World Mining Magazine

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Magazine

Coronet Metals US

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A revolution in mineral processing

Issue 40 2021

World Mining





the editor

The Emperor’s new bandwagon

A light hearted look at climate change

Editor

The

Martin Ashcroft

A

rthur and Martha are preparing for a board meeting, where climate change will be on the agenda. “So, it’s official then,” said Arthur. “What is?” said Martha. Arthur adopted an official tone of voice, one that indicated he was quoting from a serious announcement. He would never have spoken these words otherwise. “’It is unequivocal and indisputable that humans are warming the planet.’” “Oh, the report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,” said Martha. “I did hear about that. Don’t tell me you’re disputing it?” “Not at all,” said Arthur. “It’s not something you can dispute really, is it? We’ve been preparing for this for ages and we’re going carbon free by 2050, aren’t we?” “So, what’s your problem with the announcement?” said Martha. “It just adds to the hysteria,” said Arthur. “The climate change bandwagon will pick up pace again and there’ll be even more hoops to jump through.” “Did you notice,” said Martha, “that the report also said

there is still time to do something about it. It’s a ‘code red for humanity’ they said, but ‘a catastrophe can be avoided if the world acts fast’. That’s what we’re trying to do here.” “They have to say that,” said Arthur. “Imagine the frenzy if they said it was too late already. “It reminds me of that old joke about a man beating two sticks together in the High Street,” Arthur continued. “When a stranger asked him why he was doing it he said it was to keep the tigers away. ‘There are no tigers here,’ the stranger said. ‘See, it works,’ said the man. “Look,” said Martha, “I don’t know any more than you do whether climate change is responsible for all the forest fires and floods and goodness knows what else is happening in the world, but even if it’s not, it can’t hurt to cut our carbon emissions if it improves our efficiency and attracts investors.” “I suppose you’re right,” said Arthur, “as usual. But I’m still hoping to wake up one day and find that everything they’ve been telling us about climate change has been a gigantic hoax. Like the Emperor’s new clothes.” “Keep on dreaming,” said Martha. World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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Contents Cover story coronet metals us: a revolution in mineral processing Page 8 Page: 5 • The Editor: The Emperor’s new bandwagon. A lighthearted look at climate change 8 • Coronet Metals US: A revolution in mineral processing 30 • Cummins: Balance of power 46 • Newmont Corporation: First among equals 58 • BHP: Performance & development 77 • ABB launches condition monitoring service for conveyor belts • Purepoint Uranium starts diamond drill program at Red Willow Project 79 • Barrick completes sale of Lagunas Norte mine in Peru • Fosterville South to drill Beechworth Gold Project 83 • Western Copper and Gold commences exploration and drilling program at Casino 85 • GoldMining updates mineral resource estimate for the Whistler Project, Alaska • Epiroc wins large mining equipment order in Mexico 91 • Neo Lithium discovers new deep brine aquifer in the 3Q Project • New Pacific commences initial discovery drilling at the Carangas Silver Project in Bolivia 93 • Canada Nickel makes significant discoveries

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ADVERTISERS

2 MAXAM Tire 4 One Eye Industries 47 ULTRATECH 50 KCA (Kappes, Cassiday & Associates) 51 THEJO 55 Major Drilling 61 Midroc Remote Mining 63 Graham 72 Major Drilling 73 Truflo Pumps 74 Vigil Anti-Slip 75 Goodyear off-the-road 76 Tamrotor (Ingersoll Rand) 78 Canary Systems 80 VEI Group 81 THEJO 82 drytech 84 Vulkan Drive Tech 86 RST Instruments 87 Measurand 88 Hamilton Equipment Company (HEC) 89 Aegion 89 NFP 89 Pivotal Solutions 90 MoistTech Corp 92 Hydraulex 94 Yale Cordage 98 GDD 99 Marland Clutch 100 Pumps 2000 101 World Mining Directory 103 Resemin Asia 104 Weir Minerals


news: Page 77

at Crawford Nickel Project • US Gold Corp completes 2021 drilling at Maggie Creek, Nevada 95 • RCT to transform Evolution Mining’s Canadian fleet • Outback Goldfields’ Ballarat West exploration licence granted 96 • Thor Mining exploration work helps US energy security

newmont corporation: first among equals Page 46

World Mining Magazine Contacts, Advertising Rates & Information News & Features Editor

Martin Ashcroft martin@ogsmag.com martin@worldminingmagazine.com

Editor

Vanessa Ward editor@ogsmag.com vanessa@worldminingmagazine.com

Sales

sales@ogsmag.com sales@worldminingmagazine.com

Design and Artwork

artwork@ogsmag.com artwork@worldminingmagazine.com

Managing Director Simon Ward

Advertising Rates

Double Page £6000.00 Full Page £4895.00 Half Page £2450.00 Quarter Page £1450.00 Full Page (inside cover) £6000.00 Lead Article + Front Cover £19,995.00 All advertisement rates include design free of charge. The magazine is printed in A4 format on 250gsm gloss laminated cover and 170gsm matt internal pages. The magazine is both a printed hard copy magazine and distributed electronically. Currently our global readership is approximately 93,000.

World Mining Magazine 2021 World Mining Magazine is published by Worldwide Business Media Limited, London, EC1V 2NX United Kingdom. Registered No. 6809417 England/ Wales. VAT No. 972 7492 76. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or any part without written permission is strictly prohibited. Liability: while every care has been taken in the preperation of this magazine, the publishers cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information herein, or any consequence arising from it. All paper used in this production comes from well managed sources.

Worldwide Business Media Limited, London. EC1V 2NX United Kingdom. www.ogsmag.com Tel: +44(0)203 5751249

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Coronet Metals US

A revolution in mineral processing C

oronet Metals US Inc, and its subsidiary Avimetal, are about to revolutionize the mineral processing sector with environmentally friendly mineral processing technologies such as ultra-fine micronization milling, electrostatic separation, cyclone electrowinning and hot and cold plasmas.

C

oronet Metals US is a company on the cutting edge of dry concentration, milling and non-cyanide leaching processes that do not produce wastewater. Avimetal is a subsidiary company of Coronet Metals and is based in the United States, with a branch office in Korea that has developed a method for cleaning up cyanide and heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury from contaminated effluent. For the past ten years, Avimetal has been conducting research

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Avimetal has developed a method for cleaning up cyanide and heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury from contaminated effluent


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and development into the treatment of mining effluent and slags, and the findings show a variety of environmentally sustainable rare metal and precious nonferrous industrial metal cleaning and recovery procedures. Avimetal’s environmentally friendly mineral processing technologies can revolutionise the worldwide mining industry, as the majority of alternative procedures rely on the use of large amounts of water and harmful chemicals.

Avimetal’s environmentally friendly mineral processing technologies can revolutionise the worldwide mining industry World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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Mining sector challenges The mining sector has struggled to keep up with international market statistics, despite the industry’s impressive economic performance in recent years. After multiyear high profitability levels, underpinned by financially strong conditions, investors appear unable to invest at past price and dividend yield levels, resulting in existing investors being rewarded with a market price performance that is not comparable. Furthermore, our long-term analysis indicates that the mining industry will only see negligible market cap growth over the next 15 years. However, long-term changes in the operational environment are generating concerns about the industry’s long-term viability. The influence of climate change, as seen by the increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather occurrences, is foremost among them. The mining industry is strongly engaged in the climate change discussion as a source and supplier of carbon-based raw material such as coal, as well as a significant source of CO2 emissions via mining and metals processing. The top 40 companies’ responses are diverse: some have implemented a climate change plan, while others appear to be unconcerned. The majority of capital investment is directed towards copper and battery metals, which are expected to benefit, as the energy supply diverts attention from internal combustion engines and toward electricity, especially renewable energy. However, coal accounts for 38 per cent of worldwide energy generation. It is an essential part of the economy and has inspired significant capital expenditure and transaction attention. Mining corporations are also reducing their operational portfolios by selling non-pivotal properties and adapting project portfolios to meet long-term objectives. Consolidation in the gold sector was a major focus of merger activity among the Top 40 in early 2019 and 2018. Potential acquirers must continue to evaluate their strategic choices before moving forward, but we may see more agreements to boost efficiencies and productivity. Miners are in the public spotlight on the subject of carbon emissions, since they extract fossil fuels and consume a huge amount of energy. Any mistake increases the danger of damaging one’s reputation and adversely affects the whole industry’s social license to function. Mining should therefore be among the first to adapt to the changing environment. While the top 40 miners are

Coronet Metals US

A revolution in mineral processing

doing well in support of environmental monitoring, environmentalists have stated that disclosure alone is insufficient. Direct, quantifiable, demonstrable development is essential for trust to be established and sustained. Miners have already made significant progress in improving operational efficiency in order to reduce groundwater usage and other environmental issues. By 2020, many of the top 40 have set a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 3% to 5%. While this is a welcome move, miners have not gone as far as their counterparts in other sectors.

While the top 40 miners are doing well in support of environmental monitoring, environmentalists have stated that disclosure alone is insufficient. Direct, quantifiable, demonstrable development is essential for trust to be established and sustained World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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Avimetal’s first eco-friendly mineral processing plant On 30 April 2021, Avimetal won contracts for $5 million USD for six environmentally-friendly mineral processing plants, with the first plant to be completed by the end of June in Unju, Korea – the world’s first truly environmentally sustainable mineral processing factory. The Unju Mine was built during Japanese colonial administration in Korea. They chose to redevelop an abandoned mine in 1997, registering for a mining license in Jeonbuk Province in December of last year – which was rejected in January of this year for violating the Mountain Management Act. Residents of Yangchonmyeon, Nonsan City, near the Unju Mine, are protesting that “If the Unju Mine is redeveloped, not only will Topjeong Lake and Nonsan Stream – which are the feeding lines of Nonsan – be contaminated, but ecofriendly agricultural products such as strawberries and lettuce will also suffer great damage.” Nonsan City wrote a letter of command signed by Mayor Hwang MyungSeon recently, saying that “if the Unju Mine is developed, there is a concern that Nonsan’s agricultural base will be uprooted.” Approximately 1 million tons of cyanide and cadmiumcontaminated effluent are currently present at the Unju Mine. Acidic water from the abandoned mine, polluting waterways, and neighbouring agricultural land may be contaminating tailing sediments and nearby places at the time of this writing. In general, once damage from mine contamination begins, it continues for a long period, and healing and restoration take a lot of time and money. Furthermore, many civil lawsuits have been filed over environmental damage. The government is currently carrying out duties on an annual basis as part of a national project to prevent soil and groundwater contamination from acid leachate and cyanides from the existing tailings dump. Simon Korea will use Avimetal’s technology to clean up the million tons of tailings and expand the underground mine. Crushing, milling, drying, electrostatic concentration, leaching with NaCl, cyclone electrowinning system and a 100 per cent recycling wastewater system were all part of Avimetal’s plant design.

On 30 April 2021, Avimetal won contracts for $5 million USD for six environmentally-friendly mineral processing plants, with the first plant to be completed by the end of June in Unju, Korea – the world’s first truly environmentally sustainable mineral processing factory

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A revolution in mineral processing

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In the United States, the world’s first dry concentration plant utilizing revolutionary polymer graphene oriented electrostatic separation technology, invented by Avimetal CEO James Gim, has been built on 54 acres of property at Beatty, Nevada, purchased by Coronet Metals

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Beatty Dry Concentration Plant Meanwhile, in the United States, the world’s first dry concentration plant utilizing revolutionary polymer graphene oriented electrostatic separation technology, invented by Avimetal CEO James Gim, has been built on 54 acres of property at Beatty, Nevada, purchased by Coronet Metals. Beatty City is an unincorporated town in Nye County, Nevada, that was founded in October 1904 and is situated at the intersection of Highway 95 and State Route 374. Beatty has a wide array of land, water and scenic natural resources, important not just in terms of economics, aesthetics and enjoyment, but also in terms of land use monitoring and management. Using technology licensed from Avimetal, Coronet Metals plans to clean up tailings and slags that have accumulated around this location and then continue to expand the underground mine. The facility was built by Avimetal, without the use of water or chemicals, and consists of crushing, milling, drying and electrostatic concentration.


Coronet Metals US

A revolution in mineral processing

Avimetal’s system replaces a ball mill or Raymond mill with a micronization milling system, which saves on electrical power, plant size and produces smaller particles of up to 400 to 600 mesh. Coronet Metals has also relocated its head office from Valley Circle Center to South Eastern Las Vegas near Las Vegas Airport. The HQ office will support mining operations for Gold Bug Mines, AR and Orion Mine, Nevada. In the famous Gold Bug Mine region, Coronet Metals has signed a long-term

leasing agreement for the Lonesome Coyote Mine, Owl Hoot Mine, and Gold Casadei Mine. Each mine is approximately 40 acres (15,000 square meters) and has several hundred thousand tonnes of tailings. There are several million tonnes of effluents on the surface of this 120-acre (480,000-square-metre) site. Coronet Metals intends to purify effluent by dry concentration using Avimetal’s electrostatic separation technology.

