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SMART ENERGY Oct 23-25, 2011

Independence Day UGANDA - Oct 9

Uganda officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by Tanzania. The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, which is also bordered by Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompassed a portion of the south of the country including the capital Kampala. The people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962. The official languages are English and Swahili, although multiple other languages are spoken in the country.

History

The Ugandans were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were probably from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country. These groups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization. The Empire of Kitara covered most of the great lakes area, from Lake Albert, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, to Lake Kyoga. Its leadership headquarters were mainly in what became Ankole, believed to have been run by the Bachwezi dynasty in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, who may have followed a semi-legendary dynasty known as the Batembuzi. Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of later kingdoms; Buganda and Ankole. The Nilotic Luo invasion is believed to have led the collapse of Chwezi empire. The twins Rukidi Mpuuga and Kato Kimera are believed to be the first kings of Bunyonro and Buganda after the Chwezi Empire collapsed, creating the Babiito and Bambejja Dynasty. Nilotic people including Luo and Ateker entered the area from the north, probably beginning about A.D. 120. They were cattle herders and subsistence farmers who settled mainly the northern and eastern parts of the country. Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama (ruler) of Bunyoro-Kitara. Luo migration continued until the 16th century, with some Luo settling amid Bantu people in Eastern Uganda, with others proceeding to the western shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya and Tanzania. The Ateker (Karimojong and Iteso) settled in the northeastern and eastern parts of the country, and some fused with the Luo in the area north of Lake Kyoga. Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s. They were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. Protestantmissionaries entered the country in 1877, followed by Catholic missionaries in 1879. The United Kingdom placed the area under the charter of the British East Africa Company in 1888, and ruled it as a protectorate from 1894. As several other territories and chiefdoms were integrated, the final protectorate called Uganda took shape in 1914. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic killed more than 250,000 people, about two-thirds of the population in the affected lake-shore areas. Uganda gained independence from Britain in 1962, maintaining its Commonwealth membership. The first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress (UPC) and Kabaka Yekka (KY). UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive Prime Minister, the Buganda Kabaka (King) Edward Muteesa II holding the largely ceremonial position of President and William Wilberforce Nadiope, the Kyabazinga (paramount chief) of Busoga, as Vice President. In 1966, following a power struggle between the Obote-led government and King Muteesa, the UPC-dominated Parliament changed the constitution and removed the ceremonial president and vice president. In 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic and abolished the traditional kingdoms. Without first calling elections, Obote was declared the executive President. After a military coup in 1971, Obote was deposed from power and the dictator Idi Amin seized control of the country. Amin ruled Uganda with the military for the next eight years and carried out mass killings within the country to maintain his rule. An estimated 300,000 Ugandans lost their lives at the hands of his regime. Aside from his brutalities, he forcibly removed the entrepreneurial South Asian minority from Uganda, which left the country's economy in ruins. Amin's atrocities were graphically accounted in the 1977 book, "A State of Blood," which was written by one of his former ministers after he fled the country. Amin's reign was ended after the Uganda-Tanzania War in 1979 in which Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles invaded Uganda. This led to the return of Obote, who was deposed once more in 1985 by General Tito Okello. Okello ruled for six months until he was deposed after the so called "bush war" by the National Resistance Army (NRA) operating under the leadership of the current president, Yoweri Museveni, and various rebel groups, including the Federal Democratic Movement of Andrew Kayiira, and another belonging to John Nkwaanga. Museveni has been in power since 1986. In the mid to late 1990s, he was lauded by the West as part of a new generation of African leaders. His presidency has included involvement in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and other conflicts in the Great Lakes region, as well as the civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army, which has been guilty of numerous crimes against humanity including child slavery and mass murder. Conflict in northern Uganda has killed thousands and displaced millions.

of the Construction Owen Falls Dam in Jinja. Construction occurred between 1951 a nd 1 9 5 4

Leif Erikson Day U.S. - Oct 9

Leif Erikson Day is an annual American observance occurring on October 9. It honors Leif Ericson (Old Norse: Leifr Eiríksson or the Norwegian: "Leiv Eiriksson"), the Norse explorer who brought the first Europeans known to have set foot in North America.

History America Not Discovered by Columbus by Rasmus B.

Anderson was published in 1874. This book helped popularize the now familiar idea that Vikings were the first Europeans in the New World. During his appearance at the Norse-American Centennial in 1925, President Calvin Coolidge gave recognition to Leif Erikson as the Discoverer of America due to research by Norwegian-American scholars such as Knut Gjerset and Ludvig Hektoen. In 1930, Wisconsin became the first U.S. state to officially adopt Leif Erikson Day as a state holiday, thanks in large part to efforts by Rasmus Anderson. A year later, the state of Minnesota followed suit. By 1956, Leif Erikson Day had been made an official observance in seven states (Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, Illinois, Colorado, Washington, and California) and one Canadian province (Saskatchewan). In 1963, the U.S. Representative from Duluth, John Blatnik, introduced a bill to observe Leif Erikson Day nationwide. The following year Congress adopted this unanimously. In 1964, theUnited States Congress authorized and requested the President to create the observance through an annual proclamation. Lyndon B. Johnson and each President since have done so. Presidents have used the proclamation to praise the contributions of Americans of Nordic descent generally and the spirit of discovery. In addition to the federal observance, some states officially commemorate Leif Erikson Day, particularly in the Upper Midwest, where large numbers of people from the Nordic countries settled.

Date

October 9 is not associated with any particular event in Leif Erikson's life. The date was chosen because the ship Restauration coming from Stavanger, Norway, arrived in New York Harbor on October 9, 1825 at the start of the first organized immigration from Norway to the United States.

Han'Gul SOUTH KOREA - Oct 9

Hangul Day — also called Hangul Proclamation Day or Korean Alphabet Day — is a Korean national commemorative day marking the invention and the proclamation of hangul (한 글 ), the native alphabet of the Korean language, by King Sejong the Great. It is observed on October 9 in South Korea and on January 15 in North Korea. In North Korea, the day is called Chosun-gul Day. According to the Sejong Sillok (세종실록;世宗實綠), King Sejong proclaimed publication of Hunmin Jeongeum (훈민정음;訓民正音), the document introducing the newly created alphabet which was also originally called by the same name, in the ninth month of the lunar calendar in 1446. In 1926, the Hangul Society celebrated the octo-sexagesimal (480th) anniversary of the declaration of hangul on the last day of the ninth month of the lunar calendar, which is on November 4 of the Gregorian calendar. Members of the Society declared it the first observance of "Gagyanal (가갸날)". The name came from "Gagyageul (가갸글)", an early colloquial name for hangul, based on a mnemonic recitation beginning "gagya geogyeo (가갸거겨)". The name of the commemorative day was changed to "Hangullal" in 1928, soon after the term "hangul," coined originally in 1913 by Ju Si-gyeong, became widely accepted as the new name for the alphabet. The day was then celebrated according to the lunar calendar. In 1931, the celebration of the day was switched to October 29 of the Gregorian calendar. In 1934, arose the claim that they must assume that the Julian calendar was used in 1446, so the date was again changed to October 28. The discovery in 1940 of an original copy of the Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye, a volume of commentary to the Hunmin Jeongeum that appeared not long after the document it commented upon, revealed that the Hunmin Jeongeum was announced during the first ten days (sangsun; 상순; 上旬) of the ninth month. The tenth day of the ninth month of 1446 of the lunar calendar in 1446 was equivalent to October 9 of the Julian calendar. After the South Korean government was established in 1945, Hangul Day was declared as a legal holiday to be marked on October 9, on which governmental workers are excused from work. Its legal status as a holiday was removed in 1991 because of pressure from major employersto increase the number of working days, along with the introduction of the Korean United Nations Day. However, Hangul Day still retains a legal status as a national commemoration day. The Hangul Society has campaigned to restore the holiday's former status, but with little impact. North Korea celebrates the equivalent Chosŏn'gŭl Day on January 15 to mark the day in 1444 (1443 in lunar calendar), which is believed to be that of the actual creation of Hunmin Jeongeum.

D o u b l e Te n t h D a y TA I WA N - O c t 1 0

Double Ten Day (traditional Chinese: 雙十節; simplified Chinese: 双十节; pinyin: Shuāng Shí Jié) is the national day of the Republic of China (ROC) and celebrates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of October 10, 1911, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912. It is therefore designated by the government as National Celebration Day (traditional Chinese: 國慶日; simplified Chinese:国庆日; pinyin: Guóqìng Rì). As a result of the Chinese Civil War, the Government of the Republic of China lost control of mainland China and relocated to Taiwan in 1949. The National Celebration Day is now mainly celebrated in the Free Area which remains under control of the Republic, but is also celebrated by some Overseas Chinese.

