Heroes Day Uganda - June 09
Uganda—also known as the Republic of Uganda—is a land-locked country which is located in East Africa. It is surrounded by Sudan to the north, Congo to the west, Kenya to the east, and Tanzania to the south. Like most other countries, Uganda too had to fight for its freedom and independence. In Uganda, Heroes’ Day is celebrated ever year on June 9. This is celebrated in memory of those who sacrificed their lives in order to restore peace and security to their homeland. This day marks the beginning of the struggle to liberate the country.
HUNGARY Hungarian army stronger after Afghanistan, says minister
Flood defence efforts on track: PM Orbán
History There are heroes in every country, heroes who lay
down their life for what they believe. In Uganda, a number of men and women laid down their lives during the guerrilla war which was fought between 1981 and 1985. On June 9, 1981, many men and women were brutally murdered for refusing to reveal the hiding place of the soldiers of the National Resistance Army. It was on the same day that Edidian Mukiibi Luttamaguzi was killed brutally. He was murdered during the regime of Milton Obote. It was Milton Obote and the functionaries of the UPC party who were responsible for the brutal murder. This is considered one of the main causes of the war that broke out. It was until after the guerrilla war in 1985 that the NRA/M (National Resistance Army) government came to power. It was then that Yoweri Museveni came to power and told the people of Uganda that the NRM government was different from any other government that had ruled Uganda. He said that the change of guard that day was not just an ordinary change and that it was a fundamental and basic change in the political scene of Uganda. Though Heroes’ Day was commemorated to honor those who laid down their lives during the guerrilla war, the country already had other heroes like Professor Yusuf Lule and former President Ignatius Musasizi. In 2001, an act was passed in the Parliament of Uganda which recognized the 9th of June as Heroes’ Day.
Many countries like the Republic of Uganda celebrate Heroes’ Day to honor their national heroes. It could be to honor them for their struggle to free the nation or to restore peace and security in their country. Internally, there are some tensions about the effectiveness of Heroes’ Day and its message. The Forum for Democratic Change has been noted at times to denounce the celebrations as useless and a waste of tax payer’s dollars.
Camoes Day Macau, Portugal - J u n 1 0
Luís Vaz de Camões sometimes rendered in English as Camoens (1524 – 10 June 1580) is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet. His mastery of verse has been compared to that of Shakespeare, Vondel, Homer, Virgil and Dante. He wrote a considerable amount of lyrical poetry and drama but is best remembered for his epic work Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads). His recollection of poetry The Parnasum of Luís de Camõeswas lost in his lifetime. The influence of his masterpiece "Os Lusíadas" in Portuguese is so profound that it is called the "language of Camões".
Life Many details concerning the life of Camões remain un-
known, but he is thought to have been born around 1524. Luís Vaz de Camões was the only child of Simão Vaz de Camões and wife Ana de Sá de Macedo. His birthplace is unknown. Lisbon, Coimbra or Alenquer are frequently presented as his birthplace, although the latter is based on a disputable interpretation of one of his poems. Constância is also considered a possibility as his place of birth: a statue can be found in the town. Camões belongs to a family originating from the northern Portuguese region of Chaves near Galicia. At an early age, his father Simão Vaz left his family to discover personal riches in India, only to die in Goa in the following years. His mother later re-married. Camões lived a semi-privileged life and was educated by Dominicans and Jesuits. For a period, due to his familial relations he attended the University of Coimbra, although records do not show him registered (he participated in courses in the Humanities). His uncle, Bento de Camões, is credited with this education, owing to his position as Prior at the Monastery of Santa Cruz and Chancellor at the University of Coimbra. He frequently had access to exclusive literature, including classical Greek, Roman and Latin works, read Latin, Italian and wrote in Spanish. Camões, as his love of poetry can attest, was a romantic and idealist. It was rumored that he fell in love with Catherine of Ataíde, lady-in-waiting to the Queen, and also the Princess Maria, sister of John III of Portugal. It is also likely that an indiscreet allusion to the king in his play El-Rei Seleuco, as well as these other incidents may have played a part in his exile from Lisbon in 1548. He traveled to the Ribatejo where he stayed in the company of friends who sheltered and fed him. He stayed in the province for about six months. He enlisted in the overseas militia, and traveled to Ceuta in the fall of 1549. During a battle with the Moors, he lost the sight in his right eye. He eventually returned to Lisbon in 1551, a changed man, living a bohemian lifestyle. In 1552, during the religious festival of Corpus Christi, in the Largo do Rossio, he injured Gonçalo Borges, a member of the Royal Stables. Camões was imprisoned. His mother pleaded for his release, visiting royal ministers and the Borges family for a pardon. Released, Camões was ordered to pay 4,000 réis and serve three-years in the militia in the Orient. He departed in 1553 for Goa on board the São Bento, commanded by Fernão Alves Cabral. The ship arrived six months later. In Goa, Camões was imprisoned for debt. He found Goa "a stepmother to all honest men" but he studied local customs and mastered the local geography and history. On his first expedition, he joined a battle along the Malabar Coast. The battle was followed by skirmishes along the trading routes between Egypt and India. The fleet eventually returned to Goa by November 1554. During his time ashore, he continued his writing publicly, as well as writing correspondence for the uneducated men of the fleet. At the end of his obligatory service, he was given the position of chief warrant officer in Macau. He was charged with managing the properties of missing and deceased soldiers in the Orient. During this time he worked on his epic poem Os Lusíadas ("The Lusiads") in a grotto. He was later accused of misappropriations and traveled to Goa to respond to the accusations of the tribunal. During his return journey, near the Mekong River along the Cambodian coast, he was shipwrecked, saving his manuscript but losing his Chinese lover. His shipwreck survival in the Mekong Delta was enhanced by the legendary detail that he succeeded in swimming ashore while holding aloft the manuscript of his still-unfinished epic. In 1570 Camões finally made it back to Lisbon, where two years later he published Os Lusíadas. In recompense for his poem or perhaps for services in the Far East, he was granted a small royal pension by the young and ill-fated Sebastian of Portugal (ruled 1557–1578). In 1578 he heard of the appalling defeat of the Battle of Ksar El Kebir, where King Sebastian was killed and the Portuguese army destroyed. The Castilian troops were approaching Lisbon when Camões wrote to the Captain General of Lamego: "All will see that so dear to me was my country that I was content to die not only in it but with it". Camões died in Lisbon in 1580, at the age of 56. The day of his death, 10 June, is Portugal's national day. He is buried near Vasco da Gama in the Jerónimos Monastery in the Belém district of Lisbon.
Celebrations Celebrations of the Portuguese culture and people aren’t limited to Portugal alone. With Portuguese folk scattered
around the globe, different customs have appeared. In Newark, New Jersey in the United States, for example, the Portugal Day Festival draws in thousands of people, requiring months of planning in advance. Festivities in Macau are still vivid despite the area being handed over to China by Portugal in 1999. Celebrations in Brazil, Canada, and other parts of the world remind people of the Portuguese people and their culture.
King Kamehameha Day, Hawaii U.S. - Jun 11
Kamehameha Day on June 11 is a public holiday of the state of Hawaii in the United States. It honors Kamehameha the Great, the monarch who first established the unified Kingdom of Hawaiʻi — comprising the Hawaiian Islands of Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi,Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui and Hawaiʻi. While he was king, Hawaii was a center of the fur and sandalwood trade. Pineapples were brought to Hawaii from Spain in 1813 and coffee was first planted in 1818, a year before he died. In 1883 a statue of King Kamehameha I was dedicated in Honolulu by King David Kalākaua (this was duplicate, because the original statue was lost at sea). There is another duplicate of this statue in Emancipation Hall at the Capitol Visitor Center in Washington, D.C.
