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Republic Day Italy - Jun 02

A constitutional referendum was held in Italy on 2 June 1946, a key event ofItalian contemporary history. Until 1946, Italy was a kingdom ruled by the House of Savoy, kings of Italy since the Risorgimento and previously rulers of Savoy. However, Benito Mussolini, enjoying the support of the reigning monarch, imposed fascism after the 28 October 1922 March on Rome, eventually engaging Italy in World War II alongside Nazi Germany. In 1946, Italy became a republicafter the results of a popular referendum. Monarchists advanced suspicions of fraud that were never proved. A Constituent Assembly was elected at the same time.

HUNGARY Government signs strategic partnership agreement with Bridgestone

Hungarian economy one of the most promising in Europe: PM Orbán

Background

The Italian referendum was intended only to determine whether the head of stateshould come from a family dynasty or be elected by popular vote. Democracywas not a new concept in Italian politics. The Kingdom of Piedmont had become a constitutional monarchy with the liberalizing reforms of King Charles Albert's famous Albertine Statute in 1848. Suffrage, initially limited to select citizens, was gradually expanded; in 1911, the government of Giovanni Giolitti introduced universal suffrage for male citizens. In this period, the provisions of the Statute were often not observed, however. Instead, the elected Chamber and the Head of Government took major roles. At the beginning of the 20th century, many observers thought that, by comparison to other countries, Italy was developing in the direction of a modern democracy. Essential issues that needed to be resolved included the relationship of the Kingdom with the Roman Catholic Church. A crisis arose in Italian society as a result of the First World War, social inequalities, and the consequent tension between Marxist and other left-wing parties on one side and conservative liberals on the other. This crisis led to the advent of Fascism, which destroyed freedoms and civil rights and established a dictatorship, breaking the continuity of the still fragile new parliamentary tradition. The support of the ruling elite and especially the monarchy was crucial for the seizure of power by Benito Mussolini. After the March on Rome, King Victor Emmanuel IIIrefused to sign a decree to declare a state of siege, and asked Mussolini to form a new government. The King's decisions were made in accordance with the Statuto, but in opposition to the parliamentary practices of the Italian liberal state, the Fascist Party having a little number of MPs only. After the invasion of Italy by Allied forces in 1943, Italy and its government were split in two. Mussolini's Grand Fascist Council, with the co-operation of the King, overthrew Mussolini and established a new government headed by Marshal Pietro Badoglio.Germany, concerned with the new government's intentions to negotiate peace with the Allies, invaded and occupied Northern Italy. German paratroopers rescued Mussolini from the hilltop hotel in which he had been imprisoned by the new government. Under pressure from Adolf Hitler, Mussolini established the Italian Social Republic to administer the German-occupied territory. Mussolini declared that the monarchy had been overthrown, and began to establish the apparatus of the new state. The Italian Social Republic was headquartered in the town of Salò, and is commonly known as the Republic of Salò. Southern Italy, meanwhile, was nominally under the control of the new legitimist government of Badoglio, continuing as the Kingdom of Italy. Rome descended into chaos as fighting erupted between Mussolini loyalists and supporters of the new government, as well as leftist opponents of fascism who emerged from hiding. The King and the Badoglio government left Rome to seek the protection of the Allied forces that occupied the South. With half of Italian territory occupied by the Germans and the rest by the Allies, the restoration of civil rights was abandoned due to the complete disorder in the country. The pre-Fascist-era parties had been disbanded, had only clandestine limited activity and had become out of touch with the population. Consequently, the relationships between these parties, and the balance of power was left to be decided at a later, quieter time. Some political forces organized the Resistance and received a strong popular consensus, but it was impossible to determine what they represented without an election, which could not be held because of the chaotic situation. Almost all the Resistance was anti-monarchist. A temporary alliance between them and the Badoglio government was created by the decision ofJoseph Stalin and Palmiro Togliatti, secretary of the Italian Communist Party, to postpone the problem of the state organisation and focus all efforts on the struggle against Hitler's puppet state in the North. At the end of the war, Italy was a severely damaged country, with innumerable victims, a destroyed economy, and a desperate general condition. The defeat left the country deprived of the Empire it had fought for in the past two decades, and occupied by foreign soldiers. For some years after 1945, internal, politically motivated fighting continued. The emergence of political forces to replace fascism could not occur until the internal conflict ended and elections could be held. After fighting had died down, a few months were needed before attention could be given to institutional matters. The first important question regarded the royal family, blamed by many for the fascist regime, the war, and the defeat. Republican traditions in Italy traditionally hark back to the Roman Republic and the Medieval Communes but remained largely theoretical, as in the conclusion of Machiavelli's Il Principe. The struggle for a Republican Italy independent of foreign powers had been started by Giuseppe Mazzini in the 19th century. The movement Giustizia e Libertà, which continued the traditional Mazzinian ideology, was the second important force during the resistance. It posed the question of the form of the state as a fundamental precondition to developing any further agreements with the other parties. Giustizia e Libertà joined the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (National Liberation Committee, CLN). The various competing political factions agreed that a popular referendum would be held to determine the future choice of Head of State.

Aftermath The new republican constitution was released together with a group of minor dispositions, the 13th of which prescribed that the male descendants of the Savoy family have to stay in perpetual exile. This disposition was abolished in October 2002, and Vittorio Emanuele, Umberto II's son, entered Italy with his family in the following December, for a short formal visit to the Pope. The abolition of the exile followed an extensive political and juridical discussion that lasted several decades.

Martyr's Day Uganda - J u n e 0 3

The Uganda Martyrs were Christian converts who were murdered for their faith in the historical kingdom of Buganda, now part of Uganda.

Lwanga and his companions Charles Saint Charles (Carl) Lwanga and his com-

panions, Martyrs of Uganda, were a group of Christians (both Roman Catholics and Anglicans) who were murdered by Mwanga II, the Kabaka (King) of Buganda, between 1885 and 1887. These deaths were part of a three-way religious struggle for political control of the Buganda royal court. In 1877, the Church Missionary Society in London had sent Protestant missionaries to the court, followed two years later by the French Catholic White Fathers. These two competed with each other and the Zanzibarbased Muslim traders for converts and influence. By the mid-1880s, many members of the Buganda court had converted and become proxies for the religious and nationalist conflict being played out in the court. Kabaka Mwanga II, upon his ascent to the throne, attempted to destroy the foreign influences he felt threatened the Buganda state, but was instead deposed by armed converts in 1888. Anglican James Hannington, the Protomartyr, had been dispatched to be the bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, but he was executed with his companions before they could enter Buganda. Twenty-two of the martyrs were Roman Catholics and were canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 18, 1964. Although the Anglicans were not canonized in the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope did mention them. Their feast day is June 3. They were: Achileo Kiwanuka 1. Adolphus Ludigo-Mukasa 2. Ambrosius Kibuuka 3. Anatoli Kiriggwajjo 4. Anderea Kaggwa 5. Antanansio Bazzekuketta 6. Bruno Sserunkuuma 7. Charles Lwanga 8. Denis Ssebuggwawo Wasswa 9. Gonzaga Gonza 10. Gyavira Musoke 11. James Buuzaabalyaawo 12. John Maria Muzeeyi 13. Joseph Mukasa Balikuddembe 14. Kizito 15. Lukka Baanabakintu 16. Matiya Mulumba 17. Mbaga Tuzinde 18. Mugagga Lubowa 19. Mukasa Kiriwawanvu 20. Nowa Mawaggali 21. Ponsiano Ngondwe 22. The Ugandan Martyrs were featured in the film Millions.

