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Memorial Day Marshall Islands

Independence Movement DayDay-South Korea

Labour Day (Western Australia) Celebrated on March 01

Celebrated on March 01

(Celebrated on March 01) 01)

Australia

MEMORIAL DAY

Celebrating the Australian labour movement, the Labour Day public holiday is fixed by the variousstate and territory governments, and so varies considerably. It is the first Monday in October in theAustralian Capital Territory, New South Wales and South Australia. In both Victoria and Tasmania, it is the second Monday in March (though the latter calls it Eight Hours Day). In Western Australia, Labour Day is the first Monday in March. In both Queensland and the Northern Territory, it is the first Monday in May.

Marshall Islands celebrates Memorial Day or Nuclear Victims' Memorial Day every 1st of March every year. The holiday serves to commemorate those who perished in the nuclear done in Marshall Islands. The holiday was used to be called Decoration Day. The Marshall Islands were named after British navigator John Charles Marshall when he arrived in the Islands in 1788. Several countries managed to invade the Island, from Spain, Germany, Japanese, and later the United States of America after the latter's invasion on the Island against Japanese Imperial forces in World War II.

March 1st Movement The March 1st Movement, or Samil Movement, was one of the earliest public displays of Korean resistance during the Japanese military occupation of the Korean Empire. The name refers to an event that occurred on March 1, 1919, hence the movement's name, literally meaning "Three-One Movement" or "March First Movement" in Korean. It is also sometimes referred to as the Manse Demonstrations.

Background The Samil Movement came as a result of the harsh and brutal repressive nature of Japanese occupation under its military rule of the Korean Empire following 1905, and the "Fourteen Points" outlining the right of national "self-determination" proclaimed by President Woodrow Wilsonat the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919. After hearing news of Wilson's speech, Korean students studying in Tokyo published a statement demanding freedom from Japanese military occupation.

National Independence Day Bosnia-Herzegovina (Celebrated on March 01) 01) Independence Day Every first day of March, Bosnia and Herzegovina marks the yearly celebration of their independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992. It is locally known as 'Dan nezavisnosti'. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an almost landlocked European country located in the South-East region of the continent on the sharing the Balkan Peninsula with other countries such as Albania, Montenegro, Croatia, continental Greece, Serbia, Romania, among others.

HISTORY Bosnia and Herzegovina are identified politically as Bosnians regardless of local ethnic origin. There are three ethnic groups which now exist in the country: Bosniaks, Bosnian Serbs, and Bosnian Croats. The first ethnic group to mention occupies the largest percentage of ethnic group in the country. It enjoys a decentralized form of government and being government by two large political entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 'Republika Srpska'. Bosnia and Herzegovina was a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until its separation from the communist republic on March 1, 1992 after the Yugoslav Wars between 1991 and 2001. After World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina managed itself to remain stable until it joined the ranks of kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes which was later known as Yugoslavia. This proved to be a mistake from the part of the country as it suffered tumultuous socio-economic downturn over issues on property redistribution and unstable politics, among others. The Bosnians were later denied of nationhood amidst efforts from famous Bosnian politicians of that time such as Mehmed Spaho. Among the political agenda that was made during that time, Cvetkovi?-Ma?ek Agreement was made to the best most controversial where Bosnia and Herzegovina was planned to be divided or partitioned between the state of Croatia and Serbia. The agreement did not materialized due to the threat brought by the Nazi Germany before the onset of World War II. The battle that ensued forced Yugoslavia to surrender to the Nazis. This event led Yugoslavia to give Bosnia and Herzegovina to Croatia or the then Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during the Second World War. The resistance to the occupation among the Bosnians resulted to cruelties among the ethnics especially among Bosnian Jews and Serbs. Later in the Cold War the Communist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was re-established and Bosnia was once again made a separate and Independent republic. In the event that follows, countries which were part of the communist Yugoslavia started to declare independence. Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence in June of 1991. The same year was marked by a call of independence of Bosnia from Yugoslavia but encouraged the creation of an autonomous region for Bosnian Serbs - Serb Autonomous Regions (SAO). The Serbs wanted to stay with the remaining Yugoslavia, so this made Bosnia and Herzegovina establish its own independence on its own May 22, 1992 as recognized by the United States and majority of the European countries at that time. Two years later, in March 1994, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was created to ease up tensions between the Bosnians and the Muslims and the Croats in the region. In spite of that, atrocities continued with thousands of Muslim members of the federation killed. The civil war ended only with the signing of Dayton Peace Agreement in 1995 in Paris, France. Bosnia's dark times led to the existence of a republic consisting of three large ethnic entities: Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs and each are recognized as legitimate and constituent people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This is generally lauded and accepted by the majority of the people in the country. Today, Bosnia and Herzegovina is beginning a new phase of economic transformation, changing its current economy to a market-oriented type where prices of food and services are determined by the government under the influence of supply and demand (free price system).

