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Independence Day Macedonia - Sep 08

Officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991. It became a member of the United Nations in 1993 but, as a result of a dispute with Greece over its name, it was admitted under the provisional reference of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, sometimes abbreviated as FYROM. A landlocked country, the Republic of Macedonia is bordered by Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south and Albania to the west. The country's capital is Skopje, with 506,926 inhabitants according to a 2002 census. Other cities include Bitola, Kumanovo, Prilep, Tetovo, Ohrid, Veles, Štip, Kočani, Gostivar and Strumica. It has more than 50 lakes and sixteen mountains higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft). Macedonia is a member of the UN and the Council of Europe. Since December 2005 it has also been a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership.

HUNGARY Hungarian-Brazilian economic relations continue to gain momentum

Banks must amend foreign currency mortgage contracts: PM

History

Ancient history of the territory:

In antiquity, the central and northern zones of what is now the Republic of Macedonia was inhabited by Paeonians, whilst the Lakeland region (Erigon) was inhabited by tribes known historically as Enchelae, Pelagones and Lyncestae; the latter two are generally regarded as Molossian or Upper Macedonian tribes, whilst the former is considered "Illyrian". The linguistic affinities of the various tribes are difficult to unequivocally establish due to the paucity of data. Moreover, ancient sources did not necessarily categorize tribes on a detailed dialectical knowledge of the area, but on a political basis. For example, the Pelagones or Lyncestae were at times part of the Molossian koinon, the Macedonian Kingdom, or even the "Illyrian Kingdom" of Glaucias; and were therefore variously referred to as Epirotian or Upper Macedonian tribes. Similarly, the Paeonians at times expanded their rule over much of Macedonia, including over the south-western Thracian tribes (Edonoi, Krestonoi, etc.). Whatever the native languages, Greek began to be used as early as the sixth century BCE (coin issued by the Paeonian Kings were in Greek). Strabo remarked that many tribes between Corcyra, Macedonia and the Via Egnatia were bilingual (δίγλωττοι) [Strabo C 327]. After the early victories of Philip II of Macedon in 356 BC, he absorbed the regions of Upper Macedonia into the Kingdom of Macedon, including Lynkestis, Pelagonia, and the southern part of Paeonia (Deuriopus), which now lie within the Republic of Macedonia. Philip did not make the people of Upper Macedonia subject but instead made them equal to the Macedonians of Lower Macedonia. Philip's sonAlexander the Great conquered the remainder of the region, reaching as far north as the Danube, and incorporated it in his empire. The Romans established the Province of Macedonia in 146 BC. By the time of Diocletian, the province had been subdivided between Macedonia Prima and Macedonia Salu- The ruins of Heraclea Lyncestis, a taris; most of country's modern boundaries fell within the latter, city founded by Philip II of Macedon with the city of Stobi as the capital of Macedonia Salutaris. Cities in the 4th century BC to the extreme north such as Scupi fell within the Province of Moesia. Whilst Greek remained the dominant language in the south, Latin made significant inroads in Macedonia.

Medieval period:

During the 580s, Byzantine literature attests to the Slavs raiding Byzantine territories in the region of Macedonia, aided by Avars or Bulgars. Historical records document that in c.680 a group of Bulgars, Slavs and Byzantines led by a Bulgar called Kuber settled in the region of Keramisian plain, centred on the city of Bitola. Presian's reign apparently coincides with the extension of Bulgarian control over the Slavic tribes in and around Macedonia. The Slavic peoples that settled in the region of Macedonia accepted Christianity as their own religion around the 9th century, during the reign of Tsar Boris I of Bulgaria. In 1014, Emperor Basil II finally defeated the armies of Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria and by 1018 the Byzantines restored control over Macedonia (and all of the Balkans) for the first time since the 7th century. However, by the late 12th century, Byzantine decline saw the region contested by various political entities, including a briefNorman occupation in the 1080s. In the early 13th century, a revived Bulgarian Empire gained control of the region. Plagued by political difficulties the empire did not last and the region came once again under Byzantine control in early 14th century. In the 14th century, it became part of the Serbian Empire, who saw themselves as liberators of their Slavic kin from Byzantine despotism. Skopje became the capital of Tsar Stefan Dusan's empire. With Dusan's death, a weak successor appeared and power struggles between nobles divided the Balkans once again. This coincided with the entry of the Ottoman Turks into Europe. The Kingdom of Prilep was one of the short lived states that emerged from the collapse of theSerbian Empire in the 14th century. With no major Balkan power left to defend Christianity, the central Balkans fell to Turkish rule — and remained under it for five centuries.

National awakening:

Nikola Karev, president of

Ottoman rule over the region was considered harsh. With the beginning of the short lived Krushevo Rethe Bulgarian National Revival in 18 c. many of the reformers were from this public during the Ilinden Upregion, including Miladinov Brothers, Rajko Žinzifov, Joakim Krčovski, Kiril rising Pejčinoviḱ and others. The bishoprics of Skopje, Debar, Bitola, Ohrid, Veles and Strumica voted to join the Bulgarian Exarchate after it was established in 1870. Several movements whose goals were the establishment of autonomous Macedonia, encompassing the entire region of Macedonia, began to arise in the late 19th century; the earliest of these was the Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committees, later transformed to SMORO. In 1905 it was renamed as Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO) and after World War I the organization separated into the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) and the Internal Thracian Revolutionary Organisation (ITRO). The early organization did not proclaim any ethnic identities; it was officially open to "...uniting all the disgruntled elements in Macedonia and the Adrianople region, regardless of their nationality..." The majority of its members however were Macedonian Bulgarians In 1903, IMRO organised the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans, which after some initial successes, including the forming of the "Krushevo Republic", was crushed with much loss of life. The uprising and the forming of the Krushevo Republic are considered the cornerstone and precursors to the eventual establishment of the Macedonian state.

Kingdoms of Serbia and Yugoslavia:

Following the two Balkan wars of 1912 and 1913 and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, most of its European held territories were divided between Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The territory of the modern Macedonian state was then named Južna Srbija, "Southern Serbia". After the First World War, Serbia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929, the Kingdom was officially renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and divided into provinces called banovinas. Southern Serbia, including all of what is now the Republic of Macedonia, became known as the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The concept of a United Macedonia was used by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) in the interbellum. Its leaders – like Todor Alexandrov, Aleksandar Protogerov, Ivan Mihailov, promoted the idea with the aim to liberate the territories occupied by Serbia and Greece and to create an independent and united Macedonia for all Macedonians, regardless of religion and ethnicity. The Bulgarian government of Alexander Malinov in 1918 offered to give Pirin Macedonia for that purpose after World War One, but the Great Powers did not adopt this idea, because Serbia and Greece opposed. IMRO followed by starting an insurgent war in Vardar Banovina, together with Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization, which also conducted guerilla attacks against the Serbian administrative and army officials there. In 1923 in Stip a paramilitary organisation called Union against the Bulgarian bandits was formed by Serbian chetniks, IMRO renegades and MFO members to oppose IMRO and MMTRO.

Photo: Gergely Botár (Online 03 Sep) Earlier today, the second session of the HungarianBrazilian Economic Partnership Joint Committee (EJC) was held in Budapest. At the event, Minister of State for Economic Regulation Kristóf Szatmáry received the Brazilian Co-Chairman of the EJC Hadil, Deputy Secretary of State Fontes da Rocha Vianna from Brazil’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Among the topics on the agenda, the meeting focussed on trade development, the stimulation of investments, innovation, education, cultural issues as well as on cooperation in the field of fisheries and water management. The Brazilian delegation is scheduled to meet with 450 Brazilian students visiting Hungary within the framework of the “Science without Borders” scholarship programme this afternoon at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Since the EJC was established in 2012, economic relations between Hungary and Brazil have developed dynamically. As a result, Brazil is currently Hungary’s most significant

Socialist Yugoslavia:

In 1944 the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM) proclaimed the People's Republic of Macedonia as part of the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ASNOM remained an acting government until the end of the war. The Macedonian alphabet was codified by linguists of ASNOM, who based their alphabet on the phonetic alphabet of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić and the principles of Krste Petkov – Misirkov. The new republic became one of the six republics of the Yugoslav federation. Following the federation's renaming as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963, the People's Republic of Macedonia was likewise renamed, becoming the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. During the civil war in Greece (1946–1949) Metodija Andonov Chento greeted in Macedonian communist insurgents supported the Greek commu- Skopje after the National Liberation nists. Many refugees later came in Socialist Republic of Macedonia War of Macedonia in 1944. from there. The state dropped the "Socialist" from its name in 1991 when it peacefully seceded from Yugoslavia.