The two martyrs of Paimol The martyrs, Blessed Daudi Okelo and Blessed Jildo Irwa, were two young catechists from Uganda. They belonged

to the Acholi tribe, a subdivision of the large Luo group. They lived and were martyred in the years immediately following the foundation of the mission of Kitgum by the Comboni Missionaries in 1915.

Archbishop Janani Luwum When commemorating the martyrs of Uganda, the Church of England includes Archbishop Janani Luwum, who was murdered in 1977 by Idi Amin's henchmen; they also commemorate Luwum separately on February 17.

Mabo Day Australia-June 03

Mabo Day occurs annually on 3 June. It commemorates Eddie Koiki Mabo (c. 29 June 1936–21 January 1992) a Torres Strait Islander whose campaign for Indigenous land rights led to a landmark decision of the High Court of Australia that, on 3 June 1992, overturned the legal fiction of terra nullius which had characterised Australian law with regards to land and title since the voyage of James Cook in 1770. Mabo Day is a gazetted bank holiday in Queensland. In 2010 a campaign was launched to make it a national holiday in Australia It has been suggested that Mabo Day is more significant to Australians than the Queen's Birthday (a national holiday in Australia), since it 'marks the day that non-indigenous Australians were given the opportunity to reverse the damage caused by the colonisation process'. In 2002, on the tenth anniversary of the High Court decision, Mabo's widow, Bonita Mabo, called for a national public holiday on 3 June. On the eleventh anniversary, in 2003, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) launched a petition to make 3 June an Australian Public Holiday. Eddie Mabo Jnr, for the Mabo family, said: We believe that a public holiday would be fitting to honour and recognise the contribution to the High Court decision of not only my father and his co-plaintiffs, James Rice, Father Dave Passi, Sam Passi and Celuia Salee, but also to acknowledge all Indigenous Australians who have empowered and inspired each other. To date we have not had a public holiday that acknowledges Indigenous people and which recognises our contribution, achievements and survival in Australia. A public holiday would be a celebration all Australians can share in with pride – a celebration of truth that unites Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians and a celebration of justice that overturned the legal myth of terra nullius - Mabo symbolises truth and justice and is a cornerstone of Reconciliation.

Constitution Day Denmark - June 05

On June 5, Denmark celebrates Constitution Day. It is held to commemorate the both the original constitution created in 1849 and the amended constitution in 1953.

History A complex series of political and diplomatic issues occurred in

and around Denmark in the late 1830s that awakened thoughts of independence in the people in the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The two duchies were intertwined through the 1460 Treaty of Ribe which prohibited the two from being separated. Both duchies were heavily German, and Denmark’s talks of pulling Schleswig into Denmark while leaving Holstein behind caused increased tensions between Denmark and the German Confederation. On January 28, 1848, King Christian VIII proclaimed that a new constitution would be created that would incorporate both duchies into Denmark. Schleswig and Holstein appealed to the German Confederation seeking incorporation into its structure. These differing opinions led to an uprising that forced the next King, Frederick VII, to rescind the constitutional idea, amending it to a more liberal format that would include only Schleswig. Differences in opinion and the inclusion of Prussia in the situation lead to the First War of Schleswig. During this war, on June 5, 1849, Denmark finally signed into law a new constitution making Denmark a constitutional monarchy. To the disgruntlement of some Danes, however, both Schleswig and Holstein were given their own constitutions that brought control of the regions to a wealthy class of German landowners. The rights to the two duchies would in 1864 eventually be given up by Denmark upon its defeat in the Second War of Schleswig. Later in the mid-20th century, a significant number of changes were proposed for Denmark’s constitution, and on June 5, 1953, the new constitution was signed into law. Changes included the allowance of female succession to the throne, the addition of a unicameral legislature, and the granting of colonial status to Greenland.

Celebrations

Denmark’s Constitution Day typically sees politicians giving speeches about the state of government in the country. Many businesses shut down after noon.

Father's Day Denmark - June 05

Father's Day is a celebration honoring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society. Many countries celebrate it on the third Sunday of June but it is also celebrated widely on other days. Father's Day complements Mother's Day, a celebration honoring mothers. In Denmark, Father's Day is celebrated on June 5. It coincides with Constitution Day, which is a public holiday.

D-Day U.S. - June 06

D-Day is a term often used in military parlance to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. "D-Day" often represents a variable, designating the day upon which some significant event will occur or has occurred; see Military designation of days and hours for similar terms. On the same principle, equivalent terms are Dagen D (Swedish),Dan D (Slovenian), E eguna (Basque), Jour J (French), Lá L (Irish), Tag X(German), and ZiuaZ (Romanian). The initial D in D-Day has been given various meanings in the past, while more recently it has obtained the connotation of "Day" itself, thereby creating the phrase "Day-Day", or "Day of Days". The best known D-Day is June 6, 1944 — the day of the Normandy landings — initiating the Western Allied effort to liberate mainland Europe from Nazi occupation during World War II. However, many other invasions and operations had a designated D-Day, both before and after that operation. The terms D-Day and H-Hour are used for the day and hour on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. They designate the day and hour of the operation when the day and hour have not yet been determined, or where secrecy is essential. For a given operation, the same D-Day and H-Hour apply for all units participating in it. When used in combination with numbers, and plus or minus signs, these terms indicate the point of time preceding or following a specific action. Thus, H−3 means 3 hours before H-Hour, and D+3 means 3 days after D-Day. (By extension, H+75 minutes is used for H-Hour plus 1 hour and 15 minutes.) Planning papers for large-scale operations are made up in detail long before specific dates are set. Thus, orders are issued for the various steps to be carried out on the D-Day or H-Hour minus or plus a certain number of days, hours, or minutes. At the appropriate time, a subsequent order is issued that states the actual day and times. In spacecraft launchings, NASA utilizes the term 'T-Time' for the timing of the launch sequence down to the second (rather than M-Minute and S-Second), as in the expression "T minus 10 seconds and counting" for their countdown clock. When referencing a local time zone, "Zulu" refers to Universal Co-ordinated Time (formerly Greenwich Mean Time).

History The earliest use of these terms by the U.S. Army that the United States Army Center of Military History has been

able to find was during World War I.In Field Order Number 9, First Army, American Expeditionary Forces, dated 7 September 1918: "The First Army will attack at H hour on D day with the object of forcing the evacuation of the St. Mihiel Salient." D-Day for the invasion of Normandy by the Allies was originally set for June 5, 1944, but bad weather and heavy seas caused Gen. Dwight D Eisenhower to delay until June 6 and that date has been popularly referred to ever since by the short title "D-Day". Because of the connotation with the invasion of Normandy, planners of later military operations sometimes avoided the term to prevent confusion. For example, Douglas MacArthur's invasion of Leyte began on "A-Day", and the invasion of Okinawa began on "L-Day". The Allies' proposed invasions of Japan would have begun on "X-Day" (on Kyūshū, scheduled for November 1945) and "Y-Day" (on Honshū, scheduled for March 1946).

Memorial Day S o u t h K o r e a - June 06

The South Korean (officially the Republic of Korea) Memorial Day (Korean: 현충일 (顯忠日), Hyeonchung-il) is held every June 6 to commemorate men and women who died while in military service, during the Korean War and other significant wars or battles. On this day, a memorial ceremony is held in the National Cemetery in Seoul. Also, the South Korean flag is flown at half-staff.

