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About the data

2.18

Definitions

People’s health is influenced by the environment

the use of oral rehydration therapy have changed over

• Access to an improved water source refers to

in which they live. Lack of clean water and basic

time based on scientific progress, so it is difficult

people with access to at least 20 liters of water

sanitation is the main reason diseases transmitted

to accurately compare use rates across countries.

a person a day from an improved source, such as

by feces are so common in developing countries.

Until the current recommended method for home

piped water into a dwelling, public tap, tubewell,

Access to drinking water from an improved source

management of diarrhea is adopted and applied in

protected dug well, and rainwater collection, within

and access to improved sanitation do not ensure

all countries, the data should be used with caution.

1 kilometer of the dwelling. • Access to improved

safety or adequacy, as these characteristics are

Also, the prevalence of diarrhea may vary by season.

sanitation facilities refers to people with at least

not tested at the time of the surveys. But improved

Since country surveys are administered at different

adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that

drinking water technologies and improved sanitation

times, data comparability is further affected.

can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect

facilities are more likely than those characterized

Malaria is endemic to the poorest countries in the

contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from

as unimproved to provide safe drinking water and to

world, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of

protected pit latrines to flush toilets. • Child immu-

prevent contact with human excreta. The data are

Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Insecticide-treated

nization rate refers to children ages 12–23 months

derived by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP)

nets, properly used and maintained, are one of the

who, before 12 months or at any time before the

of the World Health Organization (WHO) and United

most important malaria-preventive strategies to limit

survey, had received one dose of measles vaccine

Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) based on national

human-mosquito contact.

and three doses of diphtheria, pertussis (whooping

censuses and nationally representative household

Prompt and effective treatment of malaria is a criti-

cough), and tetanus (DTP3) vaccine. • Children with

surveys. The coverage rates for water and sanita-

cal element of malaria control. It is vital that suffer-

acute respiratory infection (ARI) taken to health

tion are based on information from service users

ers, especially children under age 5, start treatment

provider are children under age 5 with ARI in the

on the facilities their households actually use rather

within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, to pre-

two weeks before the survey who were taken to an

than on information from service providers, which

vent progression—often rapid—to severe malaria

appropriate health provider. • Children with diarrhea

may include nonfunctioning systems. While the esti-

and death.

who received oral rehydration and continuous feed-

mates are based on use, the JMP reports use as

Data on the success rate of tuberculosis treatment

ing are children under age 5 with diarrhea in the two

access, because access is the term used in the Mil-

are provided for countries that have submitted data

weeks before the survey who received either oral

lennium Development Goal target for drinking water

to the WHO. The treatment success rate for tuber-

rehydration therapy or increased fluids, with con-

and sanitation.

culosis provides a useful indicator of the quality of

tinuous feeding. • Children sleeping under treated

Governments in developing countries usually

health services. A low rate suggests that infectious

nets are children under age 5 who slept under an

finance immunization against measles and diphthe-

patients may not be receiving adequate treatment.

insecticide-treated net to prevent malaria the night

ria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus (DTP)

An important complement to the tuberculosis treat-

before the survey. • Children with fever receiving

as part of the basic public health package. In many

ment success rate is the case detection rate, which

antimalarial drugs are children under age 5 who were

developing countries lack of precise information on

indicates whether there is adequate coverage by the

ill with fever in the two weeks before the survey and

the size of the cohort of one-year-old children makes

recommended case detection and treatment strat-

received any appropriate (locally defined) antimalarial

immunization coverage difficult to estimate from

egy. Uncertainty bounds for the case detection rate,

drugs. • Tuberculosis treatment success rate is new

program statistics. The data shown here are based

not shown in the table, are available at http://data.

registered infectious tuberculosis cases that were

on an assessment of national immunization cover-

worldbank.org or the original source.

cured or that completed a full course of treatment as

age rates by the WHO and UNICEF. The assessment

Editions before 2010 included the tuberculosis

a percentage of smear-positive cases registered for

considered both administrative data from service

detection rates by DOTS, the internationally rec-

treatment outcome evaluation. • Tuberculosis case

providers and household survey data on children’s

ommended strategy for tuberculosis control. This

detection rate is newly identified tuberculosis cases

immunization histories. Based on the data available,

year’s edition, like last year’s, shows the tuberculo-

(including relapses) as a percentage of estimated

consideration of potential biases, and contributions

sis detection rate for all detection methods, so data

incident cases (case detection, all forms).

of local experts, the most likely true level of immuni-

on the case detection rate cannot be compared with

zation coverage was determined for each year. Acute

data in previous editions.

respiratory infection continues to be a leading cause

For indicators that are from household surveys, the

of death among young children, killing about 2 million

year in the table refers to the survey year. For more

children under age 5 in developing countries each

information, consult the original sources.

year. Data are drawn mostly from household health surveys in which mothers report on number of episodes and treatment for acute respiratory infection. Since 1990 diarrhea-related deaths among children have declined tremendously. Most diarrhea-related deaths are due to dehydration, and many of these deaths can be prevented with the use of oral rehydration salts at home. However, recommendations for

Data sources Data on access to water and sanitation are from the WHO and UNICEF’s Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water (2010). Data on immunization are from WHO and UNICEF estimates (www.who.int/ immunization_monitoring). Data on children with ARI, with diarrhea, sleeping under treated nets, and receiving antimalarial drugs are from UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children 2010, Childinfo, and Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro International. Data on tuberculosis are from the WHO’s Global Tuberculosis Control: A Short Update to the 2010 Report.

2011 World Development Indicators

105

people

Disease prevention coverage and quality

World Development Indicators 2011 Part 1 of 2  

Looking for accurate, up-to-date data on development issues? 'World Development Indicators' is the World Bank's premier annual compilation o...

World Development Indicators 2011 Part 1 of 2  

Looking for accurate, up-to-date data on development issues? 'World Development Indicators' is the World Bank's premier annual compilation o...