Declaration of independence:

The country officially celebrates 8 September 1991 as Independence day (Macedonian: Ден на независноста,Den na nezavisnosta), with regard to the referendum endorsing independence from Yugoslavia, albeit legalising participation in future union of the former states of Yugoslavia. The anniversary of the start of the Ilinden Uprising (St. Elijah's Day) on 2 August is also widely celebrated on an official level as the Day of the Republic. Robert Badinter as a head of Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the former Yugoslavia recommended EC recognition in January 1992. Macedonia remained at peace through the Yugoslav wars of the early 1990s. A few very minor changes to its border with Yugoslavia were agreed upon to resolve problems with the demarcation line between the two countries. However, it was seriously destabilised by the Kosovo War in 1999, when an estimated 360,000 ethnic Albanian refugees from Kosovo took refuge in the country. Although they departed shortly after the war, soon after, Albanian nationalists on both sides of the border took up arms in pursuit of autonomy or independence for the Albanian-populated areas of Macedonia.

Albanian insurgency:

A civil war was fought between government and ethnic Albanian insurgents, mostly in the north and west of the country, between March and June 2001. The war ended with the intervention of a NATO ceasefire monitoring force. Under the terms of the Ohrid Agreement, the government agreed to devolve greater political power and cultural recognition to the Albanian minority. The Albanian side agreed to abandon separatist demands and to fully recognise all Macedonian institutions. In addition, according to this accord, the NLA were to disarm and hand over their weapons to a NATO force.

Feast of Our Lady of Victories Malta - Sep 08

The Feast of Our Lady of Victories is celebrated annually in the town of Senglea in Malta. For the week preceeding the festa, the town enjoys a festive mood, as it is fully decorated in colourful lights, statues and other street decorations. The Parish Church is also fully decorated in luxurious lights, damasc and carpets. Cheerful brass band marches around the town happen every evening on the days prior to the festa, accompanied by the spectacular aerial and ground fireworks. On the day of the feast of Our Lady of Victories, there is a procession around Senglea with the titular statue of the town followed by brass bands and a crowd of devotees. A great fireworks display concludes the festa in style.

Internal Autonomy Day Tahiti - Sep 08

Ironically, Internal Autonomy Day commemorates June 29, 1880, when king Pomare V was deposed and French Polynesia became a full French colony. But there is a political controvesy regarding the actual date of the festival, which is also celbrated on September 8, when the territory achieved a degree of internal autonomy. Tavini huiraatira members note that June 29 is the date in 1880 when Tahiti’s King Pomare V gave France right of sovereignty of his dependencies.

History Formerly known as the Society Islands;

the main island is Tahiti, an overseas country of France. Tahiti is the most prominent of the islands. Missionaries came to Tahiti in 1797. In 1815 the Tahitian chief Pomare II converted to Christianity. In 1842 Tahiti became a French protectorate and in 1880 it became a colony. The Gambier group became a protectorate in 1844 and a colony in 1881. Rimatara and Rurutu became protectorates and colonies of France in 1889 and 1900, respectively. The Tuamotu Islands became dependencies of Tahiti in 1847 and part of the colony in 1880. The chiefs of the Marquesas Islands ceded sovereignty to France in 1842. The islands were originally part of the French colony of Oceania. During the Second World War, they sided with the Free French government in exile on 2 September 1940. French Polynesia was far from the front lines in the Second World War. On 27 October 1946, French Polynesia became an overseas territory of France. A long-lasting independence movement gained a partial concession when France granted limited autonomy to French Polynesia in 1977 and increased in 1984. On 28 March 2003, French Polynesia became an overseas collectivity of France and on 27 February 2004, it became an overseas country of France. The economy is based on tourism, farming, and fishing. An elected territorial assembly exists. French Polynesia also elects two members of the French National Assembly and one member of the French Senate.

Celebrations Pro-autonomy parties celebrate Autonomy day on June 29, but Oscar Temaru’s pro-independence Tavini huiraatira

claims this date should be a “Mourning Day”. Pro-autonomy parties announced that they would always celebrate Autonomy day on June 29 in Papeete. A ceremony is held at the “Pont de l’Est”, a rotary on the north side of Papeete with a monument in honor of French Polynesia’s internal autonomy relationship with France. All major pro-autonomy leaders participate in this event, including opposition leader and members of his Tahoeraa huiraatira party. June 29 is the date in 1984 when French Polynesia’s organic law approved by the French Parliament took effect, giving the overseas community, formerly known as a territory, greater internal autonomy while remaining as part of the French Republic. But for Oscar Temaru’s Tavini huiraatira, June 29 is a “Mourning Day.”

National Day & Our Lady of Meritxell Andorra - Sep 08

Our Lady of Meritxell is an Andorran Roman Catholic statue depicting an apparition of the Virgin Mary. Our Lady of Meritxell is the patron saint of Andorra. The original statue dates from the late 12th century. However, the chapel in which it was housed burned down on September 8 and 9, 1972, and the statue was destroyed. A replica can be found in the new Meritxell Chapel, designed in 1976 by Ricardo Bofill. The Catalan philologist Joan Coromines says that "Meritxell" is a diminutive of merig, from the Latin meridiem (midday in English). Merig is a name used by shepherds to denote a pasture with lot of sun.

Legend

In the late 12th century, on January 6, a wild rose in bloom was found by villagers from Meritxell going to Mass in Canillo. It was out of season and at its base was found a statue of the Virgin and Child. The statue was placed in the Canillo church. However, the statue was found under the same wild rose the next day. The statue was taken to the church of Encamp. However, as before, the statue was found under the same wild rose the next day. As in similar legends elsewhere, the villagers of Meritxell took this as a sign and decided to build a new chapel in their town after they found an open space miraculously untouched by the winter snows.

Influence a relatively frequent female name among Andorran women and other Catalan-speaking women. Ex-

"Meritxell" is amples are: • • •

Meritxell Lavanchy, actress. Meritxell Mateu i Pi, former foreign minister of Andorra. Meritxell Batet Lamaña, member of the Council of Europe.

Siege of Leningrad Day Russia - Sep 08

The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Russian:блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: blokada Leningrada) was a prolonged military operation resulting from the failure of the German Army Group North to capture Leningrad, now known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II. It started on 8 September 1941, when the last land connection to the city was severed. Although the Soviets managed to open a narrow land corridor to the city on 18 January 1943, lifting of the siege took place on 27 January 1944, 872 days after it began. It was one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history and one of the most costly in terms of casualties.

Background The capture of Leningrad was one of three strategic goals in the

German Operation Barbarossa and the main target of the Army Group North. The strategy was motivated by Leningrad's political status as the former capital of Russia and the symbolic capital of the Russian Revolution, its military importance as a main base of the Soviet Baltic Fleet and its industrial strength, housing numerous arms factories. By 1939 the city was responsible for 11% of all Soviet industrial output. It has been reported that Adolf Hitler was so confident of capturing Leningrad that he had the invitations to the victory celebrations to be held in the city's Hotel Astoria already printed. The ultimate fate of the city was uncertain in German plans, ranging from renaming of the city to Adolfsburg and becoming the capital of the new Ingermanland province of the Reich in Generalplan Ost to the razing it to the ground and giving areas north of the River Neva to the Finns.

Virgen de la Fuensanta Spain - Sep 08

Our Lady of Fuensanta or Fuensanta Virgin is one of the many invocations Marian exist in Spain.

Trusts in Spain Murcia:

La Virgen de la Fuensanta is the principal patron of the city of Murcia . His shrine is located in the mountains bordering the capital, near the village of Murcia ALGEZARES , about 5 kilometers from the city center. It is one of the most important Marian devotions of Eastern regions, and its temple an important pilgrimage site for both the faithful Murcia to neighboring provinces.

Córdoba:

This virgin is co-patron of Córdoba whose feast is celebrated in the neighborhood of Fuensanta of the city during the week of September the festival . In this city there is the legend of the alligator , according to which the Virgin appeared miraculously, by a well, Gonzalo Garcia, crippled by an alligator brought from Africa , and having eaten the latter to many locals in that area. It is also known as the Fair Tinkerbell, because during its celebration is typical buy a bell decorated with motifs or allusions to the Fair.

