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Working Pro The

Issue 213 • July 2013


Rules coming soon

THE 2013 cAnOn AiPP APPA

13 — 15 SEPTEmbEr 2013 mElbOurnE TH


SAVE THESE DATES OnlinE EnTriES will close 5pm Wednesday 21st August 2013 PHySicAl EnTriES must be received by Friday 30th August 2013 JuDging will bE HElD at Melbourne Exhibition Centre on 13th - 15th September 2013 APPA AwArDS PrESEnTATiOn DinnEr 16th September 2013

For more details visit


© Image by Robyn HIlls FaIPP m.PHotog IV

Working Pro The


Tony Hewitt G. M. Photog. vicki bell photographed for the prostate cancer foundation of australia auction at the Nikon aipp event 2013

The Working Pro is the official newsletter of The Australian Institute of Professional Photography (AIPP). Editor Peter Eastway GM Photog., Hon. FAIPP, FAIPP Disclaimer The information provided in The Working Pro and associated publications is made in good faith, but is general in nature. Neither the editor, the publisher or the AIPP accept responsibility for or will be under any liability for any recommendations, representations or information provided herein. The Working Pro presents information, opinions and suggestions for subscribers to evaluate in coming to their own decisions in the light of their own individual circumstances. The information should not be relied upon without readers first obtaining independent advice from their own financial and legal advisers. Unless otherwise noted, all articles are written by Peter Eastway. Publication The newsletter is published 10 times a year – monthly with November/ December and January/February being combined. The Working Pro newsletter is published by Pt 78 Pty Ltd, ABN 75 003 152 136, PO Box 351, Collaroy Beach, NSW 2097, Australia. Phone: (02) 9971 6857; Fax (02) 9971 6641. E-mail

AIPP Membership Contacts Suite 5, 205a Middleborough Road, Box Hill South, Victoria 3128 Phone: 03 9856 0700; Fax: 03 9899 6577 E-mail:

Co n te n t s #213


J ul y

2 0 1 3


President’s Message


Where Has Real Photography Gone


The Nikon Event Was Remarkable

A new direction for the Institute - what does Kylie and the Board have planned for the future? Peter Eastway asks if there is a sameness in all of our work and does this affect what our clients see? Ross Eason reports that The Event was well received - take a look at the social photos and you’ll see why.


$35,000 For Prostate Cancer


Portrait Management - Kelly Brown


Best Selling Photos - Tania Niwa


Handling Inquiries - Tania Niwa

22 26

Editors Selection - APPA Winners Who Owns The Copyright?


The Majority Rule


Photo Critique


Tax Planning - Unearned Income


Canon’s Dual Pixel Sensor - And Why?

The photography industry is a generous one - see the prints that raised so much money for a great cause. Why does Kelly Brown shoot both JPEGs and raw, and why can’t her clients come back for a sales session? If you’re shooting a family portrait, what types of photos should you take to improve sales? Here’s what Tania Niwa does. When someone contacts you for a shoot, how do you handle the inquiry? Some tips from Grand Master of Photography Tania Niwa.

If you take a photograph for a client, do you own the copyright or do they? Find out what the law says here. At APPA, the judging system is incredibly fair because of the Majority Rule. Read how it works. Why didn’t this photo earn a Silver Award at APPA? Read Peter Eastway’s suggestions. It’s not too late to look at your accounts and see if this little tip could save you a little tax or a lot! Will this new sensor design revolutionise the way we use DSLRs for our video work?

The Organisation of Choice Kylie Lyons M.Photog I. Hon.LM One of the biggest challenges the AIPP faces, is

making sure our organisation delivers value for our

opposed to ‘photographers’. In the modern world,

members, particularly as the nature of our industry

we believe that we are all image makers, not just

is, itself, constantly changing.


At the beginning of June, the AIPP National

Board, with some selected members and invited

munity is important and that we need to include

experts, took a weekend out to create a new strat-

in our community aspiring image makers as well

egy which we believe will help the AIPP become

as professional image makers.

1. We want to use the term ‘image makers’ as

2. Our belief is that in the future, an AIPP com-

even more your ‘membership organisation of


choice’ in the future.

Current Strategies

Strategic goals are really important because they

We looked at the Institute without rose

coloured glasses, trying to put ourselves into the

help us demonstrate how we are planning to de-

shoes of others, to see who we are to the outside

liver the AIPP mission statement.

world, and to look at ways of creating a better

Institute going forward.

they were relevant. While most are, we still made

refinements which will improve our ability to de-

We studied our current mission statement and

We looked at our six current strategies to see if

looked to see if it was still relevant. A mission state-

liver our mission statement

ment is important to help us keep track of the fun-

The first and most important goal we have

damental reason we exist. Sometimes we get so

set ourselves is to constantly provide benefits of

busy managing ‘stuff’ we forget why we are doing

membership which are appropriate for the needs

this ‘stuff’.

of all members. This goal is going to challenge

The new proposed AIPP mission statement is:

us in the next few years to always make sure we

“The AIPP advocates excellence in imag-

know what your needs are, and to make sure we

ing and is the membership organisation of

help you. Feel free to keep telling us!

choice for professional and aspiring image

The second goal is to provide for you a point


of professional differentiation. We believe that be-

There area couple of key points to draw your

ing an Accredited Professional Photographer is a

attention to in this statement.

great accolade which helps you stand out from

the crowd. Nevertheless, this goal is going to chal-

lenge us to make sure you are able to use this

Over the next several months, you will see

point of differentiation to help yourselves.

some changes and we all know change is uncom-

Our third goal is all about building the AIPP

fortable, so please be patient and understanding.

community, making sure we always have a culture

of inclusiveness, professionalism, respect and par-

we have planned. For example, we are planning

ticipation. This is going to challenge us to make

a more robust accreditation and folio assessment

sure you feel involved, able to participate and to

system. We want to ensure that anyone who calls

get value out of your AIPP membership.

themselves an AIPP Accredited Professional Pho-

Our fourth goal is to ensure we have effective

tographer has been through a rigorous and ongo-

communication channels. This goal is going to

ing validation process.

challenge us to constantly stay abreast of modern

communication methods, yet make sure we com-

that will encourage family membership, studio

municate with the entire AIPP community.

membership and even corporate membership.