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Gold Bug Mine The Gold Bug Mine is located in an area with a long and colourful mining history in Arizona. The Gold Bug, for example, produced 50 tonnes of ore in 1895, averaging 43 ounces (1,333g) of gold per tonne. The Ivy Minerals Gold Bug Mine is located on White Hills Road west of Highway 93, four miles exactly west of Boulder Inn, which is 29 miles south of Boulder Dam on Hwy. 93. The permittee of the site is allowed to use the vat leaching method to operate a closed-circuit non-disposal hydrometallurgical precious metal recovery plant. The infrastructure must be built and maintained in such a way that pollutants do not end up on the land surface or in the subsurface, posing a risk to the water quality in the area. Coronet Metals has acquired the Orion placer mining claims in Esmeralda County, Nevada, in the Goldfield Mining District and plans to develop dry concentration at these mines. Physically, the mining claims are located along a stretch of land in the big wash drainage. The width of this water course varies from 400 feet to over 1,000 feet. Much of the mining district’s heart may be found in the headwaters. The proximity of Coronet Metal’s mines to the big wash zone was and still appears to be favourable for gold deposition. The Milltown Andesite and underlying rhyodacite include silicified and aluminized miocene rocks with high-grade gold pockets and, to a lesser degree, scattered mineralization. Ore can be found at depths of up to 1,000 feet. A total of five million ounces of gold have been extracted from there over the years. The mineralized rocks have been exposed for an unknown amount of time, although the bajada north of town is well developed and mature. Big wash is currently 20 to 30 feet in diameter in the bajada. The wash is a well-developed network of twisted short-lived streams that erode the bajada’s top. Older sediments are being transformed by sheet wash from the west and southwest, which is extending

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Avimetal’s system replaces a ball mill or Raymond mill with a micronization milling system, which saves on electrical power, plant size and produces smaller particles of up to 400 to 600 mesh the wash in those directions. Tailings from previous mining operations have been washed into the drainage in recent years. Overall, erosion is surpassing the fresh sediment accumulation. The sediments are visible in both the wash’s walls and the current channel. Boulders up to several feet in diameter have been found scattered among the silts and gravels in the area, indicating the force of flash flooding. These boulders are made up of rhyodacite that has been silicified and a lot of juvenile basalts, and probable source rock for the gold. All of the rocks in the wash are sub rounded to rounded, showing both rolling and refining of the bigger rocks by finer material swept over them. The sediments contain 1 to 2 percent magnetite, according to a magnet. Small concentrations of magnetite or, more commonly, diffused magnetite, can be found in sediments. The low quantities suggest that the magnetitecontaining material has been processed. Fine gold is certainly present in these magnetite quantities. The district’s mafic rocks, such as andesite and basalt, provide magnetite. The results of the tests point to a gold resource. The sediments are well-developed, with several excellent gold traps. Erosion involves reworking the sediments, which provides a concentration process for fine gold. There is also a magnetite resource that can be easily recovered via magnetic separation. The residual heavy mineral

concentration can then be gravity separated after the magnetite has been removed. A track-mounted sonic drill rig is suggested for a preliminary examination of the resource. Three fences of holes running east-west across the claims should be enough to assess whether additional work is required. For a total of 1,500 feet of fencing, each fence should have ten holes that are


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A revolution in mineral processing

50 feet deep. Sediments will be gathered in 2½ foot bags. The depositional history and the location(s) of fine gold within the sediments are both preserved. The sediment deposition is documented by weighing and photographing the bags. Individual beds can be examined under a microscope to see whether or not there is any gold present. The gold is separated by gravity and the magnetite is separated

by magnetic separation. The weight percentage can be used to establish the grade of each as shown in metallurgical reports list. At big wash north of Goldfield, there is great potential for a placer resource. A considerable resource can also be generated by combining magnetite collected and sold to a cement factory with a gold grade of at least 0.2 ounces per tonne.

Boulders up to several feet in diameter have been found scattered among the silts and gravels in the area, indicating the force of flash flooding World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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Fine particles Since most gold particles are extremely minute (commonly referred to as a ‘micron silica cluster,’ because micron sized gold is contained by silica), fine particles are crucial in gold ore mineral processing. The smaller the particle, the greater the amount of gold recovered. The ultra-fine raptor mill is a new concept that allows fine grinding to extract minerals, including precious metals, more efficiently. The first steps in this process are crushing and milling. Ultra-fine micronization milling is a patented, innovative and commercialized method for particle size reduction in order to reduce – within seconds – solids that are capable of fracturing into a particle-sized powder. It replaces the likes of a conventional ball mill, impact mill, hammer mill, Raymond mill, tower mill, etc. An ultra-fine raptor works by means of a tornado/vortex airstream. With the help of a generated high-frequency air pressure fluctuation and a rotating impeller, the airstream transports the material into the mill’s spiral chamber. From there, the particles are distributed evenly into the milling chamber. The

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A revolution in mineral processing

ultra-fine raptor mill can revolutionize the mineral processing industry because of its higher speed, efficiency, the economy of operation, and improved metal recovery. The principle of triboelectricity (involving contact and/or friction) underpins Avimetal’s dry concentration. Electrostatic concentration has been employed in the mining sector for a long time, but its use has been restricted due to issues such as unit price, processing capacity and the inability to handle microscopic particles. Electrostatic separators are classified as gravity or electrostatic attraction. They both work in similar ways, but the forces that are delivered to the particles differ. High tension rollers and electrostatic separators are both electrodynamic separators.

The smaller the particle, the greater the amount of gold recovered. The ultra-fine raptor mill is a new concept that allows fine grinding to extract minerals, including precious metals, more efficiently. The first steps in this process are crushing and milling

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Dry concentration by electrostatic separation In the early 1900s, electrostatic separation became popular in mineral processing, until the advent of froth flotation. Since then, mineral processing has moved towards eco-sustainable processing techniques (ie, reducing the use of chemicals) and more recently, without the use of water. The electrostatic separation of minerals highlights the significance of a dry state. Electrostatic separation is a process that uses electrostatic charges to separate crushed particles of material. These methods separate valuable minerals from gangues using differences in their electrical properties. Particles of different electrical charges or polarities are separated in an electric field because they follow different motion trajectories. This way, valuable material is separated from ore or slag. In general, electrostatic separators are classified as electrodynamic (high tension) rollers and electrostatic plate separators. The chemical composition of the particle surface affects electron affinity, resulting in significant differential charging of materials in a mixture of discrete particles of diverse composition. The electrostatic plate separators work by passing a stream of particles past a charged anode. In high tension rollers, a corona discharge charges the particles that subsequently travel on a drum. The conducting particles lose their electrons to the drum and are then repelled from the drum; the drum attracts non-conducting particles. These separators have a low load capacity (less than a hundred kilograms per hour). These are useful for particles between 75 and 250 microns, which does not aid the separation of minerals due to the size of the ore particles. For example, the Quadrant Roller Electrical Sorter is a significant piece of equipment in electrical mineral separation. The disadvantage of the roller type is a limitation for separating small particles. However, in 1989, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) developed a belt-type separator

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that works with triboelectricity (charge separation by friction). This separator works for micron-sized particles and has a large separation capacity of 5 tonnes per hour, but the unit cost is several million USD. For this reason, Avimetal has developed low-cost electrostatic separators. The advantages of this system compared to our competitors

are compact size, low sales price, the ability to separate micron-sized particles, large production capacity and low power usage. They also have several advantages over other mineral processing techniques due to their high efficiency, low capital and operating costs, no addition of chemicals and consequently, being environmentally friendly. Avimetal is a technology leader


providing dry concentration, milling and non-cyanide leaching systems without wastewater generation. Avimetal’s dry concentration technology was first successfully commercialized in Quilabamba, Peru, by Picchu Rio Gold Inc. The company’s mining permit had been suspended since 2012 as a result of mercury and cyanide poisoning of water downstream of the Amazon River. Picchu Rio Gold was granted a processing permit in 2018 after the Peruvian government approved an EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) rule permitting the use of Avimetal’s technology.

Coronet Metals US

A revolution in mineral processing

Particles of different electrical charges or polarities are separated in an electric field because they follow different motion trajectories. This way, valuable material is separated from ore or slag www.coronetpm.com

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How Avimetal’s electrostatic separator works Avimetal’s electrostatic separator works with triboelectricity and has four stages of graphene-coated anode and cathode plate pairs, vertically positioned, capable of treating five tonnes per hour. Graphene is a material with the advantages of superior conductivity and low costs. We also offer a full knock down (FKD) kit, with which the machine can be assembled in a few hours. Furthermore, the small size of the equipment saves on the cost of transportation. Valuable and precious metals from dry concentrated materials can be further refined by cold plasma or hot plasma gasification, followed by NaCl (salt water) hypochlorite leaching and a cyclone electrowinning system, depending on the characteristics of the ore contents. Electrostatic plate separators work by passing a stream of particles past a charged anode. Due to their induced attraction to the anode, the conductors lose electrons to the plate and are drawn away from the other particles. Other processes are limited in capacity because every particle must make contact with the drum or plate. The effectiveness of these contact charging processes is also limited to particles of about 100 μm or greater in size, due to the need to contact the grounded plate and the required particle flow dynamics. Due to inertial effects, particles of different sizes will have distinct flow dynamics, resulting in decreased separation. Unlike other electrostatic separation techniques, Avimetal’s separator is well suited for the separation of very fine (one

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Valuable and precious metals from dry concentrated materials can be further refined by cold plasma or hot plasma gasification, followed by NaCl (salt water) hypochlorite leaching and a cyclone electrowinning system, depending on the characteristics of the ore contents

micron) to moderately coarse materials with maximum throughputs. Triboelectric particle charging works with a variety of materials and simply requires particle-to-particle contact. Avimetal’s separator is distinguished by its tiny gap, high electric field, counter current flow, intense particle-particle agitation, self-cleaning action of the belt on the electrodes and being environmentally sustainable.


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A revolution in mineral processing

Cold Plasmas A form of matter made up wholly or partially of ions and electrons is known as plasma (charged particles). A gas will disintegrate into atoms, positive ions and electrons when energy is applied to it. There are two types of plasma, thermal and non-thermal. All particles (electrons, ions, atoms and molecules) are in thermal equilibrium in thermal plasmas (which means the average kinetic energy is the same for all kinds). Thermal plasmas (also known as ‘hot plasmas’) have temperatures ranging from a few thousand to a few million degrees Kelvin. Atoms, positive ions and molecules have substantially lower kinetic energy than electrons in nonthermal plasmas, which are also termed ‘cold plasmas’. In cold plasmas the temperature ranges from room temperature to a few hundred Kelvin. Cold plasma (CP) is a new technology that has captured the imagination of researchers all around the world. It was created to improve the printing and adhesive capabilities of polymers, as well as a number of electronic applications. Its uses have expanded in the recent decade as a potent instrument for non-thermal processing, with a variety of applications. Cold plasma technology is widely used to manufacture semiconductors, printed circuit boards, magnetic media, special glasses, coating metals, and surface-treating some fabrics. A corona discharge can produce cold plasma by applying an electric field to the gas. This technology is ‘dry’, in the sense that it requires no solvents or other chemicals, only gases such as air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon or hydrogen. As a result, it is environmentally sustainable. A revolutionary cold plasma device designed by Richard Woodford and James Gim is ready to be commercialized for metallurgical refining applications. When a DC-pulsed, electric power is delivered to a hydrogen-containing gas, it ionizes, resulting in various radicals. The hydrogen radicals formed in the molten metal react with the contaminants. When they reach the surface, they react with impurities containing sulphur, nitrogen or phosphorus to generate the volatile chemicals H2S, NH3, and PH3. These chemicals are transported away by the fluent gas since they are insoluble in the melts. As a result, the metal’s impurity elements are eliminated. In a cold plasma device containing a reactor, a positive electrode, a negative electrode, a membrane and an agitator, the electrode is set up to produce cold plasma with a temperature range of 65 to 120 degrees Fahrenheit (18 to 49C, 291 to 322 K). We developed the membrane and electrodes ourselves. The metals are then removed with the use of an electrolyte containing NaCl and unique compounds. Different metals can then be recovered by adjusting the pH level.

A revolutionary cold plasma device designed by Richard Woodford and James Gim is ready to be commercialized for metallurgical refining applications. When a DCpulsed, electric power is delivered to a hydrogencontaining gas, it ionizes, resulting in various radicals. The hydrogen radicals formed in the molten metal react with the contaminants

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Thermal plasma in metallurgy is now evolving in two directions: improving traditional metallurgical technologies and developing mostly new plasma metallurgical technologies

Thermal plasma technology applications The current global ecosystem of natural materials, energy and ecology requires the development of novel metallurgical technologies and equipment based on the use of thermal plasma as a concentrated heat source and for chemically active components of processes. Thermal plasma in metallurgy is now evolving in two directions: improving traditional metallurgical technologies and developing mostly new plasma metallurgical technologies. Plasma technologies are typically categorized as smelting and reducing (extracting) processes, based on the breadth of their use. These methods are distinguished by the fact that the materials are finely powdered and, in most cases, subjected to partial reduction prior to processing. The goal of all of the different plasma units is to provide a quick melting time for the raw material and a good contact (maximum area) between the reducing gas and the melted oxide material using diverse technologies. Plasma reduction technologies are characterized in general based on the kind of heat exchange between the plasma arc and the treated material, as well as the parameters under which the reduction processes are carried out. Hot plasma has application in metallurgy, hazardous waste elimination, coating methods such as plasma spraying or chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the production of fine/nano powders, and energy generation. For the past decade, hot

plasma technology has also aided in the recovery of value-added metals from slag or ore. However, the mining sector requires more cost-effective and efficient ore and slag concentration technologies, as well as precious metals processing technology. Consider that gold ore, slag, or other materials have a break-even point (BEP) of at least 0.2 ounces of gold per tonne. Plasma gasification is another method that uses plasma to transform organic materials into synthetic gas and slag. An electric arc plasma torch ionizes the gas and transforms organic material to a synthetic gas, leaving a solid waste. The power is then generated using synthetic gas. Plasma gasification is a cost-effective method of generating electricity from municipal trash or biomass. Plasma plants, on the other hand, are considered costly and limited in capacity. Avimetal has developed a costeffective, compact-sized RF Plasma

Gasification System with outputs ranging from 120 to 960 kW that can be installed in parallel to improve capacity by combining several feeds and torches into a single system. It’s a turnkey modular system that’s easy to set up. Plasma furnaces, similar to plasma-arc furnaces, function in an ‘open bath’ to produce metals and alloys from natural and waste raw materials in industrial manufacturing. Industrial furnaces, in which the powdered material is injected around the heating surface of the resultant plasma cone, spin at a velocity of 50-1500 min around the furnace vertical axis at a 5-15° angle and with an arc length of 500-750 mm, are well known. According to the most recent statistics acquired from processing powder slimes and slags in a 2mW plasma furnace, specific energy consumption is 1300 kWh/t powder, and reducing agent consumption is 90300 kg depending on the kind of treated material.