Archbishop Villanueva:

The Virgin of the Fuensanta is also patron of the Four Towns, county formed by the municipalities of Villanueva del Archbishop ,Villacarrillo , Iznatoraf and Sorihuela the Guadalimar . His shrine is in the first of the said Towns of the province of Jaén . According to legend the king commanded Iznatoraf Moor start cutting hands and eyes to his wife after learning that helped the Christians, and abandoned in an area known as The Moratilla. There, the mutilated woman heard the running water of a fountain and a voice asking him to introduce his stumps in the water and wash the eye sockets. Recovered so hands and eyes and I can see an image of the Blessed Virgin. Therefore, from the ninth century there has been a shrine in honor of Our Lady of Fuensanta, Patroness of the Four Towns and Reina del Olivar whose canonical papal coronation took place on September 29, 1956. His feast is celebrated on September 8 with a procession around the sanctuary. This also relates to the miracle that Alfonso X the Wise in his Cantigas de Santa Maria , whereby when the Moors besieged castleChincoya . Christians poked their image of Mary on the ramparts of the fort and just then unleashed a strong and unexpected storm, which made the Arabs flee. Very many miracles attributed to him, being the reason for the large number of pilgrims who prostrate themselves at his feet to beg.

Coin:

Patron Saint of the city of Coin ( Malaga ), is venerated, and August 15 is celebrated the day with a procession through the streets of the town. In his honor a procession on the first weekend in June, in which residents of the municipality come to the hermitage located several kilometers to the Sunday afternoon return to your home throughout the year, the church of San Juan Bautista.

Huelma:

Patron of the town of Huelma , in Jaen province , celebrates its patron saint the first weekend of May with the transfer of the image from the Sanctuary to the municipality where it remains the months of May and June. The pilgrimage to the sanctuary takes place the first Sunday of September. The image is a small carving work of José Navas-Parejo and according to legend appeared to a shepherd where now lies the sanctuary. They worshiped together with St. Lucia.

Alcaudete:

Patron of the town of Alcaudete , in the province of Jaen , which celebrates its festivities in the month of April and August. The tradition of this people jienense a Christian soldier was healed of his war wounds to drink of the water that flowed when he invoked the name of the Virgin Mary. Documented, it can prove the existence of a chapel in 1511 dedicated to the Virgin of the Fuente Santa, that eventually led to Virgin Fuensanta. By popular acclaim, was named patron of Alcaudete, reaching its devotion today many parts of the region. The last weekend in April with the lowering of the image from the Shrine to the people where it remains the month of May where every afternoon of Flowers. Return to the Sanctuary on the first Saturday of June. In August Novena begins on 6, ending August 14, when it begins the evening of the Virgin, the procession of Our Lady of Fuensanta ending Alba Mass on August 15. The Granada school baroque image is anonymous, the beginning of S. XVII being the image of the Child also baroque but after the image of the Mother.

Int’l Literacy Day Worldwide - Sep 08

September 8 was proclaimed International Literacy Day by UNESCO on November 17, 1965. It was first celebrated in 1966. Its aim is to highlight the importance of literacy to individuals, communities and societies. On International Literacy Day each year, UNESCO reminds the international community of the status of literacy and adult learning globally. Celebrations take place around the world. Some 776 million adults lack minimum literacy skills; one in five adults is still not literate and two-thirds of them are women; 75 million children are out-of-school and many more attend irregularly or drop out. According to UNESCO’s "Global Monitoring Report on Education for All (2008)", South and West Asia has the lowest regional adult literacy rate (58.6%), followed by sub-Saharan Africa (59.7%), and the Arab States (62.7%). Countries with the lowest literacy rates in the world are Burkina Faso (12.8%), Niger(14.4%) and Mali (19%). The report shows a clear connection between illiteracy and countries in severe poverty, and between illiteracy and prejudice against women. The celebration's theme for 2007 and 2008 was “Literacy and Health”. This was also the thematic emphasis of the 2007-2008 biennium of the United Nations Literacy Decade. In particular, International Literacy Day 2008 had a strong emphasis on Literacy and Epidemics with a focus on communicable diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria, some of the world's forefront public health concerns. To raise public awareness of the extraordinary value of the written word and of the necessity to promote a literate society, the following writers are supporting UNESCO through the Writers for Literacy Initiative : Margaret Atwood, Paul Auster, Philippe Claudel, Paulo Coelho, Philippe Delerm, Fatou Diome, Chahdortt Djavann, Nadine Gordimer, Amitav Ghosh, Marc Levy, Alberto Manguel, Anna Moi, Scott Momaday, Toni Morrison, Erik Orsenna, Gisèle Pineau, El Tayeb Salih, Francisco Jose Sionil, Wole Soyinka, Amy Tan, Miklós Vámos, Abdourahman Waberi, Wei Wei, Banana Yoshimoto. Not only writers contribute to raising awareness to the problem of illiteracy. Next to the writers engagement, there are various companies and charity organizations that support the fight against illiteracy. Some supporters of International Literacy Day include the Global Development Research Center, Montblanc, the National Institute for Literacy, and Rotary International. Mohammad Abdul Rub, an Indian Child writer celebrates his birthday on this day.

Catalan National Day Spain - Sep 11

On September 11, the Spanish region of Catalonia commemorates the 1714 Siege of Barcelona defeat during the War of the Spanish Succession. As correction for their support to the claim of Habsburg Archduke Charles to the throne of Spain, institutions and rights of the territories of the Crown of Aragon were abolished by the victorious Bourbon monarchy in line with the political evolution occurring in other parts of Europe at the same time. In 1980, the restored Generalitat de Catalunya (regional governing body of Catalonia) proclaimed the 11th of September as the Catalan National Day. Separatist organizations and political parties traditionally lay floral offerings at the monuments of Rafael Casanova and General Moragues for their 'fight' against the Bourbon army. Catalan nationalists also meet at the Fossar de les Moreres, where they pay homage to the defenders of city who died during the siege and were buried there. Throughout the day, there are communist and anarchic political demonstrations, concerts and so-called celebration events. Many citizens wave senyeres and estelades, illegal flags which have been adopted in provocation as a symbol of the separatists' disdain for the unity of the Spanish nation.

standing on aquaculture, and a Partnership Agreement designed to strengthen business relations was signed by Eximbank, the Budapest Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Hungarian Investment and Trade Agency and the BrazilianHungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The talks held at the meeting also outlined further fields of cooperation within the defence and agriculture sectors. In the long term, opportunities provided by cooperation on education will be a key element of bilateral relations. These are off to a promising start as 450 Brazilian students begin their studies at Hungarian tertiary education facilities this year within the framework of Brazil’s scholarship programme called “Science without Borders”. This state-sponsored Brazilian programme helps young Brazilians to take courses in natural sciences, engineering, healthcare or informatics at a foreign university for one year. Hungary was the first Central European country to join the programme in 2012.

France, Hungary to strengthen business ties (Online 05 Sep) Minister of State for European Affairs Enikő Győri, and MFA European Director Bálint Ódor hosted a delegation of the French Senate's French-Hungarian Friendship Group, on September 4. Enikő Győri pointed out that there are numerous areas where Hungary and France can cooperate as close allies, as they did when they defended the common agricultural policy during the course of negotiations on the 2014-2020 EU Multiannual Financial Framework. The parties also discussed Hungar-

ian ideas regarding the future of the European Union, Hungarian-EU ties and the economic achievements of the country, in addition to which the agenda also included such important items as the Free Trade Agreement to be signed with the United States. The Hungarian party emphasised that cultural diversity is a value that must be preserved during ever deepening integration. Following the meeting with Enikő Győri, Deputy State Secretary Gergely Prőhle welcomed the delegation of the French Senate led by

Senator Michel Billout. During their talks, special emphasis was given to the upcoming political and cultural events, especially the planned visit to Paris of President of the Republic János Áder, his talks with President of the Republic Francois Hollande, as well as the exhibition of the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts and the Musée D’Orsay entitled “Béla Bartók and Hungarian Modernism, 19051920” to be organised in Paris under the joint patronage of the two countries’ Presidents.

Hungary condemns the Syria chemical attack (Online 03 Sep) Hungary condemns in the strongest possible terms the chemical attack that was carried out in Syria on August 21, killing one and a half thousand people. The attack, which also targeted civilians, totally disregarded all moral rules and international norms. It is particularly shocking that every third victim was a child.

