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CONTENTS

Figures O.1 O.2 O.3 O.4 O.5

The three pillars of sustainable development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 As incomes increase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 As incomes increase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Loess plateau, before and after the watershed restoration program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Up-front investment costs for energy supply and energy efficiency could be substantial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 O.6 Reducing environmental degradation would provide substantial economic benefits . . . . 12 O.7 Developing countries may have substantial unexploited potential in green exports . . . . 14 O.8 Fossil fuel subsidies benefit primarily the rich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.1 The three pillars of sustainable development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1.2 Global pollutants and local, visible ones follow different paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 1.3 The denser the city, the lower the transportation emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1.4 Green policies hold the potential to sharply boost output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 B2.4.1 Some regions are doing better than others in wealth creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.1 Energy-reporting electrical outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 B2.6.1 A sudden shift to greener cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 B2.8.1 Fuel efficiency standards are key to reducing emissions from the transport sector . . . . . 59 3.1a Green frontier innovation occurs mostly in high-income countries‌ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.1b . . . with East Asia leading the way in developing regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.1c . . . but worldwide green patents remain low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.2 Green exports are growing, especially in the East Asia and Pacific region . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.3 Developing countries may have a substantial unrealized potential for producing green exports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.4 Green imports are vital worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.5 Snapshot of technology creation and diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.1 Many developing countries need to increase their enrollment in technical tertiary education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 5.1 Current fishery practices are not sustainable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 5.2 Not enough wealth creation from natural capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.1 Urban densities determine cities’ options for greening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 B6.1.1 As income rises, will countries choose low energy consumption in road transport? . . . 136 6.2 Upfront investment costs for energy supply and greater energy efficiency could be substantial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 B6.6.1 Access to basic infrastructure services has risen dramatically in Colombia . . . . . . . . . . 143 6.3 Too few countries are implementing plans to mitigate against natural disasters . . . . . . 148 7.1 Schematic for crafting solutions in the presence of deep uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Tables O.1 O.2 1.1 5.1 5.2 6.1 6.2

Some guiding principles for establishing green growth strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Financing mechanisms need to be tailored to the maturity of the local financial sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Potential benefits of green growth policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Poor soil quality and land degradation hurt economic growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Impacts of payment for ecosystem services schemes on poverty reduction . . . . . . . . . . 121 Sectors in which inertia and sensitivity to climate conditions are great . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Gaps in access to infrastructure in developing countries remain large, particularly in Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

Inclusive Green Growth  

As the global population heads toward 9 billion by 2050, decisions made today will lock countries into growth patterns that may or may not b...