Inde pe nde nc e D a y Equa tor ia l Guine a - Oc t 1 2

Ecuatorial, pronounced French: République de Guinée équatoriale, pronounced: is a country located in Middle Africa. It comprises two parts: a Continental Region (Río Muni), including several small offshore islands like Corisco, Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico; and an insular region containing Annobón island and Bioko island (formerly Fernando Po) where the capital Malabo is situated. Annobón is the southernmost island of Equatorial Guinea and is situated just south of the equator. Bioko island is the northernmost point of Equatorial Guinea. Between the two islands and to the east is the mainland region. Equatorial Guinea is bordered by Cameroon on the north, Gabon on the south and east, and the Gulf of Guinea on the west, where the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. Formerly the colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name is suggestive of its location near both the equator and the Gulf of Guinea. Besides the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the Mediterranean coast next to Morocco, it is the only territory in mainland Africa with Spanish as the official language. With an area of 28,000 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi) Equatorial Guinea is one of the smallest countries in continental Africa. It is also the richest per capita ; however, the wealth is distributed very unevenly, with 70% of the population living under the United Nations Poverty Threshold of $2/day. With a population of 650,702, Equatorial Guinea is the third smallest country in continental Africa. It is also the second smallest United Nations (UN) member from continental Africa. The discovery of sizeable petroleum reserves in recent years is altering the economic and political status of the country. Its gross domestic product (GDP) per capita ranks 28th in the world; however, most of the country's considerable oil wealth actually lies in the hands of only a few people. Equatorial Guinea has one of the worst human rights records in the world, consistently ranking among the "worst of the worst" in Freedom House's annual survey of political and civil rightsand Reporters Without Borders ranks President Obiang among its "predators" of press freedom. Out of 44 sub-Saharan countries, Equatorial Guinea ranks 9th highest in the Human Development Index (HDI) and 115th overall, which is among the medium HDI countries.

HISTORY

In the continental region that is now Equatorial Guinea there are believed to have been pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in northern Río Muni. Bantu migrations between the 17th and 19th centuries brought the coastal tribes and later the Fang. Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who emigrated to Bioko from Cameroon and Rio Muni in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations. The Annobón population, native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé island (São Tomé and Príncipe). The Portuguese explorer Fernão do Pó, seeking a path to India, is credited as being the first European to discover the island of Bioko in 1472. He called it Formosa ("Beautiful"), but it quickly took on the name of its European discoverer. The islands of Fernando Pó and Annobón were colonized by Portugal in 1474. In 1778, the island, adjacent islets, and commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogoue Rivers were ceded to Spain in exchange for territory in the American continent (Treaty of El Pardo, between Queen Maria I of Portugal and King Charles III of Spain). Between 1778 and 1810, the territory of Equatorial Guinea depended administratively on the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with seat in Buenos Aires. From 1827 to 1843, the United Kingdom established a base on the island to combat the slave trade, which was then moved to Sierra Leone upon agreement with Spain in 1843. In 1844, on restoration of Spanish sovereignty, it became known as the Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea Ecuatorial. The mainland portion, Rio Muni, became a protectorate in 1885 and a colony in 1900. Conflicting claims to the mainland were settled by the Treaty of Paris in 1900, and periodically, the mainland territories were united administratively under Spanish rule. Between 1926 and 1959 they were united as the colony of Spanish Guinea. In September 1968, Francisco Macías Nguema was elected first president of Equatorial Guinea, and independence was recognised on October 12, 1968. In July 1970, Nguema created a single-party state. Nguema’s reign of terror led to the death or exile of up to 1/3 of the country's population. Out of a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 had been killed. The economy collapsed, and skilled citizens and foreigners left. Teodoro Obiang deposed Francisco Macías Nguema on August 3, 1979, in a bloody coup d'état.

National Day S PA I N - O c t 1 2

The Fiesta Nacional de España (Festa Nacional d'Espanya in Catalan/Valencian; Festa Nacional de España in Galician; Espainiako Jai Nazionala in Basque) is the national day of Spain. It is held annually on October 12 and is a national holiday. It commemorates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's first arrival in the Americas, a day also celebrated in other countries.

History The anniversary of Columbus' landing in the New World on

October 12, 1492 is widely celebrated throughout the Americas, where it is known as Columbus Day in the United States and as Dia de la Raza in various Latin American countries. Celebration of the anniversary in Spain dates to 1935, when the first festival was held in Madrid. The day was known as Dia de la Hispanidad, emphasizing Spain's connection to the Hispanidad, the international Hispanic community. On November 27, 1981, a royal decree established Día de la Hispanidad as a national holiday. However, on October 7, 1987 the name was changed to Fiesta Nacional, and October 12 became one of two national celebrations, along with Constitution Day on December 6. Spain's "national day" had moved around several times during the various regime changes of the 20th century; establishing it on the day of the international Columbus celebration was part of a compromise between conservatives, who wanted to emphasize the status of the monarchy and Spain's history, and Republicans, who wanted to commemorate Spain's burgeoning democracy with an official holiday. The change in name had the effect of removing all reference to Spain's historical colonialism, and even its ties to Latin America. Since 2000, October 12 has also been Spain's Day of the Armed Forces, celebrated each year with a military parade in Madrid. To commemorate it, there is a parade led by the military (usually held in Madrid) presided by the Spanish King, who is the Head of State, since Spain is politically organized as a constitutional monarchy. The Prime Minister of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno) has also a special role in the ceremony, only second to that of the King. Then a wide array of authorities, from foreign diplomats deployed in Spain to members of the Autonomous governments, are invited to attend the parade performed by the Spanish Armed Forces, which typically feature a display by the Spanish Air Force's aerobatics team, the Patrulla Águila. Other than this, however, the holiday is not widely or enthusiastically celebrated in Spain; there are no other large-scale patriotic parades, marches, or other events, and the observation is generally overshadowed by the feast day of Our Lady of the Pillar.

Nossa Senhora de Aparecida BRAZIL - Oct 12

Our Lady of Aparecida (Portuguese: Nossa Senhora Aparecida or Nossa Senhora da Conceição Aparecida) is the patron saint of Brazil, venerated in the Catholic Church. A dark-skinned Marian image, Our Lady of Aparecida is represented by a short, clay statue of the Virgin Mary, currently housed in the Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, in the town of Aparecida, São Paulo. Her feast day is celebrated on October 12, which has been observed as a public holiday since Pope John Paul II consecrated the Basilica in 1980. The Basilica is the fourth most popular Marian shrine in the world, being able to hold up to 45,000 worshippers.

History

Apparition:

The official account of the Aparecida apparition took place in October 1717, when Dom Pedro de Almeida, Count of Assumar and Governor of the Province of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, was passing through the area of Guaratinguetá, a small city in the Paraíba river valley, during a trip to Vila Rica, an important gold mining site. The people of Guaratinguetá decided to hold a feast in his honour, and though it was not fishing season, the fishermen went down to the Paraíba waters to fish for the feast. Three of the fishermen, Domingos Garcia, João Alves, and Filipe Pedroso, prayed to Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception, and asked God's help. They were unable to catch any fish, and after several hours in the river, they were ready to give up when João cast his net once more near the Port of Itaguaçu. Instead of fish, he hauled in the body of a statue with a missing head. They cast their net again, and brought up the statue's head. After cleaning the statue, they found that it was a black version of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception. Legend has it that when the fishermen recovered the body, then the head, the slender figure of the Aparecida Virgin became so heavy that they couldn't budge it. After that, according to the official account, they named their find Nossa Senhora da Aparecida Conceição (English: Our Lady of the Appeared Conception), wrapped it in cloth and continued to fish; now their catch was so great that they returned to port because the weight of the fish threatened to sink their craft. This was the first miracle attributed to Our Lady of Aparecida.

The statue:

Building, followed by public singing of the National Anthem of the Republic of China. It is then followed by celebrations in front of the Presidential Building, including a military parade. Festivities displayed also include many aspects of traditional Chinese culture, like the lion dance and drum teams. Later in the day, the President of the Republic of China addresses the country and fireworks displays are held throughout the major cities of the island. During the Double Ten Day of 2009, all government sponsored festivities were canceled, and the money intended for the festivals (NT$ 70 million) were reallocated for reconstruction of the damage done by Typhoon Morakot.