Flag Day Sweden - June 06

National Day of Sweden (Sveriges nationaldag) is a national holiday so observed inSweden on 6 June every year. The day was renamed and justified as the national day by Riksdagen, the Swedish parliament, in 1983. Previously it was commemorated as Svenska flaggans dag (Swedish flag day).

History The tradition of celebrating this date began 1916 at the Stockholm Olympic

Stadium, in honour of the election of King Gustav Vasa in 1523, as this was considered the foundation of modern Sweden. Some question the validity of this as a national holiday, as it was not observed as a holiday until decades later. However this event does signify the end of the Danish-ruled Kalmar Union, so in a sense it is a marking of Swedish independence, though the event occurred so long ago that it does not have as strong of a presence in the social consciousness as does, for example, Norway's Syttende Mai (17 May). In 2005 it became an official Swedish public holiday, taking that honour from Whit Monday. This change led to fewer days off from work (more working-days) as the 6th of June will periodically fall on the weekend, unlike Whit Monday, which was always celebrated on a Monday. This has in turn led to complaints from some Swedish unions.

Pushkin's Birthday Russia - June 06

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, tr. Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin, (6 June [O.S. 26 May] 1799 – 10 February [O.S. 29 January] 1837) was a Russian author of the Romantic era who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. Born into the Russian nobility in Moscow, Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fifteen, and was widely recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo. While under the strict surveillance of the Tsar's political police and unable to publish, Pushkin wrote his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov. His novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, was serialized between 1825 and 1832. Notoriously touchy about his honour, Pushkin fought a total of twenty-nine duels, and was fatally wounded in such an encounter with Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès. D'Anthès, a French officer serving with the Chevalier Guard Regiment, had been attempting to seduce the poet's wife, Natalya Pushkina. Pushkin's early death at the age of 37 is still regarded as a catastrophe for Russian literature.

1919 Commemoration (Sette Giugno) Malta - June 07

Sette Giugno (from Italian for "Seventh June" is a Maltese national holiday celebrated annually on 7 June. It commemorates events which occurred on that day in 1919 when, following a series of riots by the Maltese population, British troops fired into the crowd, killing four.

Historical setting In the aftermath of World War I, with the disruptions in agriculture and

industry across the whole of the continent, the Maltese colonial government failed to provide an adequate supply of basic food provisions for the islands. The cost of living increased dramatically after the war. Imports were limited, and as food became scarce prices rose; this made the fortune of farmers and merchants with surpluses to trade. The dockyard and government workers found that wage increases were not keeping up with the increase in the cost of food. The dockyard workers formed a union in 1916, and in 1917 organised a strike after being offered a 10 per cent pay increase which was generally regarded as failing to keep up with the cost of living. Some segments of the society did well economically. There was a wide spread belief amongst the populace that grain importers and flour millers were making excessive profits over the price of bread. Merchants controlling other commodities also made large profits from the war, in spite of price regulations. Political developments were also a fundamental cause of the uprising. The first meeting of the National Assembly, held on February 25, 1919, approved a resolution which reserved for Malta all the rights given to other nations by the Versailles peace conference; this would have meant independence from the British Empire. This resolution, tabled by the extremist nationalist faction led by Dr. Enrico Mizzi, was opposed to an original resolution by Dr. Filippo Sceberras which asked solely for responsible government. This moderate resolution was removed in order to secure unanimity, and to prevent a break between the moderate and extremist factions. Extremism was also present in the crowds that, on February 25, attacked shopkeepers which had remained open during the meeting of the Assembly, such as the shop "A la Ville de Londres." The police forces had not stopped these attacks, and this played in the hands of the extremist currents in the Assembly.

The Sette Giugno

A few days before the June 7 National Assembly meeting, the Secretary of State for the Colonies had informed Dr. Sceberras that the incoming governor for the islands, Lord Plumer, was to study the situation and report back to London with regards to the possibility of giving the Maltese a larger say in the administration of their country. The followers of Enrico Mizzi stated that the Imperial government could not be trusted, with the result that the two currents of thought were also reflected in the crowds outside. University students were mostly linked to the extremist camp, and these had staged a protest of their own on May 16, 1919. The police forces were threatening strikes, as were the postal employees. On Saturday, June 7, 1919, the National Assembly was to meet for the second time in the Giovine Malta building. The police had foreseen the possibility of unrest, and on June 5 asked for a number of soldiers to be posted in Castille. As stated later by the Commission inquiring on the June 7 uprisings, “Evidently the Police did not appreciate the gravity of the situation.” The first spark of unrest centred on the Maltese flag defaced with the Union Jack flying above the “A la Ville de Londres.” Unlike the previous meeting, the shop was now closed. This did not prevent the crowd from itself forcing inside, to remove the flag along with the staff. This incident sparked the uprising. The death of the President of the Court some days earlier had required all governmental departments to fly the union jack at half mast, including the Bibliothèque buildings in Pjazza Regina and the meteorological office. The crowd proceeded to the Officers Club, insisting that the club’s door had to be closed. Window panes were broken, while officers inside were insulted. Police officers trying to restrain the mob were also assaulted. The crowd then proceeded back in front of the Bibliothèque, shouting for the Union Jack to be taken away; this was promptly removed by the men in duty. The crowd moved on to the meteorological offices, housed in a Royal Air Force turret. After breaking the glass panes, the mob entered the offices ransacking and destroying everything inside. Some individuals climbed onto the turret, removing the Union Jack and throwing it into the street. The crowd burned the flag along with furniture taken from the offices nearby. The mob then moved back to Palace square, where it began to insult the soldiers detached in front the Main Guard buildings. The N.C.O., which was responsible for the watch, closed the doors of the buildings, as were the doors of the Magisterial Palace across the square. In Strada Teatro, the offices of the Daily Malta Chronicle were broken into, with pieces of metal placed in the workings of the presses to break them down. While this was happening, other crowds were attacking the homes of perceived supporters of the imperial government and profiteering merchants in Strada Forni. The Police forces’ acting-commissioner then called for military support. At 17.30, sixty-four soldiers from the Composite Battalions entered the Courts which housed the headquarters of the police force. Later historians criticised the use of such a small number of soldiers to counter a crowd made up of thousands, which was attacking locations in Strada Teatro, Strada Forni and had now progressed towards Strada Santa Lucia. Six soldiers, under the command of Major Ritchie, the G.S.O., and Captain Ferguson, made their way towards Strada Forni to defend the house of Anthony Cassar Torreggiani, a leading importer, which was under attack by the crowd. Furniture was being thrown outside from the windows. In the National Assembly, which was unaware of the uprising outside, the moderates were gaining the upper hand. The moderates were bent on accepting the message of the Secretary for the Colonies as a genuine step towards improving the situation, and had to be recognised as such. Ten soldiers led by Lieutenant Shields approached the offices of the Chronicle, surrounded by a crowd which began to throw objects and stones at the soldiers. The same happened in Strada Forni, were six soldiers were trying to stem a crowd of thousands. Ritchie sent Ferguson to bring reinforcements. With the revolver stolen, and with uniform rent, the captain reached a troop of twenty-four soldiers which was then directed to Strada Forni. The soldiers were posted along the street, facing in both directions. It is important to note that the troops were not to shoot without being ordered to do so. The soldiers took their positions, aiming at the crowd – which then retreated. The report of the inquiring commission then proceeded to state that a shot was heard from the direction of a window of the Cassar Torreggiani house. At face value, this gives the impression that the Maltese were the first to shoot during the uprising. At that moment, eyewitnesses reported that one of the soldiers shot a round into the crowd, with the rest of the troop following. The first victim of the uprising, Manwel Attard, fell in front of the Cassar Torregiani house. Other individuals were injured. Ġużè Bajjada was hit near Strada Teatro; the Maltese flag he was carrying fell underneath him. The officer in charge began shouting for the firing to cease. Meanwhile, in the Chronicle offices, Lieutenant Shields ordered his men outside, since there was an evident smell of gas in the building. Shields feared making the soldiers exit the office one by one, since the crowd outside would certainly attack them. On the other hand, they could not remain inside. To clear a way out, Shields ordered a soldier to shoot low, away from the crowd. This shot hit Lorenzo Dyer, who tried to run away. Since the injury was serious, he was lifted by the crowd and carried to Palace square. During this initial uprising, three were dead and fifty injured. The proceedings in the National Assembly were interrupted as persons injured in the streets were brought inside. Some of the delegates went out of the buildings, while others ran to the balcony. The Assembly passed a quick motion in order to have a resolution to present to the Imperial government. Count Alfredo Caruana Gatto then addressed the crowds, asking them to restrain themselves from further violence. The Assembly then sent a delegation to the Lieutenant Governor, asking for the troops to be removed for the crowds to retreat. The Governor accepted, and Caruana Gatto addressed the crowd again, which complied and began to fall back. The day after, disturbances continued with crowds attacking the palace of Colonel Francia, who also owned a flour milling machine.Royal Malta Artillery soldiers were used to protect Francia’s house, but these were loath of using force against their own countrymen. The crowd forced its way in, and threw furniture, silverware and other objects outside. In the evening, one hundred and forty navy marines arrived, clearing the house and street from the crowds. Carmelo Abela was in one of the side doorways of Francia’s house, calling for his son. Two marines proceeded to arrest him, and after resisting, a marine ran him through in the stomach with a bayonet. Abela died on June 16.

