GREEN INNOVATION AND INDUSTRIAL POLICIES
Systems (HPS), winner of the 2011 Ashden Awards for sustainable energy, has adapted and converted a biomass gasification using diesel technology into a single-fuel rice husk gasifier for rural electrification. Households stop using dim kerosene lamps when they get HPS electricity, thereby saving on kerosene (and reducing CO2 emissions) and facilitating evening studying and other productive activities. Tata Consulting Services sells a $24 Swach (“clean” in Hindi) water fi lter that uses ash from rice milling to
Source: Dutz and Sharma 2012.
FIGURE 3.2 Green exports are growing, especially in the East Asia and Paciﬁc region (export of green goods and services as a percentage of all exports, 2000, 2005, 2010) 7 6 5 percent
in developing countries as they are in highincome countries, indicating the international transfer of green technology as embodied in green consumer products (figure 3.4). Inasmuch as some of these products are used as inputs, this also indicates the greening of the input mix, which may reflect adoption and adaptation of technologies by local fi rms. For instance, the purchase of manufacturing equipment in international markets is the main channel through which Chinese producers acquired the technologies and skills necessary to produce PV panels (de la Tour and others 2011). And the importing of green products may be a response to domestic demand-side green policies in developing countries. However, there has not been any significant upward trend in any region. The dissemination of green technologies can be accelerated through policies that increase adaptation and adoption capacity (such as education in relevant disciplines, especially sciences and engineering) and through trade and industrial policies (such as local content requirements and technology transfers). A good example is the success of the high-speed train program initiated in the Republic of Korea in 1993 by the purchase of the French Alstom TGV (train à grande vitesse). The contract included technology transfers (partly through training Korean workers in France) and the localization of 50 percent of manufacturing in Korea (Lee and Moon 2005). Today, Korea
fi lter out bacteria. It is intended for rural households that lack electricity and running water. Affordable green housing. In Mexico, Vinte specializes in building affordable, sustainable housing for low- and middle-income families. Its research and development in new technologies helped it introduce innovations such as home designs that reduce energy costs by 75 percent.
4 3 2 1 0 MNA
EAP developing- highcountry incomeaverage country 2010 average
Source: Dutz and Sharma 2012, based on data from COMTRADE + OECD list of environmental sixdigit harmonized system categories. Note: Developing regions are AFR (Africa), EAP (East Asia and Paciﬁc), ECA (Europe and Central Asia), LAC (Latin America and the Caribbean), MNA (Middle East and North Africa), and SAR (South Asia).
is among the five top world competitors in exports of high-speed trains. In Morocco the contract for high-speed trains and the Casablanca tramway included a local factory (created by Alstom and Nexans) specializing in railway beam and wire production, which will produce for the local and international markets.
Published on May 23, 2012
Published on May 23, 2012
As the global population heads toward 9 billion by 2050, decisions made today will lock countries into growth patterns that may or may not b...