Our fifth goal is to ensure through sound gov-

ernance and responsible management that the

ture to recognise our longer standing members

Institute remains in a financially robust position.

and the contribution they have made.

This goal is going to challenge us to make sure our

And most importantly, we are planning to give

income and expenditure match. We cannot spend

you help in using ‘the point of difference’ to en-

money we don’t have and we need to keep mem-

able you as an AIPP Accredited Professional Pho-

bership fees at an affordable and appropriate level.

tographer to really benefit from your membership.

We want your views, feedback and ideas.

We think you will like some of the changes

We are planning new membership categories

We plan to change our membership fee struc-

Lastly, we want to ensure AIPP employees create and deliver the necessary infrastructure to

How You Can Help Us?

guide the organisation to deliver its goals and ob-

Feel free to use the AIPP blog to post your views,

jectives. This is going to ensure our employees and

comments and suggestions. We need your feed-

staff, in whom we place a lot of trust, keep us fo-

back and help as we develop our new policies and

cused on achieving our strategies and our goals.

tactics. Working together we really can make the AIPP the ‘membership organisation of choice’ and

What Does This all Mean For You?

an organisation of which you can be proud.

Why are we telling you this and why should you be bothered? Because we want you to understand the direction and aims of your Institute. - 0411 552 488

Where Has Real Photography Gone? P e t e r E a s t w a y , G M . P h o t o g , H o n . F A I P P, F A I P P A few people in my life have started talking and

cating, like speaking or writing emails.

writing about ‘real photography’. They claim that

There is so much photography in the world

all the images we see these days are more like

today that it can take some getting used to, but

illustrations or graphic design than what we

I also see a more educated public. People seem

used to call photographs.

to appreciate the work I do even more because

They believe that the introduction of the

they know their buttons don’t do what mine

computer and the opportunity to edit our im-

do! Or perhaps they are just being nice!

age has done great harm to the process that we used to know as photography.

APPA Prints

Is this true?

Critics also claim the Canon APPA and Epson state awards should be called Photoshop


Broad Scale

awards, because unless you use Photoshop, you

If you look at how people are using photogra-

have no hope of winning. This is just pure twad-

phy today, it is completely different to ten years


ago and a world away from 20 years ago.

Great photographs shine through, whether

Today we use the word ‘photography’ to de-

they use Photoshop too much or just a little.

scribe a language that is used in many new and

That’s a creative choice we make as photogra-

different ways.

phers. And what one photographer likes, anoth-

er will hate. It’s always been the same.

With smartphones and tablets, the world

is using photography as a form of casual com-

However, I think what my friends are point-

munication and, just as previous generations

ing out is that a lot of photography today has a

would write in CAPITALS or use an italic type-

‘sameness’ about it, and that’s not a good thing.

face to make a point, contemporary society is

One thing I learned at the Nikon AIPP Event

using a button in Hipstamatic or Instagram to

listening to Michael Kenna is that you need to

add a filter effect.

have your own vision, your own voice, your own

Is this photography? Yes. Is it good, saleable

style. How you create it doesn’t matter, but if

photography? Probably not, but it’s not sup-

you don’t have something that’s special to you,

posed to be. It’s just another way of communi-

how will you compete as a professional?

Sheep near the Stirling Ranges, South Western Australia. Photoshop by Peter Eastway.


The Event Was Remarkable!

An Interview With Ross Eason M. Photog.


The Nikon AIPP Event in Hobart was an unmiti-

And the big picture is all about the little

gated success! Around 400 photographers and

things you take away that you can implement

trade people descended on Tasmania in mid-

back in your own business.

June for the fourth Nikon Event and it seems

that the formula is working perfectly.

ard Bennett stopped me after attending Kris-

And that’s the editor’s perspective, not the

ten Cook’s presentation and saying that he had

organisers’, although they are pretty happy too!

been a photographer for 40 years, but he had

No doubt there were a few anxious moments

just learnt something incredible from a young

for the Event team looking after it all. Headed

lady who had been a photographer for just

by AIPP National Events Manager Kim Harding

three years.

and Ross Eason, the team Judy Eason, Bambi

Wixon and Mel Comerford co-ordinated a host

a Peter Coulson workshop with two other ‘old

of helpers, speakers and volunteers to produce

dogs’. We thought we knew it all, but then Pe-

a world-class event.

ter asked his model to just lift off her toes by

Next year the Event will be administered

a centimetre or so before he shoots. This un-

by Kim as Ross is standing down (but as he re-

weighting elevates the clothes and the model’s

mains an AIPP National Vice President, he won’t

hair, and as Peter was shooting live, you could

be too far away). I asked Ross what the feedback

see the difference in the images. One of the old

had been like.

dogs leaned in and whispered that this one tip

made it worthwhile attending and he was right.