Aftermath

The riots reflected the unsatisfactory nature of economic and political life in Malta. Economically the island had become a fortress in which few prospered when military spending was high. Strategically, the imperial fortress was so important that political development was stifled. The day after the attack, censorship was reinstated for political articles. In the morning flowers and other tributes were placed in the streets where the victims died. The deaths and injuries of so many people did not halt the uprisings. Another group attacked the flour mills owned by Cassar Torreggiani in Marsa, while other trading houses were raided in the outlying villages. A Military Court was opened to investigate the uprising on June 16, with a court martial instituted to investigate thirtytwo people that took part in the uprisings. For legislative matters, the Sette Giugno underlined the urgency of reform. The new Governor, Lord Plumer, recommended liberal concessions to the Maltese. The House of Commons of the United Kingdom stressed that Malta was to have "control of purely local affairs", with the Colonial Secretary sending a detailed description of the proposed constitution to the National Assembly. On April 30, 1921, the Amery-Milner Constitution was proclaimed; political censorship enforced after the uprising was repealed on June 15, 1921. The first election held under the new constitution was held in October 1921, with the Prince of Walesinaugurating the new representative chambers on November 1, 1921. The bodies of the four victims of the Sette Giugno put in their tomb in the Addolorata Cemetery on November 9, 1924. On June 7, 1986 the Sette Giugno monument was inaugurated at St. George Square (Palace Square), Valletta. The Maltese Parliament declared the day to be one of the five national days of the island, on March 21, 1989, with the first official remembrance of the day occurring on June 7, 1989.

Relocation of Monument

Recently, following the renovation of St. George Square (Palace Square), the monument was removed from the square and kept stored for quite some time. Due to great public appeal against the storage of such a nationally important monument, it was recently placed in Hastings Gardens, Valletta.

Photo: Gergely Botár

Photo: Gergely Botár (Online 31 May) The Hungarian Government concluded a strategic partnership agreement with the local unit of Ja p a n e se tyre ma n u fa c turer Bridgestone on Fri d a y. Th e p a ct w a s si g n e d b y Sta te Se cre ta ry fo r Fo r e i g n A ff a i r s a n d E x t e r nal Economic Relations Pé te r Szi j j á rtó a n d C EO Bridgestone of Ta t a b á n y a P r o d u c t i o n

L td . Ke n j i Ka ra to . inauguBridgestone its plant in rated Ta t a b á n y a ( N o r t h w e s t Hungary) in 2008 and h a s d e ci d e d to tri p l e i ts producing capacity by 2017. The project is w o rth EU R 2 6 7 mi l l i o n . Acco rd i n g to th e a g re e ment, the foundation stone of the new production hall will be laid on 7 June, in the presence of Prime Minister

Vi kto r Orb á n . The State Secretary said the Partnership Ag r e e me n t p l a ys a n i m p o r ta n t ro l e i n stre n g th economic ening relations with Japan, adding that this is the 2nd such agreement s i g n e d w i th a Ja p a n e se company out of the 24 the Government has c o n cl u d e d so fa r.

(Online 30 May) At a conference entitled “National interest in focus – The Hungarian model in a changing Europe”, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán evaluated the performance of the Hungarian Government over the past

and accordingly concluded cooperation with the International Monetary Fund. In terms of budgetary issues, the Prime Minister said that the Government had successfully whipped the budget into shape, thanks to

the successful restoration of public order, and, in connection with the healthcare system, he noted that improving the situation of general practitioners remains a task to be resolved.

Union Dissolution Norway - J u n e 0 7

The parliament of Norway broke the personal union with Sweden under the House of Bernadotte on 7 June 1905. After some months of tension and fear of war between the two neighbouring nations, negotiations between the two governments led to Norway's recognition by Sweden as an independent constitutional monarchy on 26 October 1905. On that date, King Oscar II renounced his claim to the Norwegian throne, effectively dissolving the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway. This event was quickly followed by Prince Carl of Denmark's accession to the Norwegian throne on 18 November the same year, taking the name Haakon VII.

Background Norwegian nationalistic aspirations in 1814

were frustrated by Sweden's victory in a brief, but decisive war that resulted in Norway entering into a personal union with Sweden. The Norwegian constitution was largely kept intact, allowing for an independent Norwegian state with its own parliament, judiciary, and executive powers. Foreign relations were, however, conducted by the King through the Swedish ministry of foreign affairs. There were largely feelings of goodwill between the two peoples, and the common Kings generally tried to act in the interest of both Kingdoms. However over the years, a divergence of Norwegian and Swedish interests became apparent. In particular, Norwegians felt that their foreign policy interests were inadequately served by Sweden's ministry of foreign affairs. There were several driving factors behind the growing conflict: Norway's economy was more dependent on foreign trade and therefore more sensitive to the protectionist measures the Swedes were adopting. Norway had an affiliation with the United Kingdom; Sweden had an affiliation with Germany. Swedish King Oscar II's, disappointment with Norway had reached critical mass - calling for the excommunication of Norway and the later celebration of Tolfte Maj (May 12) throughout Sweden. Norway had greater interests outside of Europe than Sweden. In addition, Norwegian politics were increasingly dominated by liberal tendencies characterized by the growth of Parliamentarism, whereas Swedish politics tended more toward the conservative, with the king exercis- The Norwegian Storting passes the "revolutionary" ing greater discretionary political power. resolution When free trade between the countries was restricted in 1895 through the abolition of the "Interstate laws" (Mellomrikslovene), the economic reasons for the continued union were also diminished. The conflict came to a head over the so-called "consul affair," in which successive Norwegian governments insisted that Norway establish its own consular offices abroad rather than rely on the common consuls appointed by the Swedish foreign minister. As the long-standing practice for the conduct of joint foreign policy had been that a Swede always hold the office of foreign minister, the Swedish government and king rejected this insistence as an abdication of the throne's right to set foreign policy. While Norway's Liberal Party had pioneered an uncompromising position through the so-called "fist policy," the Conservative Party also came to adopt a strong policy in favour of at least de facto independence and equality within the personal union. Although both parties made efforts to resolve the issue through negotiations, Norwegian public opinion became gradually more entrenched. Both Sweden and Norway increased military expenditures. Norway modernized the frontier forts at Kongsvinger and Fredriksten and built a series of new forts along the border.