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES The independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina is celebrated with street parade, public speeches from Bosnian political party leaders and state-sponsored cultural shows. Since this is a public holiday in the country, most Bosnians spend the holiday with their families or visit the Local Park and malls. Float parade, concerts, and grand fireworks await spectators at night during the celebration of Independence Day.

Texas Independence Day USA Celebrated on March 02 Republic of Texas The Republic of Texas was an independent nation in North America, bordering theUnited States and Mexico, that existed from 1836 to 1846. Formed as a break-away republic from Mexico by the Texas Revolution, the state claimed borders that encompassed an area that included all of the present U.S. stateof Texas, as well as parts of present-day New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Mexico. The eastern boundary with the United States was defined by the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain, in 1819. Its southern and western-most boundary with Mexico was under dispute throughout the existence of the Republic, with Texas claiming that the boundary was the Rio Grande, and Mexico claiming the Nueces River as the boundary. This dispute would later become a trigger for the Mexican-American War, after the annexation of Texas by the United States.

History Establishment: The Republic of Texas was created from part of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejasas a result of the Texas Revolution. Mexico was in turmoil as leaders attempted to determine an optimal form of government. In 1835, when President Antonio López de Santa Anna abolished the Constitution of 1824, granting himself enormous powers over the government, wary colonists in Texas began forming Committees of Correspondence and Safety. A central committee in San Felipe de Austincoordinated their activities. In the Mexican interior, several states revolted against the new centralist policies. The Texas Revolution officially began on October 2, 1835, in the Battle of Gonzales. Although the Texians originally fought for the reinstatement of the Constitution of 1824, by 1836 the aim of the war had changed. The Convention of 1836 declared independence on March 2, 1836, and officially formed the Republic of Texas. 1836-1845: The first Congress of the Republic of Texas convened in October 1836 at Columbia(now West Columbia). Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas, died December 27, 1836, after serving two months as Secretary of State for the new Republic. In 1836, five sites served as temporary capitals of Texas (Washington-on-the-Brazos,Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco and Columbia), before president Sam Houston moved the capital to Houston in 1837. The capital was moved to the new town of Austin in 1839 by the next president, Mirabeau B. Lamar. The first flag of the republic was the "Burnet Flag" (a gold star on an azure field), followed shortly thereafter by official adoption of the Lone Star Flag. Internal politics of the Republic were based on the conflict between two factions. The nationalist faction, led by Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of Texas to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. The Texas Congress even passed a resolution over Houston's veto claiming the Californias for Texas. The 1844 presidential election split dramatically, with the newer western regions of the Republic preferring the nationalist candidate Edward Burleson, while the cotton country, particularly east of the Trinity River, went for Anson Jones. The Comanches were the main Native American opposition to the Texas Republic. In the late 1830s, Sam Houston negotiated a peace between Texas and the Comanches. Lamar replaced Houston as president in 1838, and reversed the Indian policies. He launched a genocidal war against the Comanches and invadedComancheria itself. In retaliation, the Comanches attacked Texas in a series of raids. After peace talks in 1840 ended with the massacre of 34 Comanche leaders in San Antonio, the Comanches launched a major attack deep into Texas, known as the Great Raid of 1840. Under command of Potsanaquahip (Buffalo Hump), 500-700 Comanche cavalry warriors swept down the Guadalupe River valley, killing and plundering all the way to the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, where they sacked the towns of Victoria and Linnville. Houston became president again in 1841 and, with both Texans and Comanches exhausted by war, a new peace was established. Although Texas governed itself, Mexico refused to recognize its independence. On March 5, 1842, a Mexican force of over 500 men, led by Rafael Vásquez, invaded Texas for the first time since the revolution. They soon headed back to the Rio Grande after briefly occupying San Antonio. About 1,400 Mexican troops, led by the French mercenary general Adrián Woll, launched a second attack and captured San Antonio on September 11, 1842. A Texas militia retaliated at the Battle of Salado Creek. This militia, however,was defeated by Mexican soldiers and Texas Cherokee Indians on September 18 during the Dawson Massacre. The Mexican army would later retreat from the city of San Antonio. Among the effects of Mexico's attacks on Texas was the intensification of conflicts between political factions, including an incident known as the Texas Archive War. To "protect" the Texas national archives, President Sam Houston ordered them removed from Austin. The archives were eventually returned to Austin, albeit at gunpoint. The Texas Congress admonished Houston for the incident, and this episode in Texas history would solidify Austin as Texas's seat of government for the Republic and the future state.