“Overall the feedback from delegates and

“I remember at The Event in Adelaide Rich-

“A few years ago I was sitting at the back of

trade has been great. As successful as the Event

was, it would still be nice to see even more

just reinforces what you’re doing, but I think

members coming along. Some people look at

Tony Hewitt nailed it when he said the advan-

the program and think there’s nothing for them,

tage of attending a conference is being able

particularly the more experienced photogra-

to speak about what you heard with other del-

phers, but ultimately there is something in the

egates. The learning curve continues.

program for everyone and most people who at-

tend get the big picture.”

ent stages of their careers, but that’s why we

“Sometimes you listen to a speaker and it

“We have a diverse membership at differ-

Photographs courtesy of Ross Eason and Steve Lovegrove’s cameras, but others may have pressed the button!

Photographs of the Nikon AIPP Event from Ross Eason’s camera.



have such a broad range of speakers. And they

are good speakers. Bambi and I don’t just invite

Event, the price would come down”, explained

someone along, we research them thoroughly,

Ross. “But even in its current format, for four

ensuring they are not only good photographers,

years in a row we’ve had people telling us it’s

but good presenters with a good message.

the best thing they have ever been too.

“Each year we ask delegates for feedback

“If we could double the delegates to each

“We’ve also made the workshops at the

and suggestions, and this forms part of the

Event more of an experience. For instance, Rich-

model we use to build the following Event.

ard Bennett took a group over to Bruny Island

by boat, we shot video at the Cascade Brewery

“Facebook is another source of feedback for

the Event team and this year it has been very

and we hired a heritage homestead for other

supportive, but even so there are comments

shoots. And with Russell Shakespeare’s editorial

and suggestions that we pay attention to.

workshop, to make it a believable experience

for delegates, we had former Greens leader Bob

“One member commented that for $500

more, he could go to WPPI in the USA when

Brown as a model! .

he added up the cost”, Ross added, but I con-

fess I couldn’t quite see how. Having been to

is huge, especially when they also host the din-

WPPI myself many times, I think this member

ner on the second night for all the delegates.”

was forgetting the cost of airfares, food and his

I asked Ross what was the most memorable

own time spent getting to and from Las Vegas.

or special aspect of the four Events he has been

The Nikon Event included many meals and sev-

involved with,

eral special events (such as a visit to the Mona

museum), so if the Event is $500 cheaper, why

the feedback we get from the students who

would you go to WPPI?

attend as part of the bursary, has always been

The bulk of speakers at The Event are paid,

special. Delegates and members need to be

although it’s also fair to say that for the amount

proud of the support they give to students by

of time and effort they put into their presenta-

offering the bursary, but that took on a new di-

tions and travel, it’s a very generous arrange-

mension this year when one very generous del-

ment on behalf of the speakers. More so for

egate donated $1000 to support bringing an

those who waive their fee altogether, specifical-

additional student to the next Event.

ly to support members attending.

However, there’s no getting around the fact

and the Institute are evolving into something

that The Event is expensive for some members.

new, something we can all take ownership of.”

“And having the support of Nikon behind us

“The student bursary or, more specifically,

“When I heard that, I realised that The Event

Photographs courtesy of Ross Eason and Steve Lovegrove’s cameras, but others may have pressed the button!

Photographs of the Nikon AIPP Event from Ross Eason’s camera.


Photograph auction, left to right, top to bottom: Shireen Hammond, Phil Kuruvita, Grant Matthews, Barb Uil, Russell Shakespeare, Richard Bennett, 12 Tony Hewitt, Michael Kenna, Jennifer B Hudson, Todd Hunter McGaw, Rocco Ancora, Liam West, Mel Neumann, Bella West, Bruce Williams.

$35,000 For Prostate Cancer Interview with Bambi Wixon Photographers and the photography industry

There are two aspects to the fund raising.

are a generous lot, as evidenced by their con-

tribution to the Prostate Cancer Foundation

when he photographed Tony, it was Tony’s turn

of Australia at the Nikon AIPP Event in Hobart,

to photograph someone and he chose Vicki

where over $35,000 was raised.

Bell. The result you can see on the cover of The

It all started last year at the Hunter Valley

Working Pro this issue.

Nikon AIPP Event.

The print was auctioned at the Nikon Cock-

Grand Master of Photography David Oliver

tail Party, one of the social highlights of The

photographed fellow Grand Master Tony Hewitt

Event, and two bidders were locked at $3500

during a workshop. Tony adopted Lewis Mor-

each. The solution was to make a print avail-

ley’s famous Christine Keeler pose, which in-

able for both of them and so the first $7000 was

cluded taking off his shirt, and the print sold at


the Nikon Cocktail party that night for several

The balance of the donation came at the

thousand dollars.

gala dinner again, with a further $28,000 being

This got the AIPP thinking and two nights


later at The Event’s gala dinner, a series of prints

from the speakers was auctioned. Over $30,000

silver gelatin print and the other presenters had

has been raised for breast cancer research.

their images printed at The Event by Epson on

Explained The Event Team member Bambi

Epson paper. The photographers signed them

Wixon, “As soon as it was over, we thought this

on the Epson stand.

has to happen every year. It created a really

good buzz on the night and it was great enter-

during pre-dinner drinks.


asking people for the sake of his prostate to dig

“Once the speakers have been chosen, my

Continuing the tradition started by David

Continued Bambi, “Michael Kenna brought a

“The prints were then displayed in the foyer “I loved the way Tony Hewitt ran the auction,

job is to organise their travel arrangements,


so when I contacted them, I also asked if they

would be prepared to donate one of their prints

Jennifer Hudson, followed by $4200 for Michael

for a good cause. Everyone said yes!”