Yugoslav Macedonia in World War II:

During World War II, Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis Powers from 1941 to 1945. The Vardar Banovina was divided between Bulgaria and Italian-occupied Albania. Bulgarian Action Committees were established and prepared the region for the new Bulgarian administration and army. The Committees were mosltly formed by former members of IMRO, but some communists like Panko Brashnarov, Strahil Gigov and Metodi Shatorov also participated. Shatorov as leader of Vardar Macedonia communists switched from Yugoslav Communist Party to Bulgarian Communist Party and refused to start military action against the Bulgarian army. Bulgarian authorities, under German pressure, were responsible for the round-up and deportation of over 7,000 Jews in Skopje and Bitola. Harsh rule by the occupying forces encouraged many Macedonians to support the Communist Partisan resistance movement of Josip Broz Tito after 1943, and the National Liberation War ensued, with German forces being driven out of Macedonia by the end of 1944. In Vardar Macedonia, after Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944 the Bulgarian troops, surrounded by German forces, fought their way back to the old borders of Bulgaria. Under the leadership of the new Bulgarian pro-Soviet government, four armies, 455,000 strong in total, were mobilized and reorganized. Most of them reentered occupied Yugoslavia in the early October 1944 and moved from Sofia to Niš, Skopje andPristina with the strategic task of blocking the German forces withdrawing from Greece. Compelled by the Soviet Union with a view towards the creation of a large South Slav Federation, Bulgarian government once again offered to give Pirin Macedonia to such a United Macedonia in 1945.

trade partner in South America. Thanks, among others, to domestic SMEs who have achieved an increasing presence on the Brazilian market, over the past years bilateral foreign trade data has been pointing to an upward trend; especially outstanding was the growth in Hungarian exports to Brazil: in 2012 the volume of Hungarian exports (USD 327.7 million) increased by more than 24 percent, while that of imports (USD 162.7 million) was up by 16 percent compared to the previous year. The positive trend also continued in the initial five months of 2013: Hungarian exports driven mainly by domestic SMEs gained 40 percent in comparison to the level registered one year ago. The effective endeavours of the EJS and steadily improving relations are expected to result in a Hungarian foreign trade volume of USD 1 billion by 2015. The EJC held its Budapest session on 3 September, when the two parties signed several cooperation agreements. The Ministry for Rural Development and Brazil’s Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture concluded a Memorandum of Under-

On the basis of the information made public so far, more and more evidence indicates that this heinous crime was committed by perpetrators connected to the Assad regime. The international community cannot stay idle when chemical weapons are being used and the perpetrators must be held responsible for their inhuman

deed. The Hungarian Government shall continue to follow the developments of the Syrian crisis, with particular attention to the situation of the Christian communities there, and is in continuous consultation with its European and North American allies regarding furthers action.

Independence Day Tajikistan - Sep 09

Tajikistan officially the Republic of Tajikistan is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and People's Republic of China to the east. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan's Chitral and the Gilgit-Baltistan region, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor, which is claimed by both Pakistan and Afghanistan. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Persian-speaking Tajik ethnic group, who share language, culture and history with Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. Once part of the Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR). Mountains cover over 90% of this Central Asian republic. After independence, Tajikistan suffered from a devastating civil war which lasted from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Trade in commodities such as cotton, aluminium and uranium has contributed greatly to this steady improvement.

History

Early history:

The territory of what is now Tajikistan has been inhabited continuously since 4000 BC. It has been under the rule of various empires throughout history, for the longest period being part of the Persian Empire. It was originally called Neb for a short period of time, before being given the name Tajikistan. Acharya Yaska's Nirukta (7th century BC) attests that the verb Śavati in the sense "to go" was used by only the Kambojas. It has been shown that the modern Ghalcha dialects, Valkhi, Shigali, Sriqoli, Jebaka (also called Sanglichi or Ishkashim), Munjani, Yidga and Yaghnobi, mainly spoken in the Pamir mountainsand countries on the headwaters of the Oxus, still use terms derived from ancient Kamboja Śavati in the sense "to go". The Yaghnobi language, spoken by the Yaghnobis in the Sughd Province around the headwaters of Zeravshan valley, also still contains a relic "Śu" from ancient Kamboja Śavati in the sense "to go". Further, Sir George Abraham Grierson says that the speech of Badakshan was a Ghalcha until about three centuries ago when it was supplanted by a form of Persian. Thus, the ancient Kamboja, probably included the Badakshan, Pamirs and northern territories including the Yaghnobi region in the doab of theOxus and Jaxartes. On the east it was bounded roughly by Yarkand and/or Kashgar, on the west byBahlika (Uttaramadra), on the northwest by Sogdiana, on the north by Uttarakuru, on the southeast byDarada, and on the south by Gandhara. Numerous Indologists locate original Kamboja in Pamirs and Badakshan and the Parama Kamboja further north, in the Trans-Pamirian territories comprising Zeravshan valley, north up parts of Sogdhiana/Fargana — in the Sakadvipa or Scythia of the classical writers. Thus, in the pre-Buddhist times (7th–6th century BCE), the parts of modern Tajikistan including territories as far as Zeravshan valley in Sogdiana formed parts of ancient Kamboja and the Parama Kamboja kingdoms when it was ruled by the Kambojas till it became part of Persian Achaemenid Empire. After the Persian Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great, the region became the northern part of Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. From the last quarter of 4th century BCE until the first quarter of the 2nd century BCE, it was part of the Bactrian Empire, from whom it was passed on to Scythian Tukharas and hence became part of Tukharistan. Contact with the Chinese Han Dynasty was made in the 2nd century BCE, when envoys were sent to the area of Bactria to explore regions west of China. Arabs brought Islam in the 7th century CE The Samanid Empire supplanted the Arabs and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara, which became the cultural centers of Tajiks (both of which are now in Uzbekistan). The Mongols would later take partial control of Central Asia, and later the land that today comprises Tajikistan became a part of the Emirate of Bukhara. A small community of Jews, displaced from the Middle East after the Babylonian captivity, migrated to the region and settled there after 600 BCE, though the majority of the recent Jewish population did not migrate to Tajikistan until the 20th century.

Russian presence:

In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to spread into Central Asia during the Great Game. Between 1864 and 1885 it gradually took control of the entire territory of Russian Turkestan from today's border with Kazakhstan in the north to the Caspian Sea in the west and the border with Afghanistan in the south. Tajikistan was eventually carved out of this territory, which historically had a large Tajik population. After the overthrow of Imperial Russia in 1917, guerrillas throughout Central Asia, known as basmachi, waged a war against Bolshevik armies in a futile attempt to maintain independence. The Bolsheviks prevailed after a four-year war, in which mosques and villages were burned down and the population heavily suppressed. Soviet authorities started a campaign of secularization, practicing Muslims, Jews, and Christianswere persecuted, and mosques, churches, and synagogues were closed.

Soviet Tajikistan:

In 1924, the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created as a part of Uzbekistan, but in 1929 the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR) was made a separate constituent republic (see also Shirinsho Shotemur). The predominantly ethnic Tajik cities of Samarkand and Bukhara remained in the Uzbek SSR. Between Modern Tajiks regard 1926 and 1959 the proportion of Russians among Tajikistan's population grew from the Samanid Empire as less than 1% to 13%. the first Tajik state. In terms of living conditions, education and industry Tajikistan was behind the other This monument in Soviet Republics. In the 1980s, it had the lowest household saving rate in the USSR, the lowest percentage of households in the two top per capita income groups, and Dushanbe honors Amir Ismail Samani. the lowest rate of university graduates per 1000 people. By the late 1980s Tajik nationalists were calling for increased rights. Real disturbances did not occur within the republic until 1990. The following year, the Soviet Union collapsed, and Tajikistan declared its independence. The first nation to establish an embassy in Dushanbe was Iran, which was also one of the first countries to immediately recognize Tajikistan as an independent state in 1991.

(Online 06 Sep) Prime Minister Viktor Orbán considers amending foreign exchange mortgage contracts a moral responsibility for banks. In public Kossuth radio’s morning show 180 minutes, he also highlighted that the recent economic data are signs of Hungary’s recovery. Resolving the situation of people with foreign currency loans was among the topics of discussion in today’s morning show. At an offsite parliamentary group meeting in Visegrád (Pest County) yesterday, governing parties called on banks to repair the mistakes of foreign currency mortgages by November 2013. According

to the Prime Minister, contracts should be amended in favour of borrowers, such that the majority of losses resulting from exchange-rate fluctuations should burden the banks. Regarding public utility charges, the Prime Minister confirmed that an 11.1 percent reduction will take place in order to have an overall 20 percent reduction in public utility fees, adding that this step demonstrates that Hungary is able to pursue an independent economic policy. The expansion of the family tax allowance was also mentioned, which will necessitate about HUF 50 billion (EUR 167 million) from the central

budget and will affect 920 thousand people altogether. Finally, Prime Minister Orbán stressed that recent economic indicators show that Hungary is recovering and everyone can see that the country performing better than before. Achievements include the lifting of the excessive deficit procedure, the early repayment of the IMF loan, the increase in real wages, the pay rise for health care workers and teachers, the start of economic growth, record-low inflation and decreasing unemployment.

Hungary's water treasures in focus at the 2015 Milan Expo (Online 06 Sep) The Hungarian Government made the final decision on Wednesday that Hungary would be represented at the Milan Expo to be held between 1 May and 31 October 2015, in Italy. Some 128 countries have indicated they will be participating and a total of 20 million guests are expected during the six months of the event. Géza Szőcs, the Government Com-

missioner in charge of Hungary's participation in the event, announced today that water will be in focus at the Hungarian pavilion. The water display will include thermal springs, as well as Hungary's medicinal and fresh water resources. The pavilion will also present competitive Hungarian agricultural products that are lesser known internationally. A public procurement tender for plans

of the Hungarian pavilion will be called soon. After the winning bid is announced, another round of tenders will be invited for the construction. In addition to being important to the country's international reputation, Hungary's presence at the expo also serves to further develop global links in business, tourism and diplomacy.