Day Military Parade National In the past, the Military of the Republic of China has traditionally put on a military parade. During this parade, troops

and equipment are marched past a reviewing platform in front of the Presidential Building. Typically, foreign ambassadors, military officers, and other representatives and dignitaries are invited to view the parade. The parade has been held intermitently during the period of the Republic of China on Taiwan. On October 10, 1949 the first public military parade was held in Taiwan by the Nationalist Government with Chen Cheng serving as the Grand Review Officer. The 1964 National Day parade was struck by tragedy when a low flying airforce F-104 Phantom fighter aircraft struck a Broadcasting Corporation of China tower, causing the plane's fuel tank to fall and kill three people including a woman and her baby in front of the Central Weather Bureau building in downtown Taipei. The other two remaining F-104 aircraft were ordered to look for the crashed aircraft and accidentally collided and crashed in Tucheng City, Taipei County (now New Taipei City) killing both pilots. The parade was not held again until 1975. When Chen Shui-bian became President, the parade was not held until 2007 and then it was entitled a "Celebration Drill" and not a traditional military parade. Since Ma Yingjeou became president, no parade has been held.

outside of Taiwan Celebration Overseas Chinese played a key role in the birth of the ROC since

the nation’s founding father Sun Yat-sen, a medical doctor by training, received financial support mainly from the overseas Chinese communities abroad to overthrow the imperial Qing dynasty and establish the second republic in Asia in 1912. Outside of Taiwan, Double Ten Day is also celebrated by many Overseas Chinese communities. Sizable Double Ten Day parades occur yearly in the Chinatowns of San Francisco and Chicago. On mainland China, it is celebrated as the anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution and the Wuchang Uprising. Before the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the PRC in 1997, many ROC supporters there would display patriotic and colorful flags (mainly the national flag of ROC) to celebrate Double Ten Day. Taiwan agencies such as the Kwang Hwa Information and Culture Center in Hong Kong have annually held a public ceremony to celebrate Double Ten with members of pro-ROC private groups. The day continues to be celebrated in Hong Kong after the transfer of sovereignty to the mainland, but the national flags publicly shown have been removed by Police of Hong Kong ever since July 1997.

Patroness of Brazil:

Devotion to the statue grew rapidly, particularly among Afro-Brazilians, not only for its black Madonnastatus, but also because one of the first miracles attributed to the image was reportedly performed to an enslaved young man. Over the years following its apparition, veneration of the Virgin invoked as Aparecida increased as many miracles were attributed to her. For the following fifteen years, the statue remained within Filipe Pedroso's family and neighbors came to venerate it. Stories of Our Lady of Aparecida's miracles were spread throughout Brazil and the Pedroso family built her a chapel which soon became too small for so many worshippers. In 1737, the priest of Guaratinguetá built her a chapel on the Coqueiros hill, and public visits began in July 1745. The number of worshippers increased dramatically and in 1834 work on a larger church was begun; this became known as the "old Basilica" when work on the even larger "new Basilica" was started in 1955. In 1904, to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, the statue of Our Lady of Aparecida was crowned by the archbishop of São Paulo, Dom Lino Deodato Rodrigues, at the decree of the Holy See and in the presence of the Apostolic Nuncio. The Coronation was performed on behalf of Pope Pius X. The coronation was a major event, and the gold for the manufacture of the crown was donated by the exiled Princess Isabel, then the Head of Brazil's Imperial Family. In 1908, the church received the title of Minor Basilica. Twenty years later, the village that had grown around the church on Coqueiros hill became a municipality, named after the saint. In 1930, the Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of Our Lady of Aparecida, was proclaimed the "Queen and Principal Patroness of Brazil" byPope Pius XII., St. Peter of Alcantara retaining the position of patron, but now as co-patron. Up until the 1950s, Aparecida remained an unassuming village with a small community of Redemptionists. They arrived from the sanctuary of the Virgin of Altötting in Germany and took on the responsibility for the shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, making it the first Redemptionist parish in Latin America.

The National Basilica, located in Aparecida, São Paulo, Brazil

Our Lady of Aparecida has, more than once, been the source of religious conflicts among Catholics and Protestants. On May 16, 1978, a Protestant took the statue from its niche on the Basilica after the last Mass of the day. He was chased by guards and some of the church goers. As he was caught, the statue fell to the ground breaking to pieces. Because the statue was made of clay that had been submersed in water for a long time, it was difficult to put the pieces back together, but a group of dedicated artists and artisans carefully pieced it together again. On her feast day in 1995, a public holiday, an incident later known as "kicking of the saint" took place when televangelist bishop Sérgio Von Helde, of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UCKG), kicked a replica of Our Lady Aparecida on a late-night religious program broadcast by Rede Record, which is owned by the UCKG. On the following day, Rede Globo's Jornal Nacional denounced the incident, causing a nationwide commotion. The event was perceived by Catholics as a major act of religious intolerance, causing a public outcry. Several temples of the UCKG were targeted by protesters, and Von Helde was transferred to South Africa until the end of the controversy.

The New Basilica In the mid-20th century, as the popularity of Our Lady of Aparecida grew, the construction of a much larger building

to shelter the image became necessary. In 1955, work on the Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida was begun. Architect Benedito Calixto designed a building in the form of a Greek cross, 173 meters long and 168 meters wide; the tower is 100 meter high, the naves have 40 meters and the dome is 70 meters high, covering a surface area of around 18,000 square meters. It can hold up to 45,000 people. The 272,000 square meters of parking hold 4,000 buses and 6,000 cars. It is currently the largest Marian temple and the second largest Basilica in the world, losing only to St. Peter's in the Vatican City. On July 4, 1980, while still under construction, it was consecrated by Pope John Paul II and given the title of Minor Basilica. As the patroness of Brazil, one of the functions of the Basilica is to work as a site of pilgrimage for laborers, which takes place each year on Brazil's independence holiday, September 7. According to recent estimates, the Basilica attracts about 8 million pilgrims a year. The influence of the cult of Our Lady Aparecida on Brazilian Catholic society is incalculable. In 1992 a study showed that 296 parishes were dedicated to her while five cathedrals had the same title. In addition, many towns are named after the Virgin and so are many Brazilian women and girls. The modern art styled cathedral of Brasilia designed by Oscar Niemeyer is dedicated to Nossa Senhora Aparecida, as Brasilia is the national capital and she is invoked as Brazil's special protector. In 2004, to commemorate the centennial of the pontifical coronation commanded by Pope Pius X, and the 150th anniversary of the dogmatic definition of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the statue of Our Lady of Aparecida was crowned afresh. The coronation was presided by the then Archbishop emeritus of Rio de Janeiro, Cardinal Eugênio Sales, in the capacity of special papal envoy of Pope John Paul II. During a visit to the new Basilica in 2007, Pope Benedict XVI granted the shrine a Golden Rose.

ROC President Chiang p r e s i d i n g In other countries Kai-shek Kingdom: o v e r t h e 1 9 6 6 D o u b l e United A representation of Our Lady Aparecida is to be found outside the Roman Catholic church and shrine of Our Lady of Nicoll Road, London NW10 (on the wall between the entrance to the presbytery and that to the church). Willesden, Te n c e le br a t ions .

Moi Day K E N YA - O c t 1 0

October 10 of each year is recognized as a public holiday since the year 1989 when it was passed into law by parliament. On this day every year, Kenyans take a break from work to honor their former president’s accomplishments since he took office exactly 29 years go.

History

Kenya, as an independent country, was a constitutional monarchy at the outset, the British monarch being its nominal head of state and the prime minister as the head of government. Kenya became a republic on December 1964 with Kenyatta was as the country’s first president. Moi assumed the presidency of Kenya when Kenyatta died in 1978. Moi’s leadership motto was taken from the Swahili word nyayo meaning “footsteps” to assure Kenyans that he was following the legacy of the beloved Kenyatta. At the outset of Moi’s leadership he adopted a more populist approach by releasing political prisoners and traveling to the country side among the nation’s people. Kenya’s economic growth began to slowdown in the 1980s as Moi’s rule became increasingly dictatorial in nature. The Moi government in 1982 changed the constitution to make Kenya a one-party state. Beginning in the 1980s, Kenya’s economic woes worsened as it experienced several debilitating droughts and the price of coffee dropping several times. Kenya fell into debt, and unemployment numbers rose significantly. Moi’s new term was marked by recurring economic difficulties and calls for more reform. In late 1997 Moi consented to the repeal of repressive antiopposition laws in response to the mounting demonstrations calling for electoral. Despite the divided opposition to Moi’s rule he was reelected president in December.