St. David's Day United Kingdom Celebrated on March 01 Saint David's Day Saint David's Day (Welsh: Dydd Gwyl Dewi Sant) is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on 1 March each year. The date of 1 March was chosen in remembrance of the death of Saint David on that day in 589, and has been celebrated by followers since then. The date was declared a national day of celebration within Wales in the 18th century. Cross-party support resulted in the National Assembly for Wales voting unanimously to make St. David's Day a public holiday in 2000, a stance supported by the Wales TUC. A poll conducted for Saint David's Day in 2006 found that 87% of people in Wales wanted it to be a bank holiday, with 65% prepared to sacrifice a different bank holiday to ensure this. A petition in 2007 to make St. David's Day a bank holiday was rejected by office of the then British Prime Minister, Tony Blair.

(Celebrated on March 03) 03) National Anthem Day The Star-Spangled Banner was written originally as a poem by Francis Scott Key in 1814. Key wrote the verses after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by Royal Navy ships during the War of 1812. During this time, American colonists often sang Key's lyrics to the tune of a popular British drinking song titled "The Anacreontic Song." The tune soon became a well-known patriotic song, representing America's strength and endurance during trying times. It was not until March 3, 1931 however, that the Star-Spangled Banner became designated by Congress as the National Anthem of the United States. With a range of one and a half octaves, the anthem is known for its difficulty to sing. The first "pop" performance of the National Anthem in front of mainstream America was done by singer Jose Feliciano before game five of the 1968 World Series. Despite the fact that Jose's performance of the song did spark some controversy, it still remains a popular song to be sung before sporting events today. Oh say does that star spangled banner yet wave, over the land of the free, and the home of the brave!

HISTORY People in the Marshall Islands celebrate Memorial Day by visiting memorials and cemeteries to honor those who died in the nuclear tests in the country. Public speeches are conducted along with parade and cultural events.

Celebrated on March 01

Battle of AdowaAdowa-Ethiopia

Heroes' Day

March 02

Heroes' Day Paraguay Every year, Paraguay (Officially, Republic of Paraguay), one of the landlocked countries in South America, celebrates Heroes' Day on the 1st of March. It is also known as the Paraguay's National Defense Day. The holiday commemorates the bravery of the country's army and famous leader Marshal Francisco Solano López. Moment before his death as he sees his country is overtaken by insurmountable alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, he said, "I die with my country!"

HISTORY Just like any other country in South America, Paraguay was one of Spain's colonies starting on mid 16th century. Asunción, the country's capital was founded on August 15, 1537 after the arrival of Juan de Salazar y Espinoza's fleet. The Jesuits also operated in the landlocked nation lasting for more than one and a half century until the arrival of the Spanish Crown in 1767. After waging a fierce battle with Spain, Paraguay obtained its independence on May 14, 1811. Paraguay enjoyed years of independence but is marred by serious political instability and wars with neighbour countries especially Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia. The War of the Triple Alliance, also known as Paraguayan War that happened between 1864 and 1870, caused so much death on the part of Paraguay. Before the war, the country was estimated to have around 500,000 to 525,000 people; when the war ended, the country's population was reduced to more than 200,000. The cause of the War of Triple Alliance varies from historians to historians and country to country. Also, the relocation of Paraguay's archive by Brazilian forces to Rio de Janeiro during the war made history (both Colonial and National) learning difficult. Paraguayan's also waged war against Bolivia in Chaco War between 1932-1935 as part of Paraguay's quest for expansion and control to natural resources of neighbour countries. Indeed, the history of Paraguay is filled with disputes, conflicts, and inconsistencies as each country and politicians have their own version of history. In the end, Paraguay was defeated by combined forces of the above countries which also led to the death of its leader Solano Lopez on March 1, 1870. The celebration of Heroes' Day is disputed between the commemoration of Paraguayan forces that fearlessly fought in the battle of wars to which Paraguay started or the death of Solano López who never surrendered but fought the country's enemies till his death.

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES Paraguay's Heroes' Day is marked with public celebration such as parade, public speeches, concerts, cultural shows, among others. Various political groups may also hold demonstrations to remember those who perished in the war. Because it is a national holiday, it is work free and serves as a time for families for get-togethers.

Battle of Adwa The Battle of Adwa (usually known as Adowa, or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March 1896 between Ethiopia and Italy near the town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray. It was the climactic battle of the First Italo-Ethiopian War.