Establishment The holiday was first established by royal decree of the ruling great grandson
Kamehameha V on 1871. The first observance of the holiday happened the following year. Late 19th century celebrations of Kamehameha Day featured carnivals and fairs, foot races, horse races and velocipede races. Kamehameha Day was one of the first holidays proclaimed by the Governor of Hawaiʻi and the Hawaiʻi State Legislature when Hawaiʻi achieved statehood in 1959. Today, Kamehameha Day is treated with elaborate events harkening back to ancient Hawaiʻi, respecting the cultural traditions that Kamehameha defended as his society was slowly shifting towards European trends. The King Kamehameha Hula Competition attracts hula groups from all over the world to the Neil S. Blaisdell Center for the two day event. Prizes are awarded on the second night.
parade Floral A floral parade is held annually at various locations
throughout the state of Hawaii. On the island of Oahu, the parade runs from ʻIolani Palace in downtown Honolulu past Honolulu Harbor and the Prince Kūhiō Federal Building through Kakaʻako, Ala Moana and Waikīkī, ending at Kapiʻolani Park. June 11 is also the anniversary of the dedication of Kapiʻolani Park. The floral parade features local marching bands — including the Royal Hawaiian Band (the oldest municipal band in the United States) — and artistically designed floats using native flowers and plants. Many local companies enter floats for their employees. A favorite floral parade feature is the traditional royal paʻu riders. They represent a royal court led by a queen on horseback, followed by princesses representing the eight major islands of Hawaiʻi and Molokini. Each princess is attended by paʻu ladies in waiting. Paʻuwomen are dressed in colorful and elegant 19th century riding gowns accented with lei and other floral arrangements. After the parade, the state celebrates a Hoʻolauleʻa, literally Celebration, or block party with food and music. Cultural exhibitions are also scattered throughout Kapiʻolani Park — arts and crafts, games, sports and other events planned by the Bishop Museum, the premier Hawaiian cultural institution. On the Island of Hawaii, there are two floral parades held. One between the towns of Hawi and Kapaʻau and the other in the town of Hilo. There is also a lei draping ceremony in Kapaau at the statue of King Kamehameha there.
The most important ritual dates back to 1901 after the Territory of Hawaiʻi was established. It is the evening draping ceremony in which the Kamehameha Statue in front of Aliʻiolani Hale and ʻIolani Palace on King Street in downtown Honolulu is draped in long strands oflei. The same is done at the Kamehameha Statue on the former monarch's home island, the Big Island of Hawaiʻi. Outside of the state, a similar draping ceremony is held at the United States Capitol where the Kamehameha Statue there is also draped in lei in the company of federal officials.
The celebration includes a traditional Pa‘u Parade and a Ho‘olaule‘a. The celebration is organized by the Kohala Hawaiian Civic Club.
Independence Day Philippines - Jun 12
The Philippines officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas) is a sovereign country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam. The Sulu Sea to the southwest lies between the country and the island of Borneo, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia. It is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and its tropical climate make the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons but have also endowed the country with natural resources and made it one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the world. An archipelago comprising 7,107 islands, the Philippines is categorized broadly into three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila. With an estimated population of about 98 million people, the Philippines is the 7th most populated Asian country and the 12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12.5 million Filipinos live overseas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic societies. Trade introduced Chinese cultural influences which remain to this day. The Philippines has been part of several empires: the Spanish Empire during the age of Imperialism, the United States after the Spanish-American War of 1898, and the Japanese Empire during World War II, until the official Philippine independence in 1945. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanishinterest and eventual colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobosnamed the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in the Philippines in 1565 and consolidated Spanish rule in the islands, which remained a colony of Spain for more than 300 years. Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleon fleet. Christianity was widely adopted. As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution, which spawned the shortlived First Philippine Republic; the Spanish-American War; and the Philippine–American War. In the aftermath, the United States emerged as the dominant power. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until the end of World War II when the Philippines gained independence. The United States bequeathed to the Philippines the English language and a stronger affinity for Western culture. Since independence the Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with democracy, with popular "people power" movements overthrowing a dictatorship in one instance but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of its constitutional republic in others.
Photo: Csaba Krizsán (Online 03 Jun) Hungary's armed forces have gained useful experience and strength during their mission in Afghanistan, Defence Minister Csaba Hende said in Budapest on Monday. "Our allies highly appreciate all that we have accomplished in Afghanistan; we have proved that we can be counted on and are not free-riders in NATO," Hende said, opening an outdoor exhibition entitled "Postcards from Afghanistan" on Budapest's Deák Square. The whole nation should be made familiar with the efforts and achievements of
History The metatarsal of Callao Man is reported to have been reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago
thereby replacing the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 24,000 years ago as the oldest human remains found in the archipelago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated. There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the antediluvian Sundaland area around 48000 to 5000 BCE rather than by wide-scale migration. The Austronesian Expansion Theory states that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BCE, displacing earlier arrivals. Whatever the case, by 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gathering tribes, warrior societies, petty plutocracies, and maritime-centered harbor principalities. Trade between the maritime-oriented peoples and other Asian countries during the subsequent period brought influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. During this time there was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine Archipelago. Instead, the islands were divided among competing thalassocracies ruled by various datus, rajahs, or sultans. These thalassocracies were composed of autonomous barangays which were independent to or allied with larger nations. Among them were the kingdoms of Maynila, Namayan, and Tondo, the confederation of Madyaas, the state of Ma-i, the rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu, and the sultanates of Maguindanao and Sulu. Some of these societies were part of the Malayan empires of Srivijaya,Majapahit, and Brunei. Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia. By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and by 1565 had reached Mindanao, the Visayas, and Luzon. In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines and claimed the islands for Spain. Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, after dealing with the local royal families in the wake of the Tondo Conspiracy and defeating the Chinese pirate warlord Limahong, the Spanish established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies. Spanish rule contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. The Manila galleons linking Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th centuries. Trade introduced foods such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, and pineapples from the Americas. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, a university, and hospitals. While a Spanish decree introduced free public schooling in 1863, efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition during the American period. During its rule, the Spanish fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges from Chinese pirates, the Dutch, and the Portuguese. In an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War, British forces under the command of Brigadier General William Draper and Rear-Admiral Samuel Cornish briefly occupied Manila. They found local allies like Diego and Gabriela Silang who took the opportunity to lead a revolt, but Spanish rule was eventually restored following the1763 Treaty of Paris. In the 19th century, Philippine ports were opened to world trade and shifts were occurring within Philippine society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy. The influx of Spanish and Latino settlers secularized churches and opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872 that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution. Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests—Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, andJacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza)—were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. As attempts at reform were meeting with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called theKatipunan, a society along the lines of the freemasons, which sought independence from Spain through armed revolt. Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. In 1898, the Spanish-American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 and the First Philippine Republic was established the following year. Meanwhile, the islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for US$20 million in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out. It ended with American control over the islands which were then administered as an insular area. In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and established a puppet government. Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated during the Battle of Manila. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated over a million Filipinos had died. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines attained its independence. Immediately after World War II, the Philippines faced a number of challenges. The country had to be rebuilt from the ravages of war. It also had to come to terms with Japanese collaborators. Meanwhile, disgruntled remnants of the Hukbalahap communist rebel army that had previously fought against and resisted the Japanese continued to roam the rural regions. This threat to the government was dealt with by Secretary of National Defense and later President Ramon Magsaysay, but sporadic cases of communist insurgency continued to flare up long afterward. In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Nearing the end of his second term and constitutionally barred from seeking a third, he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. By using political divisions, the tension of the Cold War, and the specter of communist rebellion and Islamic insurgency as justifications, he governed by decree. On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. ignored warnings and returned from exile in the United States. He was assassinated as he was taken off the plane at the Manila International Airport (now called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his memory). With political pressure building, Marcos eventually called for snap presidential elections in 1986. Corazon Aquino, Benigno's widow, was persuaded to become the presidential candidate and standard bearer of the opposition. The elections were widely considered rigged when Marcos was proclaimed the winner. This led to the People Power Revolution, instigated when two long-time Marcos allies—Armed Forces of the Philippines Vice Chief-of-Staff Fidel V. Ramos and Secretary of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile—resigned and barricaded themselves in Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Exhorted by the Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin, people gathered in support of the rebel leaders and protested on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). In the face of mass protests and military defections, Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii and into exile. Corazon Aquino was recognized as president. The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a persistent communist insurgency, and Islamic separatists. The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected president in 1992. However, the economic improvements were negated with the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. In 2001, amid charges of corruption and a stalled impeachment process, Ramos' successor Joseph Estradawas ousted from the presidency by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and replaced by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Her administration that lasted 9 years was tied with graft and corruption and numerous political scandals. As a result of the May 2010 elections, Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III was elected president.