Hungary’s industrial output increases 4.8 percent (Online 06 Sep) According to preliminary data for July by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH), the volume of industrial production was 4.8 percent higher compared to the level one year ago. This figure has been an outstanding one within the past couple of months. Thus, the Government’s aspiration to turn Hungary into a European production hub is about to be fulfilled. Measures such as the cutting of red tape and policies aimed at boosting competitiveness, investment and the industry have contributed to reaching this goal. The workday-adjusted index was up by 2.5 percent. On a monthly basis – except for one month – the sector ex-

panded for the entire year, with growth of 0.3 percent in July. The recently published statistical data substantiate the Government’s efforts which aim to buoy the country’s economy through strengthening productive sectors and facilitating steady employment growth. Higher demand on Hungary’s export markets and the upswing of vehicle manufacturing – the latest manifestation of which was the opening of a new production facility at the Audi site in Győr at the end of June -- are believed to have contributed to the increase in industrial output. Foreign trade data for July, which were also published earlier today and which show the pace of expansion to be

similar to that of the industrial sector, as well as detailed second quarter GDP data confirm the expectation that the Hungarian economy is about to enter a stable and sustainable growth path. As statistics imply, in comparison to the previous year growth is picking up concerning investment, domestic consumption and services along with exports, the traditional growth engine. Higher household consumption expenditure – which was facilitated by savings thanks to public utility tariff cuts and benign inflation – is also thought to have contributed to good industrial data.

Central Europe must support the integration of the Western Balkans: Szabolcs (Online 05 Sep) It is the responsibility of Central Europe to emphasise the advantages of the European integration of the Western Balkans and to not allow „enlargement fatigue” to spread across the whole European Union, MFA Deputy State Secretary for Global Affairs and Political Director Szabolcs Takács declared at the Krynica Economic Forum in Poland, on September 4. Szabolcs Takács stressed that the in-

tegration of the Western Balkans was in the interests of Hungary from a political, an economic and a security policy perspective. It would be a negative message towards the states of the Western Balkans if the EU integration process slowed down, and consequently, public support for EU membership were to drop in these states, Takács Szabolcs pointed out. The public in these countries is currently in favour

of EU membership, but this will change if they have to wait too long, he added. The Hungarian Deputy State Secretary noted that representing Hungary at the Krynica Economic Forum was particularly important because Hungary currently holds the Presidency of both the Visegrad Four Group and the Central European Initiative (CEI).

PM Orbán sent greetings to Hungarian Jewish leaders (Online 04 Sep) Prime Minister Viktor Orbán sent greetings in a letter to the Hungarian Jewish community and their leaders on the occasion of Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year. He wished the community and their leaders a "good and sweet year".

Copies were sent to András Heisler, the president of the Federation of Hungarian Jewish Communities (MAZSIHISZ), Slomó Köves, Executive Rabbi of the Unified Hungarian Jewish Congregation (EMIH), Eduard Deblinger, the President of the Hun-

garian Autonomous Orthodox Jewish Community and György Szabó, the head of the Jewish Heritage of Hungary Public Endowment (Mazsök). The Jewish New Year, the 5,774th, is to start at sunset on Wednesday.

Tr a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r d i s a b l e d people (Online 03 Sep) The training of 65 disabled people has been completed at Kézmű Nonprofit Ltd's site in Abádszalók, Eastern Hungary. The Hungarian Government provided the 6 million forint funding required for the program within the framework of the New Széchényi Plan, Minister of

State for Social Affairs Miklós Soltész announced on Monday. Kézmű Nonprofit Ltd, which operates a sewing factory, employs 103 people of whom 73 are disabled. In 2013, a 5 billion forint program called Rehabilitation-Value-Change (RÉV) was launched involving three

state-owned non-profit companies operating in the light industry sector, within the framework of which employees are offered basic education and vocational training. Teaching takes place in up to 80 municipalities all over Hungary, including the country's most disadvantaged regions.

Hungary contributes to tackling cyber security challenges (Online 03 Sep) Deputy State Secretary for Global Affairs Szabolcs Takács gave a speech at the 3rd International Conference on Information Security and Cyber Defence hosted by the National Security Supervisory Authority on 3 September near Lake Balaton. The Deputy State Secretary declared in his speech that one of the most important security policy challenges of our age was to tackle the threats from cyber space. The increasing number of cyber at-

tacks indicates just how serious a challenge this is. Mr. Takács asserted that ensuring the security of cyber space was a common global interest, and therefore the solution could only be reached through international cooperation. Hungary has made its contribution to fostering international dialogue on regulating cyber space. Among others, Hungary hosted the international cyber space conference in 2012, which was a major step in the „London process” that began a year before.

The next international cyber space conference will be held in Seoul in October, and Hungary will be represented by Foreign Minister János Martonyi. The goal of the Hungarian Government is to promote the achievement of a global consensus on the regulation of cyber space. This is why the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Hungary hosted a cyber space workshop within the framework of the Budapest Africa Forum in June.

Public utility charges to be reduced again in November (Online 03 Sep) The Government is open to the Fidesz parliamentary group's latest proposal for a further reduction in public utility charges, the Minister of State heading the Prime Minister's Office said at a press conference in Hódmezővásárhely on Tuesday. Public utility charges must be reduced by at least a further 10 percent before the start of the heating season, János Lázár stated.

The status of at least 500 thousand families with foreign currency based loans must also be put in order before the end of the year. The Government discusses this issue at every cabinet meeting, the Minister of State said, adding that he hopes a solution will be found very soon. Tax revenues are required for the country to operate, but if purchasing basic meats is a problem for some

people, then the Government must consider reducing value added tax, he stated. For this reason, the Prime Minister has asked the Minister of Rural Development and the Minister of National Economy to examine the economic and social effects of a possible reduction of the VAT on basic meat products such as chicken and pork.

Govt decides on distribution of 250 billion forints in EU funding

Post-independence:

The nation almost immediately fell into a civil war that involved various factions fighting one another; these factions were often distinguished by clan loyalties. The non-Muslim population, particularly Russians and Jews, fled the country during this time because of persecution, increased poverty and better economic opportunities in the West or in other former Soviet republics. Emomalii Rahmon came to power in 1994, defeating former prime minister Abdumalik Abdullajanov in a November presidential election with 58% of the vote. The elections took place shortly after the end of the war, and Tajikistan was in a state of complete devastation. The estimated dead numbered over 100,000. Around 1.2 million people were refugees inside and outside of the country. In 1997, a ceasefire was reached between Rahmon and opposition parties (United Tajik Opposition). Peaceful elections were held in 1999, though they were criticized by opposition parties and foreign observers. Rahmon was re-elected with 98% of the vote. Elections were held again in 2006, with Rahmon winning a third term in office with 79% of the vote in a field of five candidates. Several opposition parties boycotted the election and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe was critical of it, although observers from the Commonwealth of Independent States claimed the elections to be legal and transparent. Rahmon's government came under criticism from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in October 2010 for its censorship and repression of the media. The OSCE claimed that the Tajik Government censored Tajik and foreign websites and instituted tax inspections on independent printing houses that lead to the cessation of printing activities for a number of independent newspapers. Russian border troops were stationed along the Tajik-Afghan border until summer 2005. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, Frenchtroops have been stationed at the Dushanbe Airport in support of air operations of NATO's International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. U.S. Army and Marine Corps personnel periodically visit Tajikistan to conduct joint training missions of up to several weeks duration. The Government of India rebuilt the Ayni Air Base, a military airport located 15 km southwest of Dushanbe, at a cost of $70 million, completing the repairs in September 2010. It is now the main base of the Tajikistan air force. There have been talks with Russia concerning use of the Ayni facility, and Russia continues to maintain a large base on the outskirts of Dushanbe and operate at least one military hospital in the capital city. In 2010, there were concerns among Tajik officials that Islamic militarism in the east of the country was on the rise following the escape of 25 militants from a Tajik prison in August, an ambush that killed 28 Tajik soldiers in the Rasht Valley in September, and another ambush in the valley in October that killed 30 soldiers, followed by fighting outside Gharm that left 3 militants dead. To date the country's Interior Ministry asserts that the central government maintains full control over the country's east, and the military operation in the Rasht Valley was concluded in November 2010.