Background As the 20th century approached, most of 19th century Africa had been carved up between the various European powers. The two exceptions were the tiny Republic of Liberia on the west coast of the continent and the ancient Ethiopian Empire in the strategic Horn of Africa. The Kingdom of Italy was a relative newcomer to the colonialscramble for Africa. Italy possessed only two recently obtained territories. Both were impoverished and located near Ethiopia on the Horn of Africa, Eritrea and Somalia. Italy sought to improve its position in Africa by conquering Ethiopia, which would join its two territories. In 1889, the Italians signed the Treaty of Wuchale with Emperor Menelik II. A disputed article of the treaty made the Ethiopian Empire a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy. As a result, Italy and Ethiopia faced off in what was later to be known as the First Italo-Ethiopian War. In late 1895, after advancing deep into Ethiopian territory, a small Italian-led unit was defeated by a much larger Ethiopian group at the Battle of Amba Alagi. The Italians were forced to withdraw to more defensible positions in Tigray, where the two main armies faced each other. By late February 1896, supplies on both sides were running low. General Oreste Baratieri, commander of the Italian forces, knew the Ethiopian forces had been living off the land, and once the supplies of the local peasants were exhausted, EmperorMenelik's army would begin to melt away. However, the Italian government insisted that General Baratieri act. On the evening of 29 February, Baratieri met with hisbrigadiers Matteo Albertone, Giuseppe Arimondi, Vittorio Dabormida, and Giuseppe Ellena, concerning their next steps. He opened the meeting on a negative note, revealing to his brigadiers that provisions would be exhausted in less than five days, and suggested retreating, perhaps as far back as Asmara. His subordinates argued forcefully for an attack, insisting that to retreat at this point would only worsen the poor morale. Dabormida exclaiming, "Italy would prefer the loss of two or three thousand men to a dishonorable retreat." Baratieri delayed making a decision for a few more hours, claiming that he needed to wait for some last-minute intelligence, but in the end announced that the attack would start the next morning at 9:00. His troops began their march to their starting positions shortly after midnight.

Day-Malawi The Fast of Nineteen Martyr's DayMarch 03 Days Baha'i 2 March-20 March Nineteen Day Fast The Nineteen-Day Fast (2 March-20 March) is a nineteen-day period of the year, during which members of the Bahá'í Faith adhere to a sunrise-to-sunset fast. Along with obligatory prayer, it is one of the greatest obligations of a Bahá'í, and its chief purpose is spiritual; to reinvigorate the soul and bring the person closer to God. The fast was instituted by the Báb, and accepted by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, who stated its rules in his book of laws, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas.

HISTORY The Báb, the founder of the Bábí Faith, instituted the Badí' calendar with 19 months of 19 days in his book thePersian Bayán, and stated that the last month would be a period of fasting. The Báb stated that the true significance of the fast was abstaining from all except the love of the Messengers from God. The Báb also stated that the continuation of the fast was contingent of the approval of a messianic figure, Him Whom God Shall Make Manifest. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, who claimed to be the one foretold by the Báb, accepted the fast, but altered much of its details and regulations. The Bahá'í fast resembles fasting practices of several other religions. Lent is a period of fasting for Christians,Yom Kippur and many other holidays for Jews, and the fast of Ramadan is practiced by Muslims. The Bahá'í fasting most resembles the fast of Ramadan, except that the period of fasting is defined as a fixed Bahá'í month, whereas Muslims fast during a lunar month, whose specific Gregorian dates vary from year to year.

Definition Bahá'u'lláh established the guidelines of the fast in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, his book of laws. Fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset during the Bahá'í month of `Ala' (between March 2nd through March 20th) and it is the complete abstaining from food, drink and smoking. Observing the fast is an individual obligation, and is binding on all Bahá'ís who have reached the age 15 until the age of 70; it is not enforceable by the Bahá'í administrative institutions. Various exemptions are given to the sick, the travelling, and others (see below). While Bahá'ís are allowed to fast at other times during the year, fasting at other times is not encouraged and is rarely done; Bahá'u'lláh permitted the making of vows to fast, which was a Muslim practice, but he stated that he preferred that such vows be "directed to such objectives as will profit mankind."

National Unity DayDay -SUDAN Celebrated on March 03 Unity Day Sudan celebrates Unity Day yearly every 3rd of March. It is a celebration of peace and unity in all regions of Sudan, particularly the North and parts of South which suffered heavy strife during the civil war. Although the Addis Ababa Agreement made in Ethiopia slightly ended the civil war, the signing of the accord was instrumental in the establishment of the present day Unity Day celebration in the country. The two-decade war between North and South Sudan ended in 2005, ultimately forming a unity government. But at present, the United Nation has become wary about the increasing tensions happening between the North and autonomous south after the latter calls for a total independence from the North through a separation referendum happening in 2011. A referendum is underway which will decide on the faith of the two sides and the nation as a whole.

HISTORY Sudan has long been under the rule of Britain until its formal independence in 1956. The independence is a product of an agreement between Britain and Egypt to give Sudan the opportunity for self-governance and national identity in 1953. The start of the first parliament in 1954 concentrated most of the development and progress in the North while neglecting most parts of the South. This unequal distribution of development interest in the region later formed a lasting cancer dividing Sudan into an Arab-laden north and mainly Christian and ethnic Nilotic people of South. The 17 year long war ended on 1972 (1955-1972) after the South was given autonomy on its internal affairs after the signing of Addis Ababa agreement in Ethiopia. However, another war broke out in 1983 after the two regions once again suffered from another political and military tension. The newly drafted constitution in 2005 temporarily ended the civil war while waiting for final referendum in 2005. Currently, the International Criminal Court (ICC) charged the current president Omar al-Bashir on charges of crimes against humanity and war particularly due to widespread genocide on the Southern region of Sudan. The country has severed international and diplomatic relations with its neighbouring African countries including Chad. Sudan is member to the some international organizations including the United Nations (UN), African Union (AU), the Arab League, and Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), among others.