Russia Day Russia - Jun 12
Russia Day (Russian: День России, Den' Rossii) is the national holiday of the Russian Federation, celebrated on June 12. It has been celebrated every year since 1992. The First Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on June 12, 1990.
History The idea of the declaration was born in the Demo-
cratic Russia movement, in which proponents of evolutionary market reform and strong statehood based on Russia's national interests started opposing the Communist monopoly on power. In addition, by the late 1980s, society had begun to doubt the Politburo's ability to carry out meaningful socio-economic reforms. The creation of the post of the President of the Russian Federation and the adoption of the new Russian Constitution to reflect the new political reality, along with the national flag, anthem and emblem of the Russian Federation, were major landmarks in the consolidation of Russian statehood. The country's new name- the Russian Federation (Russia)- was adopted on December 25, 1991. The day when the declaration was adopted- June 12 - was proclaimed as national holiday by Supreme Soviet of Russia in 1992, and again proclaimed Russia's national holiday by the Russian President's decree of June 2, 1994. Under the presidential decree of June 16, 1998, it was called the Day of Russia. In 2002, the new Labor Code gave official seal to this title. The Russians' attitude towards this holiday is ambivalent. Many see adoption of Declaration of state sovereignty as a negative historic event which accelerated dissolution of the Soviet Union.
St. Anthony's Day Portugal - Jun 13
Anthony of Padua or Anthony of Lisbon, O.F.M., (born Fernando Martins de Bulhões; 15 August 1195 – 13 June 1231) was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. Though he died in Padua, Italy, he was born to a wealthy family in Lisbon, Portugal, which is where he was raised. Noted by his contemporaries for his forceful preaching and expert knowledge of Scripture, he was declared a saint almost immediately after his death and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church in 16 January 1946.
Early life Fernando Martins de Bulhões was born in Lisbon to Vicente Martins
de Bulhões and Teresa Pais Taveira. His father was the brother of Pedro Martins de Bulhões, the ancestor of the Bulhão or Bulhões family. His was a very rich family of the nobility who wanted him to become educated, and they arranged for him to be instructed at the local cathedral school. Against the wishes of his family, however, he entered the community of Canons Regular at the Abbey of St. Vincent on the outskirts of Lisbon. The Canons were famous for their dedication to scholarly pursuits, and sent the youth to their major center of studies, the Abbey of the Holy Cross in Coimbra. There the young Fernando studied theology and Latin.
Joining the Franciscans
After his ordination to the priesthood, Fernando was named guest master and placed in charge of hospitality for the abbey. It was in this capacity, in 1219, that he came into contact with five Franciscan friars who were on their way to Morocco to preach the Gospelto the Muslims there. Fernando was strongly attracted to the simple, evangelical lifestyle of the friars, whose order had been founded only eleven years prior. In February of the following year, news arrived that the five Franciscans had been martyred in Morocco, the first to be killed in their new order. Seeing their bodies as they were processed back toAssisi, Fernando meditated on the heroism of these men; inspired by their example, and longing for the same gift of martyrdom, he obtained permission from church authorities to leave the Augustinian Canons to join the new Franciscan Order. Upon his admission to the life of the friars, he joined the small hermitage in Olivais, adopting the name Anthony (from the name of the chapel located there, dedicated to Saint Anthony the Great), by which he was to be known. The new Brother Anthony then set out for Morocco, in fulfillment of his new vocation. Illness, however, stopped him on his journey. At this point, he decided to head to Italy, the center of his new order. On the voyage there, his ship was driven by a storm onto the coast of Sicily and he landed at Messina. From Sicily he made his way toTuscany where he was assigned to a convent of the order, but he met with difficulty on account of his sickly appearance. He was finally assigned, out of pure compassion, to the rural hospice of San Paolo near Forlì, Romagna, a choice made after considering his poor health. There he appears to have lived as a hermit and was put to work in the kitchen, while being allowed to spend much time in private prayer and study.
St. Anthony in Art As the number of Franciscan saints in-
creased the iconography struggled to distinguish Anthony from the others. Because of a legend that he had once preached to the fish, these were sometimes used as his attribute (example). He is also often seen with a lily stalk (see above). Other conventions referred to St. Anthony's visionary fervor. Thus, one attribute in use for some time was a flaming heart (example). In 1511, Titian painted three scenes of Miracles from the life of Saint Anthony: The Miracle of the Jealous Husband, which depicts the murder of a young woman by her husband; A Child Testifying to Its Mother's Innocence; and The Saint Healing the Young Man with a Broken Limb. Another key pattern has him meditating on an open book in which the Christ Child himself appears, as in the El Greco below. Over time the child came to be shown considerably larger than the book, and some images even do without the book entirely.
Hungarian soldiers who died in Afghanistan during the mission. Hende expressed his appreciation of the other Hungarian units serving in Afghanistan, including the Operational Military Liaison Team and its successor, the Military Advisor Team, which trained effective Afghan battalions, and the Hungarians who trained helicopter pilots for the Afghan armed forces. The Minister added that the country's most important strategic point and the "gateway to Afghanistan", Kabul International Airport is also guarded by Hungarian soldiers.
Economic relations with Sub-Saharan nations hold great potential: Hungary
(Online 08 Jun) 972 people have been evacuated so far and more than 5.8 million sandbags had been placed at dykes by dawn, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán told journalists later this morning near Győrújfalu, one of the critical settlements evacuated on Friday. The Prime Minister stressed that the Hungarian State is currently doing well in handling the state of emer-
gency. He added that in such a situation the minimum requirement is that the State should function flawlessly. According to the Prime Minister, the next two days will be the biggest test for those taking part in flood defence activities. He emphasised that the most important aspect of operations continues to be that human life should not be endangered by the flooding. He also informed the press
that no rain is expected in the next 23 days, which means that defence operations can probably continue under favourable conditions. The National Technical Management Corps (OMIT) announced today that defence operations are being carried out continuously and according to plan.