Kenna and $3600 for Grant Matthews.”

“Our highest bid on a print was $4500 for


Portraiture Management Kelly Brown

Kelly Brown shoots around 120 photos from

at the end of the photography session.

which the final 20 are selected. She shoots both

raw and JPEGs, but given the controlled lighting

hard to come back for a selling session, so I

in her studio and her experience with the expo-

found it works better this way. I used to do per-

sures, she says her workflow usually runs from

sonal sales, but my sales weren’t any higher.

the JPEGs. The raw files are insurance.

What’s more important is to ensure you have

The whole shoot is backed up and the final

20 different images that are so good and so dif-

20 photos opened and edited in Photoshop.

ferent, they are going to order every single one.

“My images aren’t going on billboards, just on

They will pick one or two to enlarge and then

big canvases. Brilliant Prints did a 1.5 metre can-

they’ll order a number of smaller prints to give

vas for me recently from a JPEG and it was sim-

to grandparents and family.”

ply beautiful!”

Kelly realises when it comes to prints that

Kelly uses a Canon EOS 5D Mark III and her

she is competing with Harvey Norman and oth-

Photoshop technique is based on layers and

er big retailers, so she has a couple of examples

masks. “I adjust the skin tones because some-

on the wall just outside the studio. One is a Har-

times they are quite red, and then I’ll soften up

vey Norman print, the other a beautiful fine art

the image with blur over the background. I also

print created by her and a note explaining that

have a couple of actions I’ve developed which

this is what they are purchasing.

give the image its individual style.

ate products that they can’t create themselves.”

“I like to think I edit my images like no one

“Most of my clients with newborns find it

“For our photography to sell, we have to cre-

else and I don’t want my photography to look


like other photographers’ work.

Newborn and baby portrait photographer Kelly

Brown was a speaker at the recent Hair of the Dog

“All my selling is done online or over the

phone, but of course I have already explained to

in Queensland. She was the 2012 AIPP Queensland

them at the photography session what’s avail-

Family Photographer of the year and the 2012 AIPP

able. I have all my products on display and I talk

Australian Creative Photographer of the Year. Her

them through my price list, showing them the

business Little Pieces Photography is based in Bris-

sizes as I go. In some ways, I’m doing my selling


Infant photography by Kelly Brown.


Photography by Tania Niwa.


Best Selling Photos Ta n i a N i w a G . M . P h o t o g . “Pets are a big part of our family portraiture

and children together as a group, unless there

business. It can be pretty crazy and full on, es-

is just one child in the family in which case the

pecially with cats, as they usually take a lot more

parents will buy a large individual portrait.

enticing than dogs.

Parents tend to stick to small freestanding

images of themselves together (if they have

“You have to be patient and never give in

until you get those special shots. With cats, it is

portraits taken at all), feeling more comfortable

like playing a game of patience and I never give

with this option.

in! Eventually they seem to relent, relax and respond to our games. This can easily take more

Family Groups

than 90 minutes at the studio, but less at clients’

The photos that sell the best are the full family,


the children together in different scenarios and

individual photos of the children.

“The challenge of working with such charac-

ters is what makes it all the more rewarding and

fulfilling creatively.

buy at least a 20x28 inch canvas and often big-

ger if they have a large home with high ceilings.

“I absolutely adore the interaction children

have with their pets, especially dogs. ”

“For a family group image, most people will

“We display 40x28 inch canvases in the stu-

dio and a bigger 40x51inch image which then Canvas Sales

makes the 40x28 inch not look too big. We ex-

Tania says around 70 per cent of her family por-

perimented with what we put in prime spots on

trait clients used to purchase canvases from

the studio walls and where. By moving a land-

their sittings, but this is changing.

scape 40x28 inch canvas of four children direct-

ly alongside the 20x28inch canvas, we now get

“Although canvas is still very popular, we

have noticed a recent client shift back to framed

more of the larger 40x28 inch size sales. This

images lately. A couple of clients have com-

wall is the main wall clients see when sitting on

mented that they think canvas has had its day.

our couch.”

“It will be interesting to see if this return to

What they will buy?

classic framed portraiture collections continues.

Tania’s clients are surrounded by the size of

It is more usual to sell large print sizes of family

prints she’d like to sell them.


“The photos are really engaging from an

private schools, so you really have to be giving

emotive point of view – with images showing

each and every family a great experience in or-

children, so people are drawn to them. I don’t

der to be recommended, respected and valued.

have large size portraits where the faces are

close up, so viewers aren’t overwhelmed and

lored service and appreciate we have a high at-

could more easily imagine their own children in

tention to detail throughout every step of the

similar scenarios to be on their own walls.


Clients appreciate that we offer a finely tai-

“They also appreciate our expertise and ad-

Having A Ball

vice on how to dress and what will look good

“When it comes to shooting the family portrait,

on their walls (our software programme ProSe-

I try to combine an interesting design [the posi-

lect helps them to imagine this through virtual

tion of the family members within the frame], a


relaxed feeling and engaging expressions.

“Very often, the photos the family go nuts

take photographs of walls where they wish to

over are ones where their children look like they

hang their portraits and then, using ProSelect

are having a ball, their innocence (or cheeki-

software, we can show them exactly how the

ness) and vibrant smiles are shining through.

finished artworks will look like in their home.

