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Your Teeth & Your Health

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Dear Readers, It is with great pleasure that we present this dental manual. We hope this is an interesting and useful resource to help with your health care. Thanks to the generous support of Northwest Dental Services and Yukon Dental Services, and with the help of writers, researchers, and graphic designers this book is now yours. There is important information within Tiny Teeth that can make understanding teeth and things related to them easier for everyone. If you have any questions or comments you may contact us at: info@worldreachfoundation.com We hope you enjoy, and take care of those tiny teeth! Gregory Cohen Worldreach Foundation

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Contents Introduction

4

Baby Teeth

6

Losing Teeth

8

Grown-Up Teeth

10

Taking Care of Your Teeth

17

A Visit to the Dentist

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What if You Need a Filling?

30

Extractions

34

Keeping a Healthy Mouth

36

Tips and Tricks

37

Just for Fun!

39

Glossary

45

Bibliography

47

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Introduction Taking care of your teeth is a very important job. Clean, healthy teeth look great and allow you to feel confident with your smile. Poor dental hygiene, or mouth cleanliness, can lead to many health problems‌ and not all of them are in your mouth! When your teeth are white and clean, you will smile more often! Your healthy teeth help you to chew your food, speak clearly, and look fantastic.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Poor mouth care can not only cause cavities, it may increase your risk of serious illnesses like heart attack or stroke. Failing to brush your teeth regularly can cause bacteria to grow in the bloodstream and could cause an infection in the heart. There are even studies that have linked diabetes to poor oral hygiene. Oral hygiene is very important to the health of your mouth and body. This manual will teach you all about teeth, including how to take good care of them. It is actually very easy to keep your teeth clean. With a few good tools and the help of a dental professional, you can have a white, healthy smile in no time. 5


Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 1: Baby Teeth Most babies are born without teeth…or so it seems. Your teeth have actually been growing underneath your gums before you were born. The first teeth, called baby or primary teeth, usually start to poke through when a baby is six months old. Sometimes babies are fussy and cry because their gums hurt when teeth are coming in. This is called “teething”. The discomfort can be lessened by using teething 6


Your Teeth & Your Health

rings or other appropriate items for them to bite on. The pressure on the gums helps to relieve the pain. By three years old, most children have all twenty of their primary teeth. They look a lot like adult teeth, but they are much smaller. Imagine how silly this little girl would look with big adult-sized teeth in her mouth! Our teeth are very important. We use them to eat, to smile, and to talk properly. Just try to say the word “teeth� without using your teeth!

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 2: Losing Teeth Sometime after age five, your primary teeth begin to fall out. This happens to make room for your permanent teeth to grow in. First, a baby tooth will become wiggly and loose. It will get looser and looser until it finally falls out! Don’t worry. This does not hurt at all, and soon after the baby tooth falls out, the new tooth begins to poke through!

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Permanent teeth are bigger and stronger than baby teeth and will last for the rest of your life if you take good care of them! When you have all of your permanent teeth, guess how many you will have? Thirty-two!

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 3: Grown-Up Teeth Parts of a Tooth Let’s talk about the parts of a tooth. This is what your tooth would look like if you could see inside of it. The crown is the part of the tooth that you can see sticking out of your gums. Enamel is the very hard outer covering that protects the outside of your teeth. The dentin is very hard. It is kind of like a bone. It protects the inside of your teeth. Under the dentin is the pulp. The pulp is very soft. The nerves and blood vessels are inside of the pulp. When you hurt one of your teeth, this

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Your Teeth & Your Health

is the area that tells your brain about the pain. The blood vessels keep your teeth alive by delivering what they need. The roots hold the tooth firmly in place. The roots grow into the bone of the jaw. Teeth usually have up to three roots and, on occasion, may have four or five roots.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Types of Teeth Look in the mirror at your teeth. Do they all appear to be the same size and shape? Of course not! They are different because they all have different jobs to do. Their size and shape helps them to do what they need to. This picture shows a model of an adult mouth. Incisors are the teeth that are in the front and in the center of the mouth. There are four on top and

