Issuu on Google+

A Hungry World:

U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

An Educational Resource for Grades 6–12


A Hungry World:

U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

An Educational Resource for Grades 6–12


World Vision United States is grateful to Education and Public Engagement of World Vision Canada for allowing this resource to be adapted for use in the United States. Copyright Š World Vision, Inc., 2009. Editorial Director: Milana McLead Editor-in-Chief: Jane Sutton-Redner Project Editor: Laurie Delgatto Authors: Rebecca Steinmann, Nancy Del Col Contributing Authors: Laurie Delgatto, Brittany Peters Copy Editor: Penny Bonnar Design: Journey Group, Inc. Sales and Distribution Manager: Jojo Palmer A Hungry World: Understanding Global Food Insecurity may be reproduced only with the written permission of World Vision United States, Mail Stop 321, P.O. Box 9716, Federal Way, WA 98063-9716, fax: 253-815-3340, wvresources@worldvision.org. Printed in the United States of America ISBN 978-09819235-0-9 During the preparation of this resource, all citations, facts, figures, names, addresses, telephone numbers, Internet URLs, and other pieces of information cited within were verified for accuracy. World Vision Resources has made every attempt to reference current and valid sources, but we cannot guarantee the content of any source and we are not responsible for any changes that may have occurred since our verification. If you find an error in, or have a question or concern about, any of the information or sources listed within, please contact World Vision Resources. Cover photo: Jon Warren/World Vision, 2008


CONTENTS 07 15 19 40

Introduction 8 10 12 13

About This Resource Global Food Insecurity: An Overview Causes of Global Food Insecurity Impacts of Food Insecurity

Lesson Openers

16 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18

Quotation Mix-and-Match Graffiti Wall The Price of Rice Riddle Activity Only $100 Food Distribution What We Don’t Eat Grains Not Meat Ten Hunger Stories from the Bible

Lessons

20 23 25 26 28 30 32 34 36

Web of Causes Sharing Food in a Hungry World Why Is There Food Insecurity? Oxford-Style Debates Food Insecurities: Impacts and Interventions No More Bread: A Food Journal Comparison What the World Eats Food Distribution Fasting for All

Prayer Resources


CONTENTS 47

51

( continued )

Action Ideas 48 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

30 Hour Famine Farm Tours Food Bank Field Trip Food Force FreeRice Hungry Decisions Plant a Row for the Hungry Broken Bread Meal Pick Some Fruit Global Ideas Bank Write for Rights Know Your Foodprint Skip the Junk 100-Mile Diet Sponsor a Child Fair-Trade Goods

Handouts and Resources 52 54 57 58 62 69 70 72

Resource 01: Food Quotations Resource 02: Riddle Worksheet Handout 01: Web of Causes Worksheet Resource 03: Food Insecurity Factors Resource 04: Food Insecurities Case Studies Handout 02: Food Journal Chart Handout 03: Food Journal Comparison Chart Handout 04: Living Simply


INTRODUCTION

Jon Warren / WORLD VISION, 2008


IN T RODU C T ION

About This

Resource

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

Global food insecurity has been making news headlineS. However, worldwide hunger and malnutrition are nothing new. More than 963 million people do not have enough to eat; 907 million of them live in developign countries. In addition, nearly 5 million (4.8 million) children under the age of five die every year from causes related to malnutrition. What is new is the rapid and sustained deterioration in people’s access to food. Record high fuel and food prices could push another 100 million people further into poverty and hunger, raising their numbers to almost 1 billion. The causes of rising food costs and diminishing food supplies are complex, but the reality for families affected by shortages of staple foods is simple and harsh. As food prices increase, standards of living decrease. Malnourishment and starvation become real possibilities, and families are forced to make difficult choices. With less access to food, already vulnerable children are in even more danger because they might be pulled out of school and sent to scavenge or work for food, subjecting them to lost education, early forced marriage, damaged health, sexual and labor abuse, and loss of basic rights. A Hungry World provides background information, statistics, case studies, group activities, prayers, and action ideas for teaching about global food insecurity. In this resource, young people explore the global scale of the food insecurity. They analyze some of the many causes and impacts of the problem, such as supply-and-demand issues, and consider the complex ways in which causes and impacts are inter-related. Participants also examine their own food consumption, read case studies about affected children and families, and consider the difficult choices families are sometimes forced to make when their food supply diminishes.

A Hungry World is organized in the following way: Introduction This section provides a thorough introduction to global food insecurity, including a discussion of its causes and impact. Lesson Openers These 5- to 10-minute activities can be used to introduce a lesson or discussion, or to facilitate critical thinking on the topic. Lessons These 30- to 120-minute lessons are intended to initiate in-depth study, exploration, and discussion on global food insecurity. Each lesson begins with a brief overview, a suggested time frame, a checklist of needed supplies and preparations, and a complete description of the lesson steps. The addition of a lesson opener and a prayer can expand each lesson. You may choose to use one of the lessons, or select various activities and lessons to create a complete unit on global food insecurity. You will want to select lessons and activities based on desired learning outcomes, time availability, and group objectives.

8

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


IN T RODU C T ION

Prayer Resources Each lesson includes an opportunity for the participants to bring their insights and concerns to God in prayer. Choose one of these prayers, or consider preparing one on your own. Action Ideas These engaging ideas offer additional approaches to learning about and responding to food insecurity. Consider these activities for independent study projects, research assignments, field trips, school or church awareness events, or extracurricular group activities.

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

Resources and Handouts All the necessary handouts and resources for each lesson can be found at the end of this manual. Permission to copy all resources and handouts as indicated is granted by World Vision.

P RE P ARING

YOURSELF Read each activity or lesson before you facilitate it; then use it creatively to meet the needs of the young people in your group. Knowing your audience will help you determine which strategies will work best. Some activities require preparation. Allow yourself adequate time to prepare. Most lessons include a presentation of key concepts or statistics. Preparing for those presentations is vital to the success of each lesson.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

9


IN T RODU C T ION

THE F OOD INSEC U RITY :

AN

OVERVIEW

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

In spring 2008, massive shocks to the world food markets highlighted shortages and inequities in food availability and distribution. As a result, more people worldwide are experiencing chronic hunger. This situation is pushing vulnerable people into riskier actions and livelihoods in order to survive and provide food for their families. It is important to understand that global food insecurity has existed for a long time. Only now has a “perfect storm” of factors increased the scope and intensity of the issue as well as public awareness of it. The rise in food and fuel prices on the global market threatens devastation for millions of people around the world. An estimated 100 million people, 35 million of them children, have been pushed into poverty and hunger over the past two years. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), world food prices have been rising steadily since 2002, with a dramatic upturn in 2007. Food prices have risen 83 percent since 2005 and jumped 47 percent between January 2007 and January 2008 alone. Sharp increases in prices of cereals, dairy, rice, soybeans, and vegetable oils, and to a lesser extent, meat and sugar, have had a direct impact on the prices of food products on grocery shelves and in small marketplaces around the world.

These statistics shed light on the severity of the problem: + Undernutrition contributes globally to 53 percent of deaths among children younger than age 5. + Nearly 5 million (4.8 million) children under the age of five die every year from causes related to mal

nutrition. This calculates to more than 13,000 children each day or one child every 7 seconds dying from causes related to malnutrition. + 963 million people do not have enough to eat; 907 million of them live in developing countries. + Ninety percent of the world’s hungry live with chronic hunger—a nagging hunger that does not go away. + The number of undernourished people in the world increased by 75 million in 2007, largely due to

higher food prices. + There are 400 million hungry children in the world. + One in seven people worldwide do not get enough to eat. + One out of three people in developing countries is affected by vitamin and mineral deficiencies and

is therefore more subject to infection, birth defects, and impaired physical and psycho-intellectual development. 10

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


IN T RODU C T ION

+ More than 193 million children younger than age 5 worldwide are stunted or short in stature. + More than 176 million children younger than age 5 worldwide are underweight. + Undernutrition among pregnant women in developing countries leads to one out of six infants being

born with low birth weight. + Fifty-seven percent of malaria deaths are attributable to undernutrition. + In AIDS-affected families, food consumption in the household can drop by as much as 40 percent due

to decreased productivity and earnings, leaving children at a higher risk of malnutrition and stunting. + Even if a child does not die directly from starvation, malnutrition makes children more prone to—and

likely to die from—illnesses such as pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, and measles.

J on Warren / WORLD VISION, 2008

Even a small increase in food prices hits the poor hard. The poorest people in developing countries can spend up to 75 percent of their income on food, leaving little left for such things as education and health care. While the world produces more than enough to feed its entire population of some 6.5 billion, more than 920 million people go hungry every day. This is a grave injustice, and we can no longer claim ignorance to the plight of our brothers and sisters around the world.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

11


IN T RODU C T ION

CA U SES O F GLOBAL F OOD

Insecurity

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION , 2008

At the most basic level, food insecurity has been caused by rising food prices around the globe. The following list highlights a number of the underlying factors that have led to the soaring prices of corn, soybeans, wheat, rice, and other crops throughout the past year. Rising price of oil A large amount of oil is needed to produce fertilizers, to run industrial farm machinery, and to transport food. Rising oil prices directly affect the cost of food production and transportation. Demand for biofuels High demand for alternative energy sources has meant that growing crops for fuel is often more profitable than growing crops for food. Drought and climate change Adverse weather conditions reduce harvests in major grainproducing countries. Declining agricultural productivity In many rural areas, where of the world’s poorest people live and work, agricultural productivity is sharply declining. Much of this is a result of land degradation, which affects up to two-thirds of the world’s agricultural land. Constraints on water supplies, higher oil prices, and reduced government investment in agriculture have also had an impact. Low grain reserves Government and private wheat reserves are at an all-time low. The world has consumed more grain than it has produced for the past eight years and is only one to two months short of the next harvest from running out of food. Market speculation In 2007, market speculators began investing more heavily in food and industrial commodities markets to take advantage of rising prices. The full impact of these investments is not clear, but they may contribute to short-run price fluctuations and immediate price inflations. Changes in incomes Rapid economic growth in China, India, and other developing countries means that greater numbers of the world’s population can now afford to eat more of what they traditionally eat, as well as more meat. Increased demand for meat in particular puts pressure on resources such as water supplies and grain needed to feed livestock. Urbanization It is estimated that for the first time in history, more than half of the world’s population, now live in urban areas. This long-term trend has placed more demand on farmers to produce enough food to feed city dwellers.