Add a dog with a quirky, adorable expression

If we don’t visit their home, we ask them to

and you have a winner!

take photos of the walls with their iPhone and

we use these shots instead – it helps us show

“A lot of our clients live on the North Shore

“If we visit their home for a shoot, we will

of Sydney and are very house proud.

them what will look great and sell them appro-

priately sized artwork for the locations.

“They are highly educated, very discerning

and appreciate and expect a premium level of

product and service.

we have taken away the guess work and provid-

ed them with firm options.”

“The mums don’t always work as the dads

“They are very impressed and excited that

are in high-powered careers in banking or finance and have to travel away for work fre-

TANIA NIWA G.M.Photog. Tania shoots family por-

quently. We get to work with many families

traiture (60%) and commercial work (30%), with the

with friends who have also worked with us lots

balance of her business coming from tuition and

of times.

workshops. She works on the Northern Beaches in

Sydney and is a Grand Master of Photography and

“The community is quite small and are of-

ten connected by their children who go to local


an AIPP Mentor.

An example of how one of Tania’s clients used their photographs in their home.

Read More AIPP Member Only Content To read additional specific business related advice, visit the AIPP website and sign in. Once you’re signed in, follow the menu Member Services, My Publications, The Working Pro - Extended Material. Tania covers how to set up your business to charge a premium.


Photograph by Tania Niwa

Read More AIPP Member Only Content


To read additional specific business related advice, visit the AIPP website and sign in. Once you’re signed in, follow the menu Member Services, My Publications, The Working Pro - Extended Material. Tania covers how to set up your business to charge a premium.

Handling Inquiries Ta n i a N i w a G . M . P h o t o g .

Tania Niwa insists on having a consultation be-

the shoot itself to the approximate size and

fore a family’s portrait shoot. “Some people try

type of portrait finish that clients think would

to get out of it, but we help them understand

work best in their home.

the benefits of seeing what we do first. Their

minds are much more open once they have

pricing so there are no grey areas. I will even

seen the samples on our studio walls, and un-

circle on our price list the things they have ex-

derstand that what we create is personalised

pressed an interest in.”

family artwork.

By choosing appropriate affiliates, Tania is

In her studio, every print on the wall has a

qualifying her clientele. She also has clients

price under it, so when they point to something

who ring a few studios to compare and are

they like, they know how much it will cost.

price conscious. “Some people who find us via

Google aren’t always our ideal type of clients.

“The price is really obvious and I prefer it that

“During the consultation, I also explain the

way, especially when Dad walks in. Often the

They can be quite flabbergasted by the cost of

Dad may not be aware of the pricing, so when

our photography and don’t always see the value

he says what he thinks they should purchase,

of our skill and craft.

there’s no awkwardness.” Tania also finds that

when dads are at the viewing, the couples tend

from a similar demographic and generally al-

to spend more. They walk away enthusiastic

ready understand that what we do is a worth-

about how their home will soon look!

while investment and expect to pay a premium

Of course, a pre-shoot consultation takes

for the relative skill and end result.

time and it might not be appropriate for all stu-

dios. However, many of Tania’s clients have re-

rapport with them, ask lots of questions and

ceived gift certificates through affiliates, so they

excite them about the experience we can of-

may not be aware of how her studio operates.

fer. We try to build desire and perceived value.”

The consultation allows Tania to explain

Tania has a very comprehensive website, so

what their gift includes and what products are

if people wish to do some research, most of the

available, exciting her clients with the many

information including a minimum order of $445

possibilities. She will discuss everything from

is there to be found.

“Those who are referred usually have friends

“If they are cold-calling, we need to build




There are so many great images at Canon APPA and the Epson State Awards that not every Award gets the attention it deserves. To redress this in a very small way, the editor will present a small selection each issue for your enjoyment.












© Who Owns The Copyright? The Photographer or the Client? It is important to own the copyright in your photographs, but not essential. If someone

Weddings and Portraiture

pays you enough money to take photographs,

It’s a different situation when you are photo-

that may be attractive enough to let them have

graphing for ‘private or domestic purposes’, such

both the photograph and the copyright.

as family portraiture and wedding photography.

In this situation, the clients are the first owners

Copyright can be sold by the copyright

owner, so it’s important to know who the first

of the copyright.

copyright owner is.

So, if you photograph the managing director in his office on Friday, you own the copyright.

Commercial Photography

Photograph the managing director and his fam-

The general rule is that the first copyright owner

ily at home, he owns the copyright.

is the person who takes the photograph. So, in a commissioned situation where you’re photo-

Fine Print

graphing a model for a fashion shoot, a build-

The first owner of the copyright can be

ing for an architect, or a series of headshots for

changed if both parties agree. This is why the

a conference, because the nature of the job is

AIPP recommends photographers have a con-

business-to-business, you own the copyright.

tract that clearly states that the photographer

Note, this is still the case even if you are pho-

owns the copyright.

tographing a portrait, such as the managing di-

These rules applied from 30 July 1998.

rector or a model.

There are some exceptions to these rules:

Owning the copyright may not give you the

• The copyright in photos taken as an employee

right to sell or use the photograph of a person without their consent. Generally speaking, you

as part of your job are owned by your employer. • Employees of newspapers and magazine pub-

could use the photographs in an editorial or

lishers retain the right to photocopy the photos

self-promotional context without their express

and include them in books, but the publisher

permission, but neither you or nor anyone else

owns all other rights

would be able to use it without their permission in an advertising context.

