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economics (continued) and viability of large-scale disaster reduction, 173–74 see also damages; gross domestic product (GDP) ecosystems large-scale disruptions to, 182 protection of, 184–85 from avalanches, 129–30t4.1 value of, 132–33, 221n21 see also environment El Salvador, 44 embankments, 35–37, 38, 117–18 EM-DAT, 26b1.3, 199n4 emergency management, 17, 34 see also prevention measures emissions reduction, 184, 185b6.4 enforcement of building codes, 66–68, 90 of insurance coverage, 65 of land titles in Haiti, 102 engineering consulting firms, 93 environment destruction of, 59, 205n32 environmental buffers, 128, 129–30t4.1 forests’ value as prevention measure, 130, 131 Haiti, 101–4, 218n4 and natural hazards, 128, 129t4.1 protection of, 18, 132–33, 221n21 see also ecosystems ERRA. see Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA), Pakistan Ethiopia, 45, 134–49, 225nn2–3, 225nn6–8, 230n16 and food aid, 50, 158, 159 historical perspective, 136–37, 225n6 and remittance recipients, 156f5.3 Somali civilians living in, 226n16 Ethiopia Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, 136 ethnic diversity, and public goods, 113 Eurocode, 95, 213–14n14 expenditures and disasters, 61b2.2 making funding decisions, 110–14, 219nn2–3 pre-disaster, 106 on prevention measures, 106–10, 219n1 see also budgets; spending exposure, 2–3 to cyclones, 20–21, 171–72, 233n4 definition, 25b1.2

to hazard risks in Central America, 86b3.2 and structural mitigation measures, 73b3.1 and urban areas, 171–72, 233n4

F famines, 45 and death rates, 46, 202n8 Ethiopia, 135, 136–37, 225n7 FAR. see floor-area ratio (FAR) farmers access to resources, 48–49 Bangladesh, 35, 36 and damage assessments, 59, 205n30 and disputes over land and water, 48–49 Ethiopia, 134–35, 137–38 India, 165–66, 232n3 and losses from tsunami, 165–66, 232n3 and watershed management, 218n4 weather-based crop insurance, 148 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 4, 79, 85, 111 field assessments, 159, 160f5.4 financial losses, and structural mitigation measures, 72, 73b3.1, 213n3 financial markets and risk catastrophe risks, 147b5.1 managing and transferring risk to market, 148–49, 227n3 fires caused by earthquake damage, 89 fire codes, 91b3.4 fishermen, losses from tsunami, 165–66, 232n3 flash floods, 180b6.3 flood plains Bangladesh, 34–35 poor people living in, 83–84 United States, 85 value of hydrological regime for, 128, 130 floods, 180b6.3, 233n4 Bangladesh, 34–37 in cities, 187–88 and critical infrastructure, 127 deaths from, 35, 36f1. due to rise in sea level, 182 and early warning systems, 118 and ecological protection, 129t4.1 Ethiopia, 134 flood abatement schemes, 35–37 Haiti, 100, 100f1

Profile for World Bank Group Publications

Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters: The Economics of Effective Prevention  

Earthquakes, droughts, floods, and storms are natural hazards, but unnatural disasters are the deaths and damages that result from human act...

Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters: The Economics of Effective Prevention  

Earthquakes, droughts, floods, and storms are natural hazards, but unnatural disasters are the deaths and damages that result from human act...

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