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Your Teeth & Your Health

four on the bottom. These teeth are sharp and flat. They are used to cut and tear your food, like when you take a bite of something. Your canines are the four pointed teeth next to the incisors. These sharp teeth are also very helpful in tearing food. Next to the canines are the premolars. The premolars are wider and look bumpy on top. They are important for grinding up food. Your molars smash your food so you can swallow it easily.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Braces Sometimes, permanent teeth don’t grow in straight. There might be gaps between teeth or they might be crooked. Don’t worry! This can be fixed. A specific kind of doctor, called an orthodontist, can put braces on your teeth. Braces are made up of brackets and wires that look like they are made of silver. Braces are actually made of titanium alloy or stainless steel. They can even be gold plated! Braces are attached to the teeth with special glue that is safe for you and your teeth. The orthodontist will use the braces to move all of the teeth into the correct position.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Bridges and Dentures As people get older, sometimes they lose some or all of their teeth. This may be because they didn’t take good enough care of them or because of an illness or injury. When this happens, a dentist, a special doctor for teeth, will make a bridge or a set of dentures to take the place of the lost teeth. These are made to look like regular teeth. A bridge involves just a few teeth and dentures can be a partial or complete set of teeth. A bridge is non-removable, whereas a denture is removable.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Implants Implants are artificial roots used to replace one or more permanent teeth. This is an example of an implant. It looks a little like a screw, doesn’t it? Implants are often made of titanium because it fuses well to the bone. Implants are coupled with a crown. A crown is a cover that looks like a tooth. It may be made of porcelain, gold or other metal alloys, or a combination. This is a picture of a crown that is being made for someone. This is an x-ray of two implants and crowns.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 4: Taking Care of Your Teeth Why Do I Have to Take Care of My Teeth? It is very important to take good care of your teeth. A sticky substance called plaque can form on your teeth. Plaque has germs in it that can hurt your teeth. When you eat, tiny pieces of food may get caught between your teeth or between your teeth and gums. These things can both cause cavities. A cavity is a little hole in the tooth. The hole starts out tiny, but if you continue bad oral hygiene habits, it can get much bigger.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

In this picture, you can see how the cavity keeps getting bigger. Remember the pulp? When the cavity reaches the pulp it really hurts!

This is a tooth with a very bad cavity. See how the germs made the hole very big? Ouch!

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Keep Cavities Away It really isn’t hard to keep cavities away from your teeth. You need a few simple tools, some good habits, and a dentist.

Eat Healthy for Healthy Teeth Did you know that what you eat can help keep your teeth healthy? Too many sugary snacks are not good for your body or for your teeth! Sugar is the number one cause of cavities, or tooth decay. Sugar can stick to plaque on your teeth and together they wear away that hard enamel and make a hole. It is important to follow a healthy diet that includes foods from the Canadian food guide. These foods will provide the special vitamins and minerals that your

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Your Teeth & Your Health

body and teeth need. Some healthy snacks are: low fat milk, carrots, celery, crackers, cheese, yogurt, fruit, or nuts. Early childhood caries (ECC), also known as baby bottle caries, involves severe tooth decay in young children, and is a common bacteria infection. Frequent bottle feeding at night and extended repetitive use of a no-spill training cup are associated with ECC. One solution is to fill their bottle with water rather than other liquids at night. Children experiencing caries

as

infants

have

a

much greater probability of subsequent caries in their teeth.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Tooth Care Fluoride is a special ingredient that is found in many city water supplies as well as in toothpaste. Fluoride makes teeth stronger and fights cavities. Make sure that your toothpaste has fluoride in it by checking the label. Don’t forget to spit out your toothpaste into the sink. Toothpaste does a good job of cleaning your teeth, but it isn’t food! Children under the age of 3 should either use specially formulated toothpaste for babies (only use a tiny smear, as they may forget and swallow) or no toothpaste at all.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Change your toothbrush regularly. When

your

toothbrush gets old, it doesn’t do a very good job of cleaning your teeth. Look at these toothbrushes. The old toothbrush will not clean your teeth very well. Make sure you