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES

National Anthem Day-USA Day-USA

HISTORY From 1946 to 1958, motivated by exploring the potential of nuclear weapons in warfare, the US made Marshall Islands as test site for its various nuclear tests. The US approximately conducted around 67 nuclear tests in the Island which contaminated most of the Island country's territory. The Bikini Island, known previously as Escholtz Atoll during the Second World War, became a test site for various nuclear tests by the US (Operation Crossroads). The US conducted atomic bomb tests in the area to determine radioactive fallout's effects on naval vessels. Bikini and Enewetak, two of the country's major atolls, were sites for this nuclear experiment. The Castle Bravo, the largest atomic bomb test ever made by the US in the island caused so much damage and contamination in the surrounding Islands with health effects lingering until today. Marshall Island and the US are in a dialogue for nuclear claims that had happened in the area during the Nuclear test era.

Sudan celebrates Unity Day with public cultural shows, parades, and events. Public and private companies including students from various schools participate in cultural shows and parades in the street which commemorates the unity of the entire region and the preservation of peace and fuelling progress. Since Unity Day is a national holiday, government offices do not operate and while some private offices may choose to close.

Town meetingmeeting -USA-March USA -March 04 Town meeting A town meeting is a form of direct democratic rule, used primarily in portions of the United States since the 17th century, in which most or all the members of a community comes together to legislate policy and budgets for local government. The term has more recently been expanded to cover public meetings that draw people in a geographic area to discuss issues but not vote on any legislative or administrative action. Notably, the term is commonly used by politicians in the United States to describe forums at which voters can ask questions.

In the United States Town meeting is a form of local government practiced in the U.S. region of New England since colonial times, and in some western states since at least the late 19th century. Typically conducted by New England towns, town meeting can also refer to meetings of other governmental bodies, such as school districts or water districts. While the uses and laws vary from state to state, the general form is for residents of the town or school district to gather once a year and act as a legislative body, voting on operating budgets, laws and other matters for the community's operation over the following 12 months. The Puritans, who believed in Congregationalist church governance, established town meetings In New England when they established the various New England colonies. Its usage in the English language can also cause confusion. Town meeting is both an event, as in "Freetown had its town meeting last Tuesday" and an entity, as in "Last Tuesday, Town Meeting decided to repave Howland Road." Starting with Jimmy Carter's presidential campaign in 1976, "town meeting" has also been used as a label for any moderated discussion group in which a large audience is invited. To avoid confusion, this sort of event is often called a "town hall meeting."

Martyrs' Day Every year, Malawi, formerly known as Nyasaland, a landlocked country in Southeast Africa, celebrates Martyr's Day every third day of March yearly to commemorate the popular uprising in Malawi protesting British colonial rule. This resistance has caused the lives of more than forty men during the revolution. It is this day when the country mourns those whose lives were perished just to liberate the country from the foreign rule.

HISTORY In 1953, Malawi and its neighbour country Nyasaland (present day Malawi), formed a confederation called Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, in an effort to halt the discriminatory policy applied against the African population in Rhodesia and for fear that it may also spread and eventually be adopted in Nyasaland. Dr. Hastings Kamuz Banda became one of the prominent figures of the revolt who immediately became the first president of Malawi in 1966, two years after the declaration of Independence of Malawi. The popular revolt started when John Chilembwe, a US trained Malawian soldier, revolted against the British in 1915 when African soldiers were forced to serve the British colonial army. Chilembwe, along with other brave men during that time, began taking offensives against the British colonial government forces during that time. The war ended only when Chilembwe was assassinated along the borders of the Portuguese-controlled African republic Mozambique and the country in the same year. Numerous wars and power struggles happened in the Nyasaland and Rhodesia region after the initial war ensued which led to the then Queen of England in 1959 declaring state of emergency on these African protectorate territories in an effort to finally put an end to the rebellion. The first president installed during that time was sent for exile in Zimbabwe and put behind bars during the rebellion. One of the most momentous incidents during the rebellion is the massacre that happened in northern lakeshore in Nkhatabay where, more or less, 30 people have died. The British colonial army gunned down and killed unarmed African natives who were peacefully demanding negotiations for the eventual independence of the Nyasaland. The rather peaceful negotiation turned out to be a bloody massacre of people who were killed by riffle bullets and some drowned in Lake Malawi. After the dissolution of The Federation (1963), Nyasaland finally gained independence from the government of Britain and was renamed Malawi. The country prospered during Banda's rule until he was deposed in 1994 after a new president was elected (Bakili Muluzi) under the new multiparty system.

