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Figure 1.6 Proportion of Men and Women Engaged in Entrepreneurship, Formal and Informal, Selected East Asian and Pacific Economies 9


14 21

Fiji Hong Kong, China



16 36

Indonesia 19

Korea, Rep. of


31 57 57

Lao PDR 14



New Zealand

25 20 31

Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam



19 28

41 32


% own-account workers and employers (men) % own-account workers and employers (women) Source: International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour Market, latest available data, 1998–2008. Note: “Entrepreneurs” are the proportions of men and women classified as “employers” or “own-account workers” in the International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour Market database. Employers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or few partners, hold the type of job defined as a “self-employment job” and, in this capacity, on a continuous basis (including the reference period) have engaged one or more persons to work for them in their business as “employee(s).” Self-employment jobs are those jobs in which the remuneration depends directly upon the profits (or potential profits) derived from the goods and services produced (where own consumption is considered to be part of the profits). “Own-account“ workers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or more partners, hold a “self-employment job” and have not engaged on a continuous basis any “employees” to work for them during the reference period. The sum of these two categories captures, we believe, the proportion of the labor force that owns formal sector enterprises (“employers”) and those who are in the microenterprise sector—which may or may not be formal “own-account workers.”

their entrepreneurial opportunities. Access to internal assets (human capital and time) is also important and often influences access to capital. • Business regulations: Cumbersome and complex legal requirements— the sheer number of them as well as the cost and time required for compliance—can present formidable obstacles. For example, high business registration costs may affect women more than men because women tend to have less time to devote to their businesses. Moreover, if women do not register their businesses, they cannot take advantage

Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and Pacific Region  

The East Asia and Pacific region has made great progress, relative to other regions, with regard to both economic development and, specifica...