Brazilian-Hungarian relations are approaching a turning point (Online 07 Jun) On Friday, after talks in the Parliament building with the Brazilian Vice President, the Deputy Prime Minister of Hungary said that Brazilian-Hungarian relations are approaching a turning point, as fellowfeeling between the two countries – which has up to now been most evident in the areas of culture and sport – may in the future be felt in investment decisions and political relations. The Vice President also underlined the importance of a deepening in relationships between the two countries. At a press conference held jointly with Mr. Navracsics, Brazil's Michael Temer said that deepening bilateral relations was also a priority for his country. Tibor Navracsics told journalists that
he sees Michel Temer’s visit as groundbreaking, and is confident that in the future many politicians from his country will follow his lead. The Deputy Prime Minister informed Mr. Temer of the changes that have taken place in Hungary since the 2010 change of government. He added that as a result of these the country is expected to be released from the European Union’s excessive deficit procedure and that economic growth indicators justify a degree of optimism. He called Brazil's development over the past twenty years ‘spectacular’, having turned it from a poor country to one of the ten strongest economies in the world; he pointed out that this has been based on a social inclusion programme enabling sustained
growth. This is an example for Hungary to follow, he said. Mr. Temer said that the HungarianBrazilian joint economic committee is due to have its second meeting in Budapest in September. On other topics, Mr. Temer said that Brazil is planning to import 15,000 fish fry from Hungary next year to improve the genetic stock of his country's freshwater fish, and that in September 450 Brazilian students would start higher education courses in Hungary. Brazil's government has recently decided to increase the future number of scholarships in Hungary to 2,000, he added. The Vice President also thanked Hungary for supporting Brazil's bid for a seat on the United Nations Security Council.
Eur ope ’s r e c ov e r y is e s s e nt ia l f or H unga r ia n e c onom ic e x pa ns ion
Photo: Ministry of National Economy (Online 07 Jun) Developing economic relations between Hungary and the sub-Saharan nations holds great potential, Minister of National Economy Mihály Varga said in Budapest on Friday. Hungary's role in African business life as a manufacturer of high-tech industrial products and a supplier of farm products has room to grow far more important, he stated, opening an African-Hungarian Business Forum, a fringe event of a two-day Africa Forum organised by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Despite robust increases in bilateral trade over the past few years, African countries still account for merely 0.9% in Hungary's foreign trade, he added. One of the key goals of the Hungarian Government's foreign trade strategy is to pay more attention to developing trade relations with
emerging economies including the Sub-Saharan countries, while maintaining and possibly strengthening Hungary's position in the European Union, the Minister highlighted. Great business potential is evident in sectors such as the vehicle and electronic industries, the energy industry, industrial automatisation, manufacturing of hospital equipment, pharmaceuticals, medical instruments, as well as farm products and technologies, he pointed out, adding that he was pleased to see that Hungarian companies have started to rediscover the African market. The Minister noted that Hungarian companies are involved in mining, refinery, village electrification, water management and agricultural development projects in Nigeria. A Hungarian enterprise has won a software development tender cover-
ing 15 African countries, while another company will supply the equipment and software for producing Sudan's new personal identity cards, he noted. In recent years, more than half of Hungarian exports to Africa went to the Republic of South Africa and almost half of imports also came from there, he said. Participation in African development projects, for which there is great competition among economies, is also important to Hungary, Sudan's State Secretary for Foreign Affairs Rahamtalla Mohamed Osman said at the forum. Sierra Leone's Minister for Trade and Industry Alhaji Usman Boie Kamara expressed his appreciation for the Hungarian Government's endeavour to restore earlier good relations with Africa.
Flag Day U.S. - Jun 14
In the United States Flag Day is celebrated on June 14. It commemorates the adoption of the flag of the United States, which happened that day by resolution of the Second Continental Congress in 1777. The United States Army also celebrates the Army Birthday on this date; Congress adopted "the American continental army" after reaching a consensus position in the Committee of the Whole on June 14, 1775. In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation that officially established June 14 as Flag Day; in August 1949, National Flag Day was established by an Act of Congress. Flag Day is not an official federal holiday, though on June 14, 1937, Pennsylvania became the first (and only) U.S. state to celebrate Flag Day as a state holiday, beginning in the town of Rennerdale. Title 36 of the United States Code, Subtitle I, Part A, CHAPTER 1, § 110 is the official statute on Flag Day; however, it is at the President's discretion to officially proclaim the observance. One of the longest-running Flag Day parades is held annually in Quincy, Massachusetts, which began in 1952, celebrating its 59th year in 2010. The 59th Annual Appleton Wisconsin 2009 Flag Day Parade featured the U.S. Navy. The largest Flag Day parade is held annually in Troy, New York, which bases its parade on the Quincy parade and typically draws 50,000 spectators. Perhaps the oldest continuing Flag Day parade is at Fairfield, Washington. Beginning in 1909 or 1910, Fairfield has held a parade every year since, with the possible exception of 1918, and celebrated the "Centennial" parade in 2010, along with some other commemorative events.
History Several people and/or organizations played instrumental
roles in the establishment of a national Flag Day celebration. They are identified here in chronological order.
1861, George Morris:
The earliest reference to the suggestion of a "Flag Day" is cited in Kansas: a Cyclopedia of State History, published by Standard Publishing Company of Chicago in 1912. It credits George Morris of Hartford, Connecticut: To George Morris of Hartford, Conn., is popularly given the credit of suggesting "Flag Day," the occasion being in honor of the adoption of the American flag on June 14, 1777. The city of Hartford observed the day in 1861, carrying out a program of a patriotic order, praying for the success of the Federal arms and the preservation of the Union. The observance apparently did not become a tradition.
1885, Bernard J. Cigrand:
Working as a grade school teacher in Waubeka, Wisconsin, in 1885, Bernard J. Cigrand held the first recognized formal observance of Flag Day at the Stony Hill School. The school has been restored, and a bust of Cigrand also honors him at the National Flag Day Americanism Center in Waubeka. From the late 1880s on, Cigrand spoke around the country promoting patriotism, respect for the flag, and the need for the annual observance of a flag day on June 14, the day in 1777 that theContinental Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes. He moved to Chicago to attend dental school and, in June 1886, first publicly proposed an annual observance of the birth of the United States flag in an article titled "The Fourteenth of June," published in the Chicago Argus newspaper. In June 1888, Cigrand advocated establishing the holiday in a speech before the "Sons of America," a Chicago group. The organization founded a magazine, American Standard, in order to promote reverence for American emblems. Cigrand was appointed editor-in-chief and wrote articles in the magazine as well as in other magazines and newspapers to promote the holiday. On the third Saturday in June 1894, a public school children’s celebration of Flag Day took place in Chicago at Douglas, Garfield, Humboldt, Lincoln, and Washington Parks. More than 300,000 children participated, and the celebration was repeated the next year. Cigrand became president of the American Flag Day Association and later of the National Flag Day Society, which allowed him to promote his cause with organizational backing. Cigrand once noted he had given 2,188 speeches on patriotism and the flag. Cigrand lived in Batavia, Illinois, from 1913–1932. Cigrand generally is credited with being the "Father of Flag Day," with the Chicago Tribune noting that he "almost singlehandedly" established the holiday.