Photo: Gergely Botár three years and called the Hungarian economy one of the most promising in Europe. At the event, in front of some three hundred guests and with the participation of former Spanish Prime Minister José María Aznar, the Hungarian Head of Government noted that one cannot deny that the present Cabinet was able to bail Hungary out of the pit it had been plunged into by former socialist governments. Speaking on the first of the so-called „national issues” specified in the Government's programme, undertaking to foster economic growth, the Prime Minister said that the Government has done its best to make sure Hungary can stand on its own two feet,

which the budget deficit is at a record low and the country is capable of financing itself from the markets. Based on this, the Prime Minister regards the Hungarian economy as one of the most promising in Europe. Regarding the second undertaking of the programme, the creation of social security, the Prime Minister stated that it is not impossible that a singledigit level of income tax will be introduced in Hungary at some point. He reiterated that income tax should be kept low whereas taxes that target consumption should be relatively high. He also noted that the Government could go on reducing utility charges. The Prime Minister also mentioned

Finally, with regard to reinstating democratic norms, he made it clear that in comparison with the situation prior to 2010 – e.g. during the events of 2006 – Hungary currently has a clear and transparent constitutional order. Among the Government’s exemplary measures is the promotion of a workbased society, the implementation of fair and reasonable burden-sharing. Concerning the Government's policy on Europe, the Prime Minister said that Hungary seeks to participate in debates related to the future of the European Union and supports the idea of a “Europe of nations”.

H unga r ia n - A m e r ic a n M oM on t he ille ga l t r a de of nuc le a r s ubs ta nc e s

Prelude to dissolution In early 1905, Christian Michelsen formed a coalition government consisting of lib-

erals and conservatives, whose only stated objective was to establish a separate Norwegian corps of consuls. The law was passed by the Norwegian parliament. As expected and probably as planned, King Oscar II refused to accept the laws, and the Michelsen government resigned. When the king declared himself unable to form a cabinet under the present circumstances, aconstitutional crisis broke out on 7 June 1905. The Norwegian position was that the impasse had resulted in a de facto dissolution of the union. Norway considers 7 June to be the date that it regained its independence, even though Norway had possessed the legal status of an independent state since 1814. The text of the unanimous declaration, remarkable for the fact that the declaration of the dissolution was an aside to the main clause, read: Since all the members of the cabinet have resigned their positions; since His Majesty the King has declared his inability to obtain for the country a new government; and since the constitutional monarchy has ceased to exist, the Storting hereby authorizes the cabinet that resigned today to exercise the powers held by The peace monument the King in accordance with the Constitution of Norway and relevant laws - with the amendments necessitated by the dissolution of the union with Sweden under erected on the city one King, resulting from the fact that the King no longer functions as a Norwegian square on the 50th anniversary of the dissoluKing. Initially reacting to this declaration as a rebellious act, the Swedish government in- tion of the union dicated an openness to a negotiated end to the union, insisting among other things between Norway and on a Norwegian plebiscite. Sweden Besides internal changes within Norway, a major key factor that allowed Norway to break from Sweden was the emerging Swedish social democratic movement. In the early years of the 20th century, Hjalmar Branting led the Social Democrats in opposing a war to keep Norway united with Sweden. When the crisis came in 1905, he coined the slogan "Hands off Norway, King!" The Social Democrats organized resistance to a callup of reserves and a general strike against a war. Basically, the majority of Sweden supported a free state of Norway as much as the people of Norway did. The plebiscite was held on 13 August and resulted in an overwhelming 368,208 votes (99.95%) in favour of dissolution against 184 (0.05%) opposed. The government thereby had confirmation of the dissolution. 85 percent of Norwegian men had cast their votes, but no women (universal suffrage was not extended to women until 1913, but Norwegian feminists collected more than 200,000 signatures in favour of dissolution). Polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen weighed in heavily for dissolving the union and travelled to the United Kingdom, where he successfully lobbied for British support for Norway's independence movement.

Negotiations in Karlstad On 31 August, Norwegian and Swedish delegates met in the Swedish

city of Karlstad to negotiate the terms of the dissolution. Although many prominent right-wing Swedish politicians favoured a hard-line approach to the issue, historical scholars have found that the Swedish King had determined early on that it would be better to lose the union than risk a war with Norway. The overwhelming public support among Norwegians for independence had convinced the major European powers that the independence movement was legitimate, and Sweden feared it would be isolated by suppressing it; also, there was little appetite for creating additional ill will between the countries, closely related as they were (and are). Even as the negotiations made progress, military forces were quietly deployed on both sides of the border between Sweden and Norway, though separated by two kilometres. Public opinion among Norwegian leftists favoured a war of independence if necessary, even against Sweden's numerical superiority. On 23 September, the negotiations closed. On 9 October the Norwegian parliament voted to accept the terms of the dissolution; on 13 October the Swedish parliament followed suit. Although Norway had considered itself independent since 7 June, Sweden formally recognised Norwegian independence on 26 October when Oscar II renounced his and any of his descendants' claims to the Norwegian throne.

Choosing a Norwegian King

In its resolution of 7 June, the Storting had invited King Oscar II to allow The new king Haakon VII arone of his younger sons to assume the Norwegian throne, called the rives in Oslo with Crown Prince Bernadotte offer. The offer was an attempt from the Norwegian govern- Olav on his arm and is greeted ment to demonstrate that their unilateral declaration of independence on the pier by Prime Minister would not change the fact that Norway would remain a monarchy. In this Christian Michelsen. way, Norway aimed to gather support from the other large European countries which, with the exception of France, were mostly monarchic. Unlike the declaration of independence, the Bernadotte offer was controversial in the Norwegian government. Five socialists in the parliament voted against monarchy, and the finance minister Gunnar Knudsen, a republican member of the cabinet, resigned over this issue. It was known that King Oscar II was not amenable to accepting the Bernadotte offer, but the issue remained unsettled until the offer was formally declined by the king when he renounced his claim on 26 October. The King's rejection of the Bernadotte offer had been anticipated months earlier, and already during the summer a Norwegian delegation approached the 33-year-old Prince Carl of Denmark, the second son of the Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark. The Norwegian parliament had considered other candidates but ultimately chose Prince Carl, partly because he already had a son to continue the line of succession, but more significantly because Carl was married to Maud of Wales, the daughter of King Edward VII. By bringing in a king with a British-born queen, it was hoped that Norway could court Britain's support. Prince Carl impressed the delegation in many ways, not the least because of his sensitivity to the liberal and democratic movements that had led to Norway's independence. Though the Norwegian constitution stipulated that the Storting could choose a new king if the throne were vacant, Carl was aware that many Norwegians — including leading politicians and high-ranking military officers — favoured a republican form of government. Attempts to persuade the prince to accept the throne on the basis of Parliament's choice failed; Carl insisted that he would accept the crown only if the Norwegian people expressed their will for monarchy by referendum and if the parliament then elected him king. On 12 and 13 November, in the second constitutional plebiscite in three months, Norwegian voters decided by a nearly 79 percent majority (259,563 to 69,264) to establish a monarchy instead of a republic. Many who favoured a republic in principle voted for a monarchy because they felt it would help the newly-independent Norwegian nation gain legitimacy among the European monarchies. Following the November plebiscite affirming Norwegians' desire for a monarchy, the parliament by an overwhelming majority offered Carl a clear mandate to the Norwegian throne on 18 November, and the prince accepted the same evening, choosing the name Haakon, a traditional name used by Norwegian kings. The last king with that name was Haakon VI, who died in the year 1380. The new king therefore became Haakon VII, King of Norway. His two-year-old son Alexander, the heir apparent, was renamed Olav and became Crown Prince Olav. The new royal family arrived in the capital Kristiania (later renamed Oslo) on 25 November. Haakon VII was sworn in as king of Norway on 27 November.