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES Martyrs' Day is considered as a national holiday in Malawi. During the celebration, public offices including schools and some private companies are closed. The government conduct ceremonial speeches to commemorate those whose lives were lost during the rebellion leading to the independence of the state. The president and other public officials attend local gatherings remembering the fallen heroes including the laying of wreaths on monuments dedicated to the popular personalities of the liberation.

Hina Matsuri (Doll Festival)-JAPAN Festival) -JAPAN

March 03 Hinamatsuri The Japanese Doll Festival (Hina-matsuri), or Girls' Day, is held on March 3. Platforms covered with a red carpet are used to display a set of ornamental dolls (hina-ningyo) representing the Emperor, Empress, attendants, and musicians in traditional court dress of theHeian period.

Origin and customs The custom of displaying dolls began during the Heian period. Formerly, people believed the dolls possessed the power to contain bad spirits. Hinamatsuri traces its origins to an ancient Japanese custom called hina-nagashi (lit. "doll floating"), in which straw hina dolls are set afloat on a boat and sent down a river to the sea, supposedly taking troubles or bad spirits with them. The Shimogamo Shrine (part of theKamo Shrine complex in Kyoto) celebrates the Nagashibina by floating these dolls between the Takano and Kamo Rivers to pray for the safety of children. People have stopped doing this now because of fishermen catching the dolls in their nets. They now send them out to sea, and when the spectators are gone they take the boats out of the water and bring them back to the temple and burn them. The customary drink for the festival is shirozake, a sake made from fermented rice. A colored hina-arare, bite-sized crackers flavored with sugar or soy sauce depending on the region, and hishimochi, a diamond-shaped colored rice cake, are served. Chirashizushi (sushi rice flavored with sugar, vinegar, topped with raw fish and a variety of ingredients) is often eaten. A salt-based soup called ushiojiru containing clams still in the shell is also served. Clam shells in food are deemed the symbol of a united and peaceful couple, because a pair of clam shells fits perfectly, and no pair but the original pair can do so. Families generally start to display the dolls in February and take them down immediately after the festival. Superstition says that leaving the dolls past March 4 will result in a late marriage for the daughter.

Arrival of First Missionaries--French Polynesia Missionaries March 05 French Polynesia observes annual celebration of Missionary Day every 5th of March. The holiday marks the celebration of the first missionaries who entered the shore of the French Colonial Island or 'Arrivée de l'Evangile' in French in 1797.

HISTORY The entire French Polynesian islands were not established until 1889 when it was put under French administration as its legal protectorate. The whole islands sprawling for about 5.2 million square kilometres is located in the eastern South Pacific which is almost the size of Europe excluding the Eurasia. There are only around 250,000 people who currently inhabit the island. Various evidences proves that the island was inhabited by the first Polynesians back in AD 300, specifically the Marquesas Islands, and AD 800 at the Society Islands. Several Europeans came into the islands including Portuguese explorer sailing for the Spanish crown, Ferdinand Magellan. Magellan first sailed to the Island on 1521 passing through Pukapuka, Jakob Roggeveen (Bora Bora) in 1772, Samuel Wallis in 1767, including the French navigator Louis Antoine de Bougainville in 1768 and James Cook in 1769. Spanish priests were among the first Christian missionaries who came in the French Polynesia's shores; particularly the island of Tahiti in 1774 but permanent settlement of missionaries did not happen until 1797 by the ministers of the London Missionary Society. The declaration of France protectorate status on the island gave way to the missionary practice in the island in 1842. The momentous event culminating to allowing missionary work in the region is now widely celebrated as Missionary Day in French Polynesia.

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES During the holiday, various events and cultural shows are held in the street particularly the traditional re-enactment of the arrival of the first missionaries in the island in 1797 at the Willy Bambridge Stadium complex in Papeete, in Tahiti, as well as on Afareaitu in Moorea. Concerts and various stage shows are free for public to enjoy.