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NaCl leaching refining system The extraction of metals from effluent and low-grade ores is gaining popularity, due to the ever-increasing demand for metals, limited quantities of rich metal resources, mine depletion, and annual production of millions of tonnes of waste. Significant amounts of essential and precious metals, such as cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, gold and silver, can be found in mine tailings. For recycling the tailings, different hydro- and pyrometallurgical processes, as well as mineral processing technologies, have been investigated. In the extraction of gold from ores or secondary materials, cyanide is the most widely used leaching reagent. However, there are a number of drawbacks to using cyanide, including its high toxicity and low efficacy for carbon-based ores. Alternative cyanide-free reagents have been researched in the laboratory and on experimental or demonstration scales for these reasons, over the last few decades. Halogens, thiourea, thiosulfate, thiocyanate, ammonia, and glycine are among the alternative reagents for metal leaching.

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NaCl leaching is one of the most promising alternative processes because it is less toxic, has faster dissolving kinetics, has fewer gold passivation issues and is excellent at leaching refractory ores NaCl leaching is one of the most promising alternative processes because it is less toxic, has faster dissolving kinetics, has fewer gold passivation issues and is excellent at leaching refractory ores. To keep copper and/or iron soluble, chloride leaching is usually done at atmospheric pressure, at high temperatures, such as 65–95°C, and with an acidic pH of less than 3. NaCl has been used as a gold leaching agent in direct gold processing, as a leaching media for gold-copper containing refractory copper concentrates, and as a leaching medium for other base metals in previous studies. As oxidizing agents, hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite ions, cupric ions (Cu2+), and ferric ions (Fe3+) have been used, whereas chloride in NaCl serves as a complexant, producing a complex with the dissolved gold complexing agent. Also, to oxidize cuprous ions into the divalent state, oxygen is used as an indirect oxidant. The purpose of this method is to use sodium chloride (NaCl) leaching to extract copper and other metals from flotation by-products, as well as other precious metals. The influence of sodium and chloride ion concentrations on the solubility of gold, copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, and iron has also been studied.


Cyclone electrowinning Electrowinning, also known as electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores after they have been dissolved in water by a process known as leaching. A new electrodeposition technology is cyclone electrodeposition, which has an obvious technical advantage in multi-metal purification and separation. It is commonly used to extract low concentrations of copper, gold, silver, cobalt, nickel, zinc and so on, in an acidic solution, including sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and cyanide. Cyclone electrodeposition avoids the concentration polarization caused by the slow flow of an electrolyte, because of the relatively high-speed motion of the electrolyte and electrode. In the traditional electrodeposition process, the thickness of the diffusion layer reduces, and enhances the mass transfer while minimizing an ion exchange. Electrowinning has been known for more than 200 years, and its use in the production of copper has increased dramatically in recent years. Anodes and cathodes are submerged in a solution containing metal ions in traditional electrowinning. Metal ions are reduced and deposited on the cathode, but this causes ions in the surrounding solution to deplete, slowing mass movement and deposition. As a result, extracting the majority of the metal from the solution is difficult, especially when the metal ion concentration is low. Turbulence in the medium is an important approach to increase mass transmission. Cyclones maintain a turbulent flow, allowing for rapid mass transfer. Traditional electrowinning requires recirculating the treated solution for further processing, but cyclone electrowinning technology is a straightforward, onestep approach for treating metal ion solutions. The capacity to apply substantially larger current densities due to highly efficient mass transfer is a key benefit of cyclone electrowinning technology. Higher current densities result in a significant rise in the cathode production rate per square metre and cheaper capital expenses. Furthermore, the cyclone electrowinning equipment is extremely simple and has few mechanical components from an engineering point of view. It has a modular design that allows for easy installation, enlargement, and transportation. The technology’s ability to maintain high current efficiency and product quality are also extensive. One of the technology’s fundamental properties is electrowinning of metals efficiently down to extremely low concentrations. Furthermore, the cell is enclosed and does not cause an acid fog problem, resulting in significant cost reductions in terms of construction and maintenance.

Coronet Metals US

A revolution in mineral processing

Traditional electrowinning requires recirculating the treated solution for further processing, but cyclone electrowinning technology is a straightforward, one-step approach for treating metal ion solutions World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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How cyclone electrowinning works No additives are used, and electrowinning is usually done at room temperature. Also, the cyclone electrowinning cell is more tolerant to impurities than a normal cell. Its strong mass transport characteristics help to maximize target metal recovery while reducing coplating of other metals. Because of the confined form of the cell and the lack of a ‘water line’, it has a much higher tolerance for entrained organics and chlorides. The cell does not have a lead-based anode in its conventional form, removing a potential source of product contamination. The electrowinning equipment has a modest capital cost, especially when compared to the magnitude of the operation. Only one cathode (Ti starting sheet) and our patented anode are used in a single cyclone electrowinning cell. Our patented water turbine pumps the electrolyte into the cyclone electrowinning cell from the bottom, and it then flows through the cell at high speed in a turbulent flow. As a result, the Cu2+ concentration in electrolytes will drop, but copper deposits on the Ti cathode will increase. Oxygen will be created at the anode and released from the cell at the same time. In a separate system, the acid fog created during the process, is collected and treated. Deposits of around 70~75kg of copper per 23-hour cycle are finally obtained.

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Our patented water turbine pumps the electrolyte into the cyclone electrowinning cell from the bottom, and it then flows through the cell at high speed in a turbulent flow


The advantages of our containerized modular design are numerous, they are quickly manufactured, constructed and delivered to clients, whilst being safe, robust, eco-friendly and affordable

Coronet Metals US

A revolution in mineral processing

Coronet Metals’ modular containerized structure If you’re looking for a convenient and simple approach for a perfect short-term construction solution, look no further than a Coronet Metals containerized structure. We are innovators in the design, manufacture and installation of high- quality, high-cube modular container frames that can be used as offices, healthcare facilities, schools, construction site workplace, overnight accommodation, shower and toilet facilities, etc. These units are particularly well-suited to businesses involved in the mining, gas and oil industries, as well as public economic development. Employee accommodation is frequently required for remote mining sites, mineral and geophysical investigation, research

centres, as well as other economic interests. Modular containerized buildings from Coronet Metals US are a preferred solution for employee residential buildings or full remote camp facilities in certain circumstances, where access to housing is lacking or inadequate. For several years, modular mineral processing facilities have been used in a wide range of industries. We’re employing a high-cube container frame of about 20-feet or 40-feet, with a height and width being 28 and 100 feet, respectively. The patented corner castings may be plugged into the bottom rail, post and cross structure by tightening bolts instead of welding. Pre-assembly parts can reduce the shipment volume to the facility. The processing machine will be housed within a container, double or triple stacked on site, taking only a few days to install. The design and construction of a mining plant’s foundation

If you’re looking for a convenient and simple approach for a perfect short-term construction solution, look no further than a Coronet Metals containerized structure is expensive and time consuming, especially in flat land like the deserts in Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. From minor to major plants, the industrial revolution is the first container-based enclosure for the USA’s foremost dry concentration facility, being built near Beatty, Nevada. The advantages of our containerized modular design are numerous, they are quickly manufactured, constructed and delivered to clients, whilst being safe, robust, eco-friendly and affordable.

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Cummins BALANCE OF POWER T

hrough technical innovation and world class customer service, the leading engine manufacturer, Cummins, is powering miners to balance their need for lowest cost of production with improved sustainability. As the mining industry changes to accommodate new technology and social and environmental pressures, miners are adapting to prosper in a new business climate. Suppliers must change, too, to fulfil their customers’ evolving needs. In 2019 and 2020, Cummins celebrated 100 years of manufacturing engines and generators, respectively. Longevity is its middle name, and one of the features that defines the brand. Asked to describe a Cummins engine, people tend to say things like ‘it’s a beast’, ‘it never stops’, and ‘it’ll run forever’.

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“Asked to describe a Cummins engine, people tend to say things like ‘it’s a beast’, ‘it never stops’”

However, in an industry which has historically tended to reward the biggest, the fastest, or the most powerful, customers are starting to want a more sophisticated mix of power solutions, giving Cummins the opportunity to demonstrate its leadership in more ways than one. How does a brand with a reputation for power and endurance demonstrate innovation and sustainability? It’s all here.

www.cummins.com

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“Miners demand the best equipment and engines, and today, that means engines that maximize productivity and availability, minimize operating costs, and help achieve increasingly important sustainability targets”

World class support When a mine site operates 24 hours a day, every day, equipment availability is paramount. It could cost anywhere between $1,000-$10,000, an hour, to have a haul truck or an excavator out of action, and therefore, proper maintenance practices and prompt service support are crucial for ensuring high equipment availability. One of the challenges that miners face is how to optimize their equipment in the face of changing needs and advances in technology. One way of doing

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this is through an engine rebuild, to take advantage of improvements in emissions performance and fuel consumption. Cummins has 12 Master Rebuild Centers strategically located in areas with high mining activity. “Once an engine has reached overhaul, the industry practice is to complete an engine rebuild,” says Lanre Ige, Director, Mining Strategic Accounts. “A mine truck, with proper maintenance, could see three to four engine rebuilds before the whole chassis needs to be rebuilt. During the rebuild process, Cummins will upgrade

individual components of the engine to the latest technology and even offer zero hour rebuilds, which allows the engine to perform and last as well as a factory-built engine. “Another thing that sets us apart is our relationship with the end users,” says Ige. “We have service capabilities all over the world, giving our customers access to distributor locations and certified technicians at their mine site, no matter how remote they are.” World class customer service encourages existing customers to develop long term relationships and attracts new ones with the potential to do the same. With over 90 years of experience in the mining industry, Cummins has the product and service expertise to help miners maximize equipment availability and enhance profitability.


Cummins balance of power

www.cummins.com

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“A mine truck, with proper maintenance, could see three to four engine rebuilds before the whole chassis needs to be rebuilt”

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Cummins

Innovation in technology In a world that never stops, you need equipment that never stops, and then some. Miners demand the best equipment and engines, and today, that means engines that maximize productivity and availability, minimize operating costs, and help achieve increasingly important sustainability targets. “We went through a period when miners all wanted to maximize production,” says Robert Schaefer, Director, Mining Innovations and Growth Initiatives, “so they increased horsepower, they increased capacity, they added trucks and mines got deeper. After the financial crisis there was a phase where they were all desperate to cut costs. We supported them through all of that, finding ways to improve fuel economy and extend engine life.” Now, miners are focused on achieving the lowest cost of production while satisfying investors, insurers, governments, and other stakeholders of their commitment to social and environmental issues. Suppliers must respond to these changing requirements. “We feel strongly that we have all the tools to help them with that,” says Schaefer, “not only from a performance standpoint, from the power inside their equipment, but also from how well they can maintain their operations and how they approach the sustainability aspects.” It can cost over a million

balance of power

dollars a year to operate a mine haul truck, so even small improvements in efficiency can add up to a considerable sum. With roughly a third of the cost of operating mining equipment being spent on fuel, improvements in fuel efficiency bring the double benefit of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and significant cost savings. The engine of a regular mine truck might carry 100s of gallons of consumables. It also has filters that are changed every 500 to 1,000 hours (about once a month). “Potential savings add up quickly when you consider the frequency of changes,” says Schaefer. “We conducted a 12-month filter optimization program at Anglo American’s Dawson Coal Mine in Queensland, Australia,” he continued, “where a Komatsu 830E haul truck, powered by a Cummins QSK60 engine, was fitted with Fleetguard filters. They saved 60 percent of their filter and oil consumption. That

“It can cost over a million dollars a year to operate a mine haul truck, so even small improvements in efficiency can add up to a considerable sum” would have added up to over $220,000 a year for their whole fleet of 14 trucks.” Add to that the savings in labor costs from fewer hours of service time, and the total annual savings for the 14-truck fleet would exceed $250,000. Service intervals of 2000 hours were subsequently established by installing the new Fleetguard NanoForce® air filters with nano-fiber technology.

www.cummins.com

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Another mine in Colombia extended its change intervals on fuel filters to 1,000 hours and air filters to 2,000 hours by using NanoNet™ fuel filters and NanoForce air filters. Other mine sites around the world have since followed suit. As resources become harder to find, miners often find themselves operating in remote locations where exceptional conditions, such as high altitude and extreme temperatures, can affect the performance of mining equipment. While poor air quality and severe weather conditions can compromise engine power and fuel efficiency, Cummins engines adapt automatically in extreme conditions, allowing them to provide the optimum power solutions. This is done by the electronic control module (ECM) on engines continually

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sensing pressures and temperatures within the engine and adjusting fueling to compensate for changes like high altitude. There is standard derate protocol within the system as it goes up in altitude due to things like air density changes. This helps protect the engine by working as efficiently as possible within its surroundings. At an altitude of 5,500 meters, higher than the base camp at Mount Everest, China’s Julong Mine is the largest copper mine in the country, and home to over 65 Cummins engines, varying in size from 19L to 60L, supporting applications such as excavators, dump trucks, generators,

blasthole drills and bulldozers. The 240T ultra-class haul trucks powered by Cummins QSK60 engines enjoy continuous uptime in this severe environment, making it the natural choice at Julong. Cummins engines have demonstrated similarly high performance and dependability at highaltitude mines around the world. Reducing the cost of energy while protecting the environment is a critical combination for the mining industry. Cummins understands this and has developed EPA Tier 4 and Euro Stage V compliant engines that deliver the lowest cost of production, while minimizing the impact on the environment. The latest Cummins Tier 4 high horsepower


engines (over 751 horsepower) offer between three and five percent better fuel economy than Tier 2 engines, with no compromise to power and reliability. This fuel efficiency gain has been achieved through a combination of in-cylinder improvements and the use of Cummins Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment technology, which is used by over 400,000 engines around the world. SCR technology has proven to be a better choice for high-horsepower engines because it optimizes engine performance. This enables excellent fuel economy for

Cummins balance of power

“The latest Cummins Tier 4 high horsepower engines (over 751 horsepower) offer between three and five percent better fuel economy than Tier 2 engines, with no compromise to power and reliability” the lowest cost per hour of operation, while delivering superior reliability and uptime. Designed and manufactured by Cummins Emission Solutions (CES), the SCR clean exhaust system features an integrated decomposition chamber and a Cummins airless diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) dosing system designed to last the life of the engine. By focusing NOx reduction within the exhaust rather than during in-cylinder combustion,

the system avoids the need for major changes to the external engine platform. Using SCR also leaves a much higher performance threshold in-cylinder to focus on particulate matter reduction and improve fuel-efficiency. Optimized temperature management also minimizes DEF consumption. The SCR logic control is driven by the QSK electronic engine management system, upgraded with extra processing power for Tier 4 Final, so that the engine and SCR aftertreatment operate as a single, integrated system.

