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Figure 2.15 Maternity Leave Provisioning, Selected East Asian and Pacific Economies EIU 100-point scale Australia

0.0

Indonesia

8.9

Malaysia

11.6

China

12.0

Hong Kong, China

14.7

Singapore

15.1

Philippines

38.3

Korea, Rep. of

38.5 43.3

Thailand Vietnam

85.0

New Zealand

86.1 0.0

20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 EIU maternity leave provisioning score

100.0

Source: EIU, forthcoming. Note: EIU = Economist Intelligence Unit. The EIU uses International Labour Organization documents and social security online to create the following scoring code (and then normalizing out of 100). Countries receive 0 for no paid maternity leave (regardless of length of maternity leave); 1 for employer-funded benefits (regardless of length of maternity leave); 2 if they have mixed systems (contributions from both employers and public funds) and less than 14 weeks’ maternity leave; 3 for mixed systems (contributions from both employers and public funds) and at least 14 weeks’ maternity leave or less than 14 weeks’ maternity leave, with maternity leave benefits covered by social insurance or public funds; 4 for at least 14 weeks’ maternity leave, with maternity leave benefits covered by social insurance or public funds. Countries score bonus points if they have schemes in place for entrepreneurs; if they have mixed systems for entrepreneurs, an additional 1 point is added to the scoring system above. If they have public funding of maternity leave for entrepreneurs (social insurance or public funds), an additional 2 points are added to the scoring system above. Finally, the following formula was applied: final score multiplied by the percentage of women in the nonagricultural workforce, divided by 100.

in hazardous or arduous employment); and provisions for multiple births, miscarriages, and adoption (U.S. Social Security Administration 2002). New Zealand recently introduced universal paid maternity leave after listening to the views of employers, women’s groups, and the public (World Bank 2010). This provision not only helps to level the playing field for women employees, but also facilitates the employment of women by smaller businesses, which are less able to absorb maternity leave costs on their own. However, it must be added that little research has analyzed the regime that best supports working mothers while also minimizing disincentives for employers to hire women. Indeed, if benefits are overgenerous and

Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and Pacific Region  
Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and Pacific Region  

The East Asia and Pacific region has made great progress, relative to other regions, with regard to both economic development and, specifica...