• If you shoot for the government, it is the first owner of copyright.

This is general information only. We do not know your specific financial or legal situation and we are not providing you with advice. As such, this article should not be relied upon as legal, financial or accounting advice. Please use this article as a conversation starter with your own adviser.



The Majority Rule

W h y T h e A I P P ’s J u d g i n g S y s t e m I s I n c r e d i b l y Fa i r Can a judge control the judging panel by scor-

other four judges from giving the print a Silver

ing very high or very low?


At the Canon Australian Professional Photog-

This is where the Majority Rule kicks in. Be-

raphy Awards and the various Epson State Pho-

cause three or four of the judges (the majority)

tography Awards, there are five judges. When

are in the Silver award range (over 80), the mini-

you listen to the comments or watch the scores,

mum the print will score is 80, no matter what

it can appear that one judge is unduly affecting

the average is. Let’s look at another example:

the overall score, either by judging incredibly high or way too low.

70 70 85 86 85 Average: 79 The print will score a Silver with Distinction be-

Majority Rule

cause the majority of the judges are above the

One of the many safeguards in the complex

85 score range. Of course, the Majority Rule

judging system is the majority rule. It states that

works the other way too:

if three or more judges have scored a print in a particular score range, then at the very least the

95 93 79 78 79 Average 85

print will sit in that score range.

However, this print will not score a Silver with

The score range dividers are at 80 (Silver), 85

Distinction or even a Silver Award because the

(Silver with Distinction), 90 (Gold) and 95 (Gold

majority of the judges scored it below Silver.

with Distinction). Let’s look at a score of 80 and

The score will default to 79, just below the Silver

see how this works. A print receives the follow-

Award standard.

ing scores:

When you watch the scores at the judging,

or listen to the panel chair call out the score, 81 81 81 80 72 Average: 79

this might explain why the final result is differ-

In this situation, four judges feel the print is

ent to the average.

worth a Silver Award, but one judge scores it

In fact, if the score is changed due to the

very low. Although all five judges may be scor-

majority rule, the panel chair will usually state so

ing the print fairly from their personal point of

e.g. “This print has scored 80 by majority and is a

view, as a panel, one judge is preventing the

Silver Award”.




s a h n o i t u b i r t s i d l s a i n t o u t b e , d Th e l l o r t on c l l s e s i w m n e t i be s I ? d e l l o r t n o c ? e f i l f it too o k r a p s t a h t g in

h c u m s i e g a m i e h e t h f t o t e t f y , t h g The le i r e h t n t a o h t n r s e ’ t g I . e l d stron d i m e h t n i . d e c jetty is n a l a b e t i qu


Reflection de tail has been enhan ced, adding interest.

A score of 76 means it is good professional practice and, when you compare this edit with the original file on the next page, I think you’ll agree the image has been tweaked appropriately. So, why isn’t it good enough to earn a Silver? There’s nothing wrong with the photograph, but there’s nothing that is exciting the judges either. This is a standard composition and you’ll often see a bride and groom on the end of the jetty in the wedding category. What the judges want is the photographer to take the next step – add in a fisherman to the side or the Loch Ness Monster. Nothing wrong with this, just needs more!


Why don’t some prints make it to Silver or Gold? While you can never predict the judges’ reaction with certainty, sometimes there are aspects or features in a photograph that let it down. Past APPA Chairman and Grand Master of Photography Peter Eastway has, with the photographer’s permission, reproduced this image because it didn’t receive a Silver or Gold Award. His observations are designed to help others assess images from a judging perspective, with the view to improving not only their Award entries, but their professional photography in general.

n o c n e e b s a h a e r e a r t e h h g t i l e k a The m t i s e o d ? e t l u b b a , t c i d e r p trolled o o t , t c e f r e p o t t l su

n e e b e v a h s Tree d i v o r p , lightened . l i a t e d e r o ing m

The small ba nk doesn’t b alance the large bank o n the left, so perhaps the wharf shoul d not be cen tral as this suggests a b alanced com position.

The original file shows how the photographer has improved the image with editing. The trees on the banks have been given a little more life, some tone has been added to the bright area above the horizon, and the image given a slightly bluer colour balance. These adjustments point to good post-production, but perhaps more is needed with the initial capture. Two thoughts: is there another composition that is more exciting? Or is there some other element that can be added in to give the image a stronger centre of interest?

Would You Like Your Photo Critiqued?

Are you brave enough to have your award entry critiqued in front of the world? I’m looking for volunteeers! In return for having your entry (state or national) critiqued here (there is no money involved), I wish to be given your permission to use the photo and the critique on my websites, on Flickr, YouTube and Facebook etc), and possibly in ebooks on photo competitions. You will remain the copyright owner, but you give me permission to use your image, anonymously, and hopefully you’ll receive some useful advice in return. If you’re willing to participate, here’s what I’d like you to do. 1. Create a JPEG of the award entry you would like critiqued, sized to 2000 pixels on the longest edge, setting 8 compression. 1a. Optionally, create a second JPEG of the entry before you have done any editing. Don’t send me the raw file, but a JPEG that hasn’t had much processing. 2. Put ‘TWP PHOTO CRITIQUE’ in the header of the email, and attach the JPEG(s).