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES Since Moi’s retirement in 2002, Moi’s day has been observed event without the traditional military marches, fly-overs and traditional choirs.

World Mental Health Day Worldwide - Oct 10

World Mental Health Day (October 10), is a day for global mental health education, awareness and advocacy. It was first celebrated in 1992 at the initiative of the World Federation for Mental Health, a global mental health organization with members and contacts in more than 150 countries. This day, each October thousands of supports come to celebrate this annual awareness program to bring attention to Mental Illness and its major effects on peoples' life worldwide.In some countries this day is part of the larger Mental Illness Awareness Week.

N a t iona l C om ing Out D a y U . S . - O c t 11

National Coming Out Day (NCOD) is an internationally observed civil awareness day for coming out and discussion about gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and asexual people. It is observed by members of the LGBT communities and their supporters (often referred to as "allies") on October 11 every year, or October 12 in the United Kingdom.

History

NCOD was founded in 1988 by Robert Eichberg, a psychologist from New Mexico and Jean O'Leary, an openly-gay political leader from Los Angeles, on behalf of the personal growth workshop The Experience and National Gay Rights Advocates. The date of October 11 was chosen because it was the anniversary of the 1987 National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. The first headquarters was located in the West Hollywood, California offices of the National Gay Rights Advocates. 18 states participated in the first NCOD, which was covered in the national media. In its second year, the headquarters moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico and participation grew to 21 states. After a media push in 1990, NCOD was observed in all 50 states and seven other countries. Participation continued to grow and in 1990 NCOD merged their efforts with the Human Rights Campaign Fund.

Observance Events are held annually to celebrate coming out and to raise awareness of the LGBT community and LGBT rights

movement. Participants are encouraged to wear pride symbols, such as the pink triangle (gays), Bisexual pride flag (bisexuals) & the black triangle (lesbians), the Greek letter lambda, and rainbows in jewelry and on clothing.

International observance:

In the United States, the Human Rights Campaign manages the event under the National Coming Out Project, offering resources to LGBT individuals, couples, parents and children, as well as straight friends and relatives, to promote awareness of LGBT families living honest and open lives. Candace Gingrich became the spokesperson for the day in April 1995. Despite its name, National Coming Out Day (so called because it originated as an event in the United States) is in fact observed in many countries, including Australia, Switzerland, Germany, Canada, New Zealand, Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom (in the UK it is celebrated on October 12). As of 2008, the Netherlands also has Coming Out Day on October 11.

Columbus Day / Día de la Raza H o n d u r a s , M e x i c o , U r u g u a y, Ve n e z u e l a , A r g e n t -

i a n , C h i l e , C o s t a R i c a , E c u a d o r, M e x i c o , P u e r t o R i c o , C o l o m b i a - O c t 11

Many countries in the New World and elsewhere celebrate the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas, which occurred on October 12, 1492, as an official holiday. The event is celebrated as Columbus Day in the United States, as Día de la Raza in many countries in Latin America, as Discovery Day in the Bahamas, as Día de la Hispanidad andFiesta Nacional in Spain and as Día de las Américas (Day of the Americas) in Uruguay. These holidays have been celebrated unofficially since the late 18th century, and officially in various areas since the early 20th century.

United States observance History:

Columbus Day first became an official state holiday in Colorado in 1906, and became a federal holiday in 1937. However, people have celebrated Columbus's voyage since the colonial period. In 1792, New York City and other U.S. cities celebrated the 300th anniversary of his landing in the New World. In 1892, President Benjamin Harrison called upon the people of the United States to celebrate Columbus Day on the 400th anniversary of the event. During the four hundredth anniversary, in 1892, teachers, preachers, poets and politicians used Columbus Day rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These patriotic rituals were framed around themes such as support for war, citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and celebrating social progress. Catholic immigration in the mid-19th century induced discrimination from anti-immigrant activists such as the Ku Klux Klan. Like many other struggling immigrant communities, Catholics developed organizations to fight discrimination and provide insurance for the struggling immigrants. One such organization, the Knights of Columbus, chose that name in part because it saw Christopher Columbus as a fitting symbol of Catholic immigrants' right to citizenship: one of their own, a fellow Catholic, had discovered America. Many Italian-Americans observe Columbus Day as a celebration of their heritage, the first occasion being in New York City on October 12, 1866. Columbus Day was first popularized as a holiday in the United States through the lobbying of Angelo Noce, a first generation Italian, in Denver. The first official, regular Columbus Day holiday was proclaimed by Colorado governor Jesse F. McDonald in 1905 and made a statutory holiday in 1907. In April 1934, as a result of lobbying by the Knights of Columbus, Congress and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt made October 12 a federal holiday under the name Columbus Day. Since 1971, the holiday has been fixed to the second Monday in October, coincidentally the same day as Thanksgiving in neighboring Canada (which was fixed to that date in 1959). It is generally observed today by banks, the bond market, the U.S. Postal Service and other federal agencies, most state government offices, and some school districts. Some businesses and some stock exchanges remain open, also some states and municipalities abstain from observing the holiday.

Local observance of Columbus Day:

Actual observance varies in different parts of the United States, ranging from large-scale parades and events to complete non-observance. Most states celebrate Columbus Day as an official state holiday, though many mark it as a "Day of Observance" or "Recognition" and two do not recognize it at all. Some states close schools and other state services, while others operate as normal. San Francisco claims the nation's oldest continuously existing celebration with the Italian-American community's annual Columbus Day Parade, which was established by Nicola Larco in 1868, while New York City boasts the largest. As in the mainland U.S., Columbus Day is a legal holiday in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. In the United States Virgin Islands, the day is celebrated as both Columbus Day and "Puerto Rico Friendship Day." Virginia also celebrates two legal holidays on the day, Columbus Day and Yorktown Victory Day, which honors the final victory at the Siege of Yorktown in the Revolutionary War.

Non-observance:

Hawaii and South Dakota are the two states that do not recognize Columbus Day at all, though both mark the day with an alternative holiday or observance. Hawaii celebrates Discoverers' Day, which commemorates the Polynesian discoverers of Hawaii on the same date, the second Monday of October. though the name change has not ended protest related to the observance of Columbus' discovery. The state government does not treat either Columbus Day or Discoverers' Day as a legal holiday; state, city and county government offices and schools are open for business. South Dakota celebrates the day as officially a state holiday known as "Native American Day" rather than Columbus Day. Nevada does not celebrate Columbus Day as an official holiday; however, the governor is "authorized and requested" by statute to proclaim the day each year. Several other states have removed Columbus Day as a paid holiday for government workers while still maintaining it either as a day of recognition or a legal holiday for other purposes. These include California, Texas, and Florida. In 2007, Dane County Wisconsin Supervisor Ashok Kumar replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous People's Day. The city of Berkeley, California has replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous People's Day since 1992, a move which has been replicated by several other localities. Two other California cities, Sebastopol and Santa Cruz, now celebrate Indigenous People's Day. South Dakota renamed the holiday "Native American Day". Various tribal governments in Oklahoma designate the day "Native American Day", or name the day after their own tribe.

Latin American observance Día de la Raza:

The date Columbus arrived in the Americas is celebrated in many countries in Latin America. The most common name for the celebration in Spanish (including in some Latino communities in the United States) is the Día de la Raza ("day of the race" or "day of the [hispanic] people"), commemorating the first encounters of Europeans and Native Americans. The day was first celebrated in Argentina in 1917,Venezuela and Colombia in 1921, Chile in 1922, and Mexico in 1928. The day was also celebrated under this title in Spain until 1957, when it was changed to the Día de la Hispanidad ("Hispanity Day"), and in Venezuela until 2002, when it was changed to the Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance). Originally conceived of as a celebration of Hispanic influence in the Americas, as evidenced by the complementary celebrations in Spain and Latin America, Día de la Raza has come to be seen by some in Latin America as a counter to Columbus Day; a celebration of the resistance against the arrival of Europeans to the Americas and of the native races and cultures. In the U.S. Día de la Raza has served as a time of mobilization for pan-ethnic Latino activists, particularly in the 1960s. Since then, La Raza has served as a periodic rallying cry for Hispanic activists. The first Hispanic March on Washington occurred on Columbus Day in 1996. The name has remained in the largest Hispanic social justice organization, the National Council of La Raza.