Independence Day Nort Korea - Sep 09

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea commonly known as North Korea is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea. The Amnok, or Yalu, and the Tumen rivers form the border between North Korea and the People's Republic of China. A section of the Tumen River in the far northeast is the border with Russia. The peninsula was governed by the Korean Empire until it was annexed by Japan following theRusso-Japanese War of 1905. It was divided into Soviet and American occupied zones in 1945, following the end of World War II. North Korea refused to participate in a United Nations–supervised election held in the south in 1948, which led to the creation of separate Korean governments for the two occupation zones. Both North and South Korea claimed sovereignty over the Korean Peninsula as a whole, which led to the Korean War of 1950. The Armistice Agreement of 1953 ended the fighting; however, the two countries are officially still at war against each other, as a peace treaty was never signed. Both states were accepted into theUnited Nations in 1991. North Korea is a single-party state under a united front led by the Korean Workers' Party (KWP). The country's government follows the Juche ideology of self-reliance, developed by the country's President, Kim Il-sung. After his death, Kim Il-sung was declared the country's Eternal President. Juche became the official state ideology when the country adopted a new constitution in 1972, though Kim Il-sung had been using it to form policy since at least as early as 1955. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and a series of natural disasters, afamine occurred, causing the death of 900,000 to 2 million people. Facing these circumstances, leader Kim Jong-Il adopted Songun, or a "military-first" policy in order to strengthen the country and its government. Many outside organizations report that North Korea is a totalitarian Stalinistdictatorship with an elaborate cult of personality around the Kim family and one of the lowest human rights records ranking of any country. North Korea is the world's most militarized nation, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel. It is a nuclear weapons state, and has an active space program.

History In the aftermath of the Japanese occupation of Korea which ended with Japan's defeat in World War II in 1945,

Korea was divided at the 38th parallel in accordance with a United Nationsarrangement, to be administered by the Soviet Union in the north and the United States in the south. The history of North Korea formally begins with the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic in 1948.

Division of Korea:

In August 1945, the Soviet Army established a Soviet Civil Authority to rule the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula until a domestic regime, friendly to the USSR, could be established. This became governed by the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea through 1948. After the Soviet forces' departure in 1948, the main agenda in the following years was unification of Korea until the consolidation of Syngman Rhee regime in the South with American military support and the suppression of the October 1948 insurrection ended hopes that the country could be reunified by way of Communist revolution in the South. In 1949, a military intervention into South Korea was considered by Kim Il-sung, but failed to receive support from the Soviet Union, which had played a key role in the establishment of the country. The withdrawal of most United States forces from the South in June dramatically weakened theSouthern regime and encouraged Kim Il-sung to rethink an invasion plan against the South. The idea itself was first rejected by Joseph Stalin but with the development of Soviet nuclear weapons, Mao Zedong's victory in China and the Chinese indication that it would send troops and other support to North Korea, Stalin approved an invasion which led to the Korean War.

Korean War:

After Korea was divided by the UN, the two Korean powers both tried to control the whole Koreaunder their respective governments. This led to escalating border conflicts on the 38th parallel and attempts to negotiate elections for the whole of Korea. These attempts ended when the military of North Korea invaded the South on June 25, 1950, leading to a full-scale civil war. With endorsement from the United Nations, countries allied with the United States intervened on behalf of South Korea. After rapid advances in a South Korean counterattack, North-allied Chinese forces intervened on behalf of North Korea, shifting the balance of the war. Fighting ended on July 27, 1953, with an armistice that approximately restored the original boundaries between North and South Korea. More than 2 million civilians and soldiers were killed in the war. Although some have referred to the conflict as a civil war, other important factors were involved.The Korean War was also the first armed confrontation of the Cold War and set the standard for many later conflicts. It created the idea of a proxy war, where the two superpowers would fight in another country, forcing the people in that country to suffer most of the destruction and death involved in a war between such large nations. The superpowers avoided descending into an all-out war against one another, as well as the mutual use of nuclear weapons. It also expanded the Cold War, which to that point had mostly been concerned with Europe. A heavily guarded North Korean war demilitarized zone on the 38th parallel still divides the peninsula, and an anti-Comin Pymonument munist and anti-North Korea sentiment remains in South Korea. Since the Armistice in 1953, relations between the North Korean government and ongyang. South Korea, the European Union, Canada, the United States, and Japan have remained tense, and hostile incidents occur often. North and South Korea signed the June 15th North-South Joint Declaration in 2000, in which they promised to seek peaceful reunification. On October 4, 2007, the leaders of North and South Korea pledged to hold summit talks to officially declare the war over and reaffirmed the principle of mutual non-aggression.

Late 20th century:

The relative peace between the south and the north was interrupted by border skirmishes and assassination attempts. The North failed in several assassination attempts on South Korean leaders, most notably in 1968, 1974 and the Rangoon bombing in 1983; tunnels were frequently found under the DMZ and war nearly broke out over the Axe Murder Incident at Panmunjeom in 1976. In 1973, extremely secret, high-level contacts began to be conducted through the offices of the Red Cross, but ended after the Panmunjeom incident with little progress having been made and the idea that the two Koreas would join international organisations separately. In the late 1990s, with the South having transitioned to liberal democracy, the success of theNordpolitik policy, and power in the North having been taken up by Kim Il-sung's son Kim Jong-il, the two nations began to engage publicly for the first time, with the South declaring its Sunshine Policy.

21st century:

In 2002, United States president George W. Bush labeled North Korea part of an "axis of evil" and an "outpost of tyranny". The highest-level contact the government has had with the United States was with U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who made a visit to Pyongyang in 2000, but the two countries do not have formal diplomatic relations. By 2006, approximately 37,000 American soldiers remained in South Korea, although by June 2009 this number had fallen to around 30,000. Kim Jong-il has privately stated his acceptance of U.S. troops on the peninsula, even after a possible reunification. Publicly, North Korea strongly demands the removal of American troops from Korea. On June 13, 2009, the Associated Press reported that in response to new UN sanctions, North Korea declared it would progress with itsuranium enrichment program. This marked the first time the DPRK has publicly acknowledged that it is conducting a uranium enrichment program. In August 2009, former US president Bill Clinton met with Kim Jong-il to secure the release of two US journalists, who had been sentenced for entering the country illegally. Current U.S. President Barack Obama's position towards North Korea has been to remain calm in the face of North Korea's provocations while resisting making deals with North Korea merely for the sake of defusing tension, a policy known as "strategic patience." On November 23, 2010, North Korea fired about 170 rounds of artillery on Yeonpyeong Island and the surrounding waters near the Yellow Sea border, with some 90 shells landing on the island. The attack resulted in the deaths of two marines and two civilians on the South Korean side, and fifteen marines and at least three civilians wounded. The South fired back 80 shells, with unknown effects. North Korean news sources alleged that the North Korean actions, described as "a prompt and powerful physical strike", were in response to provocation from South Korea that had held an artillery exercise in the disputed waters south of the island. Former US President Jimmy Carter made a call for a peaceful solution of this crisis.

National Day Gibraltar - Sep 10

Gibraltar National Day, celebrated annually on 10 September, is the official national day of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. The day commemorates Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum of 1967, in which Gibraltarian voters were asked whether they wished to either pass under Spanish sovereignty, or remain under British sovereignty, with institutions of self-government.

History In 1992, the then Chief Minister of Gibraltar Joe Bossano, trav-

elled to the United Nations to argue for the right to self-determination inspiring the formation of the Self Determination for Gibraltar Group (SDGG) which was at the time headed by Dennis Matthews, a one-time active member of the Integration with Britain Party (IWBP). In order to generate popular support for self-determination they held the first National Day at John Mackintosh Square (the Piazza) on 10 September 1992 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the day the 1967 sovereignty referendum was held on. Coincidently, the 10 September was also the day the Gibraltar Legislative Council became representative and responsible for internal affairs in 1964. The first National Day was so successful that the avalanche of people that spontaneously turned up could not fit into John Mackintosh Square. The Government then took the responsibility of providing some help organising the event, since it fostered the right to self-determination that the Gibraltarians had been demanding at the United Nations since 1963. Therefore, the Government declared the 10 September a public holiday and gave the SDGG a grant for them to administer. In 1993 the venue was changed to the larger Grand Casemates Square, until it was again changed in 1998 to the even larger Naval Ground.

National identity:

The active opposition of the Spanish Government to self-determination combined with the negative posture of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, strengthened the resolution of the vast majority of the Gibraltarians to press ahead for their decolonisation by the year 2000 in accordance with the high principles of the Charter and the target date set by the United Nations to eradicate colonialism. Instead, the UK Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, proposed joint sovereignty with Spain, which further intensified the sense of national identity reinforced by the National Day. The 10th National Day, held in 2001 included a speech by William Serfaty, the then lease of the SDGG, which stressed the themes of national identity, unity, resisting Spanish pressure and decolonisation. The 2002 National Day was closely followed Gibraltar's second sovereignty referendum in which the proposed plan for shared sovereignty was overwhelmingly rejected by the Gibraltarians.