1888, William T. Kerr:
William T. Kerr, a resident of Collier Township, Pennsylvania, for a number of years, founded the American Flag Day Association of Western Pennsylvania in 1888, and became that organization's national chairman one year later, serving as such for fifty years. He attended President Harry S. Truman's 1949 signing of the Act of Congress that formally established the observance.
1889, George Bolch:
In 1889, the principal of a free kindergarten, George Bolch, celebrated the Revolution and celebrated Flag Day, as well.
1893, Elizabeth Duane Gillespie:
In 1893, Elizabeth Duane Gillespie, a descendant of Benjamin Franklin and the president of the Colonial Dames of Pennsylvania, attempted to have a resolution passed requiring the American flag to be displayed on all Philadelphia's public buildings. This is why some credit Philadelphia as Flag Day's original home. In 1937, Pennsylvania became the first state to make Flag Day a legal holiday.
American fraternal order and social club the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks has celebrated the holiday since the early days of the organization and allegiance to the flag is a requirement of every member. In 1907, the BPOE Grand Lodge designated by resolution June 14 as Flag Day. The Grand Lodge of the Order adopted mandatory observance of the occasion by every Lodge in 1911, and that requirement continues. The Elks prompted President Woodrow Wilson to recognize the Order's observance of Flag Day for its patriotic expression.
1908, Theodore Roosevelt:
Oral tradition passed on through multiple generations holds that on June 14, Theodore Roosevelt was dining outside Philadelphia, when he noticed a man wiping his nose with what he thought was the American Flag. In outrage, Roosevelt picked up a small wooden rod and began to whip the man for "defacing the symbol of America." After about five or six strong whacks, he noticed that the man was not wiping his nose with a flag, but with a blue handkerchief with white stars. Upon realization of this, he apologized to the man, but hit him once more for making him "riled up with national pride."
1913, City of Paterson, New Jersey:
During the 1913 Paterson silk strike, IWW leader “Big” Bill Haywood asserted that someday all of the world's flags would be red, “the color of the working man's blood.” In response, the city's leaders (who opposed the strike) declared March 17 to be “Flag Day,” and saw to it that each of the city's textile mills flew an American flag. This attempt by Paterson's leaders to portray the strikers as un-Americanbackfired when the strikers marched through the city with American flags of their own, along with a banner that stated: WE WEAVE THE FLAG WE LIVE UNDER THE FLAG WE DIE UNDER THE FLAG BUT DAM'D IF WE'LL STARVE UNDER THE FLAG.
Observance of Flag Day
The week of June 14 is designated as "National Flag Week." During National Flag Week, the president will issue a proclamation urging U.S. citizens to fly the American flag for the duration of that week. The flag should also be displayed on all government buildings. Some organizations hold parades and events in celebration of America's national flag and everything it represents. Other organizations and tribal groups hold counter-celebrations and protests. The National Flag Day Foundation holds an annual observance for Flag Day on the second Sunday in June. The program includes a ceremonial raising of the flag, recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance, singing of the national anthem, a parade and more. The Betsy Ross House has long been the site of Philadelphia's observance of Flag Day.
Liberation Day - Jun 14 Falkland Islands
The name Philippines is derived from that of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before it became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country's history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of theSpanish-American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. During the American period the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. Since independence the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines.
Hungarian soldiers in Afghanistan, he said. Hende noted that the Hungarian-led Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) launched major development programmes in Baghlan province, northern Afghanistan, involving over 40,000 school-age children in education, providing better health care for 30,000 residents and drinking water for 30-40,000 people in 62 villages. Over 2,500 soldiers have served in Hungary's PRT, based in Baghlan province, since October 2006. The Minister commemorated the seven
The Military Administration of the Falklands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Spanish: Gobernación Militar de las Islas Malvinas, Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur) was the short-lived, Argentine-controlled government of a long disputed group of islands in the South Atlantic which had been governed by the United Kingdom since the 1833 re-establishment of British rule until 2 April 1982 when they were invaded and occupied by the Military Junta of Argentina. The invasion and subsequent occupation signalled the start of the Falklands War, which resulted in the islands coming back under British control on 14 June 1982.
Background Several people and/or organizations played instrumental
roles in the establishment of a national Flag Day celebration. They are identified here in chronological order. The Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) had been under British administration since January 1833, when the United Kingdom re-established sovereignty over the islands which, at that time, housed an Argentine settlement. Argentina has claimed the Falklands to be part of their territory ever since. The UK first claimed South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in 1843, and incorporated them as Falkland Islands Dependencies in 1908. The Compañía Argentina de Pesca had an operation on South Georgia in the early 20th century, and Argentina had claimed sovereignty over South Georgia since 1927 and the South Sandwich Islands since 1938. In November 1976, Argentina landed and occupied the uninhabited islands of Southern Thule which had been in British possession since the 18th century.
Establishment In the early hours of 2 April 1982, in the wake of violent anti-government riots inBuenos Aires, the military junta,
which ruled Argentina, launched an invasion of the Falkland Islands. Faced with overwhelming Argentine force, Sir Rex Hunt (British Governor of the Islands) surrendered to Admiral Carlos Busser (the Argentine amphibious force commander) at 9.15am. The next day, Argentina sent troops to capture and occupy South Georgia and the uninhabited South Sandwich Islands. Historically, Argentina had claimed the islands were part of the then federal territory of Tierra del Fuego and South Atlantic islands. However, on 3 April 1982, the junta issued a decree which separated the islands from the jurisdiction of Tierra del Fuego and named Brigadier General Mario Menéndez as the 'Military Governor of the Malvinas, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands'.
On the first day of the occupation, Governor Hunt and officials from the Foreign Office were forcibly evicted from the island by the Argentine forces and sent to Montevideo, Uruguay. Argentine troops took over control of the Falkland Islands Broadcasting Studio when Patrick Watts was live on air. The Argentines used the radio station to play tapes with instructions for the islanders and military music including the Argentine National Anthem. Argentina made Spanish the official language of the Islands and changed Port Stanley's name to Puerto Argentino. Traffic was commanded to drive on the right by painting arrows on the road indicating the direction of traffic and changing the location of street andtraffic signs. Argentinian Captain Barry Melbourne Hussey, who was chosen for a position in the administration due to his knowledge and experience of English, asserted safety as a major concern, during discussions with the Islanders: "Which would you prefer, that our eighteen-year-old conscripts, with their big lorries, should try to drive on the left, or that you, with your little vehicles, change to the right?". However, outside Stanley, most roads were single track anyway and some islanders refused to observe the new rule and continued to drive on the left. Other acts of civil disobedience included Reg Silvey (lighthouse keeper and ham radio enthusiast) broadcasting clandestine radio messages throughout the occupation. The Argentine military police arrived on the islands with detailed files on many islanders. One of their first actions was to arrest and deport noted critics of links to Argentina including David Colville, as well as Bill Luxton and his family. Such deportations proved internationally embarrassing as Bill Luxton gave numerous interviews on his deportation and subsequently detainees faced internal exile at Fox Bay. Major Patricio Dowling, an Argentine of Irish origin, became the chief of police. He frequently over-stepped his authority, ignoring instructions to treat the islanders with respect, and quickly became known throughout the islands for his tendency to resort to violence. Dowling imposed a regime of arbitrary house searches, arrests and questioning. His actions came to the attention of Comodoro Carlos Bloomer-Reeve who recommended to Brigadier-General Menéndez that he be removed and he was subsequently sent back to the mainland in disgrace. Comodoro Carlos Bloomer-Reeve, chief of the Secretariat of the new government, in conjunction with Major Barry Hussey were instrumental in protecting the Falkland Islanders and avoiding conflict with the Argentine military. Bloomer-Reeve had previously lived on the islands between 1975 and 1976, when he ran the LADE operation in Stanley and had great affection for the islands. Despite their political differences, the humanity and moral courage of both men earned them the enduring respect and affection of many islanders. No wholesale confiscation of private property occurred during the occupation (all goods obtained from the Islanders were paid for), but had the Islanders refused to sell, the goods in question would have been taken anyway, as is normal in military situations. However, Argentine officers did expropriate civilian property at Goose Green following the detention of the civilian population, although they severely punished any conscripts that did the same. During the 74 day occupation, 114 inhabitants of Goose Green, considered to be potential troublemakers, were imprisoned and 14 residents of Stanley were sent to Fox Bay East and placed under house arrest. The Argentine military evacuated 52 schoolchildren from Stanley and turned the playground of the school into a compound for drilling troops. The Argentine peso replaced the Falkland Islands pound and stamps were over-franked with an Islas Malvinas postcode. There was no widespread abuse of the population; indeed after the war it was found that even the Islanders' personal food supplies and stocks of alcohol were untouched, and Brigadier-General Menéndez, the Argentine governor of the Islands, had made it clear from the start that he would not engage in any combat in Stanley itself but in the last day of battle, Private Santiago Carrizo of the 3rd Regiment described how a platoon commander ordered them to take up positions in the houses and "if a Kelper resists, shoot him", but the entire company did nothing of the kind.