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Engine development Miners benefit from working with partners that not only offer extensive aftermarket capabilities, but also engines that are designed for life in the harsh mining environment. The QST30 is a good example of engine development. Built to handle the toughest environments, this model has sold over 30,000 engines around the world over the last 27 years to operate in haul trucks, blasthole drills and wheel loaders. Life expectancy depends on emissions regulations and the workload involved, but in many applications the engine will run for 18,000 to 20,000 hours in mining applications and reach 500,000 gallons of fuel burned before overhaul. Over the years, improvements have been made in the engine’s turbochargers, fuel handling and power cylinder design, reducing emissions while maintaining the structural integrity, reliability and durability that have won the QST30 its reputation for low cost-of-operation and exceptional life-cycle value. A mine site in Arizona was concerned last year that the engines powering their Komatsu 930E-1 haul trucks were not giving them the performance they expected, and the engine manufacturer was not providing the required customer support. The mine had seven Komatsu 930E-1 haul trucks going through a rebuild due to performance issues to satisfy the mine’s need for higher engine up-time and improved fuel efficiency. Cummins Sales and Service team from the local distributor provided a large inventory of on-site parts as well as a dedicated on-site technician, supported by three field technicians in the local area, with immediate improvements. The mine’s operation manager then decided to repower two of the trucks with Cummins Tier 2 QSK60 engines to help lower fuel usage and improve equipment life. The QSK60 engine is installed in most 240T and 320T haul trucks available today and provides higher total truck availability hours and one to two percent more fuel efficiency than any other engine in its class. Since the switch, the mine site reported an improvement in mean time to failure of 43%, a decrease in mean time to repair of 69% and a 3-4% improvement in availability. The mine site naturally decided to convert the remaining five trucks to Cummins QSK60 engines and to have all its mining products powered and serviced by Cummins by 2021.

QST30

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Cummins balance of power

“The QST30 is a good example of engine development. Built to handle the toughest environments, this model has sold over 30,000 engines around the world over the last 27 years to operate in haul trucks, blasthole drills and wheel loaders”

www.cummins.com

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PrevenTech Mining PrevenTech® Mining, an integrated digital solution for end-to-end equipment health management, is the flagship of Cummins customer service portfolio, harnessing connectivity, big data, advanced analytics, and internetof-things (IoT) to securely deliver remote engine monitoring and reporting of potential performance issues. “PrevenTech extends engine life and reduces downtime,” says Dana Miller, Director, Digital and Service Solutions, “through alerts and assisted monitoring. By detecting potential equipment health issues before they become costly, miners can mitigate performance impacts and improve productivity.” Designed to connect Cummins monitoring, support, and service functions, PrevenTech issues alerts and recommendations by email, telephone, and a web-based customer dashboard. With a simple and intuitive interface, the dashboard provides a high-level overview of equipment location and status. Alert notifications describe performance issues along with recommendations for repair and suggested remaining time to act. “The

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“PrevenTech extends engine life and reduces downtime, through alerts and assisted monitoring. By detecting potential equipment health issues before they become costly, miners can mitigate performance impacts and improve productivity” equipment map shows the location of a customer’s connected equipment via GPS,” says Miller, “with a traffic light system to rank and prioritize alerts according to severity – green where all is well, yellow to indicate equipment that requires servicing within seven days, orange to warn that a service should be done within three days, and red for items requiring immediate attention.” Using this interface, miners can see individual data about each piece of equipment, the last occurrence of an issue and a historical archive of equipment alerts. Gaining visibility into the real-time status of mining equipment allows miners to plan downtime and repair work more intelligently, for example, by customizing maintenance intervals according to actual equipment usage at each site. A Chilean mine site improved its equipment availability and productivity,

performance, and reduced its Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) using PrevenTech. The Chilean mine operator wanted to trial turbocharging telematics to eliminate unexpected high-pressure turbocharger failures. Halfway through the pilot, PrevenTech alerted the maintenance team 190 days in advance, providing ample time to plan for proactive maintenance and avoid unscheduled downtown, and caught 100 percent of potential failures in advance. The mine site saved $1.3 million in operating cost. The Chilean mine looks to save more in the future by also monitoring injectors and bearings; this will provide the mine maintenance supervisors with a clear picture of when service will be needed, months in advance, and allow for proactive scheduling at the most advantageous time.


PrevenTech Mining offers three service options: Base, Plus and Premium. Features range from essential fault code alerts, custom rules, and thresholds, to advanced algorithms with FleetguardFIT™ prognostics, live monitoring from Cummins Care experts, and more. FleetguardFIT is a

Cummins balance of power

feature that helps extend maintenance intervals by monitoring consumables, including air filters, fuel filters, lube

FEATURE

filters and engine oil quality, applying prognostics to interpret the remaining useful oil and filter life.

BASE

PLUS

PREMIUM

Data Encryption Equipment Map & GPS Location Fault Alert Notification & Basic Reccommendations FleetguardFIT Diagnostics Alert Reccommendations Alert History Engine Data Log and Export Self-Monitoring Customer Alert Creation & Notification Graphing Cummins Care Expert 24/7 Service Fault Alert Notification with Personalized Reccommendations Cummins Proprietary Algorithm Cummins Proprietary Algorithm Alert Notification with Reccommendations FleetguardFIT Prognostics Alert Reccommendations Periodic Fleet Health Reports A graphing feature is available to Plus and Premium customers, providing charts representing engine parameter behaviour over time, where trends and correlations can be spotted. Custom rules can be created with the Plus and Premium options, too, allowing miners to develop performance alerts targeting specific parameters and behaviours, based on their own unique needs. Notifications can be managed to customize workflow by assigning specific users to receive immediate, periodic, and customer rule notifications. A recent enhancement is the addition of Wi-Fi as a connectivity option. “The lack of cellular coverage at some mine sites can cause delays in data transmission and lead to customers being unable to use the PrevenTech product,” explains Dana Miller. “Using the mine’s mesh network Wi-Fi will

enable ‘real-time’ data to be transmitted, utilizing PrevenTech to its full potential.” This option can also have the added benefit of saving the customer the cost of monthly cellular SIM card fees.

“A graphing feature is available to Plus and Premium customers, providing charts representing engine parameter behaviour over time, where trends and correlations can be spotted”

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Cummins balance of power

Sustainability Cummins thinks of sustainability as the lowest social cost of getting the job done, delivering results with the least environmental impact possible. On a mine site, sustainability has many aspects, including the emission of pollutants, disposal of consumables and preservation of water resources. It’s a question of efficiency. How can you maximise the output of a piece of equipment, while minimising the input?

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“Optimizing the maintenance intervals extends the life of the consumables...” Fuel consumption is an obvious target. It might take 1,000 gallons to fill the fuel tank of a large haul truck at a mine site, and each truck might need a refill every other day. Improvements in fuel consumption will reduce carbon emissions, as well as saving on the cost of fuel.

Emissions regulations have become increasingly stringent over recent years, and Cummins has been instrumental in helping miners comply. A typical Cummins engine used in a mining application today emits 90% fewer harmful gases compared to engines produced 20 years ago. In most cases, these engines are also more powerful and more fuel efficient than their predecessors. “A mining contractor in Australia’s Bowen Basin has reduced the carbon


“A typical Cummins engine used in a mining application today emits 90% fewer harmful gases compared to engines produced 20 years ago. In most cases, these engines are also more powerful and more fuel efficient than their predecessors”

dioxide emissions of six trucks by over 500 metric tons a year,” says Robert Schaefer, Director, Mining Innovations and Growth Initiatives, “by replacing the old fuel system with a modular common rail fuel system (MCRS) and installing the latest innovations in combustion technology from our Tier 4 engineering programs.” Greenhouse gases often dominate the headlines when people talk about sustainability, but for miners, consumables offer a great opportunity

to reduce environmental footprint. A mine haul truck might have over 50 gallons of engine oil and need a refill every month or so, not to mention the fuel, lube oil, air and water filters that also need changing. With hundreds of haul trucks working 24/7 in some of the larger mines, that’s a huge quantity of consumables. Customers taking advantage of Cummins’ advanced analytics and telematics technologies PrevenTech and FIT, can adopt a condition-

www.cummins.com

based maintenance routine, in which consumables are changed only when needed. Optimizing the maintenance intervals extends the life of the consumables and reduces the waste to be disposed. “Whether it is air, water or noise, environmental considerations are increasingly becoming a top-of-mind topic for miners, and at Cummins we have bright and diverse minds bringing innovations to tackle these challenges daily,” said Schaefer. World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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Planet 2050 When sustainability first came to the attention of miners some years ago, it was seen as a cost; the price you had to pay to keep shareholders and local communities happy about your environmental impact. Nowadays, it’s integral to a miner’s social license to operate. The first official definition of sustainability was provided by the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations in 1987, formerly the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Its report, Our Common Future, contains the oft-quoted sentence, “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Mining companies around the world are now increasingly focused on sustainability. The annual reports of many mining companies contain whole chapters outlining their commitment to various projects aimed at reducing their environmental footprint. Some dedicate a separate publication to it. Cummins, too, strives to reduce its impact on the environment, launching its Planet 2050 strategy in November 2019 to address climate change and conserve natural resources. Chairman and CEO Tom Linebarger described the initiative as both an environmental and a business imperative. Companies that grow, while using fewer of the world’s resources, he believes, will be the most successful in the future. The company has eight goals aimed at 2030, and several aspirations for 2050, with the 2030 goals being divided between air emissions targets and the

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“Our vision for 2050 is a world where Cummins powers the world’s really important work with carbon neutral products and operations” use of natural resources at its facilities, including all consolidated operations and joint ventures that are part of the Cummins Enterprise Environmental Management System. The company’s strategy also includes addressing environmental needs in the communities where its employees live and work and where the company does business. The 2030 targets include reducing absolute greenhouse gas emissions from facilities and operations by 50 percent, reducing absolute lifetime GHG emissions from newly sold products by 25 percent, and reducing volatile organic compound emissions from paint and coating operations by 50 percent, as well as reducing absolute water consumption in facilities and operations by 30 percent. “Our vision for 2050 is a world where Cummins powers the world’s really important work with carbon neutral products and operations,” said Brian Mormino, Executive Director, Worldwide Environmental Strategy and Compliance. “Since our communities and business depend on a healthier planet, we will take strong action on climate change and work toward a future where we waste nothing and ensure that our communities are better because we are there.”

www.cummins.com


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newmont corp first among equals

C

elebrating its centenary as a corporation, the world’s No 1 gold miner negotiated the obstacles of the global pandemic to deliver a remarkable performance in 2020 Newmont Corporation announced its full year and fourth quarter 2020 results in February this year. After a year of unprecedented challenges, including social distancing measures, government-imposed mine closures, travel restrictions, and all the rest, the company managed to meet its fullyear guidance, generate a record $4.9 billion of cash, and increase quarterly dividend to $0.55 per share. On the softer side of the measurement criteria, Newmont was recognized as the top-ranked gold miner for the sixth consecutive year in the DJSI Index, announced industry-leading climate targets for greenhouse gas emissions and achieved the best safety performance in the company’s history.

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LIMIT YOUR DOWNTIME, NOT YOUR PROFITS. In a mining operation, profits grow under tight tolerances. Every minute spent switching a paste line adds up fast, so we designed valves to make it quick, safe and simple. The welding needed to place and remove lines used to take days, so we created threaded couplings to dramatically reduce the man hours needed, and our case hardened pipe saves time and money over the long haul. So we are engineered for safety, and speed and durability, but when you add it up, we’re also engineered for profits.