MartisorMartisor-Romania (Celebrated on March 01) 01 ) Martisor Martisor is a traditional celebration of the beginning of Spring, on 1 March. It is a tradition in Romania, Moldova, and all territories inhabited by Romanians and also Aromanians. Almost the same custom can be found in Bulgaria (see Martenitsa) and similar ones in Albania and Italy. The name Martisor is the diminutive of mart, the old folk name for March (Martie, in modern Romanian), and thus literally means "little" or "dear March". It is also the folk name for this month. Martisor, mart and martigus are all names for the red and white (or black and white, also blue and white) string, from which usually a small decoration is tied, and which is offered by people on the 1st day of March. Giving this Talisman to other people is an old custom, and it is believed that the one who wears the red and white string will be powerful and healthy for the year to come. It is also a symbol of the coming spring. Usually, women wear it pinned to their blouses for the first 12 days of this month, until other certain spring celebrations, or until the bloom of certain fruit-trees. In some regions, a gold or silver coin is hanged from the string, which they wear it around the neck. After wearing it for a certain period of time, they buy red wine and sweet cheese with the coin, according to the belief that their faces would remain beautiful and white as cheese, and rubicund as the red wine, for the entire year. In modern times, the Martisor lost most of its talisman properties and became more of a symbol of friendship and love, appreciation and respect. The black threads were replaced with red, but the delicate wool ropes are still a 'cottage industry' among the country people. They still comb out the wool, dye the floss, and twist it into thousands of tassels. In certain areas the amulets are still made with black and white ropes, for warding off evil.

Peasants' Day Myanmar Burma Burma Celebrated on March 02 Peasants' Day (Burmese Name, 'Taungthu lethama nei") Myanmar, also known as Burma, celebrates Peasants' Day yearly every 2nd of March. It is incidentally the General Ne Win's seizure of power in 1962. Ne Win is a military commander and politician of Myanmar. He served two terms as the country's Prime Minister from 1958 to 1960 and another on 1962 to 1974. He was also the country's head of state from 1962 to 1981. He also head one of the country's powerful political party Socialist Programme Party from 1964 until 1988. The party was the only party allowed to exist during Ne Win's strict military rule until he was ousted as a result of social unrest happened on 1988 known as the 8888 Uprising. During this day, various talks and development programs are laid down, discussed, and revealed for the improvement of the peasant sector which is the country's flagship economy.

History The peasant sector occupies around 70 percent of Myanmar's population and undoubtedly the most productive workforce in the country. Because of this, Myanmar recognizes the powerful role of farmers in driving the country's economic output. However, it is the farming sector which usually suffers whenever a power struggle happens in the country because rebels usually flew to the jungles of Myanmar to avoid prosecution and seek protection. The country has long been wanting to transform its country into a developed nation with plans of improving the industrial sector of the society, however, inadequate funding, corruption, and political instability halts the region from realizing its truest potential. The entire peasantry before 1965 experienced usury and inappropriate use of agricultural land. Farming lands were rented and many of the farmers cannot keep up with the rising cost of land rent. During this time, laws were passed to protect the farmers against this practice and led to massive land reformation and among them is the passing of protecting farmers against land renting. These acts were all made under the military administration of Ne Win and continue until today. Most of monumental reformation happened during Ne Win's term and continued until his resignation on 1988 after a popular uprising. Today, Myanmar still focuses on the development of new technologies and laws to protect farmers from unfair land treatment and support their various causes as the whole country's economy depends heavily on this sector.

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES During the holiday, Myanmar's local leaders organize talks about reforms in peasantry around the country and present issues that challenges the development of the agricultural field. Since this is a national holiday, public companies are closed while some private companies may remain open. Families and individuals may choose to remain inside home or visit the local parks, pagodas and temples in the area. Also, trade and cultural shows organized around the country showcasing traditional crafts, culture, and arts.

Mother's Day Georgia Celebrated on March 03 Mother's Day Georgia The history of Mother's Day in the U.S. is actually quite interesting. In the U.S., the history of Mother's Day actually dates back to around the late 1850's, when homemaker Anna Jarvis created a day to raise awareness of her community's poor health conditions and sanitation issues and called it "Mother's Work Day." Then, in 1870, Julia Ward Howe, a social activist, poet, author, and pacifist, wrote the official "Mother's Day Proclamation" during the American Civil War as a call to rally and unite all women against war and to promote peacemaking. However, Julia was ultimately not successful in achieving recognition for her Mother's Day for Peace. When Anna Jarvis died, her daughter Anna initiated a campaign in her mother's memory and created a memorial day for women and mothers, which was first officially celebrated on May 10, 1908 at Anna's church in Grafton, West Virginia, where she handed out white carnation flowers-which were her late mother's favorite flowers-to all the mothers in the congregation. This practice is quite common even today in many churches. Further, it is not uncommon for mom's to receive carnations for Mother's Day today. After that, the custom and tradition caught on like wildfire around the States and into Canada, and by 1914, President Woodrow Wilson declared the holiday "official." Nine years later the special day became a full-blown, commercialized holiday in the U.S.-much to Anna Jarvis' (the second) dismay, who became enraged at what her special day had become-a commercial, for-profit, gift-giving frenzy. Jarvis clearly wanted a day to revere mother's everywhere, but the commercialization of Mother's Day appalled her. Anna actually became a vocal opponent of the day, filing a lawsuit to stop a Mother's Day festival, getting arrested for disturbing the peace, and reportedly regretting having ever come up with the notion on her death bed in 1948. However, to this day, while many are unfamiliar with the history of Mother's Day, this special occasion is still celebrated throughout the world and remains wildly successful and popular.