Important individuals in the dissolution

The following individuals played a role in the events surrounding the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Norwegian writer and the 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. Hjalmar Branting, Swedish politician. Sigurd Bødtker, Norwegian theatre critic. Christopher Bruun, Norwegian priest and educator Karl Sigwald Johannes Bull, Norwegian military officer and politician. Wilhelm Christopher Christophersen, Norwegian diplomat. Øvre Richter Frich, Norwegian reporter, newspaper editor and crime writer. Arne Garborg, Norwegian writer. Haakon VII of Norway, known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, he was the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution. Thomas Heftye, Norwegian military officer, engineer, sports official and politician. Gunnar Heiberg, a Norwegian poet, playwright, journalist and theatre critic. Frederik Hilfling-Rasmussen, Danish-born Norwegian photographer. Sigurd Ibsen, Norwegian author, lawyer and statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Norway in Stockholm (1903–1905). Maud of Wales, British-born princess, Queen of Norway as spouse of King Haakon VII. Christian Michelsen, Norwegian shipping magnate and statesman, and first Prime Minister of an independent Norway in 1905. Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian and the 1922 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Importance of the events of 1905 In many ways, the events of 1905 formed a sequel to the events of 1814, but there were some important differences:

Whereas the 1814 independence movement in large part was driven by political opportunism among the national elite, the 1905 movement was a result of political trends largely driven by elected officials with massive popular support. In 1905, Norway was not put in play by war as a territorial prize. By 1905, Norwegians had established many of the institutions and infrastructure of a sovereign, independent state. By 1905, European statesmanship was more inclined to favour Norwegian independence than in 1814. Much has been made of the supremacy of diplomacy in averting war between Sweden and Norway in 1905. In truth, the Norwegians had much more to fight for than the Swedes if it had come to war. Both parties recognized that their geographical proximity made long-term hostility untenable under any circumstance. Many documents related to the specific events of 1905 were destroyed during and following those years. Some historians speculate that foreign interests played a stronger role than what had previously been assumed; in particular, that Great Britain influenced the dissolution in order to reduce German influence over Atlantic ports. Although Sweden's close relationship with Germany did not last long, Norway's independence immediately put it inside the British sphere of influence.

Bounty Day - June 08 Norfolk Island

Bounty Day is a holiday on both Pitcairn Island, destination of the HMS Bounty mutineers, and on Norfolk Island. It is celebrated on January 23 on Pitcairn, and on June 8 on Norfolk Island, the day that the descendants of the mutineers arrived on the island. It is named for the Bounty, although the ship never saw Norfolk Island.

Pitcairn

Bounty Day is celebrated on Pitcairn Island on January 23, in commemoration of the burning of the Bounty by the mutineers in 1790. Model replicas, made by the islanders, are burned.

Norfolk Island

Bounty Day is the national holiday of Norfolk Island, celebrated annually on 8 June, in memory of the arrival of the Pitcairn Islanders on Norfolk Island in 1856. Prior to 8 June 1856, Norfolk Island had been a penal colony, but was granted by Queen Victoria to the Pitcairners as a home in 1856.

Sequence of events:

Bounty Day starts off with the a re-enactment of the landing of the Pitcairners down at the Kingston Pier. The Pitcairners are greeted by the Administrator and his wife, and from the pier they march to the cenotaph where they lay wreaths in remembrance. From the cenotaph they then march to the cemetery where hymns are sung. Next, they proceed to Government House where a family surnamed either Quintal, Evans, McCoy, Buffett, Adams, Nobbs, Christian or Young (being descendants of the mutineers of that ilk) is awarded the title of 'Family of the Year'. The children roll down the hill in front of Government House, after which the whole procession travels to the Compound where the children play games and partake of a celebratory feast. Finally, everyone returns home to prepare for the Bounty Ball, at which there is a competition in further celebration of Bounty Day.

World Ocean Day Worldwide - June 08

World Oceans Day, which had been unofficially celebrated every 8 June since its original proposal in 1992 by Canada at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was officially recognized by the United Nations in 2008. Since then it has been coordinated internationally by The Ocean Project and the World Ocean Network with greater success and global participation each year.

Purpose World Oceans Day is an opportunity every year to

honor the world's ocean, celebrate the products the ocean provides such as seafood as well as marine life itself for aquariums, pets, and also a time to appreciate its own intrinsic value. The ocean also provides sealanes for international trade. Global pollution and overconsumption of fish have resulted in drastically dwindling population of the majority of species. The Ocean Project, working in partnership with the World Ocean Network, has been promoting WOD since 2003 with its network of over 1,200 organizations and others throughout the world. These groups have been working to build greater awareness of the crucial role of the ocean in our lives and the important ways people can help. World Oceans Day provides an opportunity to get directly involved in protecting our future, through a new mindset and personal and community action and involvement – beach cleanups, educational programs, art contests, film festivals, sustainable seafood events, and other planned activities help to raise consciousness of how our lives depend on the oceans.

Photo: Károly Árvai (Online 31 May) A memorandum of understanding was signed by the Hungarian Ministry of Interior and the United States Department of Energy on Friday in Budapest. The document is a declaration of cooperation aimed at preventing the illegal trade of nuclear and radioactive substances. As part of the treaty, a van fitted with radiation detection equipment was donated to the Counter Terrorism Centre (TEK). Ambassador of the United States of America to Hungary Eleni Tsakopoulos Kounalakis said that HungarianAmerican security cooperation is a

true success story and is indeed a model for others to follow. The United States has supported Hungary’s law enforcement efforts through equipment donations, training opportunities and by sharing best practices and know-how – she added. In connection with the radiation detection van she said that through the use of this equipment, the TEK will be better able to protect Hungary from illicit radioactive material – and, by doing so, Hungary will be able to better contribute to the security of the entire region. Minister of Interior Sándor Pintér also

emphasized the importance of the diversified cooperation between the United States and Hungary. According to the Minister, the cooperation serves the security of both countries and also provides opportunities for further development through the sharing of records, for instance. The Minister thanked Ambassador Kounalakis, whose tenure as Ambassador to Hungary is slowly coming to an end, for her efforts in strengthening the relationship between the two countries, especially within the field of internal affairs.