Ultra 600 Pipe Systems Threaded Coupling Line

Induction Hardened Pipe • Exceptional abrasion resistance provides durability • Reduces downtime for line switching

Threaded Coupling Line • • • •

Pneumatic Diversion Valve

Faster assembly, installation and removal Allows for smaller bore holes Reduces man hours from days to hours Uses Induction Hardened Pipe for exceptional abrasion resistance and durability

Diversion Valves • Quickly and easily switch lines – even under pressure • Increases safety and productivity • Eliminates need for extra equipment

Low-Profile Manual Diversion Valve

To learn more: UT-Sales@ultratechpipe.com 1-800-626-8243 UltraTechPipe.com


“In 2020, Newmont achieved record performance including $3.6 billion of free cash flow and ending the year with over $5.5 billion of consolidated cash. These results enable Newmont to lead the industry in shareholder returns, invest in organic growth and maintain financial flexibility,” said Tom Palmer, President and Chief Executive Officer. “While generating record value for shareholders, we also achieved record safety performance with the lowest injury rate in company history. As we complete our 100th year, we will remain focused on delivering superior operational performance whilst creating value and improving lives through sustainable, responsible mining.” During the year, Newmont completed the divestment of the Red Lake Complex in Canada, and the company’s 50 per cent ownership interest in Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines in Australia, along with its investment holdings in Continental Gold. From an operations point of view,

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“As we complete our 100th year, we will remain focused on delivering superior operational performance whilst creating value and improving lives through sustainable, responsible mining”

attributable gold production for the fourth quarter decreased 11 per cent to 1,630 thousand ounces from the prior year quarter, primarily due to the sale of Red Lake and Kalgoorlie, as well as lower production at Cerro Negro in Argentina while it managed Covid-19 restrictions. For the year, attributable gold production decreased 6 per cent to 5,905 thousand ounces from the prior year, primarily due to Yanacocha and Cerro Negro being placed into care and maintenance in response to the Covid pandemic, lower ore grade mined at Ahafo and the above-mentioned sales. These reductions in production were partially offset by a full year of operations from assets acquired in April 2019 with the Goldcorp merger.

Portfolio improvements Portfolio improvements achieved during the year included the completion of materials handling projects at


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“Portfolio improvements achieved during the year included the completion of materials handling projects at Musselwhite and Éléonore in Canada, the progression of the autonomous haulage system at Boddington and the Tanami Expansion 2 project in Australia”

Musselwhite and Éléonore in Canada, the progression of the autonomous haulage system at Boddington and the Tanami Expansion 2 project in Australia. Tanami Expansion 2 secures Tanami’s future as a long-life, low-cost producer with potential to extend mine life beyond 2040 through the addition of a 1,460 metre hoisting shaft and supporting infrastructure to achieve 3.5 million tonnes per year of production and provide a platform for future growth. The expansion is expected to increase average annual gold production by approximately 150,000 to 200,000 ounces per year for the first

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five years and is expected to reduce operating costs by approximately 10 per cent. Capital costs for the project are estimated to be between $850 million and $950 million with a commercial production date in the first half of 2024. 2020 also saw a mining method change at Subika Underground in Ghana, while advanced study work at Ahafo North (Ghana) and Yanacocha Sulfides (Peru) continued, with both projects expected to reach full funds approval in 2021. Ahafo North expands Newmont’s existing footprint in Ghana, with four open pit mines and a stand-alone mill located approximately 30 kilometres

from the company’s Ahafo South operations. The project is expected to add 300,000 ounces per year with all-in sustaining costs between $600 to $700 per ounce for the first five full years of production (2024-2028), with estimated capital costs of between $700 and $800 million. Ahafo North is the best unmined gold deposit in West Africa with approximately 3.5 million ounces of reserves. With over a million ounces of measured and indicated and inferred resources there is significant upside potential to extend beyond Ahafo North’s current 13-year mine life. Yanacocha is South America’s largest gold mine, located between 3,500 and


newmont corp first among equals

4,100 metres above sea level in the province and department of Cajamarca, approximately 800 kilometres northeast of Lima. The operation is a joint venture between Newmont (51.35%), Minas Buenaventura (43.65%) and Sumitomo Corporation (5%). Yanacocha Sulfides will develop the first phase of sulfide deposits and an integrated processing circuit, including an autoclave to process gold, copper and silver feedstock. The project is expected to add 500,000 gold equivalent ounces per year with all-in sustaining costs between $700 to $800 per ounce for the first five full years of production (20262030).

The first phase focuses on developing the Yanacocha Verde and Chaquicocha deposits to extend Yanacocha’s operations beyond 2040 with second and third phases having the potential to extend life for multiple decades. In the United States, Newmont’s operations in the state of Nevada have been combined with those of Barrick Gold since 1 January 2019. Identified synergies are expected to deliver up to $500 million per year over the first five years, then stepping down over time. These will come mainly from integrated mine planning, optimized mining and processing, cost reductions and the combination of Turquoise

Ridge and Twin Creeks into a single mine. Production, CAS and AISC for the company’s 38.5 per cent ownership interest in Nevada Gold Mines is as provided by Barrick Gold Corporation. In Canada, in December 2020, Newmont announced the successful completion of two key projects at its Musselwhite mine at Lake Opapimiskan, Ontario, with the full commissioning of the mine’s conveyor system and the material handling project. “I am extremely proud of the work that has been completed by the team at Musselwhite to safely deliver these two critical projects, whilst managing through the unprecedented challenges World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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newmont corp first among equals

caused by Covid-19,” said Tom Palmer. “Musselwhite is an important part of our North America region, and with the commissioning of these two projects is positioned to contribute to Newmont’s portfolio for many years to come.” The conveyor system and the material handling systems work in association to efficiently move material from deeper mine levels to the surface. Haul distances are reduced as the ore crushed at depth will be hoisted from the underground crushers to the conveyor system and brought to the surface for processing.

Covid-19 response

The year’s achievements cannot obscure the effects of the pandemic, however. In addition to its normal operating costs, Newmont incurred incremental Covid specific costs of $92 million during 2020 for activities such as additional health and safety procedures, increased transportation and community fund

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“Tanami Expansion 2 secures Tanami’s future as a long-life, low-cost producer with potential to extend mine life beyond 2040”

contributions. On 9 April 2020, Newmont announced the establishment of a US$20 million fund to help host communities, governments and employees combat the Covid-19 pandemic. The company continues to maintain wide-ranging protective measures for its workforce and neighbouring communities, including screening, physical distancing, deep cleaning and avoiding exposure for at-risk individuals. Newmont has also been working closely with local governments, medical institutions, charities and non-governmental organizations to direct funds towards the greatest needs, targeting three key elements, employee and community health, food security and local economic resilience. “Our purpose to create value and improve lives through sustainable and responsible mining is more relevant now than ever before,” said CEO Tom Palmer. “The strength of our portfolio


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of world-class assets across top tier jurisdictions underpins the financial flexibility to take care of our employees, communities and shareholders. I am proud of the way our employees have responded to these challenging times.” The Peñasquito mine in Mexico is a good example of what he means. Newmont established infrastructure very early in the pandemic to keep employees and the surrounding communities safe, providing thousands of cleaning kits for health clinics and families, tens of thousands of reusable masks and thousands of books for distance learning. Across the 18 testing sites the company established throughout Mexico, Newmont’s teams performed over 50,000 Covid-19 tests, testing people when they arrive at the site and also when they leave, so they can return to their families and communities safely. In Ghana, elementary schools closed in March 2020, disrupting the education of many children. For some, due to limited access to digital devices and the internet, virtual learning has not been an option. As part of Newmont’s Global Community Support Fund, and through the Gold-4-Gold Reading Program (a literacy initiative launched in 2019), Newmont Ghana rolled out a reading program in partnership with United Way Ghana and the Ghana Library Authority, designed to minimize the

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educational impacts of Covid-19 on children in the Ayawaso District of the capital city, Accra. Another way of supporting communities is by local procurement. Plans have long been in place to optimize procurement and employment opportunities for key stakeholder groups by promoting local employability and skills development, diversity of the workforce, small business development for locals and sustainable business opportunities. Developing and maintaining good relationships with suppliers is essential to Newmont’s overall success, so the company follows a sourcing strategy that utilizes only the highest performing suppliers for any type of good or service acquired. Its Supplier Code of Conduct sets out the minimum standards of conduct expected from all suppliers wishing to do business with, or on behalf of, Newmont, one of which is to embrace the company’s local procurement and employment philosophy, too.

Outlook Newmont announced its 2021 outlook in February, with attributable gold production guidance of 6.5 million ounces and AISC (all-in sustainable costs) of $970 per ounce. Attributable gold production is expected to be between 6.2 and 6.7 million ounces

per year in 2022 and 2023, increasing to between 6.5 to 7.0 million ounces in 2024 and 2025, with improving costs. Newmont’s outlook reflects increasing gold production and ongoing investment in its operating assets and most promising growth prospects. The company has included Ahafo North and Yanacocha Sulfides in its outlook for the first time as the development projects are expected to reach execution stage in 2021. “Newmont’s outlook remains strong and stable as we apply the rigour and discipline of our proven operating model across our world-class portfolio,” said Tom Palmer. “Our five-year outlook reflects improving production and costs as we continue to deliver value from superior operational and project execution. Our strong financial position allows us to continue investing in profitable, organic growth while simultaneously returning cash to shareholders through our industry leading dividend framework.” The outlook for Africa shows production improving in 2021 with Subika Underground delivering higher tonnes at Ahafo, while Akyem benefits from higher grade. CAS (cost of sales) per ounce remains steady with higher grade at Akyem, offset by slightly higher costs at Ahafo due to stockpile processing and stripping from the Subika open pit. Subika Underground should continue


newmont corp first among equals

to deliver higher tonnes through 20222023 while Subika open pit reaches higher grade, partially offset by mine sequencing at Akyem. AISC increases in 2022 with sustaining capital spend for the tailings storage facility at Ahafo. Ahafo North then begins to ramp up in 2023, contributing to the higher production and improving unit costs. In North America, Newmont foresees increased production in 2021 after a full year of operations at Peñasquito in Mexico, and Éléonore and Musselwhite (Canada). Peñasquito is expected to reach slightly higher grade and sustain ‘Full Potential’ improvements in the mill. Porcupine (Canada) will benefit from higher underground and open pit tonnes mined, partially offset by lower leach pad production at Cripple Creek and Victor (Colorado, US). Unit costs are also expected to improve with higher production from a full year of operations at Peñasquito, Éléonore and Musselwhite. Through 2022 and 2023, Éléonore, Musselwhite and CC&V will deliver steady production while Porcupine benefits from higher grades in the Borden underground and the Hollinger open pit mines (in 2022) before Hollinger begins to ramp down in 2023. Peñasquito is, by then, mining lower grade, harder ore from the Chile Colorado pit while stripping the next phases of the Peñasco pit from 2022 to 2024.

Unit costs impacted by mine sequencing at Peñasquito, Éléonore, CC&V and Porcupine will be partially offset by improved productivity and efficiencies at Musselwhite, with the completion of the new conveyor system and lower mine material handling system. In South America, a full year of production in 2021 from Cerro Negro is likely to be partially offset by Merian (Surinam) transitioning to harder rock and Yanacocha transitioning to a primarily leach operation while developing the first phase of the sulfide resources. Unit costs remain steady with higher production and improved productivity at Cerro Negro, offset by lower production at Yanacocha. Production is forecast to improve through 2022-2023 with higher ore tonnes mined from Full Potential productivity improvements and mining from five to six ore sources at Cerro Negro. Yanacocha and Merian are expected to be impacted by slightly lower production due to mine sequencing. In Australia, production will benefit in 2021 from Full Potential improvements at Boddington to sustain mill throughput at greater than 40 million tonnes per annum, while the site also benefits from higher grade in the South Pit. Tanami continues to deliver solid performance with 500,000 ounces of production while advancing the Tanami

Expansion 2 project. AISC includes sustaining capital spend at Boddington to advance Autonomous Haulage, which is expected to reach commercial production in 2021. Production at Boddington benefits from higher grade and improved efficiency from autonomous haulage beginning in 2022 before transitioning to stripping the next layback in 2023. Tanami will partially offset Boddington’s lower production in 2023 as Tanami Expansion 2 begins to ramp up. Unit costs improve with higher grade and efficiency at Boddington and improved underground efficiencies at Tanami as the second expansion comes online. Newmont has been careful to point out that its 2021 and longerterm outlook assumes operations continue without major Covid-related interruptions. The company continues to maintain wide-ranging protective measures for its workforce and neighbouring communities, including screening, physical distancing, deep cleaning and avoiding exposure for at-risk individuals. If continuing operations pose an increased risk to the workforce or host communities, Newmont says it will reduce operational activities up to, and including, care and maintenance and management of critical environmental systems.

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bhp performance

& development

B

HP has emerged from a difficult year with a strong safety performance, operations enhanced by automation and reduced carbon emissions, and development projects on track using local suppliers

In his introduction to the operational review for the nine months ended 31 March 2021, BHP Chief Executive Officer Mike Henry highlighted a strong safety and operational performance, with record year-to-date production at Western Australia Iron Ore, the Goonyella Riverside metallurgical coal mine in Queensland and concentrator throughput at Escondida in Chile. Major projects are being ramped up, he said, bringing on new supply in copper and iron ore, with the Spence Growth Option producing copper in Chile and Samarco in Brazil recommencing iron ore pellet production at one concentrator in December 2020. The South Flank iron ore project in Australia is on track to begin production in the middle of the year. One of BHP’s other growth projects, the Jansen potash project in Saskatchewan, Canada, remains on track for a final investment decision in mid-2021.

