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information management, and promote implementation of working systems on information technology (IT). Performance monitoring and efficient internal controls should, in particular, help to limit the rentseeking behavior of gateway customs officials in charge of transit. • Surprisingly, reform in the handling of duty collection itself in the transit country also indirectly leads to significant improvement for transit of goods as (1) some of the weaknesses of transit systems stem from organized fraud within the gateway, and more efficient control of tax evasion therefore indirectly strengthens transparency in transit; (2) IT reforms are usually done globally, and a country’s customs has a much stronger incentive to tackle transit IT as part of the overall scheme rather than doing transit alone; and (3) more efficient port clearance diminishes congestion and can sometimes ease handling of transit goods if the general environment is more efficient (especially if proactive measures are taken to improve links between actors or to increase the capacity of C&F agents, many of which are involved in both domestic and transit trade). • Inland transit and destination country capacities should be reinforced to improve transit (border management) and final clearance. Transport services reforms through policy or incentive measures. • Termination of obsolete freight repartition systems (queuing and tour de role), which may require politically supported measures to phase out inefficient operators; and calls for a very careful political economy analysis to ensure that operators are going to benefit from the reform and help to structure the service industry. • Concession of transport activities, such as railways, port operations, and road and logistics services, when they remain in the public domain and are being processed inefficiently (as in several African and Central Asian countries). However, attention needs to be given to the conditions of such contracts to avoid counterincentives or upsetting of the balance between public and private financial and technical responsibilities. Evidence shows that rail investments have structurally been underestimated in most concessions, and the balance has often been skewed toward private operators.

The Cost of Being Landlocked  

This book proposes a new analytical framework to interpret and model the constraints faced by logistics chains in landlocked countries. The...

The Cost of Being Landlocked  

This book proposes a new analytical framework to interpret and model the constraints faced by logistics chains in landlocked countries. The...