12

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


IN T RODU C T ION

Export restrictions In an attempt to mitigate the effects of food insecurity on their own populations, some countries have partially or completely restricted the exports of various foodstuffs. These bans have resulted in an even more precarious situation for countries that are net food importers. Liberalization of markets In the second half of the 20th century, developing countries were strongly encouraged to open their markets to free trade. Loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank tended to be conditional on Structural Adjustment Programs, or SAPs. The SAPs introduced policies requiring a reduction in price security for farmers, little or no government subsidies for farmers, and a reduction of tariffs on imported goods. The legacy of this market liberalization in the food system is that the urban and rural poor became more vulnerable to the shocks of global market forces.

current food

INSECURITY

Current food insecurity is different from food emergencies in the past in a number of ways. In the past, food crises have largely been weather or environment related. Drought, storms, floods, or insects destroyed crops and resulted in regional famines. The impact of these emergencies was felt by rural food producers first and, while devastating for affected populations, tended to subside when environmental conditions improved enough for harvests to return to normal yields. However, experts predict that the effects of the current situation will be felt for many years to come. Rising fuel prices and long-term climate change, two main factors now causing food insecurity, are not likely to improve significantly in the near future. Another unique feature of the current situation is its scope. Because of the global nature of markets and trade in food commodities, as many as 37 countries are in desperate need around the world: 21 in Africa, 10 in Asia, five in Latin America, and one (Moldova) in Europe. It is the urban poor, who are generally nonfood producers, who often suffer most. Food insecurity is having dire effects on nations, families, and children. Food riots and other forms of social unrest have erupted in Haiti, Mexico, Bangladesh, and even in developed countries, such as Italy. Families have limited their consumption of staple foods, such as rice, and eliminated more expensive foods, such as meat, from their diets. In some cases, they have reduced the number of meals eaten in a day. Children suffer most from diminished access to food: immediate effects on their health due to undernutrition and malnutrition, loss of education if they are pulled out of school to work, and the many protection issues that arise when they are not in school.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

13


IN T RODU C T ION

In the United States, the effects of rising food prices, while far less critical, are also being felt. Some companies have announced an increase in the price of bread to compensate for rising wheat prices. Higher fuel prices are expected to push up the price of fruits and vegetables that are transported long distances to markets. Food banks across the country are receiving fewer donations of certain surplus food items from grocery chains, such as cheese, yogurt, eggs, and meat. At the same time, food banks anticipate an increase in demand as low-income Americans struggle to pay higher grocery bills. Most immediately, food insecurity affects the health of children who do not have access to sufficient amounts of nutritious foods. Malnutrition leads to stunted growth and development, vulnerability to disease, and in its most severe form, starvation. A child’s health also suffers when her family cannot afford access to medical care or life-saving medicines. As food insecurity persists, children’s education can be increasingly compromised. Hungry children have trouble concentrating in school because of lethargy and poor attention spans. If a family is struggling to feed itself, a child may be forced to drop out of school in order to work for food money. Girls in particular may be expected to sacrifice their education to earn an income or to take over family responsibilities while parents work. Food insecurity affects the protection of children. To earn extra income for their families, children may be forced to work in factories, in mines, or on farms. They might perform heavy labor, use unsafe equipment, or be exposed to chemicals. Girls who work as domestic help may be subject to poor treatment by their employers and even sexual abuse. In countries in conflict, poor children are more vulnerable to recruitment into armed groups as child soldiers. Some children may be forced to beg for food or money on the streets, leaving them vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. In some cases, desperate parents have even left their children at orphanages, where they may be better fed than at home. Young girls may be forced to become child brides in exchange for money, food, or animals, so they are less of a burden to feed.

J on Warren / WORLD VISION, 2008

Food insecurity has no easy solutions. In the short term, food aid is needed for the millions of people who have been thrust into poverty and hunger. In the long term, investment in agriculture and measures to improve food security are needed to ensure that every family and every child has access to the food they need to survive and thrive.

14

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


Lesson Openers

WORLD VISION

J on Warren / WORLD VISION, 2008

Use these quick five- to 10-minute activities to introduce a lesson or discussion on global food insecurity or to facilitate critical thinking on the topic and bridge to further studies.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

15


L E S S ON OP E N E R S

Quotation Mix-and-Match Using resource 1, “Food Quotations,” found on pages 52-53, copy and cut the quotations so that you have a matching set for each pair of participants. Distribute the halved quotations and ask the participants to move around the room to find their missing halves. When they have verified a match, have them write their quotation on a sheet of newsprint. Pairs can then consult and write a comment or reaction under their own quotation or under one or two others. Use these comments as a springboard for large-group discussion.

Graffiti Wall Write each of the statements noted below on a separate sheet of newsprint. Ask the participants to write a word, phrase, or response under each statement. Use the responses to discuss perceptions about hunger and food and to introduce facts and statistics about global food insecurity. » If my family could no longer afford food, I would … » With soaring food and fuel prices, . . . » If you can’t feed a hundred people, . . . » An empty belly . . . » If you want to eliminate hunger, . . . » There are people in the world so hungry . . .

The Price of Rice Bring a sample bag of rice (or some other grain) into the room. Tell the participants what you paid for it. Ask the group to brainstorm factors that determine food costs. Responses might include the following: costs of farming such as labor, machinery, fertilizer, irrigation, and seeds; costs of transporting food to market; supermarket profit margins; retail overhead costs such as employees and storage; and supply-and-demand. Create a “mind map” of the responses on the board, starting with the food commodity (for example, rice) and its corresponding price in the center of the map. Ask the participants to speculate on what percentage or portion of the retail price is affected by the factors they have isolated.

Riddle Activity Distribute copies of resource 2, “Riddle Worksheet,” found on pages 54-56, to each participant, along with a pen or pencil. Invite them to solve the riddles alone, in pairs, or in small groups. Each riddle represents a major cause or factor contributing to the current state of global food insecurity. Alternatively, form six groups and give each one a single riddle. Once the riddles have been solved and the answers verified, have each group present its riddle in a creative format (skit, mime, choral reading, song lyric, or charade) to the larger group. The larger group then should try to guess the riddle answers. The correct riddle answers are as follows: (1) oil, (2) ethanol, (3) climate, (4) meat, (5) grain, and (6) money.

16

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


Jon Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

L E S S ON OP E N E R S

Only $100 Poverty forces people to make choices in countries where the annual income per person is $100 or less. Invite the participants to think about and then discuss how their family would live on $100 per year per person. Ask them to consider the following questions: What would you do without? Why? What would you eat?

Food Distribution Bring in five pieces of fruiT. Engage the participants in a discussion about different ways of distributing the fruit, including the following: divide the fruit evenly, give the fruit to the hungriest people (how do we decide this?), have a lottery, have an auction, and save the fruit until we really need it.

What We Don’t Eat On a sheet of newsprint, write the following list: horse, eel, guinea pig, beetle, grubs, cactus, snake, seaweed, dandelions, fungus, ants, squirrel, camel, goat, termites, lily flowers. Then note that for some people around the world, these items are used for food. Discuss why they are eaten (availability, cultural acceptability, good taste, intelligent use of resources).

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

17


L E S S ON OP E N E R S

Grains Not Meat Display different types of breads (flatbreads, tortillas, chapattis, matzoh, pita, mooshu, crepes, etc.). Discuss communality and different uses of these products. Emphasize that grains, not meat, are the principle foods in most people’s diets around the world.

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

Ten Hunger Stories from the Bible

18

Choose one of theSE biblical stories » Genesis 25:29–34—Esau sells his birthright because he is hungry. » Genesis 41:53 to 42:7; and 46:1-6—Famine and hunger in Canaan drive Joseph’s brothers to Egypt, where they end up staying for 400 years. » Exodus 16 and Numbers 11—Israelites get more food in the desert than they bargain for. » 1 Samuel 21:1-6 and Mark 2:23-27—David actually ate the holy bread. » 1 Kings 17:7-16—What we all wish would happen in our kitchens. » Matthew 4:1-4—The devil tried to get to Jesus through his (empty) stomach. » Matthew 14:13-21 and Matthew 15:29-39—On two occasions, Jesus fed a whole lot of people with only a few loaves and a handful of fish. » Luke 16:19-25 —Sooner or later, the tables turn. » James 2:14-17—Not exactly a story, this teaching nonetheless lays out in stark terms what your attitude and actions toward the poor and the hungry tell you and others about yourself.

Discuss the following questions:

» » » » » »

What was the circumstance that led to the person’s hunger? How did the hungry person respond to the hunger? Did anyone else respond to the person in need? Whom did the hungry person ask for nourishment? What was the benefit of the hungry person finally getting fed? Was there a “point” to the story—or was the fact that a hungry child of God simply got enough food for a change the only point?

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


J on Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

Lessons Use these 30- to 120-minute lessons to initiate in-depth study, exploration, and discussion on global food insecurity. Select lessons and activities based on desired learning outcomes, time availability, and group objectives. For each lesson, the preparation section describes the materials needed to facilitate the activity. You may choose to use just one of the lessons or select various activities and lessons to create a complete unit on global food insecurity. The suggested exercises also serve as a springboard for your own ideas and activities. The necessary resources and handouts are provided on pages 52-72. WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

19


L E S S ON S

W EB O F

CAUSES In this lesson, the participants will examine the interconnected factors contributing to global food insecurity.

TIME REQUIRED: 30 to 40 minutes MATERIALS NEEDED: copies of resource 3, “Food Insecurity Factors,” found on pages 58–61, one set for each group of six

newsprint and markers

pens or pencils, one for each participant

copies of handout 1, “Web of Causes Worksheet,” found on page 57, one for each participant

LESSON STEPS:

01 02

20

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Begin the lesson by noting the following key points: » Global food insecurity has been making news headlines. However, worldwide hunger and malnutrition are nothing new. » 963 million people do not have enough to eat; 907 million of them live in developing countries. » In addition, hunger and malnutrition cause 5.14 million child deaths every year. » What is new is the rapid and sustained deterioration in people’s access to food. Record high fuel and food prices could push another 100 million people further into poverty and hunger, raising their numbers to almost 1 billion. » The causes of rising food costs and diminishing food supplies are complex, but the reality for families affected by shortages of staple foods is simple and harsh. » As food prices increase, standards of living decrease. Malnourishment and starvation become real possibilities, and families are forced to make difficult choices. » With less access to food, already vulnerable children are in even more danger because they may be pulled out of school and sent to scavenge or work for food, subjecting them to lost education, early forced marriage, damaged health, sexual and labor abuse, and loss of basic rights. » In this lesson, we are going to explore some of the many factors that are contributing to global food insecurity.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

03

Distribute a copy of resource 3, “Food Insecurity Factors,” and a pen or pencil to each participant. Then invite the participants to form groups of six. Ask the groups to assign one “factor” from the resource to each member.

04 05

Ask the participants to read the assigned fact sheet and answer the discussion questions on their own. Invite the participants to provide a brief overview of their assigned factor to the other members of their small group. Then, ask the groups to discuss one or two of the questions found on each factor sheet.

06

Provide each participant with a copy of handout 1, “Web of Causes Worksheet.” Tell the participants they will be creating a web showing the interrelationships of the many contributing factors to global food insecurity. Ask the groups to complete their handout by using their learnings and discussion to illustrate all the possible connections between the six food insecurity factors as they contribute to global food insecurity.

07

Encourage the participants to come up with as many contributing factors and effects as they can. Encourage them to become more and more specific (for example, “poverty” is a very general effect; “reduced ability to produce food” is more specific; the resulting “reduction in food consumption” is more specific still). Then, offer the following comments: » There may be secondary effects that flow out of the initial effects identified. » This web is beginning to visually show the complexity of the food insecurity.

J on Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

Encourage the participants to be as exhaustive as possible—to think about all the connections between the various elements. Continue until no one can think of anything else to add. The end result will be a large, messy web showing relationships between many issues.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

21


L E S S ON S

08

Debrief using the following questions: » What patterns do you see emerging in this web? » What might be some strategies for stopping this spiraling effect of contributing factors? » If you were a policy-maker and were to base your policies on what you’ve discovered in this web, what solutions would you devise?

09

Conclude by noting the following: »Global food insecurity has no easy solutions. » In the short term, food aid is needed for the millions of people who have been thrust into poverty and hunger. » In the long term, investment in agriculture and measures to improve food security are needed to ensure that every family and every child has access to the food they need to survive and thrive.

10

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION , 2008

If you choose, conclude this activity with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

22

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

Sharing Food in a hungry

world

This lesson demonstrates, in a simple way, the relationship between the distribution of people and food in the global setting.