H unga r y r e c e iv e d WH O a wa r d on Wor ld N o Toba c c o D a y (Online 31 May) Prime Minister Viktor Orbán was granted the World Health Organisation’s World No Tobacco Day award for accomplishments in the area of tobacco control, after being nominated by the WHO Country Office in Hungary. Zsofia Pusztai, Head of the WHO Hungary office, said the Government had brought in measures over the past two years requiring the support of political decision-makers, and the prize was in recognition of this support. "This year, after very careful consideration of several other prominent personalities, Hungary and the

Hungarian prime minister were awarded the prize in recognition of what has taken place over the past two years to rein in smoking," she said. According to WHO’s website, in 2012, Hungary made “outstanding progress” in tobacco control, with the entry into force of ban on smoking in all public places. The organisation mentions, that despite the country ratifying WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2004, “several attempts to comply with the Treaty have failed”. Due to the Prime Minister’s “personal involvement and

strong support” to the Ministry of Human Resources efforts in amending the existing legislation, followed by an intensive debate, Parliament adopted the amendment of the Act on the Protection of Non-Smokers in April 2011. WHO additionally highlights that over the past eighteen months he “strongly supported an important increase of the excise tax on tobacco products as well as the regulation of the sale and distribution of tobacco products and introduction of pictorial warnings on tobacco products”.

Gergely Prőhle discusses Hungarian investment environment and opportunities in France (Online 30 May) The investment climate and opportunities for foreign businesses were among the main issues the Hungarian Foreign Ministry's Deputy State Secretary discussed in Paris on Thursday. In his talks at the President’s Office and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Gergely Prőhle discussed what business opportunities are available to France in cooperation with Central European countries and what the French reaction was to the commitment of the Visegrad countries to the EU Eastern Partnership Program. The French government has a firm position concerning the Eastern Partnership Program: the objective is to

create stable and democratic conditions in the Eastern European region without necessarily guaranteeing the perspective of EU membership for the countries of the region. Deputy State Secretary Gergely Prőhle pointed out that he had received congratulations from his French partners on the occasion of the European Commission's proposal to lift the Excess Deficit Procedure against Hungary. "I indicated to my partners that although there has been criticism expressed over treatment of certain French companies in Hungary, the eagerness of French companies to continue come and invest in the

country reflects the view that our business environment is probably not that unfavourable," Gergely Prőhle said. Following the meetings, the Hungarian Deputy State Secretary took part in the conference organised by the Hungarian Embassy in the French Senate with the aim of making economic, political, constitutional and cultural developments in Hungary more understandable to the French public. Gergely Prőhle also held meetings with Richard Prasquier, the President of the Representative Council of French Jewish Institutions (CRIF), and with Cardinal André Vingt-Trois, the Archbishop of Paris and President of the French Episcopal Conference.

Hungary always takes action against displays of anti-Semitism (Online 29 May) Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs at the Ministry of Public Administration and Justice, Bence Rétvári, has said that in Hungary over the past three years the Government has always taken action to combat manifestations of antiSemitism, and has initiated several

measures to this end. Mr. Rétvári was speaking in Jerusalem at a conference on anti-Semitism. At the 4th International Conference of the Global Forum for Combating AntiSemitism, the minister of state leading the Hungarian delegation stressed that there have been legisla-

tive changes, tightening of legislative codes, educational measures and political statements which make it clear that the Hungarian government finds any expression of anti-Semitism unacceptable – in the political sphere or in any other.

Hungary’s economic performance is acknowledged: excessive deficit procedure lifted (Online 29 May) The European Commission has announced its proposal to abrogate the excessive deficit procedure against Hungary. On 30 May 2012, based on the 2012 convergence programme and further specification of savings measures, the Commission concluded that Hungary has taken effective action regarding the correction of the excessive deficit. Despite Commission forecasts well in excess of 3%, the actual deficit for 2012 was only 1.9% of GDP. In 2013, the deficit is foreseen by the Commission to reach 2.7% of GDP, thanks to a series of consolidation measures, and thus to remain well below the 3% of GDP Treaty reference value. Based on this deficit forecast and additional information received since then, general government debt is expected to decrease to below 77.0% of GDP in 2013 and even further in 2014. The Commission's proposal indicates that the era in which there was debate between Hungary and the EU with regard to Hungarian economic policy is at an end. The acknowledgement of our indices and economic achievements is a clear indication that Brussels has finally understood and accepted the path that Hungary has been following since 2010. The decision is especially positive, because the requirements of the EU and the interests of the people of Hungary point in the same direction:

we did not wish to merely conform to an abstract requirement and produce figures for good effect, but rather we have executed an about turn in economic policy that has put an end to the wasting of future resources and the cycle of indebtedness of the Hungarian people. The Government succeeded in achieving these goals without inhibiting opportunities for economic growth: according to the latest statistics, the economy is again picking up, growth has begun and productive foreign capital is flowing into the country in large quantities. Last year, the amount of foreign direct investments exceeded the previous year’s figure and it was the largest sum ever recorded. The amount of outbound FDI by Hungarian enterprises in 2012 was also above the level registered one year earlier. In addition to this, according to the information released on Monday by the GKI research institute, expectations for Hungary’s economic performance improved “significantly both among businesses and consumers”. Minister for National Economy Mihály Varga said that in 2013 Hungarian economic policy is turning its focus on fostering economic growth. Technically speaking, the economic recession has stopped in Hungary. New figures have justified the Government's earlier calculations, the Gross Domestic Product increased by 0.7 percent in the first quarter compared

to the fourth quarter in 2012, decreasing by only 0.9 percent compared to the same period last year, which is much better than indicated by previous forecasts. The Minister also noted on Tuesday that in case the European Union decides to end its excessive deficit procedure against Hungary, the freezes on budget expenditures announced so far will likely be sufficient without the need for further fiscal adjustments. A strengthening forint, lower lending rates, a more easily reduced government debt – these are what may result from the abrogation of the Excessive Deficit Procedure, which Hungary has been affected by since 2004. The positive decision will have a favourable effect on the whole Hungarian economy, possibly leading to decreasing risk premiums and interest rates. In addition, it will ensure that Hungary does not miss out on significant amounts of European Union funding. We are moving in the right direction, but an essential requirement for the realisation of our objectives is increased confidence from both domestic economic operators and our foreign partners, and this in turn requires stability and predictability. The economic bedrock for this – as now acknowledged also by the European Union – is in place.

Hungary contributes to elaborating post2015 development goals and agenda (Online 29 May) On 28 May, ministers of Member States in charge of international development cooperation endorsed the EU’s position for the post-2015 development goals and agenda that will be the next generation of the Millennium Development Goals. Deputy State Secretary for Global Affairs Szabolcs Takács gave an update on Hungary’s contribution to the preparatory negotiations underway in New York, within the framework of the United Nations. The Millennium Development Goals have set as their ambition the halving of global poverty by 2015. The review process of their implementation so far, the preparation of a post-2015 global development agenda and the elaboration of the so-called Sustainable Development Goals stemming from last year’s Rio+20 conference on sustainability are currently running in parallel tracks within the United Nations. The elaboration of the Sustainable Development Goals is in the

hands of the United Nations General Assembly’s workgroup, led by Hungary and Kenya, which must prepare a proposal on the goals by the summer of 2014. Based on expectations and previous international agreements, the goals of the post-2015 agenda should be capable of eradicating global poverty while setting the conditions for sustainable social and economic development, and at the same time protecting the environment. In line with the heightened global focus of its foreign policy, Hungary is working to allow for coherence among the currently parallel work streams in the United Nations on the post-2015 development goals and agenda, and to enable their convergence at the end of the process. During the course of this work, Hungary has advocated the importance of sustainable water resource management and especially its prominent role in development with respect to its close

relationship to energy, agriculture, food security and sectors that underpin human development. Ministers also held an exchange of views on outlines for the planning of the EU’s development assistance programs for the period 2014-2020. With the participation of Jan Eliasson, Deputy Secretary General of the UN, they touched upon reinforcing the development and security policy nexus, with a focus on Afghanistan and Myanmar. Deputy State Secretary for Global Affairs Szabolcs Takács held a meeting with his counterparts from the Visegrád countries and reinforced the commitment to coordinate their positions regarding development issues at both international and EU level. As of the summer of 2013, Hungary will chair the Visegrád group, and will ensure a close coordination with its member states.