replace

your

toothbrush when the bristles start to fan out.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Brush teeth up and down in the direction that they grow. Make sure to brush the tops and sides of all of your teeth‌ even the ones in the back that are hard to reach! Brush gently for at least two whole minutes to make sure your teeth are really clean. Floss your teeth every day to remove any small pieces of food that may be caught between your teeth that your toothbrush can’t reach. You might not even see them until you floss! These pieces of hidden food are bad for your teeth! Floss is a special string that comes in a case or prepared on a flosser.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Adults should brush children’s teeth for them until about age 6 or 7, when they may begin to brush with supervision until age 10 or 11. At that point, they should be able to brush well on their own. Visit your dentist two times every year to have your teeth cleaned and checked. Seeing your dentist is very important to your tooth health.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

If you play sports and you are at risk of getting hit in the mouth, wear an appropriate mouth guard to protect them.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 5: A Visit to the Dentist The Check-Up and Cleaning When you go to have your teeth checked, you will see either a dentist, who is a doctor for teeth, a dental hygienist, a person who is trained to clean teeth, or a dental therapist, a licensed dental auxiliary who specializes in treating children’s teeth and oral hygiene. They might use special instruments to look in your mouth, like a mirror on a handle:

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Your Teeth & Your Health

This special mirror allows the dentist or dental hygienist to easily see behind your teeth. Are you curious about how this works? Try this: Get a small hand held mirror and take it into your bathroom. Stand with your back to the big mirror and hold the small mirror up in front of you. With a little adjustment, you will be able to see your back! This is how the dentist uses his mirror to see the back of your teeth! Sometimes they use this instrument, called an explorer:

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Your Teeth & Your Health

An explorer is used so that the dentist can check all of the surfaces of each tooth. A similar tool called a scaler, is used to scrape any plaque that has hardened into tartar on the teeth. If the dentist wants to see if your teeth are healthy on the inside, he or she might take an x-ray. The dentist will ask you to hold a special card in your mouth:

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Then the dentist will use a special camera that takes a picture. The picture looks like this:

See how it shows the whole tooth, even the root? I see the pulp cavity. Do you? The dentist, dental hygienist, or dental therapist will also clean your teeth with a special electric toothbrush and cleaner. They will also floss your teeth and might even ask you to hold a special tray with fluoride in your mouth. When they are finished, your teeth will be very clean! 29


Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 6: What if You Need a Filling? At your visit to the dentist, he might find a cavity. A cavity is a hole in a tooth caused by tooth decay. Your tooth cannot heal without help from the dentist. You might have to make another appointment to have the tooth filled.

Fillings At a filling appointment, the dentist will use special tools to remove any bacteria and damage from the tooth. He might give you special medicine to make your mouth numb so you don’t feel uncomfortable.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Then he will put a special filling material in the hole. It might be made of silver, gold, porcelain or a special material called a composite. A silver amalgam filling looks like this:

If the cavity is very large and the tooth is weak, the dentist may have to remove the damaged part of the tooth and place a crown over the rest of the tooth to protect it. This is an example of a crown: After your tooth is filled, be sure to follow your dentist’s directions and take good care of your teeth to avoid any further cavities. 31


Your Teeth & Your Health

Root Canals Sometimes the nerve inside of a tooth can become diseased or damaged. When the pulp inside of the tooth is infected, this is called an abscess. In the 18th century, if a person had a toothache, the remedy was to pull out the tooth! Beginning in the 19th century, a special procedure called a root canal was developed to save the tooth. Today’s modern technology provides dentists with the tools to effectively and efficiently save teeth with root canals. A root canal might be performed by a regular dentist or by an endodontist, a dentist who specializes in diseases of dental pulp. This is an x-ray of a root canal with a post to hold the crown in place.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

During a root canal, after the tooth is made numb, a small hole is created to allow the damaged tooth’s pulp to be removed. The dentist can then clean the canals inside of the roots. Sometimes, special medications are put into the pulp chamber to kill germs. A temporary filling might be used to protect the tooth while an infection clears up. Later, the dentist will remove the temporary filling, clean the root canals again, and insert a regular filling. A crown is usually then placed over the top of the tooth for further protection. This drawing shows some of the steps of a root canal procedure:

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 7: Extractions There are times when one or more teeth need to be removed. This is called a dental extraction. Extraction might be necessary if a tooth is damaged and cannot be repaired. Sometimes teeth are not positioned correctly and are causing pain or irritation.