TIME REQUIRED: 30 to 40 minutes MATERIALS NEEDED:

newsprint and markers

world map

bread, one large, uncut loaf

LESSON STEPS:

01 02

03

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Begin the lesson by offering the following key points: » Since 2005, the world has experienced a dramatic surge in the price of food. The price of maize, for example, increased by 80 percent between 2005 and 2007, and has since risen further. » Many other food prices also rose sharply over this period: milk powder by 90 percent, wheat by 70 percent, and rice by about 25 percent. » These grains are a staple of diets in much of the developing world. » In low-income Asian countries, grains account for 63 percent of the average diet. » In North Africa and 11 former Soviet republics, grains account for about 60 percent of the average diet. » In sub-Saharan Africa, the region most vulnerable to food insecurity, grains comprise nearly half of the calories consumed. The share of grains in the diet is lowest—about 43 percent— in low-income Latin America. » As we can see from these statistics, grains are an important food staple for a very large part of the world’s population. In this activity, we’ll explore what happens when there is not enough grain for all. On the world map, point out the five most populated continents: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Explain that most of the people live where they were born and did not choose their birthplace, just as the participants also did not have that choice.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

23


L E S S ON S

04

05 06 07

08

09 10

24

Divide the group into smaller groups, each representing one of the following continents, according to the percentages listed next to each continent: »Africa, 12% »Asia, 58% »Europe, 16% »North America, 6% »South America, 8% Hold up the loaf of uncut bread and explain that it represents all the food that will be eaten today in the world. Then, divide the loaf according to the percentages associated with the continents on the list. Give the pieces of the loaf to one person in each group. Designate one person to serve as the leader of each small group. Instruct each small-group leader to feed the group’s members. They might give the same portion to everyone, or be more realistic and give larger pieces to those who are considered rich and no bread to some others—the poor, for example. Continents without much bread may try to get bread from others. Encourage discussion within and between continents. Tell them not to eat the bread until after the simulation. Initiate a large-group discussion using the following questions: » What most struck you about this activity? » Do you think it is a good representation of how the world’s food is distributed? Why or why not? » If you served as the group leader, what was it like to have to decide how much bread to give to each group member? » Did any of you disagree with how your group leader distributed the bread? If so, why? How might you have distributed it? Offer the following key points: » Having enough food to eat is the most basic human need. Cereals such as wheat, rice, and maize are the staple food in most people’s diets and a good guide to world food production. » It is important to know that the world produces enough grain to feed everyone if the food is shared equally and used efficiently. » Food production is not the main problem, but access to food and food distribution— especially for the poor—is a problem. Ask the participants: » If there is enough food produced in the world for everyone, why does hunger and famine exist? Conclude by asking all participants to hold up their pieces of bread. Point out that the actions and feelings they experienced during the simulation are happening every day throughout the world. If you choose, conclude this lesson with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

Why Is There Food

insecurity?

In this lesson, the participants will brainstorm possible explanations for global food insecurity. Their reasons become hypotheses to test in the community and then validate or revise based on their findings.

TIME REQUIRED: 30 minutes MATERIALS NEEDED:

newsprint and markers

 ens or pencils, one for each p participant

sheets of blank paper, one for each participant

LESSON STEPS:

01 02 03 04 05

06

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Ask the participants to break into pairs. Distribute to each pair a sheet of blank paper and a pen or pencil. Challenge each pair to come up with the longest list of possible answers to this question: Why is there food insecurity? When the pairs have finished, ask them to categorize the reasons on their lists in the following manner: » Place an X next to the two reasons you think best explain why there is global food insecurity. » Place an O next to the reasons that best apply to people living in poor countries. » Place a check next to reasons that individuals could do something about. » Place a plus sign next to reasons that indicate it is the hungry person’s fault for being hungry. Ask the pairs to each find another pair to partner with. Give each team of four a sheet of newsprint and a marker. Then, have the teams discuss and compare their reasons and the categories they assigned them. Which are the same? Different? After a few minutes, gather the participants into one group and have the participants share their reasons and why they assigned them to a particular category. Mention to the group that their reasons are simply hypotheses that need to be tested. Brainstorm community resources they might use to verify their hypotheses. Ask the participants to go into the community to find evidence and data to check their hypotheses. They might consider conducting research at the local library or using the Internet. Another possibility is to meet with the director of a local food bank or a representative of a local social services agencies to discuss the hypothesis and gain additional insights. Invite them to bring their findings to another meeting. If you choose, conclude this lesson with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

25


L E S S ON S

Oxford–Style

Debates In this lesson, the participants will develop a set of debatable statements about the causes of global food insecurity.

TIME REQUIRED: 60 to 120 minutes (depending on group size) MATERIALS NEEDED:

 ooks and articles related to global b food insecurity

large index cards, several for each participant

computers with Internet access

 ens or pencils, one for each p participant

LESSON STEPS:

01 02

03

26

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Tell the participants they will be participating in a good old-fashioned debate. They will be using an adapted Oxford-style of debate. Note that the Oxford-style of debate allows audience members to pose questions from the floor to the debating teams once the opening statements have been made. At the end of the debate, the presiding judge (a volunteer) asks the audience, by means of a simple hand count, which side won. Audience members base their decisions on which team offered the most convincing arguments and support materials. The judge makes the final decision as to the winner of the debate and shares the rationale for the decision. Create debate teams composed of three members on each side who will argue either for or against an assigned statement. Assign each team one of the following statements, designating which team will defend the position and which team will challenge the position: » The benefits of producing and using ethanol outweigh its costs to the global food supply. » Purchasing and consuming locally produced foods will not have a significant impact on global food security. » Countries with emerging economies, such as China and India, should restrict their consumption of meat products in the face of diminishing supplies and environmental concerns. » We should return to small-scale farming approaches using eco-agricultural techniques, instead of relying on high-yield, large-scale farming operations. » During a global shortage of food grains, it is unethical for governments to partially or completely ban grain exports in order to protect their own supplies. » The buying and selling of food commodities as a profit-making vehicle for investors compromises basic human rights.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

04 05 06

07 08 09

Provide the teams with the articles and books you gathered and offer them access to computers for their research. Also provide them with several large index cards and a pen or pencil for note-taking. Tell them they will have only two minutes for an opening statement, no more than 10 minutes for discussion, and one minute to make a closing statement. Allow ample time for the teams to adequately prepare. When the teams are ready, invite everyone to gather into one group for the first round of debates. Invite two volunteers (or designate people), one to serve as the judge and another to serve as the timekeeper. Invite the first two teams to come forward and present the issue and their positions on the issue. Allow both teams two minutes to make their opening statements, and then invite questions from the audience. A variation to audience participation is to allow observers to physically move from one side of the debate to the other when a persuasive and convincing argument is presented. After 10 minutes, ask the teams to present their closing arguments. Poll the audience, by means of a simple hand count, to determine which team they believe won. Remind the audience members to base their decisions on which team offered the most convincing arguments and support materials. The judge makes the final decision as to the winner of the debate and shares the rationale for the decision. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until each team has presented its issue. If you choose, conclude this lesson with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

27


L E S S ON S

F o o d I n s e c u r i t i e s : I m pac t s a n d

Interventions This lesson will help participants gain a greater understanding of the ripple effect of food insecurity on families.

TIME REQUIRED: 30 to 40 minutes MATERIALS NEEDED:

c opies of resource 4, “ Food Insecurities Case Studies,” found on pages 62-68, one story for each group of four or five participants newsprint and markers

self-stick notes, one pack for each group of four or five participants

c olored pencils or pens (four different colors), one set for each group of four or five participants

LESSON STEPS:

01 02

28

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Begin by offering the following key points: » Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of food insecurity. » Every human being has the right to adequate food and the fundamental right to be free from hunger. » Every child has a right to health, education, and protection. The impact of global food insecurity on millions of children is a loss of the realization of all these rights. » Most immediately, food insecurity affects the health of children without access to sufficient amounts of nutritious foods. » Malnutrition leads to stunted growth and development, vulnerability to disease, and in its most severe form, starvation. » A child’s health also suffers when her family cannot afford access to medical care or lifesaving medicines. » As food insecurity persists, children’s education can be increasingly compromised. Hungry children have trouble concentrating in school because of lethargy and poor attention spans. » If a family is struggling to feed itself, a child may be forced to drop out of school in order to work for food money. » Girls in particular may be expected to sacrifice their education to earn an income or to take over family responsibilities while parents work. » Food insecurity affects the protection of children. » To earn extra income for their families, children may be forced to work in factories, in mines,

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

or on farms. They might perform heavy labor, use unsafe equipment, or be exposed to chemicals. » Girls who work as domestic help may be subject to poor treatment by their employers and even sexual abuse. In countries in conflict, poor children are more vulnerable to recruitment into armed groups as child soldiers. Some children may be forced to beg for food or money on the streets, leaving them vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. » In some cases, desperate parents have even left their children at orphanages, where they may be better fed than at home. Young girls may be forced to become child brides in exchange for money, food, or animals, so they are less of a burden to feed. » In today’s lesson, we are going to explore and discuss the impacts of food insecurities on the poor.

03 04 05 06

07 08 09

Invite the participants to form groups of four or five. Provide each group with one of the case studies from resource 4, “ Food Insecurities Case Studies,” a sheet of newsprint, a marker, a pack of self-stick notes, and four colored pens or pencils. Ask the groups to read the assigned case study and then brainstorm the impacts of food insecurity. They should try to formulate possible intervention activities at each level—family, community, government, and NGO/international body. Tell them to record their ideas on the self-stick notes, designating one color for each of the four levels. Encourage the participants to brainstorm freely and record all ideas, describing both the problem (impact) and the solution (intervention) without judgment or editing. Invite one person from each group to divide the group’s newsprint into four sections. Tell them to write one of the levels cited in step 4 (family, community, government, NGO/international) in each section. Then ask the groups to choose their best ideas and place the self-stick notes for those ideas on the appropriate sections of the newsprint. Gather the participants into the large group and offer the following comments: » Before we hear about your groups’ ideas, let’s discuss what it takes to achieve food security. » Food security is composed of the following four components: » Food availability: food production and processing is efficient, and trade systems function.  • Food accessibility: people have sufficient purchasing power to acquire food.  • F ood utilization: nutritional food choices are made, food safety and quality is ensured, and clean water and sanitation exists for safe food preparation.  • F ood stability: availability, accessibility, and utilization of food is maintained in the face of natural, economic, social, or policy shocks and stresses. » Now let’s discuss which of your ideas correspond to these four components. Invite each group to share its best ideas with the large group. Reflect on the feasibility of the ideas and what persons or groups would need to advocate for action at each level. Also discuss how (or if ) each idea relates to the four components mentioned in steps 5 and 6. Conclude by discussing which actions the groups might be able to take on themselves and invite them to develop an action plan for doing so. If you choose, conclude this lesson with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

29


L E S S ON S

N o M o r e B r e a d: A F o o d J o u r n a l

Comparison

In this lesson, the participants will reflect on personal eating habits and the differences between food consumption in developed and developing countries.

TIME REQUIRED: 30 to 40 minutes MATERIALS NEEDED:

c opies of handout 2, “Food Journal Chart,” found on page 69, one for each participant

c opies of handout 3, ”Food Journal Comparison Chart,” found on page 70, one for each participant

pens or pencils, one for each participant

Note: A week before you gather with the participants, provide them with a copy of the “Food Journal Chart” handout and ask them to record all the food they consume in one week on the chart. Ask them to bring their completed charts to the next session.

LESSON STEPS:

01 02 03

30

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Invite the participants to gather in small groups of three or four and share with one another their entries on their completed food journal charts. After allowing some time for sharing, provide each participant with a copy of the “Food Journal Comparison Chart.” Then provide the following key points: » You have just received a food journal that is based on the eating habits of a real child, Simphiwe Dlanini, a 13-year-old girl from Swaziland. » Simphiwe is the eldest of four children. Her father, Mefika, is currently unemployed, and her mom, Busi, gets up at 4 a.m. to bake cakes for Simphiwe to sell at school. » The family is used to eating bread for breakfast but can no longer afford it. » This food journal shows the possible early effects of food insecurity on a family in a developing country. At this point, enough food is still available for the Dlaninis, but they can no longer afford certain types of food, and anxiety about having enough for the weeks ahead has set in.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

04

Invite the groups to review the handout and do a quick comparison with their own charts. Then, have the participants gather into one group again and lead them in a large-group discussion, using the following questions: » What’s missing from Simphiwe’s diet? » How do the types of food you eat compare with the types of food eaten by Simphiwe? What are the similarities and differences? » How does your family’s weekly food costs compare with the amount Simphiwe’s family spends on food? » Compare your family’s weekly food spending with the average amount spent by other families around the world (noted on the handout). What factors, in addition to family income, explain the discrepancies in the amounts spent by different families around the world?

05

Distribute a pen or pencil to each participant. Invite the participants to take a few minutes to write a one-page journal entry from Simphiwe’s point of view reflecting on her situation and how it is affecting her life. They may use the backside of their journal chart to complete the journal entry.

06 07

After everyone is done, invite a few participants to share their entries. Now, invite the participants to take a few minutes to write a one-page entry about how they might help to change the food situation in Swaziland or other countries where people are going hungry. They may use the backside of their journal comparison chart to complete the journal entry.

08

After everyone is finished writing their journal entries, invite a few participants to share their entries. Encourage the participants to follow through on the action step they named in step 7.