Recent changes to format:

Subsequent National Days have comparatively been quieter affairs with fewer invited guests and shorter political speeches. In 2007 the running of the political rally was taken over by the Government from the SDGG. In July 2008 the Government announced they would change the format of National Day to take effect the same year. The main change was their decision to no longer organise a political rally. The reason given was to emphasise civic celebration of Gibraltar rather than political revindication. Other changes included relocating the main event to the smaller John Mackintosh Square from Grand Casemates Square, appointing the Mayor of Gibraltar to conduct the main event rather than any political leader, the presentation of the Gibraltar Medallion of Honour and the reading of the Gibraltar National Day Declaration.

Observances

The official Gibraltar National Day events begin with a children’s fancy dress competition held at the lobby of the Parliament building in Main Street followed by a street party at John Mackintosh Square where food and drink stalls are set up providing Gibraltarian food such as calentita. Later a selected school choir sings songs with a Gibraltar theme, namely Llévame Donde Nací and Virgencita de Europa. This is followed by the main event, the Mayor's recitation of the names of the recipients of the Gibraltar Medallion of Honour and the reading of the Gibraltar National Day Declaration from atop the City Hall's balcony. This is followed by the traditional release from atop the Parliament building of 30,000 red and white balloons, representing Gibraltar's population, which has featured on this day since 1992. In the meantime, the school choir leads the general public in the singing of the Gibraltar Anthem. A funday for children featuring bouncy castles and fairground rides is then held at Grand Casemates Square. There is live music is played all afternoon at Governor’s Parade (the Piazzella) and the Rock on the Rock Club, all free of charge. Since 2007, there has been a verbena for the older members of the community. The day culminates with a half hour-long synchronised fireworks display released from the Detached Mole in the Gibraltar Harbour at night followed by a rock concert (held the night before if the following day is a working day).

St. George's Caye Day Belize - Sep 10

September is a festive time of year in Belize. People all over the country gather at public venues to enjoy entertaining and educational performances in honor of two very important national holidays in the month of September. These are the Battle of St. George’s Caye Day- September 10th and Independence Day- September 21st. It is tradition in Belize for celebration to begin at the beginning of September and continue through Independence Day, extending festivities to almost three weeks. For most Belizeans it is also a time of reflection and appreciation of the struggles of Belize people as a nation.

History

The Battle of St. George’s Caye was a short military engagement that lasted from 3 September to 10, 1798, fought off the coast of what is now Belize. From September 3 to 5, the Spaniards tried to force their way through Montego Caye shoal, blocked by the defenders. The military commanders, Moss and Barrow, differed on where to put their resources for the next phase of the fight: Barrow thought they would go to the land phase, while Moss decided on defending St. George’s Caye. Moss arrived in time to stop the Spaniards, setting the stage for September 10. On 10 September, the Spaniards and British lined up off St. George’s Caye. Prior to 1798 the Spaniards attempted to invade Belize at least six times, and only once were they successful when in 1779 Spanish ships surprised the inhabitants of St. George’s Caye, burned down the buildings and took away 140 prisoners. These were imprisoned in the dungeons of Havana and not released until 1782.The Spaniards stormed through the channel, and at 1:30 engaged the British in a two-hour fight which ended in defeat for the confused Spaniards. Moss reported no one killed and the side in good spirits. Barrow was dispatched and arrived in time to see the end of the battle and prevent the slave men from boarding the enemy. The Spaniards were in full retreat by September 13, and Barrow agreed to send vessels to further push the Spaniards back. But conditions in Belize did not improve much after the battle, though the threat of Spanish attacks decreased significantly. The event is celebrated every September 10 in Belize as St. George’s Caye Day or National Day.

Customs and activities

On September 10th, Belize celebrates the Battle of St. George’s Caye. This is the time of the year when Belize dresses itself with its patriotic colors: blue, white and red. On this holiday, San Pedro Town rejoices in its patriotism and takes the opportunity to coronate its Miss San Pedro. After the official ceremonies ends, the San Pedro High School marching band beat its drums signaling the commencement of the parade. The parade takes off as it makes its way through the main streets of town. Throughout the day, countless activities are held in honor of the special day, including a tug-of-war competition. Throughout the day, there are foods and drinks galore. The Caliente tent keeps all beach and party goers in the mood. Delicious barbecue, ceviches and drinks are served to everyone’s delight.

Photo: Gergely Szilágyi (Online 03 Sep) During the past month, decisions have been made regarding the distribution of 250 billion forints in European Union funding; applicants will be notified during the course of this week, announced Minister of State heading the Prime Minister's Office János Lázár, who was also appointed head of the National Development Agency (NDA) as Government Commissioner last month. Mr. Lázár said that since having taken over management of the National Development Fund on 1 August the Prime Minister's Office had come to a decision on the distribution of funds made available as a result of exchange rate gains and the oversubscription of tenders. Preparations for the re-launching of paused programmes have also been completed during the month of August. Decisions have been made regarding the distribution of 117 billion forints in funding for SME development, large job creation projects, research and development projects and IT development of the SME sector within the framework of the Economic Operative

Programme. A decision was also brought during the past few weeks on the funding of projects with the involvement of venture capital: the NDA has distributed a total of 24 billion forints for this purpose. The fate of 72 billion forints had also been decided within the framework of the various Regional Operative Programmes, providing funding for the realisation of tourism-related projects, for example, as well as for road construction, healthcare, urban rehabilitation and public transport projects. Energy-saving projects planned by Churches have received 10 billion forints in funding, with district heating development projects also receiving more funding. In addition, a further 65 billion forints will be distributed over the coming weeks to fund other renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. Healthcare infrastructure has so far been awarded 50 billion forints in funding, with decisions on the allocation of further funding totalling several tens of billions of forints expected in the near future.

János Lázár expects tough negotiations in Brussels with relation to the utilisation of European Union resources. He will meet with Commissioner for EU Regional Policy Johannes Hahn for the first time on 9 September in his new role as Government Commissioner. The EU has issues with thirteen of the fifteen operative programmes currently underway in Hungary within the framework of the 2007-2013 financial period. The fines issued as a result could be as high as 25 percent of the development funding for the projects in question, which could mean the loss of hundreds of billions of forints in funding for Hungary. According to the Minister of State, it would be an achievement to reduce the level of penalties to under 10 percent. 8200 billion forints in development funding has been available to Hungary for the 2007-2013 financial period, and decisions have already been made regarding the distribution of 95 percent of this sum.

Government programme to keep the young workforce in Hungary (Online 02 Sep) The Government is setting up various initiatives to create favourable conditions to convince young people considering moving abroad to stay in Hungary instead. Several hundred billion Forints will be provided for this purpose from both Hungarian and EU resources, the Ministerial Commissioner for the coordination of the For the Future of the New Generation programme announced. According to Péter Mihalovics, the Government wishes to help young people get ahead at home by introducing initiatives, such as a housing programme, family and child tax allowances, welfare benefits and easier employment for disadvantaged young people or those starting their career. HUF 110 billion will be available just for the latter, from which 37 thousand young people have already received support.

The programme, aimed at helping under 35s starting their own business, has already been launched and the various NGO employment programmes, with a starting budget of five billion Forints to improve the labour market position of young people, also look promising. The "ContactPoint" network for young people is currently being established within the New Generation Programme, with a career guidance centre being set up in each county, where young professionals can receive tailor-made career guidance to help them improve their chances on the job market. Going abroad to work or study is not unique to Hungary; today's new generation is also more mobile in other countries, the Commissioner said. The ratio of around 100 thousand young emigrants in relation to the total population is still lower than for

example in Poland or the Netherlands. "Young people can benefit from experience and a wider perspective gained in another county, in a foreign environment, but our intention is to see the members of this generation return home after testing the waters for a few months and then succeed in their homeland, finding a secure livelihood here in the long term", said Péter Mihalovics. This is also the aim of the Come Home Foundation for instance, which also receives government funding. It provides online support and personal counselling to help young people return home, resume contacts and find a job in Hungary. According to the Ministerial Commissioner, the economic recovery is also boosting a willingness to return home.