Removal

of

those

teeth

might

be

recommended to stop pain or prevent other teeth from moving out of the correct positions. Wisdom teeth are molars at the very back of the mouth. If they come in properly, they are difficult to keep clean. Often, there is not room for them and they are impacted, meaning they cannot come through the gums properly.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

This is an x-ray

of

impacted wisdom teeth. See

how

they

are

pushing on the teeth next to them? Before an extraction, the dentist or oral surgeon (a dentist who specializes in surgeries in the mouth) will numb the area so that there is not too much discomfort. In the case of severely impacted wisdom teeth, a sedative or anesthesia may be given. After the tooth or teeth are extracted, the dentist may place a gauze pack in the mouth for 30 minutes to an hour to slow any bleeding. You must be very careful with tooth brushing after an extraction. Avoid the area around the socket. Rinse gently and avoid using mouthwash for a few days to lessen irritation. 35


Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 8: Keeping a Healthy Mouth It is very important to keep your whole mouth healthy. Make sure to brush your teeth at least two times a day for at least two minutes!

Make sure your toothbrush is in good shape and that you are using toothpaste with fluoride in it! Don’t forget to floss every day!

Choose healthy snacks instead of sugary sweets!

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 9: Tips and Tricks Is it hard for you to remember to brush your teeth two times every day? Make a special chart to keep track of your tooth brushing habits. There is one for you to use in Chapter 10! Sometimes it’s hard to know when two minutes has passed when you are brushing your teeth. Take a small kitchen timer with you or sing the alphabet song four times in a row in your head! If you don’t like to have your fingers in your mouth when flossing, try a flosser with a plastic handle and pre-threaded floss. Floss between ALL of your teeth.

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Don’t forget to brush your tongue when you are brushing your teeth. This will get rid of bacteria and make your breath smell fresh! If you are a child, use a child-sized toothbrush! Adult toothbrushes are made for adult mouths with permanent teeth. They are much bigger. Children’s toothbrushes are smaller and made to fit in a child’s mouth.

You don’t need a lot of toothpaste. Squeeze out a pea-sized amount. And don’t forget to rinse and spit!

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Chapter 10: Just for Fun! Color in one tooth each time you brush your teeth! See if you can remember every day

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Color the happy teeth!

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Color Only the Healthy Foods

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Find the Hidden Oral Health Words C H A S R A H Y B P L A Q U E H W B Y

A J B D T O I P C A O W G Q L U R R W

V I V R W U D E N T I S T P K N O A Q

I N E W U J X R D B B M F W J E O C D

CAVITY DAILY DENTIST TWICE

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T K A Q L S U E E D T T D E T P T E E

Y O D P L U H A F F R Y S O E W S S S

S P A O D O O U L G N W A U E Q F I T

T Y I I E A I X U W M Q H E T F D U O

ENAMEL PRIMARY TEETH DECAY

P L L R N V L Z O I O P J R H S K Y O

A D Y T T N U R R K A O R U F A G G T

M O C Y U D C I I M E E L Y D D H J H

I T O J R L T L D N I S M T S K J H P

ROOTS FLUORIDE MIRROR DENTURES

R E Y K E S Y M E P O P R I M A R Y A

R B E L S T P N F R U D N V A J C W S

CROWN BRUSH PLAQUE BRACES

O X T N N P R W H T C K B C H L Z R T

R Z N M A I O R J W F I L L I N G T E

E M L C M M B C L I D L V X G P L A N

B N E A L N E Y M C E K X Z G Y O S B

R O G E S M Q L O E L J R M P T I D V

FILLING TOOTHPASTE FLOSS

A F L O S S P P Q T B G A N T B U F C

C I D I W L E A D E C A Y B R V K G Y


Your Teeth & Your Health

Match the Word with the Picture Draw a line from the word to the correct picture.

toothbrush

floss

toothpaste

mirror

explorer

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Your Teeth & Your Health

Parts of a Tooth Label the parts of the tooth using the words provided.

