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3. environment

Introduction 123

3.4a

Tables Rural population and land use 126 Agricultural inputs 130 Agricultural output and productivity 134 Deforestation and biodiversity 138 Freshwater 142 Water pollution 146 Energy production and use 150 Energy dependency and efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions 154 Trends in greenhouse gas emissions 158 Sources of electricity 162 Urbanization 166 Urban housing conditions 170 Traffic and congestion 174 Air pollution 178 Government commitment 180 Contribution of natural resources to gross domestic product 184

3.5a

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16

3a 3b 3.1a 3.2a 3.2b 3.3a 3.3b

Text figures, tables, and boxes The 10 countries with the highest natural resource rents are primarily oil and gas producers  Countries with negative adjusted net savings are depleting natural capital without replacing it and are becoming poorer What is rural? Urban? Nearly 40 percent of land globally is devoted to agriculture Rainfed agriculture plays a significant role in Sub-Saharan agriculture where about 95 percent of cropland depends on precipitation, 2008 The food production index has increased steadily since early 1960, and the index for low-income economies has been higher than the world average since early 2000 Cereal yield in Sub-Saharan Africa increased between 1990 and 2009 but still is the lowest among the regions

124 124 129 133

3.5b 3.6a 3.7a 3.7b 3.8a 3.9a 3.9b 3.10a 3.10b 3.11a 3.11b 3.12a 3.13a

133

3.13b 3.16a

137

3.16b

At least 33 percent of assessed species are estimated to be threatened 141 Agriculture is still the largest user of water, accounting for some 70 percent of global withdrawals . . . 145 . . . and approaching 90 percent in some developing regions 145 Emissions of organic water pollutants vary among countries from 1990 to 2007 149 A person in a high-income economy uses more than 14 times as much energy on average as a person in a low-income economy in 2008 153 Fossil fuels are still the primary global energy source in 2008 153 High-income economies depend on imported energy 157 The six largest contributors to methane emissions account for about 50 percent of emissions 161 The five largest contributors to nitrous oxide emissions account for about 50 percent of emissions 161 More than 50 percent of electricity in Latin America is produced by hydropower 165 Lower middle-income countries produce the majority of their power from coal 165 Urban population is increasing in developing economies, especially in low and lower middle-income economies 169 Latin America and Caribbean has the greatest share of urban population, even greater than the high-income economies in 2009 169 Selected housing indicators for smaller economies 173 Biogasoline consumption as a share of total consumption is highest in Brazil . . . 177 . . . but the United States consumes the most biogasoline 177 Oil dominates the contribution of natural resources in the Middle East and North Africa 187 Upper middle-income countries have the highest contribution of natural resources to GDP 187

137

2011 World Development Indicators

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World Development Indicators 2011 Part 1 of 2  

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