On 22 April, the British task force arrived in Falklands waters, three days later British troops recaptured South Georgia. Following over a month of fierce naval and air battles, the British landed on 21 May, and a land campaign followed until Governor Mario Menéndez surrendered to Major General Jeremy Moore on 14 June in Stanley. Six days later, on 20 June, British forces landed on the South Sandwich Islands and Southern Thule where 10 unarmed Argentines handed over their station. 649 Argentines and 255 British died during the war.
Dissolution The Argentine Administration officially continued to exist until 15 May 1985 when it was dissolved by President Raúl
Alfonsín. Since then, Argentina has claimed the islands are part of Tierra del Fuego (then an Argentine National Territory) which became a fully-fledged province of Argentina in 1990.
World Blood Donor Day Worldwide - Jun 14
World Blood Donor Day is day dedicated to "thanking and celebrating voluntary non-remunerated blood donors". It occurs on June 14, the birthday of Karl Landsteiner, the creator of the ABO blood group system, for which he won the Nobel Prize. The first day was held in 2005. One of the main goals of the World Blood Donor Day is to ensure the availability of 'safe blood' for transfusion.
Day of National Salvation Azerbaijan - Jun 15
Azerbaijan is a country near the intersection of Asia and Europe. This country has its borders on the verge of Russia in the north, Armenia in the west, Iran to the South, and the Caspian Sea eastwards. The majority of the people are Shiite Muslims and ethnic Azeri. The country follows secularism as a policy, and its love for peace is demonstrated by the membership in various organizations such as GUAM, Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and the United Nations. It is also a part of the NATO Partnership for Peace program. One of the most important days in the calendar of this country is National Salvation Day celebrated every year on June 15.
National Salvation Day is celebrated to commemorate both the end of a civil war that went on within the country and the return of democracy to the people. The military coup was conducted by Surat Huseynov’s military on June 4 in Ganja and demanded resignation of Parliament Speaker Isa Gambar and Prime Minister Panah Huseyn. This led Azerbaijan to anarchy. These rebels then seized power in Ganja and moved towards Baku. To stop this insurgence and to battle against these anarchists, Heydar Aliyev was invited to Baku. He accepted the invitation, and once he arrived, he was elected unanimously as speaker and head of state. He held talks with the revolting group of the army when he reached Baku. The talks went on smoothly, and he reported the turn of events and the demands of the rebellion in the parliament. The members of the rebellion agreed to the demands, and hence the threat of the civil war that hung upon the country was lifted. To mark this day of lifting the specter of war, every year on June 15, National Salvation Day is celebrated. It is on this day when Heydar Aliyev was elected as the chairman of the parliament and subsequently as the president. This holiday was made official by an act of parliament in 1997.
The defense wing and the veterans of the military take part in the ceremonial parade that takes place every year. The president presides over this parade accepting the salute from the various wings or parts of his defense force. Like any other important day, this is also a public holiday with the majority of commercial establishments closing. The president also addresses the nation on this day emphasizing the need for national unity and security. These celebrations are also extended to the television, which broadcasts live the speech of the president to the civilians. There are also celebrations in the form of a fireworks display at night.
(Online 05 Jun) At the press conference organised to evaluate the Government’s economic policy over the past three years, Minister for National Economy Mihály Varga said that the Hungarian Government and Brussels are also expecting economic growth to be about 1.5% for 2014, which is a realistic estimate, but if Europe succeeds in emerging from the recession, increased exports will mean even greater growth for Hungary. The Government has laid the foundations for economic growth, but Hungarian growth cannot be expected to pick up without an upswing in Europe, Minister Varga said. He called the policy of “Opening to the East” a “small window of opportunity”, which – as he said – is beginning to bear its first fruits. The 0.7% growth estimate of the Government for this year is “cautious and conservative”, he stated. In the Minister’s opinion, the Government cannot be expected to submit next year’s draft budget before the summer recess of the Parliament, as it did last year; the draft should be adopted in autumn and thus the deadline laid down in the Budget Act will be met. The Minister for National Economy also believes that the country cannot be expected to sell another batch of
foreign currency-denominated government securities “within days”, adding that market conditions are being constantly monitored and the Government is ready to act as required. In his words, there were favourable developments on international financial markets over the past couple of weeks. Provided market sentiment allows it, the Government may decide to sell more securities, but the jury is still out regarding this issue, he said. The Ministry for National Economy is still debating whether to repay a tranche of the IMF loan taken out in 2008 ahead of schedule Minister Varga emphasised, which would be due soon, but no decision has been made thus far. According to their calculations, the country could afford it, but the decision mainly hinges on interest rate calculations. The Minister also reiterated that it is currently not possible to abolish sectoral surtaxes, as without these the below 3% deficit target would be difficult to achieve. In the future, it may be an option, but then it must be examined what kind of taxes could make up for the ensuing revenue shortfall. He also added that the current taxation system is expected to stay in place.
In the opinion of the Minister, the Government has succeeded in realising the major part of its economic policy over the past three years, but – as he said – the work has not been completed yet, as further improvement is necessary in several fields. This year, signs indicating that the Hungarian economy is performing better and has been recovering since hitting bottom in 2010 have already appeared, Minister Varga announced. He called debt reduction, the strengthening of the middle class and the broadening of common burden sharing the three major pillars of the Government’s economic policy. The Minister added the extreme importance of preserving public trust as a precondition for the implementation of economic policy. “Some Southern European countries show the disastrous consequences of improper adjustment programmes and erroneous measures,” he said. As he explained, in Hungary the income situation has not deteriorated, and there is in fact slight improvement thanks to family tax allowances and the increase of the minimum wage for unskilled and skilled workers, which has exerted a positive, albeit small, effect on consumption.