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IRON ORE Despite restrictions associated with the Covid-19 pandemic, Western Australia Iron Ore (WAIO) achieved record production in FY2020 and again in the nine months to 31 March 2021. WAIO is an integrated system of four processing hubs and five mines connected by more than 1,000 kilometres of rail infrastructure and port facilities in the Pilbara region of northern Western Australia. The reserve base is relatively concentrated, allowing development to be planned around integrated mining hubs connected to the mines and satellite orebodies by conveyors or spur lines. This approach enables the value of installed infrastructure to be maximised by using the same processing plant and rail infrastructure for a number of orebodies. WAIO consists of four main joint ventures: Mt Newman, Yandi, Mt Goldsworthy and Jimblebar. BHP’s interest in each of the joint ventures is 85 per cent, with Mitsui and ITOCHU owning the remaining 15 per cent. The joint ventures are unincorporated, except Jimblebar. At each processing hub – Newman, Yandi, Mining Area C and Jimblebar – the ore is crushed, beneficiated (where necessary) and blended to create

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“To meet border controls introduced by the Western Australian Government, more than 900 employees and contractors in businesscritical roles were temporarily relocated to Western Australia, including train drivers and train load out operators”

high-grade haematite lump and fines products which are then transported along the Port Hedland–Newman Rail Line to the Finucane Island and Nelson Point port facilities at Port Hedland. WAIO continues to focus on operating safely, implementing a series of preventive measures designed to minimise the spread of Covid-19. To meet border controls introduced by the Western Australian Government, more than 900 employees and contractors in business-critical roles were temporarily relocated to Western Australia, including train drivers and train load out operators. Construction began in July 2018 on the South Flank iron ore project in the Pilbara region. When operational, South Flank will be one of the largest iron ore processing hubs in the world. The project will include a crushing and screening plant, an overland conveyor system and rail-loading facilities. Commissioning activities for South Flank are expected to commence in the June 2021 quarter and the mine is expected to produce 80 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa), replacing volumes from Yandi as it reaches the end of its economic life in the early-to-mid 2020s. The project is expected to create 2,500 construction jobs, more than 600 operational roles and generate


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opportunities for Western Australian suppliers. The mine is expected to produce iron ore for more than 25 years.

COPPER BHP mines for copper in Chile and Peru, as well as Australia. For the nine months to March 2021, its Chilean assets experienced a substantial reduction in their operational workforces as a result of Covid-19 restrictions, a situation which is expected to continue for the remainder of the financial year. Copper production at Escondida decreased by eight per cent to 821 kt, as record concentrator throughput was offset by the impact of lower concentrator feed grade and lower cathode volumes. Concentrator throughput continues to be prioritised over cathode production as a result of the reduced operational workforce and to prioritise yield of ore. Copper production at Pampa Norte, also in Chile, decreased by 21 per cent to 149 kt, largely due to planned maintenance at Spence as well as the impact of a reduced operational workforce as a result of Covid-19 restrictions.

Olympic Dam BHP’s flagship copper operation, Olympic Dam, located 560 kilometres World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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north of Adelaide in South Australia, is one of the world’s most significant deposits of copper, gold, silver and uranium. Olympic Dam consists of underground and surface operations, with a fully integrated processing facility from ore to metal. The underground mine contains more than 450 kilometres of roads and tunnels. Ore mined underground is hauled by an automated train system to crushing, storage and ore hoisting facilities. Olympic Dam copper production increased by 25 per cent to 155 kt in the nine months ending 31 March 2021, reflecting improved smelter performance and stability. Production for the March 2021 quarter itself was 55 kt, the highest quarterly production rate in five years. Production in the 2022 financial year is expected to be lower as a result of the major smelter maintenance campaign planned for

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the first half of the year.

“Commissioning for South Flank is expected to commence in the June 2021 quarter and the mine is expected to produce 80 million tonnes per annum, replacing volumes from Yandi as it reaches the end of its economic life”

Late last year BHP decided against proceeding with a planned $2.5 billion expansion of Olympic Dam after studies of the ore body revealed weaker than expected results. The complex has a range of future growth options, however, from incremental debottlenecking through to large scale investments. A third phase of exploration drilling on the Oak Dam project has been completed with additional geotechnical and geo-metallurgical data collected to assist in the understanding of the deposit. Preparations are also well advanced for the next Smelter Campaign Maintenance to be executed early in FY2022. Downer EDI Ltd has recently announced that its Asset Services business has been awarded a major contract to provide maintenance and shutdown services at Olympic Dam as part of the Smelter Campaign Maintenance 2021 Project (SCM21).



“South Flank is expected to create 2,500 construction jobs, more than 600 operational roles and generate opportunities for Western Australian suppliers. The mine is expected to produce iron ore for more than 25 years”

Downer will deliver two work packages, involving specialist welding, boiler engineering and planning and scheduling services. The project is expected to run for approximately eight months until December 2021, with the major shutdown commencing in August. BHP has also awarded a $15 million contract to Boom Logistics for the supply of cranes, rigging and engineering services. “During the SCM21 shutdown, Boom Logistics will have 40 cranes and approximately 150 crew on site at Olympic Dam,” said CEO and managing director Tony Spassopoulos. “Shutdowns

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are an essential part of mining maintenance, contributing to safe and effective production and productivity improvement.” This year’s mobilisation of equipment will begin in June and will run from August to November 2021.

Newman East BHP has copper operations in Western Australia, too. The company announced in February 2020 that it intended to introduce 20 autonomous trucks at its Newman East mine in WA by the end of the year, creating more than 40 new jobs and generating more than $33 million in contracts for Western Australian

businesses. “We recognise how important it is for BHP to partner with local and small businesses, particularly as we move into a post-Covid economic recovery phase,” said Marie Bourgoin, BHP’s Newman Operations General Manager. “We are pleased to have been able to offer A$33 million in contracts to WA vendors for a range of work packages including autonomous conversion kits, trailers, training content development, and a number of engineering and construction packages.” Home to BHP’s Innovation Centre, the Newman East mine will be the second of the company’s Western Australian


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mines to transition to fully autonomous haulage. By November last year, 22 autonomous trucks had been fully deployed. BHP has operated a fullyautonomous truck fleet at its Western Australian Jimblebar iron ore mine since 2017. Bourgoin said there were no redundancies as part of the transition and more than 300 people in the Newman operations workforce were undergoing training and upskilling to work on an autonomous haulage site. “We have created new control centre roles, which many of our truck operators have transitioned into, as well as new opportunities in truck maintenance and

fuelling,” she said.

South America By the end of the current financial year, BHP expects to complete a trial of autonomous haul trucks at the Escondida copper mine in the Antofagasta region, and in April this year it was announced that the copper and zinc mine Antamina, (a joint venture in Peru in which BHP owns 33.75%, Glencore 33.75%, Teck 22.5% and Mitsubishi 10%) would do the same. “We are going to make a progressive conversion, with trucks with capacity of 380-400t,” said Antamina president

Víctor Gobitz in a webinar. Antamina is currently focusing on bottlenecks in the crushing area and on new tailings management options. The company has obtained authorization from the environmental certification service for sustainable investments (Senace) to carry out US$180m worth of work to optimize equipment and modify auxiliary components in the mine’s concentrator plant. Antamina is among Peru’s largest copper and zinc producers but also mines molybdenum, silver, bismuth and lead. BHP owns 57.5 per cent of, and operates, the Escondida mine in the Atacama Desert in northern World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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“In September last year BHP signed a renewable power purchasing agreement to meet half of its electricity needs across its Queensland Coal mines from low emissions sources, including solar and wind”

Chile. Escondida’s two pits feed three concentrator plants, as well as two leaching operations (oxide and sulphide). The Centre of Integrated Operations (CIO) was inaugurated in July 2019 in BHP’s Santiago office and has since provided remote control services to the mine and process areas of Escondida and Spence. The CIO enables an operation that is safer and more productive by reducing people on-site and allowing them to work in a collaborative space. The Escondida Water Supply Expansion (EWSE) project was completed on time and budget in

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December 2019. Following the completion of the project, Escondida has eliminated water drawdown from aquifers for operational supply 10 years ahead of its FY2030 target. Also in Chile, Pampa Norte consists of two wholly owned operations in the Atacama Desert – Spence and Cerro Colorado – producing high-quality copper cathodes through leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning processes. Pampa Norte copper production for FY2020 decreased by 2 per cent to 243 kt, mainly due to a 14 per cent decline in stacked ore grade. Production for the 2021 financial year is expected to be between 240 and 270 kt, reflecting

the reduced operational workforce due to Covid-19, the start-up of the Spence Growth Option Project and expected grade decline of approximately seven per cent. The Spence Growth Option (SGO) achieved first copper sales in March 2021, following first copper production in December 2020. The ramp-up to full production capacity at SGO is on track and is expected to take approximately 12 months from first production, following which Spence is expected to average 300 ktpa of over the first four years. The BHP Operating System deployment at Spence started in January 2020 and is expected to continue during FY2021. Similar to Escondida, Spence


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will be undertaking studies on various material handling technologies, such as automated trucks, trolley assistance and in-pit crushers and conveyors to increase mine productivity and improve cost competitiveness.

COAL BHP mines for coal in Colombia and Australia, where its operations are split between Queensland and New South Wales.

Queensland Coal Queensland Coal comprises the BHP Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) and BHP Mitsui Coal (BMC) assets in the Bowen

Basin in Central Queensland where it enjoys key infrastructure including a modern, multi-user rail network and its own coal-loading terminal at Hay Point, near the city of Mackay. BMA is Australia’s largest coal producer and supplier of seaborne metallurgical coal. It is owned 50:50 by BHP and Mitsubishi Development and operates seven Bowen Basin mines (Goonyella Riverside, Broadmeadow, Daunia, Peak Downs, Saraji, Blackwater and Caval Ridge) and owns and operates the Hay Point Coal Terminal. With the exception of the Broadmeadow underground longwall operation, BMA’s mines are open-cut, using draglines and truck and shovel fleets for overburden removal.

Autonomous trucks are being implemented at two of these sites, 34 at Daunia and 86 at Goonyella Riverside. Deployment at both sites is expected to be completed early in CY2022. BMC owns and operates two open-cut metallurgical coal mines in the Bowen Basin – South Walker Creek Mine and Poitrel Mine. BMC is owned by BHP (80 per cent) and Mitsui and Co (20 per cent). South Walker Creek Mine is located on the eastern flank of the Bowen Basin, 35 kilometres west of the town of Nebo and 132 kilometres west of the Hay Point port facilities. Poitrel Mine is situated southeast of the town of Moranbah and began open-cut operations in October 2006. World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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In the nine months ending 31 March 2021, Queensland Coal achieved record underground coal mined at Broadmeadow and record annual production at Caval Ridge and Poitrel. In September last year BHP signed a renewable power purchasing agreement to meet half of its electricity needs across its Queensland Coal mines from low emissions sources, including solar and wind. The agreement will help BHP reduce emissions from electricity use in its Queensland operations by 50 per cent by 2025, based on FY2020 levels. The agreement, with Queensland’s state-owned clean energy generator and retailer CleanCo, will run for five years from 1 January 2021. The agreement is the first of its kind signed by BHP in Australia and follows the company’s shift to 100 per cent renewables in its Chilean operations at Escondida and Spence from the mid-2020s. It will also support the development of new solar

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and wind farms in Queensland – the Western Downs Green Power Hub due for completion in late 2022, and Karara Wind Farm due for completion in early 2023.

in the short term, but overall increased realised value. Truck productivity improvements were delivered in the second half of FY2020, enabling a step-change improvement across the company’s mining fleets.

New South Wales Energy Coal

BHP is seeking approval for the Mt Arthur Coal mine to continue operating beyond 30 June 2026, when the current open-cut approval expires. As well as a new mining lease, New State Significant Development (SSD) and Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act approvals are required for operations to continue beyond 30 June 2026.

New South Wales Energy Coal consists of the Mt Arthur Coal open-cut energy coal mine in the Hunter Valley region of New South Wales, which produces coal for domestic and international customers in the energy sector. Operated by Hunter Valley Energy Coal Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of BHP, Mt Arthur Coal is approximately five kilometres south of the town of Muswellbrook, with workforce of around 2,000 people who predominantly live in the region. During FY2020, NSWEC transitioned to a strategy of optimising product quality, which resulted in a reduction in volumes and an increase in unit costs

The multi-year approval process will involve comprehensive assessment and review, and broad engagement to enable the local community and other key stakeholders to provide input. As announced in August 2020, however, BHP is


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assessing options to divest its thermal coal assets, including Mt Arthur Coal, to focus its portfolio on higher quality metallurgical coal, which means Mt Arthur Coal’s ownership or operating control could change before the continuation project is fulfilled.

Cerrejón BHP also has a one-third interest in Cerrejón, which owns, operates and markets one of the world’s largest opencut export energy coal mines, located in the La Guajira province of Colombia. Cerrejón also owns and operates integrated rail and port facilities through which the majority of production is exported to European, Asian, North and South American customers. Production at Cerrejón decreased by 50 per cent in the nine months to 31 March 2021, largely as a result of a 91-day strike in the first half of the year and subsequent delays to the restart of

production, as well as the impact of a reduced operational workforce due to Covid-19 restrictions.

NICKEL All of BHP’s nickel operations (mines, concentrators, a smelter and refinery) are located in Western Australia, where Nickel West is a fully integrated mineto-market nickel business. Low-grade disseminated sulphide ore is mined from Mt Keith, a large openpit operation. The ore is crushed and processed on-site to produce nickel concentrate. High-grade nickel sulphide ore is mined at Cliffs and Leinster underground mines and Rocky’s Reward open-pit mine. The ore is processed through a concentrator and dryer at Leinster. Nickel West’s concentrator plant in Kambalda processes ore and concentrate purchased from third parties.