Venezuela:

Between 1921 and 2002, Venezuela celebrated Día de la Raza along with many other Latin American nations. The original holiday was officially established in 1921 under President Juan Vicente Gómez. In 2002, under president Hugo Chávez, the name was changed to Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) to commemorate the Indigenous peoples' resistance to European settlement. On October 12, 2004 a crowd of pro-government activists toppled the statue of Columbus in Caracas and sprayed allusive graffiti over its pedestal. The pro-Chávez website Aporrea wrote: "Just like the statue of Saddam in Baghdad, that of Columbus the tyrant also fell this October 12, 2004 in Caracas." The famous toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue had occurred the previous year.

Costa Rica:

Since 1994, Costa Rica had changed the official holiday from Día de la Raza to Día de las Culturas (Day of the cultures) to recognize the mix of European, American, African and Asiancultures that helped to compose Costa Rican (and Latin American) culture.

Spain

Since 1987, Spain has celebrated the anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the Americas as its Fiesta Nacional or "National Day". Previously Spain had celebrated the day as Día de la Hispanidad, emphasizing Spain's ties with the Hispanidad, the international Hispanic community. In 1981 a royal decree established the Día de la Hispanidad as a national holiday. However, in 1987 the name was changed to Fiesta Nacional, and October 12 became one of two national celebrations, along with Constitution Day on December 6. Spain's "national day" had moved around several times during the various regime changes of the 20th century; establishing it on the day of the international Columbus celebration was part of a compromise between conservatives, who wanted to emphasize the status of the monarchy and Spain's history, and Republicans, who wanted to commemorate Spain's burgeoning democracy with an official holiday. Since 2000, October 12 has also been Spain's Day of the Armed Forces, celebrated each year with a military parade in Madrid. Other than this, however, the holiday is not widely or enthusiastically celebrated in Spain; there are no other large-scale patriotic parades, marches, or other events, and the observation is generally overshadowed by the feast day of Our Lady of the Pillar.

Opposition to Columbus celebrations Opposition to Columbus Day dates to at least the 19th century, when activists sought to eradicate Columbus Day

celebrations because they thought they were being used to expand Catholic influence. By far the more common opposition today, decrying Columbus's and Europeans' actions against the indigenous populations of the Americas, did not gain much traction till the latter half of the 20th century. This opposition has been spearheaded by indigenous groups, though it has spread into the mainstream. There are two main, though highly interrelated strands of this critique. The first refers primarily to the indigenous population collapse and cruel treatment towards indigenous peoples during the European colonization of the American continents which followed Columbus's discovery. Some have argued that the responsibility of contemporary governments and their citizens for allegedly ongoing acts of genocide against Native Americans are masked by positive Columbus myths and celebrations. These critics argue that a particular understanding of the legacy of Columbus has been used to legitimize their actions, and it is this misuse of history that must be exposed. F. David Peat asserts that many cultural myths of North America exclude or diminish the culture and myths of Native Americans. These cultural myths include ideas expressed by Michael Berliner of the Ayn Rand Institute claiming that Western civilization brought “reason, science, self-reliance,individualism, ambition, and productive achievement” to a people who were based in “primitivism, mysticism, and collectivism”, and to a land that was “sparsely inhabited, unused, and underdeveloped.” American anthropologist Jack Weatherford says that on Columbus Day Americans celebrate the greatest waves of genocide of the Indians known in history. American Indian Movement of Colorado leader and activist Ward Churchill takes this argument further, contending that the mythologizing and celebration of the European settlement of the Americas in Columbus Day make it easier for people today to avoid taking responsibility for their own actions, or the actions of their governments regarding indigenous populations. He wrote in his book Bringing the Law Back Home:

Very high on the list of those expressions of non-indigenous sensibility [that] contribute to the perpetuation of genocidal policies against Indians are the annual Columbus Day celebration, events in which it is baldly asserted that the process, events, and circumstances described above are, at best, either acceptable or unimportant. More often, the sentiments expressed by the participants are, quite frankly, that the fate of Native America embodied in Columbus and the Columbian legacy is a matter to be openly and enthusiastically applauded as an unrivaled "boon to all mankind". Undeniably, the situation of American Indians will not — in fact cannot — change for the better so long as such attitudes are deemed socially acceptable by the mainstream populace. Hence, such celebrations as Columbus Day must be stopped.

A second strain of the criticism of Columbus Day focuses on the character of Columbus himself. In time for the observation of Columbus Day in 2004, the final volume of a compendium of Columbus-era documents was published by the University of California, Los Angeles's Medieval and Renaissance Center. Geoffrey Symcox, the general editor of the project, asserted: "While giving the brilliant mariner his due, the collection portrays Columbus as an unrelenting social climber and self-promoter who stopped at nothing— not even exploitation, slavery, or twisting Biblical scripture— to advance his ambitions… Many of the unflattering documents have been known for the last century or more, but nobody paid much attention to them until recently… The fact that Columbus brought slavery, enormous exploitation or devastating diseases to the Americas used to be seen as a minor detail - if it was recognized at all in light of his role as the great bringer of white man's civilization to the benighted idolatrous American continent. But to historians today this information is very important. It changes our whole view of the enterprise." Most critiques combine elements of both strains. Journalist and media critic Norman Solomon reflects in Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History that many people choose to hold on to the myths surrounding Columbus whereas historians who deal with the evidence are frequently depicted as "politically correct" revisionists. He quotes from the logbook Columbus's initial description of the Indians: "They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance.... They would make fine servants.... With 50 men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want." In 1495, during the Second Voyage, Indians were transported to Spain as slaves, many dying en route. "Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity," Columbus later wrote, "go on sending all the slaves that can be sold." Solomon states that the most important contemporary documentary evidence is the multi-volume History of the Indies by the Catholic priest Bartolomé de las Casas who observed the region where Columbus was governor. In contrast to "the myth" Solomon quotes Las Casas who describes Spaniards driven by "insatiable greed" — "killing, terrorizing, afflicting, and torturing the native peoples" with "the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty" and how systematic violence was aimed at preventing "Indians from daring to think of themselves as human beings." The Spaniards "thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades", wrote Las Casas. "My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write." In the summer of 1990, 350 representatives from Indian groups from all over the hemisphere, met in Quito, Ecuador, at the first Intercontinental Gathering of Indigenous People in the Americas, to mobilize against the quincentennial celebration of Columbus Day. The following summer, in Davis, California, more than a hundred Native Americans gathered for a follow-up meeting to the Quito conference. They declared October 12, 1992, "International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People." The largest ecumenical body in the United States, the National Council of Churches, called on Christians to refrain from celebrating the Columbus quincentennial, saying, "What represented newness of freedom, hope, and opportunity for some was the occasion for oppression, degradation and genocide for others."

Discovery Day BAHAMAS - Oct 10

In the Bahamas Discovery Day is a public holiday on October 12, celebrating the arrival of Christoper Columbus in the New World in 1492. It coincides with the Columbus Day celebrations of many other countries in the Americas. Columbus's initial landfall was on the now-unknown island of Guanahani in the Bahamas in 1492. If Discovery Day falls on a Saturday or a Sunday, it is observed the following Monday. Schools, Banks, Public Offices and most shops are closed on Discovery Day.

Hungary’s Government Stays Firm on Afghanistan Policy (Online) Hungary is going to bring in line with NATO’s plans its own mid-term Afghanistan policy which is currently under preparation, Defence Minister Dr. Csaba Hende said in Brussels on Thursday, October 6 at the NATO Defence Ministers Meeting. Afghanistan topped the agenda of the talks on the second day of the NATO Defence Ministers Meeting. The non-NATO member states contributing to ISAF, Afghanistan were also invited to the discussion which involved 50 nations altogether. ISAF wants to see Afghan the forces taking full responsibility for security by 2014, and it will assume a trainand ing mentoring role after the transition in the Central Asian country. h e T Afghanistan policy of the Hungarian government remains unchanged, Defence Minister Csaba Dr. Hende told the Hungarian press during the meeting. He informed journalists about the latest Hungarian mission in Afghanistan, a small group of mentors from Szolnok forming the Air Advisory Team. Placed under Italian command, the HDF AAT has been deployed to Herat Province since September to train Afghan pilots for flying Mi-17 helicopters. Csaba Hende noted that Hungary’s contribution to NATO-led operations in fulfillment of its allied commitments at once increases the territorial defence capabilities of our country as well, because the Hungarian troops serving with ISAF are going to see combat and learn many lessons. During their meeting in Brussels, the Defence Ministers agreed that NATO should cut costs wherever possible, streamline its own system of institutions and promote Smart Defence by supporting more efficient defence spending of the member states. The reform of the NATO command structure will reduce the number of posts by 3000. Speaking about this goal, the Defence Minister noted that the same process has been under way in

United States:

The Blessed Virgin Mary is also the patron saint of the United States for Roman Catholics. The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, located in Washington, D.C., have been visited by popes and dignitaries, and served as the site for the funeral masses of some Catholic politicians. Annually, a mass in honor of the patroness of Brazil is celebrated in October for the Brazilian Catholic community of New York.

