economic crisis of 2008–09, gender effects of, 67b employment discrimination in, 45 informal labor market in, 67 land rights and inheritance laws in, 20, 21, 54 maternity leave benefits in, 51f, 52t, 53 political empowerment and participation of women in, 72, 73f start-up time and procedures in, 65 trade’s impact on gender in, 85–86b political empowerment and participation of women, 72–76, 78n2 comparison by country, 72, 73f comparison of East Asia and Pacific with other regions, 72, 73f maternity benefits correlated with women in parliament, 74, 75f poverty rates and gender equality, 1, 2f Pure Fiji, 88
R reform recommendations, 12 access to assets, 54–55 starting a business, 10, 76–78 trade expansion, 93–94 registration of new business. See starting a business regulations for new businesses, 9–10, 12, 63–66 “Report on Women and Entrepreneurship” (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor), 32 retirement ages for women, 40, 42–43, 42f, 54
S Samoa credit in. See Pacific Island countries trade regulations in, 88 Seguino, Stephanie, 34, 82 silk trade (case study), 87–88b Singapore Action Community for Entrepreneurship (ACE), 75 child care access in, 49, 49f land rights in, 20 maternity leave benefits in, 51f, 52t, 53 public-private dialogue and women’s influence in, 74–75 SME promotion model in, 77
start-up time and procedures in, 63, 63f, 66 trade practices in, 84, 86f SMEs (small and medium enterprises) credit availability of, 28, 29–30 promotion of, 77 trade regulations as barrier for, 88 training for, 90–93, 92f Sokorn Chom (case study), 87–88b Solomon Islands (case study), 69b Sotheary San (case study), 87–88b SPRING Singapore, 77 starting a business, 61–80 contract enforcement, 68, 70–72, 71t creating enabling environment, 10, 76–78 entry regulations, 9–10, 61, 62f, 63–66, 69b comparison by country, 62–63, 63f comparison of East Asia and Pacific with other regions, 61–62, 62t research needs on, 64 framework diagram, 11f governance, 10, 68–70, 69b political empowerment and participation of women and, 72–76, 73f, 75f, 78n2 regulatory burden and informality, 66–68, 67–68b Strength of Legal Rights Index, 24–25, 24t, 26
T technical training. See vocational and technical training Thailand economic crisis of 2008–09, gender effects of, 67–68b educational inequality in, 43–44 employment discrimination in, 45 export procedures in, 94 intermediary organizations, role of, 90 maternity leave benefits in, 51f, 52t, 53 SME training availability in, 92f, 93 time poverty, 48–50 Timor-Leste contract enforcement in, 71, 71t land rights in, 20 start-up time and procedures in, 63, 63f, 65
Published on May 10, 2010
The East Asia and Pacific region has made great progress, relative to other regions, with regard to both economic development and, specifica...