The three streams of nickel concentrate come together at the Nickel West Kalgoorlie smelter, which uses a flash furnace to smelt concentrate to produce nickel matte. Nickel West Kwinana then refines granulated nickel matte from the Kalgoorlie smelter into premium-grade nickel powder and briquettes containing 99.8 per cent nickel. Nickel matte and metal are exported to overseas markets via the Port of Fremantle. Over 75% of BHP’s nickel is now sold to global battery material suppliers. Nickel West is expected to complete construction soon of a nickel sulphate plant at the Kwinana nickel refinery, with first product due in the second half of FY2021. Nickel sulphate is used in the lithium-ion batteries that power electric vehicles. The Nickel West resource transition, involving the construction of three new mines, continued to progress during FY2020, with two of these mines now in World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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full production. The Mt Keith satellite mine (Yakabindie) entered production in December 2019 and is now the primary source of feed to the Mt Keith concentrator. The Venus underground mine transitioned to full production in September 2019, with ore hoisted to the Leinster concentrator. Leinster B11 (the first block cave to be developed by BHP, located beneath the Leinster underground mine) is expected to commence the undercut phase during

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the first half of FY2021, providing increasing quantities of ore to the Leinster concentrator as the project progresses to full caving. Nickel West signed an agreement to acquire the Honeymoon Well development project on 19 June 2020 and the remaining 50 per cent interest in the Albion Downs North and Jericho exploration joint ventures, located approximately 50 kilometres from Mt Keith. Nickel West production increased by

“Nickel West is expected to complete construction soon of a nickel sulphate plant at the Kwinana nickel refinery, with first product due in the second half of FY2021”


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19 per cent to 67 kt as a result of major quadrennial maintenance shutdowns in the prior period and strong performance from the new mines. Production for the March 2021 quarter was impacted by the planned maintenance undertaken at the Kwinana refinery during the quarter. Guidance for the 2021 financial year remains unchanged at between 85 and 95 kt. BHP announced its intention in February this year to reduce emissions from electricity use by up to 50 per cent

at the Nickel West Kwinana Refinery. A 10 year renewable power purchasing agreement has been signed with Risen Energy to supply up to 50 per cent of its electricity needs at the Kwinana Refinery from Merredin Solar Farm. “We have established significant renewable power supply agreements for our Kwinana nickel refinery, Queensland Coal operations, and Escondida and Spence copper mines,” said Mike Henry. “With our focus on keeping our people safe, costs down and

productivity up, we are well positioned to finish the year strongly and continue delivering the essential products the world needs.”

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news

ABB launches condition monitoring service for conveyor belts

A

BB has launched ABB Ability™ Condition Monitoring for belts, an advanced digital service to enable mine operators to track speed, misalignment, damage, thickness and wear, slippage and temperature of conveyor belts in real time, and therefore anticipate maintenance, avoid unplanned downtime and improve belt reliability and lifetime. The technology is based on sensors installed at strategic points of the conveyor belt equipment and is specifically designed to withstand harsh environments while monitoring asset health and condition.

“Equipment condition is continuously assessed” “Real time monitoring of the actual belt performance prompts the necessary corrective actions ahead of failure or further and more costly damage,” said Eduardo Botelho, Global Material Handling Service Product Manager, ABB. “With equipment condition continuously assessed, operators can

plan necessary maintenance only when certain indicators give the signal that the equipment is deteriorating, and the probability of failure is increasing. It will consistently catch misalignment or speed issues online, long before failure, and pre-empt issues such as falling material, energy waste, excessive belt wear, rupture or fire.” The solution can work as a stand-alone option or can be integrated into any control system, being interoperable with existing maintenance tools and infrastructure. KPIs can be customized, based on customer’s needs or pain points.

Purepoint Uranium starts diamond drill program at Red Willow Project

P

urepoint Uranium is drilling its 100%-owned Red Willow project in the eastern uranium mine district of the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada. By far the company’s largest project, Red Willow is located close to several uranium deposits including Orano Resources Canada’s JEB mine, approximately 10 kilometres to the

southwest, and Cameco’s Eagle Point mine approximately10 kilometres due south. “This will prove to be a very busy year in the field,” said Scott Frostad, Purepoint’s VP Exploration. “The spring drill program will allow us to begin reprioritizing many of the exploration targets we have previously defined across this large land package.”

The Red Willow project consists of 17 claims covering 40,116 hectares on the eastern side of the Athabasca Basin. Beginning at the Osprey Zone, Purepoint intends to drill approximately 1,200 metres at Red Willow during this program. Depending on conditions and results, the company hopes also to test the Geneva and 333 Zones. World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

77


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Barrick completes sale of Lagunas Norte mine in Peru

B

arrick Gold Corporation has completed the previously announced divestiture of its 100 per cent interest in the Lagunas Norte mine to Boroo Pte Ltd (Singapore) for a total consideration of up to $81 million, plus the assumption by Boroo of Barrick’s closure liability relating to Lagunas Norte. Barrick president and chief executive Mark Bristow said the sale was in line with Barrick’s policy of selling non-core interests, a process which has already

“The sale is in line with Barrick’s policy of selling non-core interests to focus on its portfolio of tier one assets”

realized some $1.5 billion, in order to focus on its portfolio of tier one assets. The Boroo acquisition would benefit the mine’s stakeholders in Peru, he said, by offering an opportunity to extend its life by accessing satellite resources and adapting the infrastructure. Barrick will keep a team in Peru to continue to develop its portfolio of exploration assets and to pursue opportunities to find and operate worldclass gold and or copper mines in the country.

Fosterville South to drill Beechworth Gold Project

F

osterville South Exploration is mobilizing a drill rig to commence drilling at its Beechworth Gold Project, located within the Tabberabbera Zone in the state of Victoria, Australia. The drill program will be at depth beneath historic highgrade gold mines. “Historically, hard-rock production and exploration focused on gold shoots above 1oz/t,” said Rex Motton,

COO of Fosterville South. “As our drill program is designed to drill beneath these former gold mines, we anticipate that drilling will confirm high-grade mineralization at depth. Recently, another operator bordering our projects announced that their highgrade results were confirming the thesis that high-grade gold mineralization exists beneath historic gold mines.” The Beechworth Gold Project is a

drill ready high-grade gold project to the north-east of the company’s extensive land package in the state of Victoria. The Beechworth Gold Project consists of one granted exploration license (Beechworth license) and three tenement applications (Myrtleford, Harrietville and Lady Jane) covering an area of 459 km2. A large number of prospects were mined in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

79




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news

Western Copper and Gold commences exploration and drilling program at Casino

J

ust a few days after announcing the results of the preliminary economic assessment at its Casino copper-gold project in Canada’s Yukon territory, Western Copper and Gold has confirmed its 2021 exploration and drilling program. The 2021 program will include an exploration diamond drilling phase comprising roughly 5,000 metres in 12 holes. These will target the peripheral areas of the Casino Deposit, as well as several exploration targets within the Canadian Creek property. Drilling on Canadian Creek will specifically target at least three areas having prospective soil geochemical and/or geophysical signatures. These include an area of anomalous molybdenite revealed from soil sampling and a potassium anomaly revealed from geophysical radiometric surveying. A prospective magnetic ‘low’ anomaly south of the main Casino Deposit will also be tested. The diamond drilling program will

also include a metallurgical component comprising 1,000 metres of largediameter core in three holes, to test amenability of the mineralization to mineral processing. The program also includes roughly 1,500m of geotechnical and hydrological drilling in the deposit area, as well as a 910 metre geotechnical program designed by Knight-Piesold Consulting. This will target the ground conditions

of this portion of the deposit. Core obtained will undergo metallurgical testing as well as conventional gold and multi-element analyses. The 2021 program includes a soil sampling component, covering the majority of the Casino property and focusing particularly on areas east and south of the Casino Deposit. The program will comprise of collection of roughly 2,400 “B-horizon” soil samples on a 200m by 200m grid spacing. The objective is to identify any geochemical signatures that may indicate a second porphyry centre or further mineralized zones related to the main deposit. “We are excited to launch our exploration and drilling program developed with Rio Tinto,” said Paul West-Sells, President and CEO. “In addition to targeting new exploration targets, the work performed over the summer will provide important information that we will use as we move the Casino Project towards feasibility.”

“The work performed over the summer will provide important information that we will use as we move the Casino Project towards feasibility” of the proposed tailings management facility, proposed heap leaching and milling facilities and new airstrip. The 2021 program also includes a fivehole, 1,500 metre resource confirmation campaign, targeting the eastern and southern margins of the main deposit. This campaign is designed to confirm the lithological and mineralogical settings

World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

83


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news

GoldMining updates mineral resource estimate for the Whistler Project, Alaska

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oldMining has updated the mineral resource estimate on its 100% owned Whistler Project in south central Alaska, consisting of resource estimates for the Whistler, Island Mountain and Raintree West gold-copper deposits with an effective date of 11 June 2021. Compared to the prior reported estimate completed in 2016, indicated mineral resources for gold, copper and silver have increased by 9.9%, 23.0% and 35.9% respectively. Inferred mineral resources for gold have increased 0.9%, and for copper and silver have decreased by 0.3% and 29.0% respectively.

“Whistler is currently one of the largest known mineral resources in Alaska” “The updated resource at Whistler provides a clear and modernized view of the potential of this large-scale goldcopper project,” said Alastair Still, Chief Executive Officer of GoldMining.

“With approximately three million ounces of indicated gold equivalent resource and 6.5 million ounces of inferred gold equivalent resource, Whistler is currently one of the largest known mineral resources in Alaska, a proven mining jurisdiction. “The updated resource estimate also includes approximately 422 million pounds of copper in indicated resources and approximately 711 million pounds of copper in inferred resources, which enhances the attractiveness of the project, especially given the current copper price and the long-term outlook for copper demand.”

Epiroc wins large mining equipment order in Mexico

E

piroc has won a large order for underground mining equipment from Mexican contractor CoMinVi for use in several mines throughout the country. Headquarted in Guanajuato, Mexico, CoMinVi SA de CV was founded 19 years ago and is dedicated to the construction of mining development. The order includes a variety of

Epiroc machines, including face drilling rigs, production drilling rigs, rock reinforcement rigs, loaders and mine trucks. The equipment will ensure the mines are operated with improved productivity, safety and cost efficiency. The machines will be used at several mines in Mexico where CoMinVi serves as contractor. Epiroc will also provide

aftermarket services such as on-site maintenance supervisor and spare parts consignment. “The acquisition of this new equipment is a historical part of CoMinVi’s growth in recent years and represents a competitive advantage for us,” said Rafael Villagómez Contreras, CoMinVi’s CEO. World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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MEMS Digital In-Place Inclinometer System RST Instruments’ new, MEMS Digital In-Place Inclinometer (IPI) System is designed to reliably measure lateral movement in and around dams, embankments, landfills, landslides, piles, piers, retaining walls, and abutments, particularly when continuous remote monitoring is required. It provides an early warning for movements, essential for protecting life and equipment.

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SAAV EXTEND Connect sensorized ShaepArray segments in the field for a continuous deformation profile. Measurand’s latest ShapeArray—SAAV Extend—addresses the challenges of continual deformation monitoring during the raising of tailings dams. Inspired by direct feedback from clients in the tailings and mine waste sectors, SAAV Extend provides a continual deformation profile throughout multiple dam raises with unparalleled ease of installation and data interpretation.

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World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

89



news

Neo Lithium discovers new deep brine aquifer in the 3Q Project

N

eo Lithium has successfully intercepted a new deep brine aquifer, located outside the area which resulted in the company’s updated mineral resource estimate technical report in August 2018. The well PP1-R-26 is off-strike and approximately 250 metres east of the 3Q Project lake (in the alluvial fan) outside the previous resource volume that ended at the rim of the 3Q Project lake. Brine was found in the sediments at 11 meters deep all the way to the bottom of the well at 362 meters deep. This is the deepest well drilled in the northern high-grade sector of the deposit. The

previous resource estimate high-grade zone in the northern portion of the Salar

“We are keen to see the results of the new resource estimate, further highlighting the quality and size of our project” reached a depth of only 100 metres. In light of this discovery, the company has engaged Groundwater Insight Inc

as an independent contractor to work on a new resource estimate. “We are pleasantly surprised with the result of our drilling and the manner in which the northern high-grade zone extends both deeper and off-strike,” said Waldo Perez, President and CEO of Neo Lithium. “We are keen to see the results of the new resource estimate, further highlighting the quality and size of our project.” The 3Q Project is located in the Catamarca Province, the largest lithium producing area in Argentina covering approximately 35,000 ha, including a salar complex of approximately 16,000 hectares.

New Pacific commences initial discovery drilling at the Carangas Silver Project in Bolivia

N

ew Pacific Metals Corp has commenced an initial discovery drill program at the Carangas Silver Project, Oruro Department, Bolivia. The company has identified nearsurface bulk-tonnage and high-grade vein-hosted silver-rich polymetallic targets centred on and adjacent to the historically exploited West and East Dome areas. Phase I of the 5,000-metre drill program will comprise approximately 20 drillholes for the initial 3,000 metres to be completed over an eight-week period. Contingent on the success of initial results, follow-up drilling will complete the budgeted 5,000-metre program. The project’s Bolivian drill contractor has commenced drilling with a single

diamond drill rig. The Carangas Project comprises two exploration licenses owned 100% by the company’s Bolivian joint venture partner. New Pacific’s mining association agreement with the Bolivian partner requires New Pacific to cover 100% of the future expenditures on exploration, mining, development, and production activities in return for 98% economic

interest in the project. The Project lies within 50 km of the Bolivian border with Chile. Bolivia does not permit foreign entities to own property within 50 km of international borders, although property owners in the restricted area are permitted to enter into mining association agreements, or joint ventures, with third parties, including foreign entities. World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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news

Canada Nickel makes significant discoveries at Crawford Nickel Project

C

anada Nickel Company has announced the initial results from its drill program testing targets located on its regional properties around its cornerstone Crawford Nickel Project. The first two discovery holes at the Nesbitt Nickel property intersected visible disseminated nickel sulphides on a geophysical target that is 3.7 kilometres long and 100 to 300 metres wide, located just 8 kilometres north of the Crawford Nickel Project. The first two holes at the Mahaffy Nickel property and the first two holes drilled by Canada Nickel on the Kingsmill property intersected mineralized dunite across core lengths up to 417 metres. Assays are pending on all holes. “This discovery at Nesbitt of sulphide mineralization just 8 kilometres from

“This discovery further confirms the district scale potential of our properties” Crawford is very exciting as it opens up the potential for another higher-grade source of feed for the Crawford mill,” said Mark Selby, Chair & CEO. “This discovery also further confirms the district scale potential of our properties. The success of our geophysical approach combined with the success in confirming the results of the historic

Nesbitt drilling increases the potential for success following up on the historic 0.38% nickel interval at the recently acquired Bradburn/Dargavel target.” The Crawford Nickel Sulphide Project is located in the heart of the prolific Timmins-Cochrane mining camp in Ontario, Canada, and is adjacent to well-established, major infrastructure associated with over 100 years of mining activity. “These results highlight the success of our geophysical approach to define these hidden targets as we have intersected significant mineralization in every drill hole on our first three regional properties,” said Steve Balch, VP Exploration. “We will continue to explore targets on the other properties as we improve our robust methodology to rapidly evaluate prospects.”