Hungary’s economic success correlates to achievements of automotive industries (Online 03 Jun) Hungary’s economic success greatly depends on the achievements of the automotive and electronics industries, State Secretary for Foreign Trade and Investment Péter Szijjártó said in Budapest on Monday 3 June. Should companies in both sectors succeed, Hungarian suppliers, including small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), will also fare well, Szijjárto told a forum organized jointly by the American Chamber of Commerce (AmCham) and the Association of the Hungarian Automo-
tive Industry (MGSZ). This is all the more important as the government considers SMEs the heart and soul of the national economy, he said. Both sectors may play a key role in realising the government's aim to turn Hungary into a European centre of production, the State Secretary told public, emphasizing that the automotive industry employs over 100,000 people. Last year Hungary provided the eleventh best environment for the vehicle industry on a global scale, he said, adding that now the country seeks to join the top
ten. According to the State Secretary 80 percent of engines and 90 percent of cars manufactured in Hungary are exported. Péter Szijjártó also said that the electronics industry employs 110,000 workers in the country. As the sector is especially cost-sensitive, most of its capacities have been transferred to Asia. Hungary should therefore focus on the less cost-sensitive markets, including medical, industrial and transport electronics, he said.
WORLDWIDE EVENTS NEWSPAPER CONGRATULATES RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON RUSSIA DAY - 2013 WORLDWIDE EVENTS NEWSPAPER CONGRATULATES PHILIPPINES ON INDEPENDENCE DAY - 2013
National Flag Day Denmark - Jun 15
The national flag of Denmark or Dannebrog is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side. On the Danish flag, the cross design, which represents Christianity, was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries; Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands, as well as the Scottish archipelagos of Shetland and Orkney. During the Danish-Norwegian personal union, Dannebrog ("Danish cloth") was also the flag of Norway and continued to be, with slight modifications, until Norway adopted its current flag in 1821. Dannebrog is the oldest state flag in the world still in use by an independent nation.
Origin The legend states the origin of the flag to the Battle of
Lyndanisse, also known as the Battle of Valdemar (Danish: "Volmerslaget"), near Lyndanisse (Tallinn) in Estonia, on June 15, 1219. The battle was going badly, and defeat seemed imminent. But then, right when the Danes were about to give up, the flag fell from heaven. Grasping the flag before it could ever touch the ground, the king took it in his hand, and proudly waved it in front of his discouraged troops, giving them hope, and leading them to victory. No historical record supports this legend. The first record of the legend dates from more than 300 years after the campaign, and the first record connects the legend to a much smaller battle, though still in Estonia; the battle of Fellin (Viljandi) in 1208. Though no historical support exists for the flag story in the Fellin battle either, it is not difficult to understand how a small and unknown place is replaced with the much grander battle of Reval (Tallinn) from the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II. This story originates from two written sources from the early 16th century. The first is found in Christiern Pedersen's "Danske Krønike", which is a sequel to Saxo’s Gesta Danorum, written 1520 – 23. It is not mentioned in connection to the campaign of King Valdemar II in Estonia, but in connection with a campaign in Russia. He also mentions that this flag, falling from the sky during the Russian campaign of King Valdemar II, is the very same flag that King Eric of Pomerania took with him when he left the country in 1440 after being deposed as King. The second source is the writing of the Franciscan monk Petrus Olai (Peder Olsen) of Roskilde, from 1527. This record describes a battle in 1208 near a place called "Felin" during the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II. The Danes were all but defeated when a lamb-skin banner depicting a white cross falls from the sky and miraculously leads to a Danish victory. In another record by Petrus Olai called "Danmarks Tolv Herligheder" (Twelve Splendours of Denmark), in splendour number nine, the same story is re-told almost to the word; however, a paragraph has been inserted correcting the year to 1219. Whether or not these records describe a truly old oral story in existence at that time, or a 16th century invented story, is not currently determined. Some historians believe that the story by Petrus Olai refers to a source from the first half of the 15th century, making this the oldest reference to the falling flag. It is believed that the name of the capital of Estonia, Tallinn, came into existence after the battle. It is derived from "Taani linn", meaning "Danish town" in Estonian.
Other theories of the origin of the flag Caspar Paludan-Müller:
The Danish historian Caspar Paludan-Müller in 1873 in his book "Sagnet om den himmelfaldne Danebrogsfane" put forth the theory that it is a banner sent by the Popeto the Danish King to use in his crusades in the Baltic countries. Other kings and lords certainly received such banners. One would imagine, though, that if this story were true, some kind of record ought to exist of the event, and presumably Danish historians would not have failed to mention it in some way. Being granted a banner by the Pope would have been a great hon- Dannebrog falling from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse, our, but despite the many letters of the popes relating to the cru- June 15, 1219. Painted by Christian August Lorentzen in 1809. sades, none of them mentions Original located at Statens Museum for Kunst, Denmark granting a banner to a King of Denmark. On the other hand, the letter in question might simply have been lost.
A similar theory was suggested by Danish explorer, adventurer and Captain Johan Støckel in the early 20th century. He suggested that it was not a papal banner to the King but a papal banner to the Churchly legate in the North, more specifically to archbishop Andreas Sunesøn, which he – without the knowledge of the King – brought with him on the King's crusade in the Baltic countries, in an effort to make the army take on a Christian symbol (over the king's symbol) and thereby strengthen the power of the church. It is unlikely that the very fair and loyal archbishop would do such a thing behind the king's back. Moreover, it is unlikely that the pope would send such a banner, given the fact that they already had one, namely the banner of the Knights Hospitaller (Danish: "Johanitterne").
Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen:
A theory brought forth by the Danish historian Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen in 1875 in his book "Danebroges Oprindelse" is that the Danish flag is the banner of the Knights Hospitaller. He notes that the order came to Denmark in the latter half of the 12th century and during the next centuries spread to major cities, like Odense, Viborg, Horsens, Ribe and their headquarters in Slagelse, so by the time of theBaltic crusade, the symbol was already a known symbol in Denmark. Furthermore he claims that Bishop Theoderich, already co-initiator of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in Livonia, had the idea of starting a similar order in Estonia; and that he was the original instigator of the inquiry from Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden to KingValdemar II in 1218, that set the whole Danish participation in the Baltic crusades in motion. In the contemporary writing of the priest Henry of Livonia from Riga it is said that Bishop Theoderich was killed during the 1219 battle, when the enemy stormed his tent, thinking it was the King's tent. Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen explains that it was Bishop Theoderich who carried the flag, planted outside his tent; thus as an already well-known symbol of the Knights Hospitaller in Livonia, the enemy thought this was the King's symbol and mistakenly stormed Bishop Theoderich tent. He claims that the origin of the legend of the falling flag comes from this confusion in the battle.
L. P. Fabricius:
The Danish church-historian L. P. Fabricius proposed yet another theory, explained in his study of 1934, titled "Sagnet om Dannebrog og de ældste Forbindelser med Estland". He ascribes the origin to the 1208 Battle of Fellin, not the Battle of Lyndanisse in 1219, based on the earliest source available about the story. He says in this theory that it might have been Archbishop Andreas Sunesøn's personal ecclesiastical banner or perhaps even the flag of Archbishop Absalon, based on his tireless efforts to expand Christianity to the Baltic countries. Under his initiative and supervision several smaller crusades had already been conducted in Estonia. The banner would then already be known in Estonia. He repeats the story about the flag being planted in front of Bishop Theodorik's tent, which the enemy mistakenly attacks believing it to be the tent of the King. All these theories centre on two battles in Estonia, Fellin (1208) or Lyndanisse (1219), and thus try to explain the origin in relation to the tale brought forth over 300 years after the event.