Roma women can participate in the Government’s programs: Hungary (Online 27 May) Integration of the Roma is hopeless without the active participation of the minority, Minister of Human Resources Zoltán Balog stated at the seminar entitled “The situation of Roma in Europe – Finnish and Hungarian Experiences, European Answers”, with the participation of Ambassador of Finland Pasi Tuominen, Finnish MP Pekka Haavisto, Head of the Finnish Education Agency Aulis Pitkälä, and President Henna Huttu and CEO Tino Varjola from the Fintiko Romano Forum. The Minister stated that in Hungary only half of children living in extreme poverty are Roma and that women can participate in the Government’s programs for integration while still pregnant. A basic endeavour is to fa-

cilitate the integration of children with the help of their parents, he added. He pointed out that in case of the Biztos Kezdet (Sure Start) project, helping children from infancy to acquire a degree, the Government aims to ensure continuity through ensuring the required financial and legal basis. The Minister highlighted that as of 1 January 2014 kindergarten will be mandatory for children from the age of three. However, exceptions may be made in certain cases, he added. In order to decrease the number of school leavers, scholarships will be offered to motivate parents. Minister Balog stated that in cooperation with the University of Pécs Romology department, the contents on a university course on Roma culture

and history have been laid out, while peaceful cohabitation is included in ethics education. Finnish lawmaker and Roma expert Pekka Haavisto said that his country had introduced anti-discrimination programmes both at municipal and national level. He stressed the importance of cooperation between public administration and the Roma, as well as the latter's participation in inclusion programmes. Finland is also putting pressure on Romania and Bulgaria to ensure fundamental rights for their Roma citizens, he said, insisting that a lack of such rights is what makes Roma people emigrate to foreign countries.

H unga r y s hows it s c om m it m e nt t o A fr ic a : M inis t e r M a r t ony i

World Oceans Day 2011 The Ocean Project recently launched a new site for WOD 2011.

The World Oceans Day 2011 & 2012 theme is Youth: the Next Wave for Change. World Ocean Day – The Ocean Project The aim is to challenge participants to view ocean protection as a way of life, with a special emphasis around World Oceans Day each year. This focus on youth is based on market research by The Ocean Project and others which clearly shows that youth are the most promising members of the public to reach out to if you want to effect lasting change. Young people are the most knowledgeable and motivated segment of the population when it comes to the environment and its protection. Youth generally have the free time, familiarity with current issues, and the motivation to go out of their way to take environmental actions. Furthermore, the research shows that parents are increasingly looking to their tween and teenage (i.e. ages 12–17) children for information and advice on these issues. We hope that event organizers will make a concerted effort to reach out to and collaborate with young people, helping inspire them to care for our world’s ocean, now and throughout their lives.

World Oceans Day 2010

In partnership with Dr. Seuss and the Census of Marine Life, World Oceans Day 2010's theme of "Oceans of Life: Pick your favorite * Protect your favorite" sparked the biggest and most exciting worldwide participation to date. This year marked the 50th anniversary of Dr. Seuss's classic book, One Fish, Two fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish, as well as the Census of Marine Life's celebration of a decade of discovery with the release of their 10-year report documenting biodiversity in the world's ocean. 2010 also marked the International Year of Biodiversity. The Ocean Project and World Ocean Network recorded over 300 events for WOD 2010, a 26% increase over 2009. Participation in the US increased by 32% (with participation in 37 states, as compared to 25 states last year), but this year several additional countries (a total of 45 globally) held events, including Bangladesh, Belgium, French Polynesia, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Malta, Malaysia, Venezuela, and Portugal.

First UN-recognized World Oceans Day On the first World Oceans Day the Secretary-General of the United Nations gave the following message:

The first observance of World Oceans Day allows us to highlight the many ways in which oceans contribute to society. It is also an opportunity to recognize the considerable challenges we face in maintaining their capacity to regulate the global climate, supply essential ecosystem services and provide sustainable livelihoods and safe recreation. Indeed, human activities are taking a terrible toll on the world’s oceans and seas. Vulnerable marine ecosystems, such as corals, and important fisheries are being damaged by over-exploitation, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing,destructive fishing practices, invasive alien species and marine pollution, especially from land-based sources. Increasedsea temperatures, sea-level rise and ocean acidification caused by climate change pose a further threat to marine life, coastal and island communities and national economies. Oceans are also affected by criminal activity. Piracy and armed robbery against ships threaten the lives of seafarers and the safety of international shipping, which transports 90 per cent of the world’s goods. Smuggling of illegal drugs and the trafficking of persons by sea are further examples of how criminal activities threaten lives and the peace and security of the oceans. Several international instruments drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations address these numerous challenges. At their centre lies the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It provides the legal framework within which all activities in the oceans and seas must be carried out, and is the basis for international cooperation at all levels. In addition to aiming at universal participation, the world must do more to implement this Convention and to uphold the rule of law on the seas and oceans. The theme of World Oceans Day, “Our oceans, our responsibility”, emphasizes our individual and collective duty to protect the marine environment and carefully manage its resources. Safe, healthy and productive seas and oceans are integral to human well-being, economic security and sustainable development. World Ocean Network to coordinate activities worldwide under the theme “Youth: the Next Wave for Change” with a special focus on getting the young people in our communities inspired to conserve our world’s oceans.

Theme

The Ocean Project/World Ocean Network international partner network theme 2010: Oceans of Life / Pick your favorite * Protect your favorite 2009: One Climate, One Ocean, One Future UN Theme 2011: Our oceans: greening our future 2010: Our oceans: opportunities and challenges 2009: Our Oceans, Our Responsibility

Photo: Endre Véssey (Online 27 May) Foreign Minister János Martonyi attended the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the Organisation of African Unity, in Budapest on 24 May. The regional organisation of the African continent has been called the African Union since 2002. In the presence of representatives of the diplomatic corps and of Africa-ori-

ented business organisations and NGOs who attended the event, János Martonyi gave a speech and emphasized that Hungary intended to deepen and broaden its cooperation with Africa under the aegis of global opening policy. The Hungarian Foreign Minister declared that the Africa Forum to be held in Budapest between May 23

and June 7 clearly demonstrates that Africa is a major target of Hungarian foreign policy. The programs and events of the Africa Forum show Hungary’s commitment to the better future of the African people and provide an opportunity for African and Hungarian decision-makers to exchange their views and to explore further opportunities for cooperation.

WORLDWIDE EVENTS NEWSPAPER CONGRATULATES ITALIAN REPUBLIC ON REPUBLIC DAY - 2013

Worldwide events; zarb e jamhoor newspaper; 126 issue; 02 08 jun, 2013  

The weekly Worldwide Events/Zarb-e-Jamhoor newspaper specially focuses on history, special events, national days, independence/declaration/f...

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