Portugal:

Brazilian Catholics probably inherited their devotion of Mary from Portugal, which has a famous shrine for her in Fatima, where she is said to have appeared personally to three shepherds children numerous times with special messages and warnings. The patron saint of Portugal (as well as of the Church of England) was Saint George until 1640 when, one week after (re)gaining independence from Spain, the King D. Joao IV, dedicated Portugal to Our Lady of Conception by giving his crown to Our Lady. Since that date, Portuguese kings and queens never wore a crown again.

references Cultural The telenovela A Padroeira, broadcast on Rede Globo between June 18, 2001 and February 23, 2002, was a fictional

portrayal of the founding of the Our Lady of Aparecida statue, loosely based on the 1865 novel As Minas de Prata by José de Alencar, which itself had been adapted for the telenovela format in 1966 by the now defunct TV Excelsior.

Rwagasore Day BURUNDI - Oct 13

Prince Louis Rwagasore (10 January 1932 — 13 October 1961) is Burundi's national and independence hero. He was a Burundi nationalist and prime minister. He was the son of Mwami (King) Mwambutsa IV. He briefly attended university in Belgium, but left to spearhead his country's anti-colonial movement. He founded a series of African cooperatives to encourage economic independence, but these were quickly banned by Belgium in 1958. That same year, Rwagasore established a nationalist political movement, UPRONA (Union for National Progress). Believing that the role of the royal family should transcend partisan politics, his father promoted him to Chief of Butanyerera, but Rwagasore turned down the appointment so that he could devote himself fully to the nationalist cause. Rwagasore, a Tutsi, was married to a Hutu woman, and it was hoped he could bridge the differences between the two groups, Tutsi and Hutu, in an independent Burundi. At the first UPRONA Congress (March 1960), he demanded complete independence for Burundi and called on the local population to boycott Belgian stores and refuse to pay taxes. Because of his calls for civil disobedience, he was placed under house arrest. Despite the setbacks, Rwagasore and UPRONA won a clear victory in elections for the colony's Legislative Assembly in 1961, winning 80 percent of the vote. The next day, he was declared prime minister, with a mandate to prepare the country for independence.

Assassination in 1961

Just two weeks later, on October 13, 1961, Rwagasore was assassinated while taking his dinner at the Hotel Tanganyika by a Greek national named Georges Kageorgis, allegedly in the pay of the pro-Belgian Christian Democratic Party (PDC). Inter-ethnic rivalries between the Hutu and Tutsi factions of UPRONA flared shortly after.

The October Revolution YEMEN - Oct 14

The British have occupied and controlled many different parts of the world over the centuries including India, Australia and Canada. Among that list of occupied territories was Yemen. However, on a historic October 14, 1963, the people of South Yemen revolted against the British occupation and drove them out of the country. Now the people of Yemen annually celebrate National Day to commemorate the historic event.

HISTORY On January 19, 1839, British East India Company took con-

trol of the port of Aden to utilize it as a refueling point for its ships. Afterwards, the British Empire officially ruled Aden as part of British India. In 1937, the port of Aden and the surrounding area was converted into a British Colony as part of the British Crown. On January 8, 1963 the Colony of Aden was merged into the newly created Federation of South Arabia with promises that it would be released from British control in 1968. Finally, having had enough of the oppression, the two nationalist groups Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) and National Front (NF) revolted on October 14, 1963 in the name of freedom, justice and equality for the Yemeni people. While many Yemeni refer to this as National Day, it must be noted that they celebrate three National Days, and it is easy to confuse them. Many Yemeni will refer to the October National Day simply as the “14 October Revolution”.

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS AND ACTIVITIES The status of the traditions and customs followed on this holiday has become murky with the recent crisis in Yemen.

The mix of renewed Shi’ite revolt in northern Yemen, separatist unrest in southern Yemen, and fresh al Qaeda attacks across the country have effectively put any peaceful celebration of the holiday on the back burner. On October 14, 2007 gunmen opened fire on opposition activists rallying for the anniversary of the revolution. This has lead to subtle hints by extremists and activists that yet another “October Revolution” may be necessary to take their country back from a government rife with corruption and mismanagement.

Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day U.S. - Oct 15

Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day is a day of remembrance for pregnancy loss and infant death which includes but is not limited to miscarriage, stillbirth, SIDS, or the death of a newborn. It is observed annually in the United States and Canada and, in recent years, in the United Kingdom, on October 15. The day is observed with remembrance ceremonies and candle-lighting vigils, concluding with the International Wave of Light, a worldwide lighting of candles at 7:00 p.m.

HISTORY The Pregnancy and Infant Loss Awareness Movement

began in the United States On October 25, 1988 when former American President Ronald Reagan designated the month of October 1988 as ``Pregnancy and Infant Loss Awareness Month The October 15th Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day (PAILRD) Campaign began in 2002 as an American movement started by Robyn Bear, Lisa Brown, and Tammy Novak. Together, they petitioned the federal government, as well as the governors of each of the 50 states, and by October 15, 2002 (the first observance of PAILRD) 20 states had signed proclamations recognizing the date as such. As a result of the American campaign effort, Concurrent Resolution H. CON. RES. 222 Supporting the goals and ideals of National Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day was passed in the House of Representatives on September 28, 2006. . To date, all 50 states have yearly proclamations, with Arkansas, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, New York, Rhode Island, and South Dakota enacting permanent proclamations. The Director of the Canadian Pregnancy Loss and Infant Death Awareness and Remembrance Campaign, TerraLynn Coggan, joined the American movement in September 2004 and took on the role as the Canadian Director for October 15 Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day and began the Canadian Campaign. On October 12, 2005 when New Brunswick received official recognition of October 15 Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day Terra-Lynn resigned as the Canadian Director for the American Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Campaign and independently launched The Canadian Pregnancy Loss and Infant Death Awareness and Remembrance Campaigns. Since New Brunswick’s Declaration of October 15, Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day the province of Nova Scotia has followed suite with a similar declaration. The provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are currently considering a declaration.

International Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day Contrary to the popular belief that Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day is internationally legislated and ob-

served as an international day of remembrance this is not the case. Through the legislative campaigns of individuals world wide Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day is becoming an international day of observation. Germany and most other non-English speaking countries do not observe this day.

American Federal Campaign As a result of the American campaign effort Concurrent resolution H. CON. RES. 222 Supporting the goals and ideals

of National Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day was passed in the House of Representatives on September 28, 2006. H. CON. RES. 222 proclaims October 15 of each year to be Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day in the United States.

New Brunswick, Canada

New Brunswick is the first province in Canada to officially recognize October 15 as Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day. Through the lobbying efforts of Terra-Lynn Coggan, a Saint John resident with the assistance of Saint John-Champlain MLA Roly MacIntyre, New Brunswick Minister of Health and Wellness, Hon. Elvy Robichaud in a declaration dated October 12, 2005 did declare October 15 to bePregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day across the province. "Miscarriage and infant death are a source of grief, often silent, for mothers, fathers, siblings and grandparents." To recognize this loss, Hon. Elvy Robichaud, New Brunswick Minister of Health and Wellness declared October 15 to be Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day He called on provincial residents to help promote "support, education and awareness for grieving parents who have lost infants during pregnancy or shortly after birth.

International Wave of Light The International Wave of Light invites participants from around the world to light a candle in honor of PAILRD, starting

at 1900 hours on October 15 in their respective time zones, and to leave the candle burning for at least an hour. The result is a continuous chain of light spanning the globe for a 24 hour period in honor and remembrance of the children who die during pregnancy or shortly after birth.