09

J on Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

If you choose, conclude this lesson with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

31


L E S S ON S

EATS In this lesson, the participants will explore and discuss the importance of food and eating rituals in family life.

TIME REQUIRED: 45 to 60 minutes MATERIALS NEEDED:

Access to the photo essay “What the World Eats” at www.time.com. You will need a computer or projector for the participants to view a slideshow of photos during the lesson. An alternative option is to obtain a copy of the book “A Hungry Planet”; the photos found online are drawn from this book.

LESSON STEPS:

01 02 03

04

32

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Begin by noting that the participants will be viewing photos that provide a wealth of information about the food ethics and circumstances of different cultures and countries around the world, as well as the central importance of food and eating rituals in family life. Show the slideshow. Take time after each photo to discuss the following: » observations on family size and economic status » modernity of cooking methods » amount and nutritional quality of food eaten » food you do or do not recognize » food that appears store bought, homemade, or locally produced When the slideshow has concluded, ask the participants to form small groups of four or five. Ask them to discuss the following: » Compare various diets to that of your own family. Which foods are similar? Which ones are missing? » Why do diets differ among various countries? » What does each family’s food supply and costs reveal about their standard of living, social and economic circumstances, and cultural traditions?

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

05

Invite the groups to choose one of the following projects and complete it: » Design a dinner menu for one of the families. » Dramatize the dinnertime conversations of a family from one of the photos. Contrast with a scene from a different family. » Develop a set of interview questions a journalist might ask one of the families. » Imagine you are a professional nutritionist. Analyze the diet of one family, looking at nutritional content and overall healthiness.

06 07

Allow ample time for the groups to prepare, and then invite each group to present the project they created.

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION , 2008

Conclude by discussing as a large group why it might be important to understand the eating habits and the differences in food consumption among developed and developing countries. If you choose, close this lesson with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

33


L E S S ON S

F OOD

Distribution In this lesson, the participants will understand the distribution of needed resources among industrialized, transitioning, and developing countries.

TIME REQUIRED: 30 to 40 minutes MATERIALS NEEDED: blue, green, and yellow index cards—40 blue, 40 green, and 20 yellow

newsprint and markers

pens or pencils, one for each participant

LESSON STEPS:

01 02 03 04 05

34

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Randomly distribute one index card to each participant. Make sure a good mix of each color card is distributed. Also provide each participant with a pen or pencil. Ask the participants to write their name on the card they have been given. Have the participants form groups according to the color of their index cards, and have them choose a name for their group. Then, announce the following point system for each group: » blue = 4 points » green = 18 points » yellow = 265 points Ask each group to decide what to do with their points. They might divide the points evenly among members, divide them unevenly among group members, or share them with another group. After five or so minutes, ask the participants to write on their cards how they decided to divide the points. Then provide each group with a blank sheet of newsprint and a marker and have a representative of each group write down their group’s decision on the newsprint and have each group member sign it. All must sign the to proceed. Then have the participants write their group-assigned points on their cards.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

06

Announce that the participants can now make individual decisions about their points. They may keep their points or share them with someone else. Participants who give points to someone else should write the name(s) of the recipient(s) and the number of points donated on their cards. They should also draw a box around this information. Participants who receive points from someone else should write the name(s) of their donor(s) and the number of points received on their cards. They should underline this information, and circle it.

07

Gather all of the participants back into a large group and initiate a group discussion using the following key points: » What did being in the yellow (or blue or green) group mean to you? » If you had to choose one word that describes how you felt, what would that word be (and why)? » Was this exercise a good model or a bad model for examining food distribution issues? Why?

08

J on Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

If you choose, conclude this lesson with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

35


L E S S ON S

Fasting for

ALL

In this lesson, the participants will explore global food insecurity in light of the spiritual disciplines of fasting and almsgiving. The activity shows the participants that simple acts of giving and “giving up” can make a difference in the fight to end hunger.

TIME REQUIRED: 45 to 75 minutes, depending upon group size MATERIALS NEEDED:

 lank index cards, one for each b participant

 ens or pencils, one for each p participant

newsprint and markers

 Copies of handout 4 “Living Simply,” found on page 72, one for each participant

LESSON STEPS:

01 02

If you choose, begin this lesson with one of the openers found on pages 16-18. Ask the participants what they know about the spiritual discipline of fasting. Allow for a few responses. Then note the following: » “Fasting isn’t about denying ourselves as a sort of punishment, and it isn’t even about food.” »“We can fast from television, food, video games, computers, and other simple everyday indulgences so we can literally hunger for God.” »“Fasting also puts us in touch with those whose hunger is never filled because they live in poverty. Finally, our praying and fasting lead us to action.”

03 04

36

(The bullet items above are from Tony Alonso, Return to the Lord: Praying and Living Lent)

Ask the participants to form groups of three or four and discuss within their groups what things would be most difficult for them “to give up” or fast from and why. Gather the participants again and ask each group for a brief summary of their discussion. Then offer the following key points: »In spring 2008, massive shocks to the world food markets highlighted shortages and inequities in food availability and distribution. As a result, more people worldwide are experiencing chronic hunger. »This situation is pushing vulnerable people into riskier actions and livelihoods in order to survive and to provide food for their families. World Vision is working to enhance the efforts already under way to address the critical short- and long-term food needs of children,

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

families, and communities. » The following factors are contributing to rising food prices: • rising  fuel and transportation costs • political turmoil and conflict • growing populations and increased consumption of meat • c limactic variations, including droughts, floods, and storms that have destroyed harvests • poor environmental care • an increased demand for food crops being used for biofuels • speculation in and hoarding of food commodities • long-term issues such as unfair trade.

05

Ask the participants to share their overall impressions of the information about global food insecurity you just presented. Allow a few responses. Then, present the following statistics: »Undernutrition contributes globally to 53 percent of deaths among children younger than age 5. » Every year, 5.14 million children younger than age 5 die from causes related to malnutrition. This calculates to more than 14,000 children a day, or one child every seven seconds, dying from causes related to malnutrition. »Ninety percent of the world’s hungry live with chronic hunger—a nagging hunger that does not go away. »Food insecurity is exacerbating an already unacceptable situation. Increases in food prices could push100 million people deeper into poverty, of which 35 million will be children. » The number of undernourished people in the world increased by 75 million in 2007, largely due to higher food prices. »The poorest people in developing countries can spend up to 75 percent of their income on food. » There are 400 million hungry children in the world. » One out of every seven people on earth goes hungry. » One out of three people in developing countries is affected by vitamin and mineral deficiencies and is therefore more subject to infection, birth defects, and impaired physical and psycho-intellectual development. »More than 193 million children younger than age 5 worldwide are stunted or short in stature. » More than 156 million children younger than age 5 worldwide are underweight. »Undernutrition among pregnant women in developing countries leads to one out of six infants being born with low birth weight. » Fifty-seven percent of malaria deaths are attributable to undernutrition. » In AIDS-affected families, food consumption in the household can drop by as much as 40 percent due to decreased productivity and earnings, leaving children at a higher risk of malnutrition and stunting. » Even if a child does not die directly from starvation, malnutrition makes children more prone to—and likely to die from—illnesses such as pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, and measles. » Even a small increase in food prices hits the poor hard. The poorest people in developing countries can spend up to 75 percent of their income on food, leaving little left for things like education and health care. While the world produces more than enough to feed its entire population of some 6.5 billion, more than 920 million people go hungry every day. This is a grave injustice, and we can no longer claim ignorance to the plight of our brothers and sisters around the world.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

37


L E S S ON S

06

07

08 09 10

11 12 13

38

Ask the participants to share their overall impressions of the information the facts you just presented. Allow a few responses. Then present the following comments: »With the current economic turmoil, people may want to turn away from giving. When money is tight, it is hard to care about the suffering of those living so far away. » But do you ever wonder if you will have food to eat tomorrow? Have you ever tried to survive on just one meal every few days? Can you imagine starving to death? »The Gospel of Matthew tells us: “Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust destroy, and where thieves break in and steal. But store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where moth and rust do not destroy, and where thieves do not break in and steal” (6:19–20, NIV). Invite the participants to gather again with their small groups. Ask them to revisit their discussion about what they could give up or go without for a month. Ask them to consider the following questions: »Would you consider the item(s) you selected to be a necessity or a luxury? Provide a rationale for your decision. »What other luxuries do you partake in each day? (Think about things like new clothes, soda, fast food, movie tickets, computer games, cable television, etc.). »Allow time for the groups to discuss. Gather the participants again and ask each group to offer a few examples of luxuries they experience on a daily basis. Tell the participants that you would like to invite them to participate in a unique opportunity during the upcoming month. The opportunity involves voluntarily denying themselves various luxury items they are accustomed to having each day or week and placing a tax on certain luxury items they own. Provide each participant with a copy of handout 4, “Living Simply”; an index card; and a pen or pencil. Ask them to choose a few items listed on the handout or come up with their own ideas. Be sure to note that the “giving up” is not limited to just items. A participant may choose to give up a beauty service or a gym membership and donate the saved money. However, these items or services should be ones that the participant is willing to give up for four weeks. Allow a few moments for them to review the list and make a mental list of additional items. Invite the participants to write down a few items on one side of the index card. Remind them that it is not about the number of items but rather the spirit of giving up in order to give. Allow ample time for them to complete this task. Now, ask them to turn the index cards over and think about the luxury tax items listed on the handout. You may wish to ask them whether they had thought of these items as luxuries before this discussion. Ask them to review the list and then write down five or more of the items that they are willing to tax. Note that they may also come up with their own ideas for luxury items. Allow ample time for them to complete this task.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


L E S S ON S

14

After all the participants have completed the above tasks, invite them to gather again into the large group. Explain to the participants that the money acquired during their four weeks of giving up and taxing luxury items will go toward efforts to fight global food insecurity. Conclude by offering the following comments: »The goal of the luxury tax initiative is not only to raise money for global food insecurity but also to transform our communities and ourselves as we recognize the many luxuries we have in our lives. »Through this discipline, we will learn to share our abundance and redefine what needs are. We will worship God through sacrifice and grow closer to him as we shed the many distractions that keep us from listening to his voice and depending on him. We will stretch ourselves in generosity as we follow Christ’s call to sacrificially care for the poor and marginalized. » We do not participate in this out of guilt, but rather, out of gratitude. Christ sacrificed everything for us so that we may have life. As an act of gratitude, we also sacrifice so that others may live. » This could be a significant learning time in one’s journey of faith.

15

J on Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

If you choose, conclude this lesson with one of the prayers found on pages 41-46 or offer your own prayer.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

39


Prayer Resources

40

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

Each lesson includes an opportunity for the participants to bring their insights and concerns to God in prayer. Choose one of these prayers to begin or conclude each lesson, or consider preparing your own.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


PR A Y E R R E S OUR C E S

Loving God, in your grace you have gathered us at this time and in this place to hear the word you are speaking this day in the voice of people who are hungry and poor. Open our hearts and minds to the power of that word. May we see with your eyes the vision of a world that knows no borders, no boundaries, no fear, but invites us again to live together the promise of abundance which is both your gift and promise. We ask this in the name of your Son, who lives and reigns united in the love of your Holy Spirit, now and always. Amen.

Gracious God, your name is justice; your name is love. Continue to grace us and strengthen us to grow in your likeness. Make the cause of food security our cause and draw us more closely to you and to all whom you love. Help us to act with courage, with faithfulness, and with compassion this day and every day. We ask this in the name of your only Son, who lives and reigns with you, united in the love of your Holy Spirit, now and always. Amen.

Oh God, lover of all you have made, walk with us and lead us more deeply into your mystery. Let us touch others and make tangible in their lives in some small way, the gift of knowing that there is enough for all, more than enough. We ask this in the name of your only Son, who lives and reigns with you, united in the love of your Holy Spirit, now and always. Amen.

Loving God, you came to us as a vulnerable child, entrusted to a mother denied shelter and rest. Although you are the sovereign of the world, you come again and again to us in the children of this world. Because they are your own, you make them our own. Attune our hearts to know the depth of this mystery and this gift, and make us one with them and with you. We ask this in the name of the One who became our flesh and dwelt among us, and now dwells and reigns again united with you in the love of your Holy Spirit, always and forever. Amen.