3. Write this in the email (cut and paste or type the equivalent): “Hi Peter. Enclosed please find my photo (along with an unedited version) for your critiquing and feedback. It scored ?? (enter score). I understand that my photo may not be selected for use. However, if it is selected for use, I agree that in return for you providing the critique and feedback on my photo, I give you permission to use the photo, anonymously, on your website and associated websites such as Flickr, Youtube and Facebook, and in future ebooks. My intention is that this licence will last indefinitely, but I retain the right to ask you to remove the photograph in special circumstances in the future, within a reasonable time (say one month). This just covers me for unforseen situations.” 4. Add your name to the bottom of the email and send it to me at Please, just one image at a time and there’s no rush to do this straight away - I only need a few photos to begin with, so I will repeat this offer in the future! And don’t send me your best images because they will probably be too good to critique!



Unearned Income Te m p o r a r y Ta x S a v i n g ?

Sometimes court cases can be interesting. The

a number jobs that have been fully paid, but

Arthur Murray Dance School charged for a num-

not yet photographed.

ber of lessons in advance. When they received

A similar approach can be taken to the wed-

the money for the lessons, it hadn’t yet been

ding album, if a deposit has been taken and

earned and so it didn’t have to be included as

the album is still not completed. You may argue

income on their tax return until the student had

that this service (the production of the wedding

taken the lesson. It was unearned income.

album) has yet to be undertaken, and so the de-

The same principle may apply to wedding

posits received are also unearned income. This

and portrait photographers who take deposits

is a more contentious argument.

for photography, and even for the production of albums. If your income during the year includes

Portraiture Deposits

photography deposits and, at the end of the fi-

Portrait photographers often take sitting fees

nancial year you had yet to shoot some of the

and, while usually a sitting fee is a lot less than

jobs, you may be able to ignore this income un-

a wedding deposit, if you are doing enough of

til the following year (or whenever you do the

them, they can add up. If at the end of June you

shoot). Unearned income is only of interest at

have quite a number of paid sitting fees which

the end of each financial year.

are yet to be shot, add them up and count them as unearned income.

Wedding Deposits It is quite common for wedding photographers

Delay Only

to be booked up to twelve months in advance,

Not all photographers worry about accounting

sometimes as much as two years ahead. A de-

for their unearned income. Generally speaking,

posit of $500 or more may be paid and, if you’re

unearned income simply delays when you get

doing 50 weddings a year, this could add up

taxed. It doesn’t reduce the amount of tax you

to quite a lot of income. As the wedding date

pay, unless there are special circumstances.

draws closer, most wedding photographers re-

However, from a cashflow point of view, de-

quire more of the total wedding package to be

laying the payment of tax can be very useful,

paid, so at the end of June, there could be quite

freeing up cash to cover other expenses.

This is general information only. We do not know your specific financial or legal situation and we are not providing you with advice. As such, this article should not be relied upon as legal, financial or accounting advice. Please use this article as a conversation starter with your own adviser.


The Canon EOS 70D is the first camera to feature the new Dual Pixel sensor design.


Canon’s Dual Pixel Sensor – And Why? Canon EOS 70D

Video producers probably don’t need to answer this question as many video cameras already

Phase Detection

focus very well, but if you’re using a DSLR to

Most DSLRs use the faster phase detection auto-

capture movies, then the dynamics of using a

focus system when capturing stills. Simplistically

camera with an optical viewfinder are quite dif-

speaking, phase detection works by comparing


the image recorded from opposite sides of the

Or they have been until now.

lens separately.

If you could improve autofocusing on a tra-

The light is focused onto separate sensors

ditional DSLR, what would you do?

and compared. If the values are ‘out of phase’,

First up, most people would enlarge the area

it means the lens is out of focus, so the lens is

over which the autofocus system works, and

moved until the values are ‘in phase’ and the

second, it would be great for the autofocus to

lens focused.

work better during movie capture (as well as

Phase detection is considered superior to

live view mode).

contrast detection because it can determine

Some of these improvements are already

more accurately how far and in which direction

possible if you’re happy to use an electronic

the lens has to be moved to achieve focus with

viewfinder (such as some Sony, Olympus and

a single measurement.

Panasonic models), but if you like using an optical viewfinder (the traditional style SLR camera),

Contrast Detection

you’ll have to work within the limitations of a re-

Contrast detection works on a similar premise,

flex mirror system.

but it relies on differences in contrast values as measured by the separate AF sensors and deter-

Autofocus Systems

mines the correct focus by making lots of mea-

There are two basic approaches to autofocus:

surements – a process of iteration.

active and passive. DSLRs use passive systems

Eventually contrast detection determines

and there are two types of passive systems

the correct focus, but it can hunt around a bit in

available, phase detection and contrast detec-

the meantime.


So, why use contrast detection at all if phase


detection is better?

todiode for image capture, the new Dual Pixel

CMOS employs two photodiodes for every sin-

With the traditional DSLR design, a separate

autofocus sensor using phase detection is po-

gle pixel site.

sitioned in the camera, but it can only be used

Even better, these dual pixels use the su-

when the reflex mirror is in the viewing position.

perior phase detection system, so autofocus is

This is because the reflex mirror has a hole

quicker and more accurate in both live view and

in it through which light is diverted, using an-

movie recording modes.

other mirror or two, onto the autofocus sensor.

As soon as the mirror flips up for movie record-

80 per cent of the viewfinder area to focus on

ing or using live view, the autofocus sensor is in

which is a useful improvement, but this is 80 per

the dark and stops working. Another system is

cent of an APS-C size sensor. It will be interest-


ing to see if the same area can be covered with

So, when the mirror flips up, the camera uses

a full frame sensor in the future.

With the new sensor, Canon claims it can use

a contrast detection system, employing pixels on the image sensor instead.