Foreign trade surplus in June exceeds EUR 580 million (Online 02 Sep) In the sixth month of the year, Hungary’s foreign trade posted a surplus of 581 million Euros (172 billion Forints). In the first half of 2013, exports and imports were up by 1.9 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively, in comparison to the figures recorded for the initial six months of 2012. In the first half of 2013, thanks mainly to an upturn in the second quarter, the volume of the imports and exports of machinery and equipment – which constitute 45.4 percent of total imports and 53.6 percent of exports – was up by 2.5 percent and 2.6 percent, respectively. The fact that in this product category the foreign trade turnover of road vehicles increased year-on-year with regard to both exports and imports signals a positive

tendency. The largest factor contributing to import growth was vehicle component trade, while the increase in exports was chiefly the result of vehicle turnover. According to the latest flash report of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH), in June 2013 the volume of exports decreased by 2.9 percent, whereas that of imports was up by 1.1 percent in comparison to the corresponding period of the previous year. The value of exports to and imports from EU member states, which constitute a significant proportion of total, was EUR 30.8bn and EUR 25.8bn, respectively, in the observed period. Hungary’s foreign trade surplus with these countries totalled EUR 4.9bn, which is 304.4 million Euros more

than the amount registered in the same period of the previous year. The volume of exports to and imports from the European Union increased by 1.7 percent and 1.1 percent, respectively, in comparison to the first half of the previous year. Exports and imports vis-á-vis non-EU countries were up by 2.4 percent and 8.1 percent, respectively. In the period June-August 2013, manufacturing sector investments which have already been announced or implemented are expected – in addition to creating new jobs – to also contribute significantly to the growth of Hungary’s foreign trade surplus in the future, as the country’s exports will continue to pick up steam.

Suzuki launches production of new SX4 model in Esztergom (Online 06 Sep) The first Suzuki SX4 SCROSS, a compact crossover design for both city and leisure introducing many innovative features, was jointly driven off the production line at the car manufacturer's plant in Esztergom by President and CEO of Suzuki Motor Corporation Osamu Suzuki and Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. Before the new car was unveiled, Prime Minister Orbán declared that behind every new Suzuki lie Hungarian jobs. Suzuki's Hungarian division is a committed partner to Hungarian businesses, 25 percent of its suppliers are Hungarian and in addition to its employees at the plant it provides a livelihood for 30 thousand Hungarian families. The Prime Minister also said that in accordance with the strategic partnership agreement concluded with the company last November, the new bridge across the Danube at Komárom would be constructed by the end of 2017, facilitating the

transport of heavy automobile transport vehicles from the plant, in addition to which the new stretch of road connecting Esztergom with the M1 motorway would also be completed by 2017. Prime Minister Orbán stressed that Hungary has Japanese investors to thank for 1.36 billion euros in investment and some 2700 new jobs since 2010, adding that these investments are also a contributing factor to record high levels of employment, with 4 million people working in the MayJune period. President and CEO Osamu Suzuki explained that the SX4 S-CROSS would not just be available on European markets, but also in Oceania, Asia, the Near East and Latin America. The company plans to manufacture 100 thousand of the new models in the first year; increasing interest from export markets has increased planned production significantly, leading to the creation of 100 new jobs at the plant.

The Hungarian Prime Minister will be travelling to Japan for an official visit in November. As part of the economic policy aimed at stimulating investments, the Government considers the vehicle manufacturing sector as a priority area. In this spirit, Hungary has taken several important steps towards becoming one of Central and Eastern Europe’s automotive industry centres. In January, the Mercedes factory launched its new CLA model at the company's Hungarian plant in Kecskemét. In June, Audi opened its EUR 900 million plant in Győr, Northwest Hungary, where the new A3 Limousine is being manufactured. In addition, Audi's Hungarian plant also boasts the world’s largest engine factory. A few weeks later, in July, it was announced that Opel would expand its manufacturing facility in Szentgotthárd with an investment of 60 million euros.

Patriot Day U.S. - Sep 11

In the United States, Patriot Day occurs on September 11 of each year, designated in memory of the 2,977 killed in the September 11, 2001 attacks. Most Americans who were alive during the events refer to the day as "Nine-Eleven (9/11)", "September Eleventh", or some variation thereof. Initially, the day was called the Prayer and Remembrance for the Victims of the Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001. U.S. House of Representatives Joint Resolution 71 was approved by a vote of 407– 0 on October 25, 2001. It requested that the President designate September 11 of each year as "Patriot Day". President George W. Bush signed the resolution into law on December 18, 2001 (as Public Law 107-89). It is a discretionary day of remembrance. On September 4, 2002, President Bush used his authority created by the resolution and proclaimed September 11, 2002 as Patriot Day. On this day, the President directs that the American flag be flown at half-staff at individual American homes, at the White House, and on all U.S. government buildings and establishments, home and abroad. The President also asks Americans to observe a moment of silence beginning at 8:46 A.M. (Eastern Daylight Time), the time the first plane struck the North Tower of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

History

A bill to make September 11 a mourning day was introduced in the U.S. House on October 25, 2001, by Republican Vito Fossella (R-NY) with 22 co-sponsors, among them eleven Democrats and eleven Republicans. It passed the House by a vote of 407–0, with 25 members not voting, and passed the Senate unanimously on November 30.

Chocolate Day Worldwide - Sep 13

Chocolate is one of the most popular holiday gifts. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional on certain holidays: chocolate bunnies and eggs are popular on Easter, chocolate coins on Hanukkah, snowmen and other holiday symbols on Christmas, and chocolate hearts or chocolate in heart-shaped boxes on Valentine's Day. The International Chocolate Day is observed on 13 September. On Valentine's Day, a box of chocolates is traditional, usually presented with flowers and a greeting card. It may be given on other holidays, and birthdays. At Easter, chocolate eggs are traditional. This is a confection made primarily of chocolate, and can either be solid, hollow, or filled with other sweets or fondant. Many confectioners make holiday-specific chocolate candies, usually variants of their standard fare. Hollow chocolate bunnies (Easter) and hollow Santa Clausfigures (Christmas) are two examples.

San Jacinto Day Nicaragua - Sep 14

On May 3, 1855, American filibuster William Walker set sail with 58 men from San Francisco, California to the coast of Nicaragua to aid Francisco Castellón Sanabria, a Liberal Party candidate that lost a highly contested election the year before. Eventually Walker would go on to proclaim himself president of the country and rule until his surrender on May 1, 1857. The downward turning point for Walker was the Battle of San Jacinto on September 14, 1856. Walker’s decisive loss at San Jacinto is still celebrated as a victory against Western arrogance and dominance in the form of San Jacinto Day.

History After Liberal Party candidate Francisco

Castellón Sanabria suffered a contentious election loss to Conservative Party candidate Fruto Chamorro, the political atmosphere was tense in Nicaragua. Chamorro moved the capital from the town of León to Granada and set about implementing a controversial constitution in the absence of Liberal Party representation. This led many officials in the Liberal Party to gather and strike back against the Chamorro government, setting up their own government in León, led by Castellón. After many unsuccessful sieges of Granada, Castellón hired William Walker to bring men into the country to fight for the Liberalists. Walker had mixed success at the beginning, suffering a defeat during the First Battle of Rivas but attaining a victory at the Battle of the Virgin on September 4, 1855. Four days later, Castellón died of cholera, leaving Walker somewhat on his own. Walker would go on to capture Granada and later rule though a puppet government. On July 12, 1856, Walker proclaimed himself President of Nicaragua. On September 12, 1956, Loyalists laid plans to expel Walker and his group from Granada. Walker’s group had been stealing cattle from ranches in the area to supply food to their troops. The San Jacinto Ranch was the target of one of these raids and also a stronghold for the Loyalists that Walker was fighting against. On the dawn of September 14, Walker and his filibusters raided the San Jacinto Ranch. There was news that a group of 300 reinforcements were on the way to San Jacinto, so Walker had to act quickly. The resulting battle was extremely violent and bloody. The Loyalist defenses of the left flank broke around 9 a.m., forcing a regroup. Lacking ammunition, the Loyalists at times were forced to throw stones at Walker’s forces. At 10 a.m., loyalists managed to send a small group of defenders to attack the rear of Walker’s group. The attack riled horses at neighboring ranches so much that Walker mistook them for the Loyalist reinforcements. Walker ordered a retreat to another ranch, but the Loyalists took chase. In the end, the Loyalists killed 27 of the filibusters including army leader Byron Cole and confiscated many weapons. The Loyalists lost 10 in the four-hour fight. The loss marked the beginning of the end for Walker who eventually would surrender on May 1, 1857. On the 100 year anniversary of the battle, a huge celebration was held in Nicaragua to commemorate the event. Since then, San Jacinto Day has received attention as a day to celebrate Nicaragua’s history and culture as an independent country.

Celebrations

Documentaries and historical information about the events at the San Jacinto Ranch are presented to the people of the country on San Jacinto Day, coupled with parades and cultural exhibitions celebrating as a part of an independent Latin America.


Worldwide events; zarb e jamhoor newspaper; 140 issue; 08 14 sep, 2013