Gracious God, lover of all whom you have made, we place before you this day the hopes and dreams of all children—those we can name and those we cannot. We promise you, that we will keep them in our hearts, prayers, and actions until the day that no child will beg for food, weep for water, or cry out for a loving touch. As Jesus said to let the little children come to him, we ask you that we might be Jesus for a child who is hurting. Amen.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

41


PR A Y E R R E S OUR C E S

O God, you have given us your promise, a word and a covenant that brings us the touch of your favor and grace, and allows us to sip from the springs of living water and taste the bread of your salvation. Oh God, you have made us into your promise, a covenant to all you have created, a word that drives us and calls us and makes us into the people that you desire. Oh God, we ask you to empower us with your presence until we are transformed and have become part of your plan for this world, so that all can live with enough, to eat and drink to the fullness of your reign. Amen.

God, give us the grace to hear your word, the word of the one who is calling, speaking and acting to those who are oppressed, poor, and burdened. God of the poor, you challenge us with the vision of a world of shared abundance and grace possibilities. All: Lord, have mercy. God of the prisoner, you invite us to risk living in glorious freedom as your children. All: Christ have mercy. God of the broken-hearted, you empower us to heal and be healed by walking with those whom you love and for whom you gave your Son. All: Lord, have mercy. And lead us now, God of hopefulness, to see your people who suffer, to hear your word that summons us to love your world. We ask this in the name of your beloved Son Jesus Christ and His Spirit who lives in us. Amen. (The above prayers as well as the prayers found on page 41 are from Hunger in Abundance: A Study Guide, [Manitoba, Canada: Canadian Foodgrains Bank]. Copyright Š by Canadian Foodgrains Bank. All rights reserved. Used with permission.)

Give us this day our daily bread. All good gifts of the earth come from your generous hands, God. Yet, this abundance is not shared equally among us. While some are satisfied, others are starving. Women often become the victims of exploitation because they are desperate to feed and care for their children. If only we would be mindful that each and every one of us must pray: Give us this day our daily bread. — W orld

42

D ay

of

P rayer

C ommittee ,

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

M yanmar

WORLD VISION


PR A Y E R R E S OUR C E S

Lord, we have so much. Most of us have food, shelter, people who love us, jobs, nice clothes to wear, safety, and opportunities for growth and development. May we never take your good gifts for granted. Help us to use our position of relative luxury to meet the needs of those less fortunate. Amen.

O God, grant us your vision in our time. Help us to write it so large that even a runner can see it. Make it so compelling that even a cynic will pause, so convincing that a skeptic will risk trying to bring hope to others, and so inspiring that the committed will stand courageously in faith, leaving the results to you. W right

E delman

J on Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

— M arian

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

43


PR A Y E R R E S OUR C E S

You asked for my hands that you might use them for your purpose. I gave them for a moment then withdrew them for the work was hard. You asked for my mouth to speak out against injustice. I gave you a whisper that I might not be accused. You asked for my eyes to see the pain of poverty. I closed them for I did not want to see. You asked for my life that you might work through me. I gave a small part that I might not get too involved. Lord, forgive my efforts to serve you only when it is convenient for me to do so, only in those places where it is safe to do so, and only with those who make it easy to do so. Forgive me. Renew me. And send me out. — S outh

A frican

prayer

May it come soon to the hungry, to the weeping, to those who search for your justice, to those who have waited centuries for a truly human life. Grant us the patience to smooth the way on which your kingdom comes to us. Grant us hope, that we may not grow weary in proclaiming and working for it, despite so many conflicts, threats, and shortcomings. Grant us a clear vision that in this hour of our history we may see the horizon, and know the way on which your kingdom comes to us. — A

N icaraguan

prayer

Lord God, you created all people as special and equal, yet we live in a world where there is great injustice. We know this grieves your heart and we ask your forgiveness for our complacency. Too often, we shrug our shoulders and do nothing or we blame the poor themselves for their suffering. Sometimes our behavior and attitudes help to perpetuate injustice. O God, stir our hearts to action. Help us to be full of compassion. Just as Jesus wept over the city of Jerusalem and healed those who cried out to him, let us be people who cry out for justice and spread the good news of your kingdom. We pray through Jesus our Lord, Amen.

Thank you, Lord, that you are a God who cares for the hungry and oppressed. You have a father and mother’s heart, and like a parent, you want to bless all your children. Help us to be obedient to your command that we share what we have and fight against injustice. Help us to be people who restore ruined houses and rebuild walls, so we can proclaim that you are a mighty and just. May your light shine like the morning sun in our needy world. We pray in the name of Jesus, who is the light, Amen.

44

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


PR A Y E R R E S OUR C E S

Almighty God our heavenly Father, Grant us a vision of our world as your love would make it: a world where the weak are protected, and none go hungry or poor; a world where the benefits of civilized life are shared, and everyone can enjoy them; a world where different races and cultures live in tolerance and mutual respect; a world where peace is built with justice, and justice is guided by love. And give us the inspiration and courage to build it, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. (The above prayer as well as the last two prayers on page 44 are from Church World Services, www.churchworldservice.org. All rights reserved. Used with permission.)

Jon Warren / WORLD VISION, 2008

O God, Open our eyes that we may see the needs of others; Open our ears that we may hear their cries; Open our hearts that we may feel their anguish and their joy. Let us not be afraid to defend the oppressed, the poor, the powerless, because of the anger and might of the powerful. Show us where love and hope and faith are needed, and use us to bring them to those places. Open our ears and eyes, our hearts and lives, that we may in these coming days be able to do some work of justice and peace for you. Amen.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

45


PR A Y E R R E S OUR C E S

Father God, help the helpless, strengthen the fearful, comfort the sorrowful, bring justice to the poor and peace to all nations. May our hearts, like yours, be pierced with sorrow for the evils of the world. Lord God, help your Church bring hope in times of trouble for all who are oppressed by injustice and violence. Scatter the proud in their conceit, cast down the mighty from their power and lift up the lowly. Fill the hungry with good things. We pray in the name of Jesus who gives us hope, Amen.

Our dear God and Father, we admit that we have neglected to remember the poor. Forgive us, we pray. Help us, as followers of Jesus, to work together to pursue justice, be passionate about kindness and walk humbly with you, our God. May our world be transformed in every area by your love. Our dear God and Father, we admit that we have been arrogant as a nation. Forgive us, we pray. Help us to be agents of hope for and with the poor and to work with others to hold our leaders accountable in securing a more just and merciful world. Amen.

Jon Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

(The above prayers are from the prayer resources page of the Micah Challenge, www.micahchallenge.org. All rights reserved. Used with permission.)

46

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


J on Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

Action Ideas While the magnitude of global food insecurity may seem daunting, young people can take a stance on the issue and engage in actions that can affect the areas of nutrition, agriculture, and economy. Consider doing the following suggested activities with young people in small groups or individual assignments. These activities might be used for independent study projects, research assignments, field trips, school or church awareness events, or as extracurricular activities. WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

47


A C T ION ID E A S

30 Hour Famine Join the efforts of hundreds of thousands of young people around the nation who set aside the usual “stuff” that fills their daily lives by going without food for 30 hours, thereby getting a taste of what the world’s poorest children and families face every day. By fundraising, sacrificing, and serving others, they learn to think outside themselves and see the world as Christ sees it. And they help saves lives in the process. World Vision provides the program materials free of charge. For more information, go to www.worldvisionresources.com and click on “Programs and Events.”

Farm Tours Many working farms offer tours. Visit a local vegetable, meat, dairy, or organic farm and have the participants interview the farmers for a research paper on local food production and food markets. The participants can also use the research to write an article for a school or newspaper, a church newsletter, or a Web site. Coincide the field trip with World Food Day (October 16).

Food Bank Field Trip Organize a field trip to a local food bank. Have the participants collect data on types and amounts of foodstuffs that are collected and distributed, and where the items come from. Invite them to visually represent the data in graphs or posters that can be displayed in school or church.

Food Force Set up a computer station (or two) for participants to play Food Force from the United Nations World Food Program. Food Force is an educational video game telling the story of hunger on the fictitious island of Sheylan. Composed of six mini-games or “missions,” the game takes players from an initial crisis assessment to delivery and distribution of food aid, with each sequential mission addressing a particular aspect of this challenging process.

FreeRice Set up a computer station (or two) for participants to play FreeRice, a web-based vocabulary game for young people. Every correct answer triggers a donation of 20 grains of rice to the World Food Program. Go to www.freerice.com.

Hungry Decisions Set up a computer station (or two) for participants to play Hungry Decisions, a simulation game that can be used individually, in pairs, or in groups as a way to deepen understanding of poverty and hunger. Go to www.churchworldservices.org.

48

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


Jon Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

A C T ION ID E A S

PLANT A ROW FOR THE HUNGRY Plant a Row for the Hungry is an organization that builds on the long-standing tradition of gardeners loving to share their harvest with others and to help feed the hungry. Have the participants plant a garden and start a Plan a Row for the Hungry project to donate homegrown produce to local shelters or food banks. For more information go to www.gardenwriters.org.

BROKEN BREAD MEAL The Broken Bread Poverty Meal is a creative activism event sponsored by World Vision’s Acting on AIDS. Participants are invited to identify, interact with, and intercede for those broken by the cycle of AIDS, poverty, and hunger. Using a simple porridge meal, true-to-life stories, discussion, prayer, and advocacy, participants are invited to engage their faith and respond with their hearts and through their citizenship. For more information, go to www.worldvisionresources.com and click on “Programs and Events.”

Pick Some Fruit Not Far From The Tree is an organization that harvests urban residential fruit trees that would otherwise go unpicked. The organization matches volunteer pickers with fruit tree owners who don’t have time to harvest their bounty. The fruit is distributed among the owners, volunteers, and local community organizations, such as food banks and shelters. Suggest that the participants start a similar group in your community. For ideas, visit www.notfarfromthetree.org.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

49


A C T ION ID E A S

Global Ideas Bank Invite the participants to develop ideas for social innovation and change, devise solutions to real-world problems of hunger, malnutrition, child health, and food insecurity. Contribute these ideas to the Global Ideas Bank, an online community that promotes and disseminates creative ideas for improving society. Go to www.globalideasbank.org for more information.

Write for Rights Letter writing is an effective way to raise awareness about an issue, influence decision-makers, and practice effective communication techniques. Invite the participants to brainstorm and research key issues about global food insecurity and identify key decision-makers, such as local government officials, to receive letters advocating for action.

Know Your Foodprint Set up a computer station (or two) and invite the participants to calculate their impact on the earth by using the Low Carbon Diet Calculator, which is designed to allow visitors to compare the relative carbon impacts of their food choices. Go to www.eatlowcarbon.org.

Skip the Junk Suggest that participants skip packaged snacks, which are usually low in nutrients and high in calories. They can use their snack fund for good by supporting a struggling child. Go to www.worldvision.org to donate.

100-Mile Diet Suggest that the participants challenge themselves to take on a food “experiment” for a day (or a week). The goal is to eat locally to reconnect with local farmers, the season, and the landscapes in which they live. They can only eat food in which every ingredient in every product comes from within 100 miles.

Sponsor a Child Invite the participants to sponsor a child and his or her community through World Vision’s child sponsorship program. Visit www.worldvision.org for more information.

Fair-Trade Goods Suggest that the students buy fair-trade goods when they can. Fair trade helps to ensure that producers earn a living income from their crafts and products.

50

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


Handouts and Resources

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

51


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 1

Food Quotations The biggest threat we face is a global food crisis …

… milk is the new oil.

With soaring food and fuel prices …

… hunger is on the march and we must act now.

— D on

C oxe ,

— J osette

G lobal

S heeran ,

P ortfolio

W orld

S pecialist

F ood

P rogram

With one child dying every five seconds from hunger-related causes …

… the time to act is now.

When people were hungry, Jesus didn’t say, “Now is that political, or social?”…

… He said, “I feed you.”

We know that a peaceful world cannot long exist …

… one-third rich and two-thirds hungry.