Hungary too. This year the personnel numbers of the Ministry of Defence, the HDF Joint Force Command, the affiliated institutions and certain subordinate organs are to be reduced by 3000. All these developments will not decrease our military capabilities – on the contrary, the streamlining shows the way ahead for strengthening the Hungarian Defence Forces, Dr. Csaba Hende said. “The Hungarian Defence Forces are becoming stronger all the time and despite the problems with the budget and the financial crisis, the Hungarian government is determined to significantly increase the defence capabiliDr. ties, C s a b a H e n d e added. The Minister noted that the manpower of HDF the inwill crease by 4000, and the reintroduction of the Military Hospital in Budapest into the table of organization and equipment (TOE) will account for 3000 of that number. By attaining this goal the Hungarian Defence Forces will possess a full military medicine capability, the Minister stated and went on saying that this capacity of Hungary is going to contribute to reasonable cost sharing within NATO’s Smart Defence program. Dr. Csaba Hende expressed his hope that Hungary is going to receive 30 “half-cycle” UH-1 helicopters from the USA. He said these helicopters can fly disaster relief and MEDEVAC missions too. Talking about the steps to be taken to strengthen the Hungarian Defence Forces, the Minister noted that the new national public service university is going to be established in a few months, which will “put our national officer training on a new basis”. Dr. Csaba Hende reasserted his goal of training 8000 volunteer reservists who will have been ready to do service by 2014 in Hungary.

Remembrance of the Cadet Schools at the Zrínyi University (Online) On Wednesday, September 28 in the joint organisation of the Ministry of Defence and the Honvéd Re-enactment Association (HOHE) the one-time students commemorated the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the six Cadet Schools operating from 1941 until 1945 in the Banquet Hall of the Zrínyi Miklós National Defence University (ZMNE). The wife of the President of the R e p u b l i c Katalin Schmittné Makray, Dr. István Simicskó, the MoD Parliamentary State Secretary and the former Prime Minister Dr. Péter Boross were also present at the event. Following the entry of the historical flags of the HOHE, the Royal Hungarian “Prince Csaba” Rapid Reaction (motorized) Forces Cadet School of Marosvásárhely, the Royal Hungarian “Gábor Áron” Honvéd Artillery Cadet School of Nagyvárad and the Royal Hungarian “Zrínyi Miklós” Honvéd Infantry Cadet School of Pécs, and after the singing of the Hymn (National Anthem), the attendees were welcomed by Ret. Col. Dr. Attila Gál on behalf of the HOHE. “We have retained everything, the sense of our life: the love of the homeland, the faith, the fortitude and the honour!” – he declared in his introduction. In his greeting address István Simicskó pointed out that this generation has lived through extremely hard times,

and therefore honour and respect is due to them. In the cadet schools the students had acquired such characteristics and morality, which became the pride of the Hungarian motherland until the end of the First World War. István Simicskó added: “we usually want to know what we can expect from a school, whether it will serve the success of our children in life? The then parents said “yes” to this question – and they decided right. As you also, did. They had stood their ground excellently already at the age of 14! And they received such an amount of moral and intellectual nourishment, of which they can feel proud for a lifetime!” The State Secretary requested the one-time students to hand down this invaluable knowledge, and love of the homeland to the present generations, because we badly need it. Following the speeches and recollections, István Simicskó presented tokens of appreciations on behalf of the Minister of Defence Dr. Csaba Hende. Afterwards, László Nagy, the ViceChairman of the HOHE and Tamás Böjthe, the General Secretary of the HOHE awarded memorial certificates to the one time students of the six cadet schools. On behalf of his schoolmates Péter Boross, the “old cadet”, the former Prime Minister spoke to the gathering. The festive commemoration closed with a wreath-laying ceremony in the Zrínyi Memorial Garden at the memorial plaque of the unknown war heroes.

High-level humanitarian event in Budapest (Online) The UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) organises regional humanitarian outreach forums in Europe since 2009. The aim of these events is to raise awareness on the basics of international humanitarian coordination, to provide general information on the role of OCHA, and to discuss current humanitarian crises and challenges. This year, the forum titled „European Humanitarian Partnership Forum – Responding in a changing world” will be organized 6.10.2011, together with the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Budapest. It will take a special look at the general situation

While it is not known why the statue was at the bottom of the river, it is known who made it. According to most sources, the statue had been sculpted by Frei Agostino de Jesus, a monk from São Paulo known for his artistic skills in making sacred images. The three foot tall image was made around 1650, and must have been underwater for years, once it lost its original polychromy. The image has a dark brown color, as it was sculpted in clay (resulting in many of its replicas being painted black), and it is covered by a stiff dark blue robe of richly embroidered thick cloth with golden clasps, and wears an imperial crown which was added in 1904. Only her face and hands can be seen.

Controversies:

Celebration in Taiwan In Taiwan, the official celebration starts with the raising of the flag of the Republic of China in front of the Presidential

HUNGARY

of the humanitarian system, civil-military coordination during humanitarian crises, preparedness for disasters and the role of non-governmental organizations. Around 70 high-level humanitarian experts representing international organizations, EU Member States as well as countries of the Western Balkans and partners of the European Neighbourhood Policy, are to participate along with Ms Catherine Bragg, UN Assistant Secretary-General for humanitarian affairs and Mr Krzysztof Stanowski, Undersecretary of State, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland.

Outstanding Export Trade Surplus in Agriculture (Online) This year, Hungarian agriculture and the Hungarian food industry are producing perhaps the most favourable export surplus since Hungary joined the European Union – said the State Secretary for Agricultural Economy of the Ministry of Rural Development on Saturday in Békéscsaba. György Czerván, who was attending a meeting of the eastern Hungary county presidents of the K P E - K P S Z (Smallholders' Civil Alliance) Party, which belongs to the Fidesz alliance system, told those at the press conference: the affect of the sector on the country's importexport balance has always been extremely positive. He added: we achieve a foreign trade surplus of around 1-2 billion forints each year, and according to this year's first half data, the export surplus will be the most favourable this year. We have already exceeded the fig-

ures for the same period last year, during which the export surplus had already reached record levels, by 18%. The State Secretary referred to Prime Minister Viktor Orbán's speech at the National Agriculture and Food Exhibition (OMÉK), according to which agriculture is a strategic sector in Hungary. This leads him to conclude that those involved in the sector can expect government support at the highest levels – he added. With reference to the Smallholders' meeting in Békéscsaba, President of the KPE-KPSZ Party Béla Turi-Kovács announced: "our goal is that a development should begin within the association, which can reverse the unfavourable tendencies which have begun recently with regard to support at a national level, and which are able to strengthen the association to which we belong, and to which we wish to faithfully remain a part of".

Next National Agriculture and Food Exhibition Planned for 2012 Success can be (Online) The proachieved through gramme of this healthy and pure Hunyear's National Agrigarian foods – anculture and Food nounced the Minister for Exhibition (OMÉK), Rural Development at including amongst the award ceremony others livestock held on the final day of shows, presentathe exhibition. tions by various food He added: rural Hunindustry businesses, gary wants to survive and professional foand the 75th OMÉK has rums, has shown proven that rural Hunthat Hungarian agrigary certainly can surculture and the Hunvive. In Sándor garian food industry Fazekas's words: we has moved in the ditrust in the future of the rection of quality Hungarian countryside production and the and of Hungarian agrigreatest possible added value – said Minister for Rural Development culture. Invoking the words of Prime Minister Viktor Sándor Fazekas on Sunday, during the presentation Orbán at the opening ceremony, the Minister stated: Hungary is an agriculof the OMÉK's Spetural nation, the agrarcial Ministerial ian sector is one of the Award and People's mainstays of the econChoice Award. omy. The 75th National The Minister for Rural Agriculture and Development emphaFood Exhibition sised as goals the rein(OMÉK) attracted forcement of family intense interest. farms and the facilitaOver the course of tion of their competitivefive days, close to ness, as well as the 90 thousand people launching of the demoattended the event, graphic land prowhere more that gramme, which will 500 exhibitors preplace young people in sented their products. The total value The OMÉK People's Choice Award was pre- an advantageous position. Sándor Fazekas of trade and trans- sented to the Zsindelyes Pálinkafőzde Kft. announced that the Minactions agreed on at the exhibition exceeded 1 billion forints. Sándor istry is doing everything in its power to serve the adFazekas likened the quality of the OMÉK to that of in- vancement of local production, local distribution and local communities. ternational exhibiHighly important profestions and called it a sional work took place celebration of agriduring the five days of culture. the OMÉK; meetings Visitors to the were held and contracts OMÉK have never were signed. With rebefore been pregard to the results, the sented with such a Minister recalled the colarge exhibition of operation that has come livestock; 1000 auabout between the tochthonous aniCarpathian Basin Rural mals were on show Development Forum, at the Kincsem Park the Ministry of Rural Dealone. The exhibivelopment and the tion of agricultural Dairy Board, as well as machinery also The Hungarian St. Leger Trophy was prethe Hungarian-Algerian broke all previous agricultural agreement. records: the latest sented to Ostinato On the final day of the mechanical appliances were on show over an area of 14 thousand 75th OMÉK, Sándor Fazekas presented prizes. The square metres. The Minister for Rural Development Ministerial Special Award was won by Imre Szpisják presented trophies and awards on the closing day of (from Kenderes), with his 560 kilogram ISV Pannonhybrid porker: the exhibition.