National DayDay-Bulgaria Celebrated on March 03 On this day, remembered in history as Bulgaria Liberation Day, the people of Bulgaria pause for a tribute. The first time of marking March 3 occurred in 1880, in honor of Enthronement of Russian Emperor Tzar Alexander the Second - Tzar Osvoboditel, meaning Tzar Liberator. Since 1888, March 3 has become Bulgaria's Day of Liberation and it was pronounced a National Holiday in 1978. Since 1990 the date March 3 is included in the list of Bulgaria's official holidays, according to a parliamentary decree. Appropriately, Bulgaria honors Russian Tzar Alexander II as a primary figure among its "founding fathers" with statues of him in many cities, including one in the heart of its capital, Sofia. Decidedly a man of peace, Tzar Alexander II became the reluctant champion of the oppressed Slav peoples and in 1877 finally declared war on Turkey. Following initial setbacks, Russian arms eventually triumphed, and, early in 1878, the vanguard of the Russian armies stood encamped on the shores of the Sea of Marmara. The prime reward of Russian victory -seriously reduced by the European powers at the Congress of Berlin -- was the independence of Bulgaria from Turkey. The struggle of the Balkan peoples for freedom from centuries of Ottoman domination was reflected in the Ottoman Empire's strained international relations: the Serbian-Turkish conflict of 1876; and the Russian-Turkish wars of 1877 through 1878. The latter conflict was resolved, for the time being, by the signing of the San Stefano Peace Treaty on March 3, 1878. With Turkey defeated and weakened by internal strife, the Russian Tzar was able to dictate the terms of the treaty. In an attempt to secure enduring access to the Aegean Sea, he created the new Bulgarian state on the Balkans. However, when the Western powers convened for the Congress of Berlin in July, 1878, the Russian hopes for creating a Greater Bulgaria on the Balkans were stymied. The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. However, trying to preserve the balance of power in Europe and fearing the establishment of a large Russian client state on the Balkans, the other Great Powers were reluctant to agree to the treaty. As a result, the Treaty of Berlin (1878), under the supervision of Otto von Bismarck of Germany and Benjamin Disraeli of Britain, revised the earlier treaty, and scaled back the proposed Bulgarian state. An autonomous Principality of Bulgaria was created, between the Danube and the Stara Planina range, with its seat at the Old Bulgarian capital of Veliko Turnovo, and including Sofia. This state was to be under nominal Ottoman sovereignty but was to be ruled by a prince elected by a congress of Bulgarian notables and approved by the Powers. They insisted that the Prince could not be a Russian, but in a compromise Prince Alexander of Battenberg, a nephew of Tzar Alexander II, was chosen. An autonomous Ottoman province under the name of Eastern Rumelia was created south of the Stara Planina range. The Bulgarians in Macedonia and Eastern Thrace were left under the rule of the Sultan. Some Bulgarian territories were also given to Serbia and Romania.

Customs Chiefs DayDay -Vanuatu March 05 In Vanuatu's calendar of events, Chief's Day is celebrated annually every 5th of March. The country observes the holiday to recognize the power on chieftains or locally known as 'Jifs' on matters concerning politics, economy, judiciary, among others.

HISTORY Vanuatu is an Island nation spread across the South Pacific Ocean just east of Northern Australia. This archipelago, of volcanic origin, was inhabited by Melanesian people, a region south of Vanuatu, before the Islands were occupied by the Europeans in 1880, particularly by the French and British, and claimed the archipelago under a British-French 'condominium' status as allowed by the International law. The condominium status allowed sharing of powers by the two countries. The two European superpowers called the country the 'New Hebrides.' The continued sharing of power over the region continued until a call for liberation in 1970 eventually brought independence to the country in 1980. Chieftainship is still a popular figure in Vanuatu although the government is formed around parliamentary democracy backed up by a constitution. 'Malvatu Mauri' is the lead National Council of Chiefs in the country with a leader elected by the representatives of the district council of chiefs. The primary purpose of this council is to feed the prevailing government with guide or direction that touch base on the interest of the ni-Vanuatu language and culture. The chiefs in each village are highly regarded to have authority on all matters of Vanuatu life. They form the smallest political unit of Vanuatu society and are the most influential in the clan. To recognize the Jifs in their critical role in the country's political system and in Vanuatu's way of life, the Custom Chief's Day was proclaimed to be celebrated every 5th of March yearly in 1977.

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES Lavish feast is done in each village in celebrating the Custom Chief's Day. Each village hold their own festivity during the holiday including cultural shows and programs in public entertainment centres. Organized sports activities and matches are also held. Public entertainments such as carnivals are also available during the holiday.


08 Issue | Zarb-e-Jamhoor e-Newspaper | 27 Feb-05 Mar, 2011