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education. See also vocational and technical training business entry and registration procedures, programs to educate women, 77 gender inequalities, 6, 38–48 literacy ratios by employment, 38, 39f by inheritance practices, 18, 19f e-government, 12, 89 Employer of Choice for Women (EOCFW; Australia), 35–36, 55n4 employment. See labor enabling environment for women-led businesses, 10, 76–78 entrepreneurship access to assets. See access to assets credit constraints on. See credit cultural norms as constraints. See cultural norms controlling gender participation female/male ratio by country, 7, 9f growth of business. See growth of business international trade. See trade starting a business, 61–80. See also starting a business training for. See vocational and technical training Equal Credit Opportunity Act (U.S. 1974), 76 Equal Employment Opportunity Act (U.S. 1972), 76 Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency (EOWA; Australia), 35 equal pay. See wage inequality Ethiopia and export training programs, 92 Expert Round Table on the Gender Dimension of the Enhanced Integrated Framework (2008), 91b Export-led Poverty Reduction Program (EPRP) of International Trade Centre (ITC), 90 export processing zones (EPZs), 84, 85b exports. See trade external assets, 17–37

F Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act (U.S. 1994), 76 Figaro Coffee (case study), 21–22b, 31–32 Fiji. See also Pacific Island countries trade’s impact on gender, 88 findings, 11–14 framework for analysis, 7–11, 11f franchising, 31–32, 94

G gender equality and growth, 1–2, 6. See also access to assets international trade. See trade labor force participation, 3, 4f, 6, 6f. See also labor laws for equal rights. See governance and legal systems political empowerment and participation. See political empowerment and participation of women wages. See wage inequality GhanaNet and customs facilitation, 89 glass ceiling, 43, 44f global correlations between female-male ratios of employers/employees, 3, 4f Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s “Report on Women and Entrepreneurship,” 32 going to scale, 93–94 Goldman Sachs, 1 governance and legal systems corruption, 68–70, 69b equality in laws, 12, 54 land laws, 22–23 maternity leave benefits. See maternity leave benefits new businesses and, 10, 68–70 Grey, S., 78n2 growth of business, 12, 81–96 business development services, 93 framework diagram, 11f going to scale, 93–94 intermediary institutions, role of, 89–90, 94


Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and Pacific Region  

The East Asia and Pacific region has made great progress, relative to other regions, with regard to both economic development and, specifica...