Gums Enamel

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Dentin Pulp

Crown Root


Your Teeth & Your Health Glossary Braces – devices used to correct tooth placement Bridge – a replacement for one or more missing teeth Canines – the pointy teeth next to incisors Cavity – decay in a tooth Crown – the portion of a tooth that is above the gum line; an artificial cover over the top of a tooth Dental hygiene – keeping a clean mouth, also called oral hygiene Dental hygienist – a person trained to clean teeth Dental therapist – a licensed dental auxiliary who specializes in treating children’s teeth and oral hygiene. Dentin – the hard part of the tooth that is beneath the enamel Dentist – a doctor who specializes in tooth care Dentures – false teeth; a replacement for a full set of teeth Enamel – the hard surface that covers the dentin of the crown of a tooth Endodontist – a dentist who specializes in disease and injury to the pulp Explorer – a tool used to examine teeth Extraction – removal of a tooth Filling – restoring a tooth structure

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Your Teeth & Your Health Floss – special tool used to clean between teeth Fluoride – a substance that helps fight tooth decay Implant – a device placed in the jaw to hold a replacement tooth Incisors – front teeth on the top and bottom Molars – teeth at the very back of the jaw Orthodontist – a dentist who specializes in correcting the alignment of teeth Permanent Teeth – the second set of teeth; adult teeth Plaque – sticky substance on teeth Premolars – teeth between molars and canines Primary Teeth – first set of teeth; baby teeth Pulp – tissue in the tooth that holds blood vessels and nerves Root – the part of the tooth that extends into the jaw and secures it in the mouth Tooth brush – a tool used to clean the teeth Tooth decay – a cavity in a tooth Tooth paste – a substance that usually contains fluoride to clean teeth X-ray – a picture of the inner structure of something

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Your Teeth & Your Health Bibliography ADA.org: Welcome to the American Dental Association Web site. Web. 26 Dec. 2009. <http://www.ada.org>. Dental Care and Oral Health Sourcebook. 3rd ed. US: Omnigraphics, 2008. Print. “Diet For Healthy Teeth And Gums - Dental Health Magazine.” WorlDental.org - Dental Health Magazine. Free Dentistry Information and Dental News for Patients. Web. 18 Jan. 2010. <http://worldental.org/gums/diet-for-healthy-teeth-and-gums/>. Landau, Elaine. Cavities and toothaches. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2008. Print. Lockhart, DDS, Peter B., Michael T. Brennan, DDs, MHS, Martin Thornhill, MBBS, BDS, PhD, Bryan S. Michalowicz, DDS, MS, Jenene Noll, RN, BSN, Farah K. Bahrani-Mougeot, PhD, and Howell C. Sasser, PhD. “Poor oral hygiene as a risk factor for infective endocarditis-related bacteremia.” The Journal of the American Dental Association 140.10 (2009): 1238-244. Print. “Oral Health.” NIDCR Home. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Web. 26 Dec. 2009. <http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/>. “Poor dental hygiene increases risk of heart attack and stroke.” WorldHealth.net. American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, 11 Sept. 2008. Web. 22 Dec. 2009. “Poor oral health linked with coronary heart disease.” The Journal of the American Dental Association 135.4 (2004): 416. Print. Primary preventive dentistry. Norwalk, Conn: Appleton & Lange, 1995. Print. “The Canadian Dental Association : Your Oral Health : Caring for Your Teeth : Dental Care for Children.” The Canadian Dental Association - L’Association dentaire canadienne. Web. 23 Jan. 2010. <http://www.cda-adc.ca/en/oral_health/cfyt/dental_ care_children/index.asp>.

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Š2010 Worldreach Foundation. All rights reserved.

TINY TEETH  

This is an oral Health Manual for people of all ages. A Worldreach Foundation project.

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