If you want to eliminate hunger …

— G ordon

— A rchbishop

— J immy

minister

T utu

former

U . S .

president

singer

… we can conquer childhood hunger. A ldrin ,

former

U . S .

astronaut

… are helping to make ending world hunger a major priority. — D on

There are people in the world so hungry …

prime

… everybody has to be involved.

— B u z z

Those who wish for a more peaceful, just, and sustainable world …

B ritish

D esmond

C arter ,

— B ono ,

If we can conquer space …

B rown ,

C oxe ,

global

portfolio

specialist

… that God cannot appear to them except in the form of bread. — I ndira

G andhi ,

former

I ndian

prim E

minister

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

52


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 1

Food Quotations If you can’t feed a hundred people …

( C ON T INU E D )

… then just feed one. — M other

Hunger knows no friend …

T eresa ,

… but its feeder. — A ristophanes ,

The threats are obvious to us all. Yet this crisis also …

Genuine food security should be global …

ancient

G reek

playwright

… presents us with an opportunity. — B an

K i - moon ,

U N

secretary - general

… and achieved through cooperation. — L ui z

We estimate that the effect of this food crisis on poverty reduction worldwide …

humanitarian

I nacio

L ula ,

B ra z ilian

president

… is on the order of seven lost years. — R obert

Zoellick ,

president

of

the

W orld

B ank

The war of the stomach will …

… rage on. People want something on their plates. — B etty

An empty belly …

M alconi ,

Zimbabwean

rights

activist

… has no ears. — S enegalese

Our harvest is the same size, but our costs have almost doubled …

saying

…Our difficulties have doubled, too. — N guyen

T hi

V an ,

V ietnamese

rice

farmer

Resource 1: Permission to reproduce is granted. © 2009 by World Vision, Inc. WORLD VISIOn

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

53


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 2

Riddle Worksheet TIME REQUIRED: Work alone, in pairs, or in small groups to solve the following “What am I?” riddles.

Riddle No. 1 I exist, but I can’t be made. China is using more of me than ever before. The United States is wondering how to replace me. Pineapples and bananas need me to get to you. Apples and tomatoes? Not so much. The food on your table is there thanks to me, but I’m a hidden ingredient in the farm-to-table link. What am I?

Riddle No. 2 I’m found in vodka and Volvos, and I help show the heat rise. Brazil is one of my largest producers, using sweetness to make their cars go. The United States wants to produce more of me, turning solid yellow into liquid blue. Some say I am the answer to a global problem, others say I am a cause. What am I?

54

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 2

Riddle Worksheet ( C ON T INU E D ) Riddle No. 3 I can be hot, cold, wet, or dry, and lately I’ve gone to extremes. Humans didn’t create me, yet they have a way of making me change. Usually I’m harmless, but depending on my mood, I can be deadly. Some people don’t give me much thought, others worry I will wreak havoc in their lives. What am I?

Riddle No. 4 Some people avoid me altogether, Others consume a lot of me every day. Some people can’t bear to think of what I used to be. I can be the first thing off the list when money is tight. A lot of resources are needed, to produce just a little bit of me. What am I?

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

55


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 2

Riddle Worksheet ( C ON T INU E D ) Riddle No. 5 In the summer you might see great piles of me, but now my reserves are shrinking. Most people take me for granted, because I’ve been around longer than sliced bread. You can consume me, or consume something that consumed me first. I come in many forms, and I travel with thousands like me. What am I?

Riddle No. 6 You can’t eat me, but it’s hard to eat without me. I talk without saying a word. I can grow but I’m not alive. I make people smile, but I have no personality. Most people are happy to hold me, but I don’t feel a thing. Some make lots of me with only a little to start, but be warned: I go as easy as I come. What am I?

Resource 2: Permission to reproduce is granted. © 2009 by World Vision, Inc. 56

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

H A NDOU T 0 1

Web of Causes Worksheet

Global Food Insecurity Handout 1: Permission to reproduce is granted. Š 2009 by World Vision, Inc. WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

57


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 3

Food Insecurity Factors

Oil Facts About Oil

» Oil is a nonrenewable resource and the basis of modern industrial economies. » Scientists estimate that within the next few decades the demand for oil will exceed production and reserves will run out. » Countries with the largest oil reserves are Saudi Arabia, Canada, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Russia, Libya, and Nigeria. » Wars over oil have been fought in Kuwait, Iraq, Nigeria, and Sudan; as oil reserves are depleted, wars over this resource could increase. » Increased worldwide consumption of oil and gas results in emissions of greenhouse gases, which cause climate change.

Links Between Oil and Food Insecurity

58

» Oil prices have risen sixfold since 2002; they are predicted to double again by 2012. » Improving economies in China and India have increased their demand for oil to support manufacturing and production; improved living standards in these countries have created more demand for personal vehicles and fuel. » Production of crop fertilizers requires large amounts of oil and natural gas; the rise in the price of oil has resulted in the cost of fertilizer doubling between fall 2007 and spring 2008. » Oil provides most of the energy to run farm machinery, so the rising cost of oil is increasing production costs for farmers. » In our current global food system, food is mass-produced in a few countries and exported to other countries around the world, requiring large amounts of oil for transportation; many people have adopted the 100-Mile Diet, which encourages buying and consuming food grown and produced within 100 miles of their homes as a way to reduce the use of oil in food transportation. » Diminishing oil supplies, combined with growing awareness of the environmental impact of burning oil, has led to interest in the use of biofuels, such as ethanol, as alternatives; however, biofuels are produced using food sources such as corn and sugar cane, so diverting food crops for fuel contributes to smaller food reserves worldwide.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 3

Food Insecurity Factors ( C ON T INU E D )

+ List the ways rising oil prices contribute to global food insecurity. + What are the benefits and drawbacks of oil use? +  Countries in the West developed their economies with an almost unlimited use of global oil

reserves. + Should countries with emerging economies, such as China and India, restrict their consumption of

oil in the face of diminishing supplies and environmental concerns? Why or why not? +  What are the implications of a future oil crisis (for example, diminishing supplies and rising prices) for the

global economy? For the United States? What impact would an oil crisis have on you and your family? + What might be done to avert a future oil crisis?

GRAIN STOCKS Facts About Grain Stocks

» Grains, also called cereal crops, include maize or corn, rice, wheat, oats, barley, sorghum, and rye. » Grains are grown in greater quantities than any other crop worldwide and provide more energy for the world’s population than any other crop group. » In developing countries, grain—in the form of corn or rice—comprises the majority of the population’s diet. » The United States, Australia, Canada, China, India, Russia, France, and Argentina are leading wheat exporters. » Thailand, India, Vietnam, the United States, and Pakistan are leading rice exporters. » The amount of grain exported each year depends on a number of factors, including weather conditions, harvests, and export controls placed by governments concerned about domestic supplies.

Links Between Grain Stocks and Food Insecurity

» Increasing demand for grain as livestock feed, extreme weather conditions, water scarcity, and low stockpiles have all resulted in rising grain prices. » In January 2008, the FAO Food Price Index (FFPI) jumped by 47 percent from the year before, led by increases in cereals (62 percent), dairy (69 percent), and vegetable oils (85 percent). » Prices of nearly all food commodities have risen since the beginning of 2008, supported by a persistent supply-and-demand situation; rice prices gained the most, corn prices also made gains, and because of low stocks, wheat prices are well above 2007 levels. » An extended drought in Australia’s Murray-Darling Basin in 2006–07 reduced Australia’s wheat production by 58 percent from the previous year.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

59


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 3

Food Insecurity Factors ( C ON T INU E D )

» In May 2008, Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar destroyed much of Myanmar’s rice crop; the effects of the storm may mean that Myanmar will be forced to import rice for the first time. » Grain stockpiles have been declining as a “just in time” inventory method—producing without storing large surpluses—has become the norm; in times of crisis this means fewer grain reserves to draw upon. » Government and private wheat reserves are at an all-time low; the world consumed more grain than it produced for the past eight years, and grain stockpiles are only 40 days short of the next harvest from running out of food (in 1998 and 1999, it was 116 days). » In order to feed their own populations, some governments have partially or completely restricted the exports of various foodstuffs (Argentina, Bolivia, Cambodia, China, and Vietnam).

For Discussion Why is the demand for grain increasing? Why is the global supply of grain decreasing? Countries in the West developed their economies with an almost unlimited use of global oil reserves. In order to prevent a worse situation of world hunger, global grain reserves need to be built up. However, stockpiling grain when prices are volatile leads to higher food prices and hoarding. What role should governments play in this situation? +  Is it right for governments of grain-exporting countries to partially or completely ban exports in order to feed their own populations first? Or should they make the food needs of the global population their main priority? + Propose possible solutions to ensure global grain supplies are adequate both now and in the future. + + + +

Money Markets Facts About Money Markets

60

» Capitalist economies are driven by money and making profits. » One way people make money in capitalist systems is by playing the stock market and speculating that the price of a good or service will increase in the future—in other words, buying stocks while the price is low and selling when the price is high. » The process of buying and selling stocks, bonds, currencies, real estate, commodities, or any other valuable financial instrument is called “financial speculation.” » Recent financial speculation in food commodities such as corn, wheat, soybeans, and rice has caused prices of these commodities to rise.

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 3

Food Insecurity Factors ( C ON T INU E D )

Links Between Money Markets and Food Insecurity

» Due to the downturn in the U.S. economy and the weakening U.S. dollar, investors have recently removed money from equities and mortgage bonds and invested in food and raw materials, contributing to a sharp increase in prices of food commodities. » The amount of money invested in food commodities has grown from $13 billion in 2003 to $260 billion in March 2008. » Speculators are betting on food scarcity in the future due to increasing corn production for ethanol, the effects of severe weather patterns, and the rising price of oil. » Importing countries are being hit by higher food prices, which benefit large farming conglomerates in exporting countries; smaller-scale farming operations producing for domestic markets benefit very little from food price increases. » Mexico used to produce enough maize to supply its domestic market, plus export a surplus; however, with pressure from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to open its market to imports, Mexico now imports 30 percent of its maize; meanwhile, speculation has driven up the cost of maize in the U.S., which has led to higher costs for Mexicans, causing a “tortilla crisis” for the Mexican poor.

For Discussion + How does financial speculation contribute to global food insecurity? + Who profits from rising food commodity prices? Who suffers? + The buying and selling of food commodities turns food into a profit-making instrument for investors;

however, food is also a basic human right that should be universally available to all. Debate the ethical and social implications of this situation. + Propose possible approaches to reduce the impact of financial speculation and global markets on global food shortages, now and in the future.

(Sources: The State of Food Insecurity in the World, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2009; “Crop Prospects and Food Situation,” Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations 2009; Rising Food Prices, Policy Options and World Bank Response, The World Bank, 2008; Soaring Food Prices, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2008; The State of Food and Agriculture, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2008; Crop Prospects and Food Situation, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2008; Rising Food Prices: What Should Be Done, International Food Policy Research Institute, April 2008; “Global Warming Fast Facts,” National Geographic News, June 14, 2007; “UNDP and Climate Change,” United Nations Development Program Fast Facts, December 2007; Martin Khor, “Food Crisis, Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture,” presented at the Food Security Summit in Rome, June 2008; “Agriculture’s Climate Change Role Demands Urgent Action,” Greenpeace, January 2008; “Patterns Affect Food Security and the Environment,” International Development Research Center, January 2008.) Resource 3: Permission to reproduce is granted. © 2009 by World Vision, Inc.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

61


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 4

Food INSECURITIES: Case Studies

Mary Kate MacI sa ac /WORLD VISION , 2006

Afghanistan: Child Brides The main staple for most Afghans is wheat flour, used in making bread. In 2007, the price of an eightpound bag of wheat flour was 80 Afghani ($1.60 U.S.). Today it’s 400 Afghani, or about eight U.S. dollars. This represents a 400 percent increase. As wheat prices skyrocket, precious livestock is sold to subsidize family incomes. Food insecurity, combined with serious drought, is driving some families in Afghanistan to desperate measures. When selling livestock does not provide enough income to survive, families will marry off daughters as young as 7 years old to ease their debt and pay for food and household expenses. Afghan law states that a girl must be 16 years old and give consent to marry, but in the face of increasing hunger and debt, these laws are not being enforced.