US Gold Corp completes 2021 drilling at Maggie Creek, Nevada

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old exploration and development company US Gold Corp has completed its 2021 core drill testing of a previously untested, deep Carlintype target on its Maggie Creek Project, directly east of Nevada Gold Mines’ Gold Quarry mine and processing facilities. The company had originally planned two core holes from two different locations, but, based upon

encouraging alteration encountered while drilling the first hole, decided instead to attempt to offset the alteration with an angle hole from the same drill pad. “We took a big swing based upon a different look at the local geology and proved there is a system there,” said Ken Coleman, the company’s chief geologist. “Very rarely are discoveries made in the first hole testing a new target. The

results to date clearly warrant further exploration.” President and CEO, George Bee, said, “Having met our exploration commitments at Maggie Creek for 2021, we can now analyse the data and plan out our future program at this exciting target. We found the right rock package with significant alteration and we now need to pursue the gold.” World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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news

RCT to transform Evolution Mining’s Canadian fleet

Outback Goldfields’ Ballarat West exploration licence granted

T

he Goldfields of Victoria, Australia are home to some of the highest grade and lowest cost mining in the world. Outback Goldfields Corp holds a package of four highly prospective gold projects located proximate and adjacent to the Fosterville Gold Mine. The initial Phase 1 exploration program is now underway on two of the four company tenements, since the exploration licence application for its Ballarat West tenement has been granted. “Ballarat West is one of four key assets Outback has in the Victorian

E

volution Mining has selected global smart technology specialist RCT to deliver its market-leading autonomous technology to transform its new Red Lake mine in Ontario, Canada. A comprehensive three-year investment strategy will restore the newly acquired former Goldcorp mine to a safe, highly efficient, long life and low-cost operation providing strong

fleet. The loaders will be controlled from either the surface-based ControlMaster Automation Centre or the customised underground Automation Centres designed specifically for easier transfer via the mine shaft hoist system. This solution safeguards machine operators by relocating them away from hazards commonly found at the

“RCT equipment will enable higher productivity and efficiencies from our underground scoop fleet, while improving safety for our people” Goldfields,” said Craig Parry, Chairman. “It’s a large package that is completely underexplored due to shallow cover, despite the fact that over 17 million ounces of gold has been produced within 10km of the property. I believe Ballarat West represents an incredibly significant opportunity on our quest to find a multi-million ounce discovery.” The technical team has begun compiling and reviewing all regional and property-scale geological, geochemical and geophysical data to better define areas of focus for exploration. They will then focus on procuring land holder access agreements followed by a Phase 1 exploration program.

value for shareholders. To assist in the turnaround strategy, RCT will commission its proven interoperable and scalable ControlMaster Guidance Automation technology to the underground loader fleet. The technology will ensure optimal machine performance, higher speed autonomous tramming and reduced machine damage, while delivering faster production cycle times and reduced unplanned downtime across the loader

mine face and significantly reduces shift handover times, lowering overhead costs and resulting in greater site efficiencies. “We are very pleased to be partnering with RCT to introduce modern technologies to Red Lake as part of our transformation process,” said Kirsty Liddicoat, Red Lake General Manager. “RCT equipment will enable higher productivity and efficiencies from our underground scoop fleet, while improving safety for our people.”

World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

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Thor Mining exploration work helps US energy security “The US remains heavily reliant on imports of uranium to fuel its nuclear reactors” Mick Billing

“E

nergy security has been a top priority for the American government for the past decade,” says Mick Billing, Executive Chairman of Thor Mining, an exploration and development company based in South Australia, with

Nicole Galloway Warland

base-load electricity with virtually zero carbon emissions. Almost 20 per cent of US electricity is generated through nuclear power. The United States has the fourthlargest uranium resource in the world, behind Australia, Canada,

high-grade uranium and vanadium production in southwest Colorado in the Uravan Mineral Belt. Our Utah project includes 100 mineral claims in southeast Utah, near the town of Moab.” The Uravan mineral belt is a historic uranium-vanadium mining jurisdiction,

“Thor Mining holds 100% interest in two private companies which hold vanadium and uranium interests in Colorado and Utah” extensive interests in the United States. “Fortifying domestic supply chains while reducing dependence on foreign entities is America’s primary goal. While the US has seen some success in its energy ambitions, becoming the leader in oil production globally in 2013, it remains heavily reliant on imports of uranium to fuel its nuclear reactors.” With clean energy becoming a growing priority, nuclear offers low-cost

World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

96

and Kazakhstan, but production has declined as US uranium reserves are strongly dependent on price. Thor Mining has significant uranium assets in the US. “Thor Mining holds 100% interest in two private companies which hold vanadium and uranium interests in Colorado and Utah,” says Nicole Galloway Warland, Managing Director at Thor Mining in Australia. “Our Colorado project includes 199 mineral claims in areas of historical

close to well-developed infrastructure. A processing plant which has historically taken ore from the region on a toll treatment basis is located near Blanding, Utah, within relatively close proximity to Thor’s claims. While there is no historical mining at the Utah project, Hunt Oil’s mineral division reported significant uranium and vanadium mineralized bodies in 1980 and 1981 per Terra Ventures. Thor Mining is currently completing


news feature

environmental surveys and government permitting in preparation for drill testing three shallow uranium and vanadium targets in Colorado at Rimrock, Ground Hog and Area 23 Prospects. Tungsten Thor Mining also has two tungsten projects under development, one in the Northern Territory of Australia and another at Pilot Mountain near Reno, Nevada, the largest tungsten source in America. The company acquired the project in 2014 and a scoping study completed in September 2018 indicated potential for a profitable 12-year mine life. The Molyhil Project in the Northern Territory was awarded Major Project status in July 2020. Permitting is currently in progress with drilling anticipated in third quarter of 2021. Thor was awarded A$110,000 from the Northern Territory Government as part of the Resourcing the Territory, Geophysics and Drilling Collaborations (GDC) program, which will go towards drill testing of the magnetic target adjacent to the Molyhil resource.

Tungsten is one of the toughest materials found in nature. It is resistant to corrosion and has the highest melting point and highest tensile strength of any element. Tungsten is used in electrodes, heating elements and field emitters, and as filaments in light bulbs and cathode ray tubes. It is commonly used in heavy metal alloys such as high-speed steel, from which cutting tools are manufactured. It is also used in superalloys to form wearresistant coatings. Tungsten is used in a wide-variety of industries including automotive, mobile technology/ telecommunications, aerospace, defence, electronics, oil & gas, mining, etc. Tungsten is classified as a strategic metal, one which is critical to a nation’s economy or defence industry, but is not available in that country in commercially viable quantities. China controls the market for nearly 35 precious minerals and metals that are important to the United States for production and manufacturing, and tungsten is among them. The United States is seeking to decrease China’s dominance in rare-earths and strategic metals.

Copper Thor Mining also holds a direct and indirect interest in over 400,000 tonnes of copper metal over three projects in the development friendly jurisdiction of South Australia. Each of these project resources has exciting gold credits and very substantial exploration upside potential. “We have an aspiration to more than double this resource inventory over the next two to three years,” says Warland. “At Kapunda, through partner EnviroCopper Ltd, we are in the final stages of technical feasibility, and expect to proceed to full commercial feasibility by end 2021. A production commencement date of 2023 is achievable. At Alford East, we are conducting technical test work, concurrently with drilling to increase the size of the resource. We have a target for production commencement of 2024.” Each of the projects is focused upon production of copper through insitu recovery methods, similar to developments at Gunnison and Florence in Arizona, USA. World Mining Magazine www.ogsmag.com

97


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NEW MONITORING SYSTEM PROVIDES REMOTE ACCESS TO BACKSTOP OPERATING CONDITIONS Marland Clutch recently introduced the Smart Marland Monitoring System that provides up-to-the-minute access to critical backstop operating conditions including vibration, temperature and oil level. The IoT solution allows users to remotely monitor the condition of their equipment from anywhere using a computer or cell phone. The system can monitor up to 6 backstops from a single gateway. Users can perform statistical analysis to identify maintenance and repair needs, set desired report intervals and receive alarm notifications. System reporting capabilities include current measurements, historic trending and vibration analysis.

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mining equipment rentals

GEA Group Peter-Müller-Str. 12 40468 Düsseldorf Germany Tel +49 211 9136-0 chemical@gea.com GEA is one of the largest supplier for process technology and components for sophisticated production processes for many industries worldwide. Across a broad range of mining and mineral operations, GEA offers technologies, equipment & services in evaporation and crystallization, drying, cooling, calcining and conditioning, classification, thickening and dewatering, crud treatment and solvent extraction and wastewater management.

United Mining Rentals (UMR) was born out of a specific niche in the market for both short and longer term rentals for both new and used, Sandvik & Getman equipment for both underground & surface mining and also tunnelling applications. Coupled with +35 years of experience in the mining business, UMR provides both sales and rental of new & used mobile equipment for various mining & tunnelling operations across the world. In addition, our sister company, QME Mining Services Division (which operates as an International mining and tunnelling contractor), also operates a large fleet of predominately Sandvik equipment.

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Salter Cyclones Salter Cyclones specialises in fine solids removal with its own Hydrocyclones and Multi-Gravity Separators. These achieve powerful and precise separations in practical, compact, reliable, operator friendly and economic systems. Salter Cyclones Limited Tel: + 44 1242 697771 Fax: + 44 1242 690895 Email: sales@saltercyclones.com Web: www.saltercyclones.com

MINPRO

MINPRO International have subsidiary offices in 4 countries all of which have the same business, supplying mineral processing equipment and engineering for the mineral processing industry worldwide. Our main products are AKER Flotation Machines; Hydraulic Roller Mills, Semi Mobile Modular Concentrators, Hydro Cyclone Batteries as well as Polyurethane wear parts for the mineral processing industry. We deliver complete new mineral processing installations, renovation and upgrade existing mineral processing plants, retrofitting the AKER flotation mechanisms in existing flotation machines as well as engineering services and consultancy

Tel: +48 515 368 833 Minpro International Sp. z o.o. www.minpro.com

mining technology

Adrok is a cutting edge service technology company headquartered in Edinburgh, Scotland, with exclusive global patents to Atomic Dielectric Resonance (ADR) imaging technology. This innovative technology has been developed for use in Oil and Gas, Mining and Civil Engineering sectors. Adrok’s technology has been used in several projects around the world to explore the sub-surface geology and locate accurately and identify precisely the fluids present at great depths providing high resolution without drilling the underground. This subsurface imaging scanner generates ‘virtual borehole’ logs of subsurface geology from the surface. It is lightweight, field rugged and portable, to enable cost-effective mobilisation.

49-1 West Bowling Green Street Edinburgh, EH6 5NX (Scotland, UK) Tel: +44(0) 131 555 6662 Email: info@adrokgroup.com Website: http://adrokgroup.com/

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world mining directory process water treatment

software

GEA Group Peter-Müller-Str. 12 40468 Düsseldorf Germany Tel +49 211 9136-0 chemical@gea.com GEA is one of the largest supplier for process technology and components for sophisticated production processes for many industries worldwide. Across a broad range of mining and mineral operations, GEA offers technologies, equipment & services in evaporation and crystallization, drying, cooling, calcining and conditioning, classification, thickening and dewatering, crud treatment and solvent extraction and wastewater management.

Formed in 1997, Canary Systems provides integrated geo-monitoring solutions for a broad range of mining applications, including open pit, tailings, SW-EX, and underground. We help clients better manage risk, monitor performance, and increase the safety of their operations by tying together the loose ends: the hardware required for automatic or semi-automatic data acquisition – and the software to collect, store, and analyze data in a simple and efficient way on a single combined powerful platform. We provide turnkey solutions – including system architecture, hardware and software development, telemetry, and instrumentation – as well as individual components customized to and augmenting existing project needs.

Canary Systems, Inc. Mining Group 4732 Oracle Road, Suite 112 Tucson, AZ 85705 USA Tel: 520.887.9800 info@canarysystems.com www.canarysystems.com

Salter Cyclones specialises in fine solids removal with its own Hydrocyclones and Multi-Gravity Separators. These achieve powerful and precise separations in practical, compact, reliable, operator friendly and economic systems.

sump

Salter Cyclones Limited Tel: + 44 1242 697771 Fax: + 44 1242 690895 Email: sales@saltercyclones.com Web: www.saltercyclones.com

scales & weighing equipment

IVAC Industrial Vacuum Systems Ltd., manufactures a powerful pneumatic powered vacuum/ delivery system that allows you to pick-up and deliver your most difficult materials. The materials can be wet or dry including gravel, sand, slimes, sludge’s and water. The powerful, virtually maintenance free vacuum system is able to deliver the materials short or long distances, even up too kilometres through a pipeline or hose. Its is ideal for sump & ditch clean-up, tanks, under conveyors, around crushers and mills anywhere shovels, vacuum trucks or water hoses are being used for your clean-ups today!

Contact: Brad Fryburger Brad.Fryburger@rinstrum.com +1 248 680 0320 Website: www.rinstrum.com

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IVAC Industrial Vacuum Systems Ltd. 35-111 Chartrand Avenue, Logan Lake, BC V0K 1W0 Canada Phone 604-628-3367 Email zereko@zereko.com http://industrialvacuumunit.com



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