Fabricius and Helga Bruhn:
A much different theory is briefly discussed by Fabricius and elaborated more by Helga Bruhn in her book "Dannebrog" from 1949. She claims that it is neither the battle nor the banner that is central to the tale, but rather the cross in the sky. Similar tales of appearances in the sky at critical moments, particularly of crosses, can be found all over Europe. Bruhn mentions a battle (also mentioned by Fabricius) taking place on September 10, 1217 between Christian knights and Moorwarriors on the Iberian Peninsula near the castle Alcazar, where it is said that a golden cross on white appeared in the sky, to bring victory to the Christians. Likewise an almost identical Swedish tale from the 18th century about a yellow cross on blue appearing in 1157 during a Swedish battle in Finland. Probably a later invention to counter the legendary origins of the Danish flags, but nevertheless of the same nature. The English flag, the Saint George's Cross is also claimed to have appeared in the sky during a critical battle, in this case in Jerusalem during the crusades. The similarities to the legends is obvious. In Spain, the colours of the Pope appears in the sky, in Finland the Swedish colours. In Estonia it is the Danish colours, and in Jerusalem the English colours. Basically, these are all variations of the same legend. Since King Valdemar II was married to the Portuguese princess, Berengaria, it is not unthinkable that the origin of the story, if not the flag, was the Spanish tale or a similar tale, which again might have been inspired by an even older legend.
Earliest recorded use of the flag:
Danish literature of the 13th and 14th centuries remains quiet about the national flag. Whether the flag has its origins in a divine sign, a banner of a military order, an ecclesiastical banner, or perhaps something entirely different, Danish literature is no help before the early 15th century. However, several coins, seals and images exist, both foreign and domestic, from the 13th to 15th centuries and even earlier, showing flags similar to Dannebrog. In the 19th and early 20th century, these images were used by many Danish historians, with a good flair of nationalism, trying to date the origins of the flag to 1219. However, if one examines the few existing foreign sources about Denmark from the 13th to 15th centuries, it is apparent that, at least from foreign point of view; the national symbol of Denmark was not a red-and-white banner but the royal coat of arms (three blue lions on a golden shield.) This coat of arms remains in use to this day. An obvious place to look for documentation is in the Estonian city of Tallinn, the site of the legendary battle. In Tallinn, a coat-of-arms resembling the flag is found on several buildings and can be traced back to the middle of the 15th century where it appears in the coat-of-arms of the "Die Grosse Gilde", a sort of merchant consortium which greatly influenced the city's development. The symbol later became the coat-of-arms of the city. Efforts to trace it from Estonia back to Denmark have, however, been in vain. The national Coat of Arms of Estonia, three blue lions on a golden shield, is almost identical to the Coat of Arms of Denmark, and its origin can be traced directly back to King Valdemar II and Danish rule in Estonia 1219-1346.
Laws and flag variations
Denmark does not have a specified flag law, but various regulations and rules spread out over many documents, from King Christian IV's time till today, can be found.
A part of the Danish culture, states that Dannebrog is not allowed to touch the ground because it came from heaven. Another part states that Dannebrog is not allowed to be hoist at night, because it is said to salute the Devil.
The size and shape of the coufhordie flag ("Koffardiflaget") for merchant ships is given in the regulation of June 11, 1748, which says: A red flag with a white cross with no split end. The white cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The two first fields must be square in form and the two outer fields must be 6/4 lengths of those. The proportions are thus: 3:1:3 vertically and 3:1:4.5 horizontally. This definition are the absolute proportions for the Danish national flag to this day, for both the civil version of the flag ("Stutflaget"), as well as the merchant flag ("Handelsflaget"). Both flags are identical. A somewhat curious regulation came in 1758 concerning Danish ships sailing in theMediterranean. These had to carry the King's cypher logo in the center of the flag, to distinguish them from Maltese ships, due to the similarity of the flag of the Order of St. John (also known as the Knights Hospitaller). To the best of knowledge, The Danish flag from the front page this regulation has never been revoked, however it is probably no of Christiern Pedersen’s version of longer done. According to the regulation of June 11, 1748 the colour was simply Saxo’s Gesta Danorum, 1514. red, which is common known today as "Dannebrog rød" ("Dannebrog red"). The only available red fabric dye in 1748 was made of madder root, which can be processed to produce a brilliant red dye (used historically for British soldiers' jackets). The private company, Dansk Standard, regulation number 359 of 2005, defines the red colour of the flag as Pantone 186c. No official nuance definition of "Dannebrog rød" exists. During the next about 150 years nobody paid much attention to actually abide fully to the proportions of the flag given in the 1748 regulation, not even the government. As late as 1892 it was stated in a series of regulations that the correct lengths of the two last fields in the flag were 6/4. Some interested in the matter made inquires into the issue and concluded that the 6/4 length would make the flag look blunt. Any new flag would also quickly become unlawful, due to wear and tear. They also noted that the flag currently used had lengths, of the last two fields, anywhere between 7/4 to 13/6. So in May 1893 a new regulation to all chiefs of police, stated that the police should not intervene, if the two last fields in the flag were longer than 6/4 as long as these did not exceed 7/4, and provided that this was the only rule violated. This regulation is still in effect today and thus the legal proportions of the National flag is today anywhere between 3:1:3 width / 3:1:4.5 length and 3:1:3 width / 3:1:5.25 length. That some confusion still exists in this matter can be seen from the regulation of May 4, 1927, which once again states that Danish merchant ships have to fly flags according to the regulation of 1748.
Splitflag and Orlogs flag:
The Splitflag and Orlogsflag have similar shapes but different sizes and hues. Legally, they are two different flags. The Splitflag is a Danish flag ending in a swallow-tail, it isDannebrog red, and is used on land. The Orlogsflag is an elongated Splitflag with a deeper red colour and is only used on sea. The Orlogsflag with no markings, may only be used by the Royal Danish Navy. There are though a few exceptions to this. A few institutions have been allowed to fly the cleanOrlogsflag. Same flag with markings has been approved for a few dozen companies and institutions over the years. Furthermore, the Orlogsflag is only described as such if it has no additional markings. Any swallow-tail flag, no matter the color, is called a Splitflag provided it bears additional markings. The first regulation regarding the Splitflag dates from March 27, 1630, in which King Christian IV orders that Norwegian Defensionskibe(armed merchants ships) may only use the Splitflag if they are in Danish war service. In 1685 an order, distributed to a number of cities in Slesvig, states that all ships must carry the Danish flag, and in 1690 all merchant ships are forbidden to use the Splitflag, with the exception of ships sailing in the East Indies, West Indies and at the coast of Africa. In 1741 it is confirmed that the regulation of 1690 is still very much in effect; that merchant ships may not use the Splitflag. At the same time the Danish East India Company is allowed to fly the Splitflag when past the equator. It is obvious that some confusion must have existed regarding the Splitflag. In 1696 the Admiralty presented the King with a proposal for a standard regulating both size and shape of the Splitflag. In the same year a royal resolution defines the proportions of the Splitflag, which in this resolution is called Kongeflaget (the King's flag), as follows: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The two first fields must be square in form with the sides three times the cross width. The two outer fields are rectangular and 1½ the length of the square fields. The tails are the length of the flag.
The current version of the royal standard was introduced on 16 November 1972 when theQueen adopted a new version of her personal coat of arms. The royal standard is the flag of Denmark with a swallow-tail and charged with the monarch’s coat of arms set in a white square. The centre square is 32 parts in a flag with the ratio 56:107.
Published on Jun 9, 2013
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