Fatima’s Story Fatima* is 11 years old. She is in the third grade. Her favorite class is Dari language, her mother tongue. She loves her teacher, Miss Saleya. In the presence of guests, she is a shy and quiet child. Grasping her headscarf to her mouth, she lowers her eyes whenever she is addressed. “I like school,” she says softly, almost in a whisper. “I am a good student. One day, I would like to be a doctor.” But it’s not certain Fatima will realize her dream. Recently, her father engaged her to a local man in exchange for 300,000 Afghanis, the equivalent of $6,300 U.S. . Her mother, a frail 35-year-old named Sausan, is seated in a far corner of the room. “We had to do this,” she says with little emotion, her placid expression a sign of weariness. Earlier in the week, she gave birth to her seventh child, and she suffers from anemia, a result of both nutritional deficiency and blood loss during labor. “We have no money,” she explains. “How can nine of us eat on two, maybe three dollars a day, with all the other expenses? We had to sell Fatima in order to pay all the people we owed.” “These days the high price of food is affecting us in a bad way,” Sausan continues. “In the past, my husband’s work as a daily laborer covered our expenses. But now, we are borrowing money just to buy food. We are in a very bad situation.” They survive on very little—tea and bread, dried yogurt soup, some potatoes, lentils, and chickpeas. It has been a long time since they tasted meat. Fatima and two other siblings receive monthly food rations through World Vision’s Food for Education program. This feeding program draws some 75,000 students to schools throughout Badghis and Ghor provinces. But for many families, it is not enough.

62

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 4

Food INSECURITIES: Case Studies ( C ON T INU E D ) Fatima’s family does not have land or livestock to sell. Each month, half the family’s income covers rent for their small two-room mud house. What remains is not enough for wheat flour. Fatima is among the last of their “assets.” While her mother lists reasons for “selling” her daughter, Fatima sits quietly by the one window that sheds light into the dark room and listens to children playing in a mud compound nearby. Every few minutes, she looks out the window, an open space without glass, framed by two wooden shutters. She is as expressionless as her mother. Sausan says that Fatima won’t be forced to marry immediately. She can live at home and continue school for four more years. “In the agreement, we said she must.” But this family has seen hard times before, and two older sisters have not fared so well. The eldest daughter, Riala, 16, was forced into marriage at 11. Today she is the mother of two. The second daughter, Halima, 14, is also married with an 18-month-old daughter. Fatima will be fortunate if she is permitted to continue her schooling. Sausan describes her situation in factual terms. This is not what she wanted for her family. “All I ever dreamed of having was a good house, enough food, and a healthy family—a peaceful country, too, where my children could get an education.” Fatima shares her mother’s dream. “I wish we had a developed country. One that was peaceful and green.” Then she adds, “And democratic.” Outside, the dry wind whips dust-like silt into the air. It settles into drifts that collect against the side of the house. “We didn’t want to sell her,” her mother says. “We wanted to wait until she was 20. But we were forced to …” Sausan’s voice grows softer and trails off. “There was no other way.” *names have been changed to protect identities (This story was adapted from a story by Mary Kate MacIsaac, World Vision staff, June 2, 2008.)

“We have no money,” Sausan explains. “How can nine of us eat on two, maybe three dollars a day, with all the other expenses? We had to sell Fatima in order to pay all the people we owed.”

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

63


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 4

Food INSECURITIES: Case Studies ( C ON T INU E D )

Jon Warren /WORLD V ISION , 2008

Senegal: Children and Education Senegal is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 156 out of 177 countries on the United Nations Development Program’s (UNDP) Human Development Index. More than half the population of Senegal lives on less than $2 a day. Food insecurity has made it increasingly difficult for Senegalese families to access the cereal crops upon which their families depend: corn, millet, rice, and sorghum. Prices on these products have risen sharply in the past three years. Between February 2007 and February 2008 alone, prices on these cereal crops rose 16 to 22 percent. The combination of stagnating family income and rising food prices is having a disastrous impact on households. Food is essential for people’s physical and mental health and energy, especially for children in school. In many cases, limited access to food has resulted in children dropping out of school to help support their families.

Ndiouck’s Story Ndiouck Faye is a 12-year-old girl who lives with her family in Senegal. This is her story. “I live with my mother, Dibe Tine, who is 42 years old, and my siblings, Lamine Faye, who is 15, and Moulaye Faye, who is 10. Until recently, I was in school, in grade four. My father died four years ago, and since then, we have gone through many difficulties, mainly related to food security. As we have no donkey or horse to work with on the farm, my mother partners with neighbors to till our land. Since my father’s death, we have not had a good harvest, which makes life more difficult for us. “Things got worse this year as our food stock was used up by early January. It is very difficult to cover our food needs. On top of that, my mother fell sick and could no longer find food for the family. Finally, I was obliged to leave school to help in the house as I am the only girl that my mother has. “My half-brother, Doudou Thiaw, is 26 years old. He has gone to Dakar to find work. He tries to support us, but it’s on an irregular basis. My mother struggles every day to maintain her family. Thinking about her daily efforts meant I lost the motivation to go to school. We used to have three meals a day, but now we have come to two or one a day. Prices of rice, oil, millet, and maize have become so expensive that there is no way for us to afford a bag of 50 pounds of rice or millet. “Moreover, my mother had seven goats, but unfortunately a thief stole five of them. This is common in these hard times, mainly in families whose head is a woman like ours. So now my mother has no livestock to sell in order to address our needs and often borrows from neighbors or shopkeepers to provide at least for lunch or dinner, even if it is not always enough for us to eat our fill. “When my father was alive, we did not face these problems, but now that my mother is alone with her children, it is very difficult for her. I could no longer stand going to school, leaving her in such difficulties.” (This story is adapted from a story written by a World Vision staff person in Senegal, May 21, 2008.)

64

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 4

Food INSECURITIES: Case Studies Ashley Jonatha n Cle me nts /WORLD V ISION, 2008

( C ON T INU E D )

Georgia: Divided Families Georgia is a country in central Asia bordering Russia, Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. It is a lowincome country, with 39 percent of its 4.4 million people living below the official poverty line. Approximately one-third of the population does not receive adequate dietary caloric intake. Inflation and rising global food and energy prices are hitting already vulnerable Georgian families the hardest. The prices of bread and wheat flour have risen 33 percent and 32 percent, and the price of maize flour has risen 50 percent. Milk and cheese prices are rising and even aligning, whereas in the past, cheese was always more expensive. Sunflower oil, used widely by Georgians, has also increased by 65 percent. Today a Georgian family with six children needs about 350 GEL (about $250 U.S.) a month to survive. In 2004, the figure was 226 GEL. Georgia is presently using only a small percentage of its agricultural potential due to the lack of modern production and storage technologies, and the lack of information available to farmers about markets and market prices, making production and trade decisions difficult and risky. In the face of a rising cost of living and lowered agricultural output, children in Georgia are paying the price. Out of desperation to feed their children, some parents are making the difficult decision to send their children to institutions where they will receive regular meals. But for many children in this situation, the social and emotional costs of being removed from their homes are high.

Marina’s Story Marina is a 41-year-old woman who lives with her husband and six children in Georgia. This is her story. “I dream of the day when I don’t have to worry how I will feed my six children,” says Marina, who laments that no one in her eight-member family has a job. The rising cost of living and increased food prices are threatening to drive her family apart. Marina, her husband, Badri, and their children live in a suburb of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, in a two-room flat with five beds. Inside, a stark lack of furniture and signs of poverty are the first things you notice as you enter the room. There isn’t enough space to hold the children’s clothes and not enough beds and chairs to go around, yet the family is together and they are grateful for this small haven, which they rent with the support of World Vision and a small government allowance of 280 GEL (about $200 U.S.). The future looks bleak, but times have been even tougher in the past. Now, the rising cost of living and increased food prices are threatening to drive the family apart again. Two years ago, before receiving help from World Vision, the family struggled to find rent money every month and to feed their growing children.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

65


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 4

Food INSECURITIES: Case Studies ( C ON T INU E D )

Marina’s husband worked as a security guard, earning a monthly income of 150 GEL (about $100 U.S.). They would spend 90 GEL ($60 U.S.) of that income on bread alone, and the rest had to cover rent. Their meager diet consisted of bread and tea. “Sometimes we could not buy bread, and the children went hungry all day,” recalls Marina. When the money ran out, Marina and Badri felt that the only way they could provide for their children’s basic needs was to place the children in a children’s institution. In Georgia, 90 percent of children in institutions have parents. “I made the hardest decision of my life—taking my children to the orphanage was the only solution for us; otherwise, they would die of hunger,” says Marina. “I lived there a year. I hate thinking of that time. I thought my parents left us there, and we would never see them again. I cried all the time,” says 13-year-old Giorgi. Living in their own place has eased the situation, but the income is still not enough for the family. “We manage to feed our children twice a day, but sometimes they go to bed on an empty stomach,” says Badri. Marina’s family is presently coping with the help of neighbors, the government allowance, and World Vision. However, the threat of having to abandon their children to an institution still looms fiercely, for this family and for thousands like it across Georgia and Eastern Europe. (This story is adapted from a story by Ana Chkaidze, World Vision staff, May 8, 2008.)

“I dream of the day when I don’t have to worry how I will feed my six children,” says Marina, who laments that no one in her eight-member family has a job. The rising cost of living and increased food prices are threatening to drive her family apart.

66

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 4

Food INSECURITIES: Case Studies ( C ON T INU E D )

Angola: Children and Land Mines Cuito Cuanavale in southeast Angola is a forgotten place. The area was the scene of one of the most important battles of the southern Africa region. The battle played a major role in terminating the apartheid regime in South Africa and helped Namibia achieve independence. While history keeps unfolding, Cuito Cuanavale seems to have stagnated. The town has barely any essential infrastructure. In a land covered with land mines and explosive ordinance, the population is constrained to just a few areas. In addition, the Angolan media estimates that the southeast part of the country, including the Cuito Cuanavale region, has more than 30,000 families hit by drought and unexpected heavy rains resulting in floods. Driven by hunger, people scour the bush for anything to eat, even though it is riddled with land mines. According to government officials, mine accidents are commonplace. The roads linking the province are not accessible. The only way for humanitarian agencies to bring in food aid is to fly across the province in an attempt to reach the most isolated communities of the region.

Joana’s Story Joana, her husband, and their six children live in extreme poverty in the Baixo Longa village in Angola. She is one of the survivors of the historic Cuito Cuanavale Battle. This is her story.

Chiteta Kapalu /World Vi sion, 2007

“As a young girl, my family got divided. I only stayed together with my older sister. We used to dig up holes and hide,” Joana says, as she recounts her day-to-day life during the war. Hiding in holes did not save her sister. She was hit by a bomb and died immediately. Joana had more luck and managed to survive one of the heaviest battles in Angola. Nowadays, life is not any easier. Instead of fleeing from bullets, Joana fights for her family against hunger and poverty. “Since October, we do not have food. First was the drought, and now the floods. Our maize, beans, and vegetables have all been destroyed. All our crops were devastated by lack of rain and then too much rain. How are we meant to grow any food to eat?” Joana asks. Joana’s six children go days without food and must drink contaminated river water. She says they complain constantly of “belly pain.” Children in her community have never received vaccinations. Her youngest daughter, who is 2 years old, cries all day long. Her oldest son walks around looking for fruit and tries to hunt small animals. They have been living like this for months.

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

67


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

R E S OUR C E 0 4

Food INSECURITIES: Case Studies ( C ON T INU E D )

“My only option is to walk all around the bush and look for fruit and mushrooms. I am afraid because I know there are many land mines in this area, leftover from the war, but I have to take the risk to find some food for my children,” she says. “I feel weak, and I am afraid for my children. If we continue like this, I think we will all die,” says Joana, swallowing her tears. There are thousands of Joanas in Cuito Cuanavale. These families who live in extreme poverty are most vulnerable to the devastating effects of droughts and floods on their crops. Searching for food in an area littered with land mines is just one of the many risks they must take in a desperate attempt to survive. (This story is adapted from a story by Tatiana Resk Gomes, April 2, 2008.) Resource 4: Permission to reproduce is granted. © 2009 by World Vision, Inc.

