosperity in an independent, democratic Afghanistan. We presume that the international military presences in Afghanistan, acting strictly under their mandates issued by the United Nations Security Council, together with the Afghan government will continue to give an effective rebuff to terrorist attacks and to protect civilians in the context of long-term stabilization efforts in the country.

GCC member countries, other states and the UN. Al-Hadi, for his part, thanked the Russian Federation for its consistent policy to preserve the unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Yemen in favor of resolving the problems facing the RY through peaceful means and within the constitutional framework.

Russia to build two Tiger corvettes for Algerian navy

(PR) Russia's United Shipbuiding Corporation and state arms exporter Rosoboronexport have signed a deal with Algeria to build two new Tiger class corvettes, the corporation said on Thursday. The agreement was signed on the sidelines of the ongoing International Maritime Defense Show, IMDS-2011, in St. Petersburg. The biennial naval show offers exhibits from 300 companies, including 30 foreign ones. "We have signed two agreements together with Rosoboronexport to sell two corvettes to Algeria and three light [Molniya missile] corvettes to a former Soviet republic," said Roman Trotsenko, head of the shipbuilding corporation. He said the contracts signed at the show so far were worth $1.3 billion and more contracts were expected before the show closes on July 3. Russia is exhibiting for the first time its newest Steregushchy class (Project 20380) corvette, the Soobrazitelny, at the show. The corvette can be deployed to destroy enemy surface ships, submarines and aircraft, and to provide artillery support for beach landings. The demonstration part of the show involves 15 combat ships of the Russian Navy and three foreign warships: German frigate FGS Hamburg, Dutch frigate HMS Van Amstel and U.S. Navy frigate USS Carr. The program of the show includes exhibition firing from 10 ship artillery mounts and demonstration flights of aerobatic teams, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Secretary Clinton meets with Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban before their bilateral meeting at Parliament Thursday, June 30, 2011 in Budapest, Hungary.

Constitution Day PALAU - July 9 Palau adopted its constitution in 1981 and establish a government based on the goveernment of the USA. Since 1359, 137 Presidents have governed Palau.


Palau was settled by people who landed there for over 3000 years. During the 15th century, Spain took dominion over the land and took the land under their control. In 1977, democracy was restored to Palau. The Republic of Palau is a scattered group of islands in the westernmost part of Micronesia. The country’s territory includes some 340 islands east of the Philippines that stretch out over an area 125 miles in length. The total land area of the islands is 170 square miles. Babeldaob, the largest island, covers 153 square miles. With the entry into force of the Compact of Free Association with the United States. Palau was the last Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands territories to gain its independence. Under the Compact, the U.S. will remain responsible for Palau’s defense for 50 years. Otherwise, Palau is a sovereign nation and conducts its own foreign relations. Since independence, Palau has established diplomatic relations with a number of nations, including many of its Pacific neighbors. Palau was admitted to the United Nations on December 15, 1994, and has since joined several other international organizations.

(Online) June 30, 2011. An Indian girl covers herself with her mother's sari during heavy rains on a street in the northern hill station town of Dharmsala, India. Secretary Clinton speaks at the inauguration ceremony for the Tom Lantos Institute, named after the Congressman Tom Lantos, a Hungarian-born human rights activist and Holocaust survivor, in the Upper Chamber of Parliament Thursday, June 30, 2011 in Budapest, Hungary.

(On ne) June 30 2011 Kashm r Mus ms pray as a head pr es unseen d sp ays a ho y re c be eved o be ha r rom he beard o Prophe Mohammed a he Hazra ba Shr ne on he ou sk r s o Sr nagar nd a (On ne) Ju y 1 2011 A car bomb exp odes as a member o a (Online) June 28, 2011. Libyan women in the town of Bani, Tha bomb squad nspec s n Nara h wa prov nce sou h o about 125 miles (200 km) southeast of Tripoli offer up pro– Bangkok Po ce be eve s am s m an s are respons b e Muammar Gaddafi chants as they attend a weapons-training session.


The Palau Arts Festival falls on July 9, Constitution Day. Palau is a country rich in tradition and culture. Today, many sites of cultural or historical importance remain intact, reminding modern Palauans of a past long ago, while reinforcing the culture and tradition for future generations. Probably the most noticeable aspect of Palauan culture is the people’s connection with the sea. Traditionally, it was the duty of the family to go to sea to harvest fish and battle against enemy villages. As the sea was the source of their livelihood, men developed a close relationship with the waters of Palau, becoming versant in the currents and the phases of the moon and the behavior of the fish they sought to put on the table. Palauans are a highly sociable people. Traditionally, history, lore and knowledge were passed down through the generations orally as there was no written language until the late 1800′s. Palauans still practice that traditional method, and at the end of the day, one can often find pockets of Palauans excitingly engaged in the telling of the stories of the more recent past. Rock Islands in Palau

Secretary Clinton with Hungarian Foreign Minister Janos Martonyi at the inauguration ceremony for the Tom Lantos Institute at the Upper Chamber of Parliament Thursday, June 30, 2011 in Budapest, Hungary.

(Online) July 1, 2011 “supertrees” in Singapore, the Glastonbury Festival heats up, the Mounties perform a ceremony, protests in Athens, military exercises in Iran, a car bomb explodes in Thailand, (Online) June 24, 2010. A horse rider takes part in the tradi- (On ne) June 29 2011 A ex Lopez cen er p ays baseba w h Chinese communism celebrates 90 years, and extreme weather tional San Juan festival in the town of Ciutadella on the h s s s er Sugey wh e smoke genera ed by he Las Conchas re across the world. Balearic Island of Menorca. covers he sky n Espano a N M

(On ne) June 25 2011 A ch d rece ves an ora po o vacc ne n he Abobo suburb o Ab d an dur ng he open ng o he second na ona day o po o vacc na ons organ zed by he Wor d Hea h Organ za on UN CEF and Ro ary n erna ona among o hers

26 Issue | Zarb-e-Jamhoor e-Newspaper | 03-09 Jul, 2011  

The Worldwide Events/Zarb-e-Jamhoor e-Newsletter circulates by email. The weekly Worldwide Events/Zarb-e-Jamhoor newspaper that specially fo...

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