Fully Featured

The problem with this approach is that the

And, of course, this only applies if you are using

image sensor can’t do two jobs. It can’t measure

live view or movie recording modes – for opti-

light for autofocusing and record an image at

cal viewfinder shooting, you’d still be using the

the same time.

same but very effective phase detection system

So as not to degrade image quality, only a

found on other Canon DSLRs, depending on the

small number of pixels are used for contrast de-


tection autofocus and software is used to fill in

The first camera to feature the new focusing

the missing pixels on your photographs.

system is an enthusiast model, the Canon EOS

In practice, the dual system works reason-


ably well, but it also explains why autofocus isn’t

Scheduled for sale in September, it features a

as sharp when you’re using your camera in live

20-megapixel APS-C CMOS sensor, uses a 14-bit

view or movie recording modes.

DIG!C 5+ processor and shoots at up to seven frames per second.


Canon’s Solution

Additionally, a native ISO range of 100-

Canon claims to have solved this problem by

12,800 (expandable to 25,600) enables shooting

redesigning the image sensor completely. In-

in lower light conditions, something the new

stead of each pixel site comprising a single pho-

autofocus system will revel in.


WITH IGNACIO PALACIOS, PEP ROIG & PETER EASTWAY Torres del Paine, Perito Moreno Glacier, Cerro Torre & Fitz Roy 8 – 21 March 2014 / 14 days Internationally awarded travel photographers Ignacio Palacios and Pep Roig are leading an amazing photographic journey to Patagonia in South America next year and AIPP Grand Master of Photography Peter Eastway will join the tour as a guest presenter and instructor. Patagonia Itinerary Santiago de Chile, Pta. Arenas, Torres del Paine National Park (Pehoe Lake, Nordenskjöld lake, Salto Grande waterfall, Laguna Larga, Grey lake and Grey Glacier), Pto. Natales, El Calafate (Perito Moreno Glacier), Viedma Lake, El Chaltén (Cerro Torre and Fitz Roy, Maestri camp, Poincenot camp), El Calafate. The trip includes accommodation, all meals, English and Spanish speaking guides, local travel (minibus), transfers and visas. On the Patagonia tour, Peter, Ignacio and Pep will provide instruction and assistance with your photography as required. There are only 15 seats available on the tour. Price: AU$7995* (*) Twin share price. The tour price does not include flights. Note: Some level of fitness is required to reach some campsites in Torres del Paine and Cerro Torre. Porters will be available at an additional fee. The tour finishes in El Calafate (Argentina) from where there are flights to Buenos Aires connecting back to Santiago de Chile or directly to Australia. Dates and itinerary are subject to change.

For further information, contact Ignacio by email: or visit




only $2



R 2013




How To Win Photo Competitions An eBook by Peter Eastway G.M. Photog., Hon. FAIPP, Hon FNZIPP, FAIPP I have judged

niques and approaches I’ve developed

approach them, and how to use the

many photography competitions and there are lots of little things that entrants forget to do. If only I could let them know before entering the competition, they would do so much better!

over the years will help you capture and produce better photographs. My book is called How To Win Photo Competitions. It begins with a little about me. After all, it’s easy enough to write a book about winning photography

results to assess your own photography. It’s important to set the scene before we get into creating photos that win competitions. The next two sections are the nitty gritty. We begin by talking about taking a great photograph in the first

ful background information about how competitions work (generally speaking), and then I analyse some of the images that have won awards for me, pointing out the aspects that the judges responded to in a positive way. The book has lots of photographs

Well, as a judge I’m not allowed to ring up and help entrants, but I can write a book that distills what I have

competitions, but it’s better if you have a little bit of experience. Fortunately for me, I’ve been lucky enough to win

place. Competition winners begin with the camera and so we talk about camera technique, colour, composi-

and illustrations to explain exactly what I’m talking about. And it is an eBook. It is easy to

learnt over the last twenty years that will give you a great head start. Of course, no one can give you an iron-clad guarantee that you will read my book and then win the next photo competition you enter – and I explain why in the book. However, what I can guarantee you is that if you read my

quite a few competitions, plus I have a lot of experience as a judge. I can talk to you about both sides of the competition. Add in the fact I’ve been a magazine editor for 30 years and I hope I’m able to communicate my message pretty well. So, in just a couple of

tion, framing and so on - little tricks and hints that will make a world of difference to your photographs. From here we step into postproduction – using the computer to improve the images our camera has captured. Most readers will have dabbled with Photoshop, Elements

read on a computer, laptop or iPad, and you need Adobe Reader (Acrobat) to view the book. There is no paper version of this book, although you can print out the Acrobat Reader file if you wish. I have created a sample eBook for you to look at on the Better Photogra-

book, you will improve the quality of your photography.

pages (I don’t want to bore you), I explain why I know what I’m talking

or Lightroom and this is all you need to enhance your images so they are

phy website, so please visit and have a read. If you like what you see, I hope

You see, whether you’re aiming to win a photography competition or just take a better photograph, the advice is very similar. And I know that the tech-

about (even though my Dad told me not to boast). We then look at competitions and how they work, how you should

in the running for a competition win. These days, no matter how good your camera is, you simply must do a little post-production to finesse your entry.

you’ll purchase a copy. And for your next photo competition - good luck! – Peter Eastway

For more information and a read of the free sample, please visit:

I finish the book with some use-

Working Pro 213  

The official journal of the Australian Institute of Professional Photography

Working Pro 213  

The official journal of the Australian Institute of Professional Photography