“Since October, we do not have food. First was the drought, and now the floods. Our maize, beans, and vegetables have all been destroyed. All our crops were devastated by lack of rain and then too much rain. How are we meant to grow any food to eat?” Joana asks.

68

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

H A NDOU T 0 2

Food Journal Chart

X

M O N D AY

Number of people in my family

T uesday

=$

T hursday

Estimated family food costs for the week

W ednesday

F riday

S aturday

S U N D AY

In the chart below, record all the food you consume in one week. Include food eaten at home or brought from home, food bought in the cafeteria, snacks bought from vending machines or stores, and meals eaten in restaurants. Record when and where, and even with whom, you ate. Also record any special events you attend where food is served (for example, a special family dinner or party). At the end of each day, provide an estimate of the cost of the food you ate that day. Be as accurate and realistic as possible.

Morning

Noon and Afternoon

Evening

Cost of food eaten per day

Cost of food eaten by me this week

$

Handout 2: Permission to reproduce is granted. Š 2009 by World Vision, Inc.

69

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

H A NDOU T 0 3

Food Journal COMPARISON Chart

Sold Mama’s cakes at school for 7 cents each

Ate a slice of bread

M O N D AY

$0.86

Helped Mama cook the same meal as Monday night

Sold cakes again; ate a banana

Ate a slice of bread

T uesday

$0.64

Ate leftover porridge

Shared some roasted corn with my sister in the market

Checked with neighbors to see if they have work for me to earn a bit of money—they do not

S aturday

Helped Mama cook the same evening meal again, but this time there was not as much porridge and stew; Mama ate less, but gave us the same portions as usual

Mama and Papa talked about the rising prices of flour, sugar, and cooking oil—all ingredients she uses for her cake business

Woke up tired; we are running out of maize

S U N D AY

F riday

Again, no cakes to sell

Helped Mama cook the same evening meal again; she is worried we’ll run out of maize

$0.70

$0.70

Helped Mama cook the same evening meal again

$0.70

1. Make a list of the types of food Simphiwe eats in a week. What does she eat a lot of? What’s missing from her diet? 2. How do the types of food you eat compare to the types of food eaten by Simphiwe? What are the similarities and differences? 3. How does your family’s weekly food costs compare with the amount Simphiwe’s family spends on food? 4. Compare your family’s weekly food spending with the average amount spent by other families around the world (see chart below). What factors, in addition to family income, explain the discrepancies in the amounts spent by different families around the world?

T hursday No bread—ate leftover porridge

No cakes today because the cost of flour went up at the market

Papa sold one of our family goats for extra income; ate porridge for dinner

$0.70

= $ 30.96

Estimated family food costs for the week

Helped Mama cook the same evening meal again

Sold cakes again; ate one

No bread because a loaf now costs $1.14—ate nothing

W ednesday

The fictional food journal is based on the eating habits of a real child, Simphiwe Dlanini, a 13-year-old girl from Swaziland. Simphiwe is the eldest of four children. Her father, Mefika, is currently unemployed, and her mom, Busi, gets up at 4 a.m. to bake cakes for Simphiwe to sell at school. The family is used to eating bread for breakfast, but can no longer afford it. This food journal shows the possible early effects of food insecurity on a family in a developing country. At this point, enough food is still available for the Dlaninis, but they can no longer afford certain types of food, and anxiety about having enough for the weeks ahead has set in.

Morning

Noon and Afternoon

Evening

$0.86

Helped Mama grind maize and start a fire; cooked maize porridge and vegetable stew from pumpkin leaves, sweet potatoes, and peanuts

6

Number of people in my family

Cost of food eaten per day

Cost of food eaten by me this week

$ 5.16 X

WORLD VISION

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

70


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

H A NDOU T 0 3

Food Journal COMPARISON Chart ( C ON T INU E D )

Families around the world: Sample costs of food per week (U.S. dolWithin $100 a week

More than $100 a week

Chad: $25.60 Mali: $26.39 Bhutan: $34.09 Ecuador: $34.75 India: $39.27 China: $59.23 Guatemala: $79.82

Mexico: $189.09 Kuwait: $221.45 Japan: $317.25 USA: $341.98 Germany: $500.07

J on Warren /WORLD VISION, 2008

(Source: A Hungry Planet: What the World Eats, Mid-American Art Alliance, www.maa.org.) Handout 3: Permission to reproduce is granted. Š 2009 by World Vision, Inc.

WORLD VISIOn

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

71


H A NDOU T S A ND R E S OUR C E S

H A NDOU T 0 4

Living Simply Living Without

» Starbucks, 1 x a week = $4; x 6 weeks = $24 » Fast food, 1 x a week = $5; x 6weeks = $30 » Text messaging, 20 x a week = $2; x 6 weeks = $12 » Movie tickets = $5 to $10 each » Skipping the can of soda for 75 cents 2 x a week = $9 in 6 weeks » Not buying magazines or canceling unused magazine subscriptions = $4 each » Instead of buying a new dress for a school dance, borrowing from a friend or reuse one you already own = up to $200 » Buying clothes from a secondhand store or garage sale instead of a department store » Selling unused CDs and or DVDs » Walking or riding a bike instead of driving to save gas money » Giving up getting your nails done or any beauty service » If you’re getting fast food, skipping the fries » Donating part or all your weekly allowance » Packing your lunch instead of buying lunch » Donating or selling unused clothes » Skipping dessert » Renting movies and getting books from local library instead of buying them » Eating at home instead of going out to eat

Luxury Tax

» $2 if you are on a sports team that has uniforms or take a dance class » $1 if you have an instrument (piano, flute, etc) » $1 if you have a bike » $4 if you have a cell phone » $10 if you drive or own a car » 10 cents for each piece of clothing you own » 5 cents for each accessory you own » $5 if you have your own computer/laptop » 25 cents for every video game you own » $1 for every grade you’ve completed in school » $4 if you go to a private school » $6 if you own an iPod/mp3 player » 10 cents for every pair of shoes you own (25 cents for Heeley’s) » 25 cents for every TV in your home (50 cents for TV in a vehicle) » 25 cents for every place in your house where you can get a glass of clean drinking water » 25 cents if you have a skateboard » 50 cents if you have your own room » 5 cents for every book you have

Handout 4: Permission to reproduce is granted. © 2009 by World Vision, Inc. 72

A H u n g r y W orl d : U n d e r s ta n d i n g G l o b a l F o o d i n s e c u r i t y

WORLD VISION


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Throughout this book, including on resource 3, “Food Insecurity Factors,” the information about and the statistics on world hunger and global food insecurity are from the following sources: The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2006 and 2008, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO); Rising Food and Fuel Prices: Addressing the Risks to Future Generations, 2008, The World Bank; Rising Food Prices, Policy Options and World Bank Response, 2008, The World Bank; Soaring Food Prices, 2008, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; The State of Food and Agriculture, 2008, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; Crop Prospects and Food Situation, 2008, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; Rising Food Prices: What Should Be Done, April 2008, International Food Policy Research Institute; Rising Food and Fuel Prices, 2008, World Bank; October 2008 report, United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS); Malaria and Children Progress Intervention Coverage, 2007, UNICEF; Nutrition for Health and Development, 2007, World Health Organization; State of the World’s Children, 2008, UNICEF; Hunger on the Rise, 2008, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; World Hunger Series, 2007, United Nations World Food Program); Crop Prospects and Food Situation, 2008, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; “Global Warming Fast Facts,” National Geographic News, June 14, 2007; “UNDP and Climate Change,” United Nations Development Program Fast Facts, December 2007; “Food Crisis, Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture,” Martin Khor, presented at the Food Security Summit in Rome in June 2008; “Agriculture’s Climate Change Role Demands Urgent Action,” Greenpeace, January 2008; and “Patterns Affect Food Security and the Environment,” International Development Research Center, January 2008.) The lesson openers ”Food Distribution,” “What We Don’t Eat,” and “Grains Not Meat” found on pages 17 and 18 are adapted from the World Food Day Web site www.worldfoodday.org. All rights reserved. Used with permission. The “Food Distribution” activity on pages 34-35 is adapted from the “World Hunger Banquet” activity at www.worldfooddayusa.org. All rights reserved. Used with permission. The bullet items about fasting on page 36 are from Tony Alonso, Return to the Lord: Praying and Living Lent (Winona, MN: Saint Mary’s Press 2007). © 2007 by Saint Mary’s Press. All rights reserved. The first seven prayers on pages 41–42 are from Hunger in Abundance: A Study Guide (Manitoba, Canada: Canadian Foodgrains Bank). Copyright © by Canadian Foodgrains Bank. All rights reserved. Used with permission. The Scripture in this resource is from the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION®. NIV®. Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved. The last two prayers on page 44, and the first on page 45 are from Church World Services, www.churchworldservice.org. All rights reserved. Used with permission. The second prayer on page 45 and the two on page 46 are from the prayer resources page of the Micah Challenge website, www.micahchallenge.org. All rights reserved. Used with permission.


ABOUT WORLD VISION World Vision is a Christian humanitarian organization dedicated to working with children, families, and their communities worldwide to help them reach their full potential by tackling the causes of poverty and injustice. Motivated by our faith in Jesus Christ, World Vision serves alongside the poor and oppressed as a demonstration of God’s unconditional love for all people. We envision a world where each child experiences “fullness of life” as described in John 10:10. We know this can be achieved only by addressing the problems of poverty and injustice in a holistic way. World Vision is unique in bringing nearly 60 years of experience in three key areas to help children and families thrive: emergency relief, long-term development, and advocacy. We bring our skills across many areas of expertise to each community where we work, enabling us to support children’s physical, social, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Partnering with World Vision provides tangible ways to honor God and put faith into action. By working, we can make a lasting difference in the lives of children and families who are struggling to overcome poverty. To find out more about how you can help, visit www.worldvision.org.

ABOUT WORLD VISION RESOURCES Ending global poverty and injustice begins with education: understanding the magnitude and causes of poverty, its impact on human dignity, and our connection to those in need around the world. World Vision Resources is the publishing ministry of World Vision. World Vision Resources educates Christians about global poverty, inspires them to respond, and equips them with innovative resources to make a difference in the world. For more information about our resources, contact: World Vision Resources Mail Stop 321 P.O. Box 9716 Federal Way, WA 98063-9716 Fax: 253-815-3340 wvresources@worldvision.org www.worldvisionresources.com


Jon Wa rre n /WORLD V ISION, 2008

A Hungry World:

U n d e r s ta n d i n g t h e G l o b a l F o o d INSE C U RIT Y Global food insecurity has been making news headlines. However, worldwide hunger and malnutrition are nothing new. 963 million people do not have enough to eat; 907 million of them live in developing countries. In addition, nearly 5 million (4.8 million) children under the age of five die every year from causes related to malnutrition. This calculates to more than 13,000 children each day or one child every 7 seconds dying from causes related to malnutrition. What is new is the rapid and sustained deterioration in people’s access to food. Record high fuel and food prices could push another 100 million people further into poverty and hunger, raising their numbers to almost 1 billion. The causes of rising food costs and diminishing food supplies are complex, but the reality for families affected by shortages of staple foods is simple and harsh. As food prices increase, standards of living decrease. Malnourishment and starvation become real possibilities, and families are forced to make difficult choices. With less access to food, already vulnerable children are in even more danger, as they may be pulled out of school and sent to scavenge or work for food, subjecting them to lost education, early forced marriage, damaged health, sexual and labor abuse, and loss of basic rights. A Hungry World provides background information, statistics, case studies, group activities, and action ideas for teaching young people in grades 6-12 about global food insecurity. In this resource, young people explore the global scale of food insecurity. They analyze some of the many causes and impacts of the problem, such as supplyand-demand issues, and consider the complex ways in which causes and impacts are interrelated. Participants also examine their own food consumption, read case studies about affected children and families, and consider the difficult choices families are sometimes forced to make when their food supply diminishes. The final section of the resource engages young people in brainstorming ways they can take action—both locally and globally—to address issues related to global hunger.


A Hungry World: Understanding Global Food insecurity - An Educational Curriculum