developCurrent state of simpli- Rural fied naturalization ap- ment cooperation for programme plications Carpathian Basin to be finalised in October

(PR)By the end of September more than 150 000 Hungarian citizenship applications have arrived at Budapest, and some 55 000 applicants have already taken oath of allegiance, said the State Secretariat for Hungarian Communities Abroad in its statement. Forty-forty percent of the requests are coming from foreign missions and registrar offices, while the Office of Nationality and Immigration receives one fifth of the submissions. According to the ministerial commissioner for the simplified naturalization procedure Tamás Wetzel, close to 4000 applications per week are filed in Budapest that figure corresponds to the estimates in the preliminary impact study.

National census 2011

(PR)All three Hungarian parties in Transylvania have started to a launch an informative campaign with regard to the forthcoming population census among the Hungarian population in Romania focusing on ambiguous questions. The RMDSZ got started earlier, while the Hungarian People’s Party of Transylvania joined to the action after the party could be registered in the Bucharest Metropolitan Court. The parties are boosting their campaign for the census due between 20 and 31 October with leaflets, cultural programmes and other tools of information in the three weeks left. There is a common understanding between the parties that confessing the Hungarian identity is of crucial importance if someone feels to be Hungarian. This notion is far from explicit, since there are two Transylvanian youth organizations that encourage Szeklers living anywhere in Romania to declare themselves to be Szeklers. The reason behind is to have 12 000 such enrolments that enable Széklers to be an independent ethnic group in Romania and thus to be closer to a territorial autonomy. However, if 82 percent of the population of a municipality declare themselves Széklers it can easily take place that bilingualism will have no more legitimacy in public institutions, since there is no possibility of Székler inscriptions. Censuses are conducted throughout the EU this year. In the integrated European Union, national censuses are of greater value if their results can be compared between member states. This is why the EU is taking steps to harmonise census timing and outputs. Last Tuesday, census takers started delivering the questionnaires in Hungary as well. Residents can answer the questions, also on the internet, until October 16.

(PR) The planned cooperation programme for rural development in the Carpathian Basin could be finalised by the end of October, said State Secretary at the Ministry for Rural Development József Ángyán. Following a forum on the cooperation programme at the National Agriculture and Food Expo, Ángyán said that some components of the programme would be put to practice next year, while preparations were under way on other components. Ángyán said that on basis of a joint strategy and shared values, the Hungarian government would conclude agreements with Hungarian and farm organisations in neighbouring countries before the end of this year. The Carpathian Basin is not just a geographical entity; its agriculture and food production also has the same characteristics from country to country, which must be reflected in relevant policies, said State Secretary at the Foreign Ministry Zsolt Németh and added that cooperation between Hungary and Hungarian communities and neighbouring countries could have a tremendous impact on the future of agriculture in the region.

Tőkés will not accumulate positions

(PR) The vice president of the European Parliament and leader of the Hungarian National Council of Transylvania László Tőkés will not hold any positions in the recently registered Hungarian People’s Party of Transylvania, but he will represent the values professed by the political formation in the European Parliament. The party wishes to organize itself through bottom-up interactions instead of saying what is good for Hungarians by the leaders. As to 2012 elections, Tőkés believes in national cohesion that is to be achieved when Hungarian parties are cooperating.

Discussion paper of Mikó Imre Plan to be introduced

sity of the document and the relevance of social consultation. The event was attended by Hungarian Deputy State Secretary of the Ministry of National Economy Balázs Hidvéghi, vice president of the EMNT Előd Papp, the mayor of Székelyudvarhely Levente Bunta and number of economic experts, entrepreneurs and representatives of the civil sphere. The discussion paper will hopefully attract similar audience in further twenty cities and thus the collected proposals and experience could construct the finalised version of the Mikó Imre Plan.ary as well. Residents can answer the questions, also on the internet, until October 16.

Hungary's president arrived in Ukraine on a two-day official visit

ernment organisations. President Schmitt emphasised that Ukrainian-Hungarian relations are historical, friendly and determinative. After the talks, the president noted that he had asked for the intervention of county leadership in Kiev to enable Hungarian students to take advanced final exams in Hungarian language and literature as well. In Munkács/Mukachevo, the region's second largest locality, Schmitt laid a wreath at the monument to the victims of the Stalinist terror, who were deported to forced labour camps after World War II. Schmitt presented an honour to Roman Catholic Bishop Antal Majnek in recognition of almost two decades to help Hungarians to preserve their culture and identity. Schmitt said thanks to his compatriots living in Transcarpathia for all they had done to preserve national values, the Hungarian language and cultural traditions. On Monday, the president met Hungarian teachers and cultural officials of the region, addressed a ceremony opening the academic year in the Ferenc Rakóczi II Hungarian College of Transcarpathia in Beregszász/Berehove.

(PR)Last week, the president of the economic committee of the Hungarian National Council of Transylvania (EMNT) János László opened the forum on the economic development strategy of Transylvania in Székelyudvarhely/Odorheiu Secuiesc. The coordinator of the Mikó Imre Plan Janka Jakabos emphasized the neces-

(PR)Hungarian President Pál Schmitt arrived for a twoday visit to Transcarpathia on last Sunday, where he met Oleksandr Ledida, Governor of Transcarpathia County. The president's visit took place to coincide with the 21st Conference series of Hungarians. At a reception held in the state administration office Ledida said that relations of Transcarpathians with Hungary were not only characterized by good economic and neighbourly aspects but also fused by close family ties. Speaking about the situation of Hungarians living in Transcarpathia, the Governor said the community lived its life to the full and its representatives were present at all levels in local-gov-

Dzurinda met Council Hungary rejects of Europe Human Serbian collective law Rights Commissioner guilt-based (PR) Hungary rejects the idea of collective

(PR)Slovak Foreign Affairs Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda met the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights Thomas Hammarberg to discuss among others the protection of human rights and dual state citizenships. Commissioner Hammarberg, who paid his last visit to Slovakia in April 2008, frequently visits member states of the Council of Europe. The current discussion was about human rights of the Roma community and other nationalities. Vice Prime Minister for Human Rights and Minorities Rudolf Chmel, State Secretary at the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and the Family Lucia Nicholson and representatives of NGOs, as the Roundtable of Hungarians in Slovakis, also held talks with the European official. Hammarberg did not take a stand on discussed issue, but gathered information on them.

Uniting nation

(PR) Though not en masse, but Hungarians living in Slovenia are also taking up Hungarian citizenship due to the simplified naturalization procedure entered into force on 1 January 2011. The region of Muravidék/Prekmurje represented itself at the latest festive citizenship oath taking ceremony together with kin fellows from five close and distant countries – Serbia, Romania, Germany, France and Australia – that took place in Szekszárd, Hungary on 17 September. The local government of Szekszárd conferred a honorary civic title on all fresh Hungarian citizens.

guilt, which contravenes the basic principles of the European Union, fundamental human rights and the interests of the nation, said Deputy Prime Minister Zsolt Semjén. Under a new Serbian law, members of occupying forces between 1941 and 1945 and their descendants are excluded from restitution of their one-time properties, a measure which discriminates against Hungarians living in Serbia. Semjén said that although Hungary had fully supported Serbia's EU integration, accession to the community was not a realistic option if the candidate passed laws collectively depriving groups in society of certain rights. Serbia's recent passage of such laws is forcing Hungary to reconsider that country's candidate status, added Semjén, who is hoping that the Serbian parliament would amend parts of its restitution law which Hungary finds unacceptable for the Hungarian community of the state.


40 Issue | Zarb-e-Jamhoor e-Newspaper | 09 Oct-15 Oct, 2011  

The Worldwide Events/Zarb-e-Jamhoor e-Newsletter circulates by email. The weekly Worldwide Events/Zarb-e-Jamhoor newspaper that specially fo...

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