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For Elena. Се е можно – са тобом.


FORE W O RD ‘Workbook 2006’ is a compilation of work carried out during my first years as an architect. It was a fruitful period (a planned six-month training in the Netherlands that stretched into a seven-year residence), both for the rich professional experience, as well as for the pivotal personal one. I had the opportunity to collaborate and share experiences with many people from around the world, with whom I worked on numerous and very diverse assignments. Each was a unique challenge and an opportunity to learn something new. Three professional experiences were the sources for the material shown here: my work at the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA), at the Architekten Cie. and as an independent architect. To keep the format compact, I selected the projects that were most significant to my personal history and to which I contributed the most. I intended to present the most disparate scales, types of assignment, project phases and geographic locations. For example, the Poldra project – for a house in Portugal – was done single-handedly. Most other projects were the collaborative effort of small design teams. The preliminary design of CCTV, on the other hand, involved around 80 architects, engineers, and consultants over a period of months. As a compilation, this volume is the work of one person, but it represents the effort of many. ‘Workbook 2006’ is dedicated to the friends and colleagues who not only made it possible but also helped and taught me. JBC


WORKBOOK

1

A group of projects developed in independent practice

2

Two exhibition designs

3

Significant projects in which I took part as a staff architect


2006 con te nts 8 ‘Het Nie uw e L a n d h ui s ’ Competition entry for a Dutch villa design 1 4 Poldr a Preliminary design for a countryside guest house and residence. 2 0 House o f M ulti ple D i m e n s i on s Concept 3 0 ‘Uit het D e p ot’ /  O ut of th e D e p o t Exhibition design 4 2 Ex pansi on /  N e gl e c t Installation for the 51st Art Biennale in Venice – o f f i c e f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r c h i t e c t u r e 5 4 Deut sch e s M e e r e s m us e um O z e a n e u m Competition entry for a sea museum – d e a r c h i t e k t e n c i e . 6 4 Pr ada Sh a n gh a i Preliminary design for a fashion and culture outlet – o f f i c e f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r c h i t e c t u r e 8 2 AIST Camp us Competition entry for a university campus master plan – o f f i c e f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r c h i t e c t u r e 9 4 Penang T r op i c a l C i ty Competition entry for a master plan – o f f i c e f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r c h i t e c t u r e 1 1 6 CCT V  / T VCC Project for the headquarters, cultural center, media park and support facilities of the Chinese Central Television corporation – o f f i c e f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r c h i t e c t u r e 1 3 6 Epilogue What, when, where, who.


1


8  ·  Het Nieuwe Landhuis


Het Nieuwe Landhuis C o m p e t i t i o n e nt ry Almere, Netherlands

Het Nieuwe Landhuis  ·  9


‘Het Nieuwe Landhuis’ (The New Country House) was an idea of the Almere City Council. The Council had planned a new suburban district as a part of the city’s growth strategy. Unlike most urban extension areas in the Netherlands, though, this one was designated as privately owned and built housing. Each parcel had an area of 3,000 m2 and owners were expected to commission oneoff projects for their own houses. The concept was so novel to the Netherlands that the City Council thought it appropriate to give the initiative an initial push. Architects were invited to submit plans and a competition with accompanying exhibition was organized, hoping that potential buyers would be persuaded. The mood was ambitious: Almere (founded 1975) had just celebrated its 25th anniversary and it was already aiming at becoming the 4th most populous city in the Netherlands. A new city center and a high rank in the Dutch public’s attention set the background.

10 · Het Nieuwe Landhuis


Yet this assignment was simple enough: very strict envelope boundaries and not much else. And it made Dutch sense: the neighbors were not far, but you should mind your own plot and ignore them. This project simply took the flatness of the polder landscape as a starting point and the house as a ‘wave’ that introduces movement and agitation. The wave simultaneously belongs to the surface and is a singularity within it. We rejected a language of horizontal lines (seen on most other entries) that would merely restate the flatness of the polder, regardless of the details of the composition. The house was designed for a family, with space for a small professional practice. We used the maximum allowed height, split into basement, ground floor and two upper floors (see plans at right). The design received some attention in the press, but failed to attract any clients.

Het Nieuwe Landhuis ¡ 11


12  ·  Het Nieuwe Landhuis


Het Nieuwe Landhuis  ·  13


14 路 Poldra


POLdRa co u n t r y s i d e g ue st ho use a nd re si d e nce A l je z ur, Po rt uga l

Poldra 路 15


The first plausible commission. Real clients with credible plans, good understanding, open minds: a rare occasion for a beginning architect. I welcomed this task with enthusiasm and hope, and fit the preliminary design between other professional obligations.

The assignment was to design a house that would double as residence for the owners and small countryside inn for nature lovers visiting this region. The status of countryside inn is bound to strict regulations concerning the impact on the landscape, the compliance with local building practices etc. The owners were not so particular with their own demands. The size of the house had to be manageable, but, for the rest, the brief for the project mostly consisted of rules and guidelines for this protected natural reserve.

One of the bases of the design is the approach to the house. Sitting slightly above the road, the house should signal its presence but, at the same time, suggest privacy. For this reason, the south facade overlooks the road and is seen continuously as one drives along. The rest of the house is only visible from within the premises.

The other basis of the design is a plan organized around three courtyards with different characters: one in the main living area (enclosed), one in the guest area (open) and a third one in the residents’ area (semi-enclosed). The courtyards work as centers around which the three main areas of the house are organized: the common living area for sitting and meals, the guest room area open to the landscape, and the residential area, which is more private. To the north, a swimming pool on a plateau allows views of the surrounding hills, far into the horizon.

GUESTS

RESIDENTIAL

Courtyard

16  ·  Poldra

Courtyard

LIVING

Courtyard


Approach: driving along the road, south facade is visible.

Arrival: more and more is slowly revealed.

GUESTS

RESIDENTIAL

LIVING

Models: The main elements of the house were disposed according to visibility, privacy and sun exposure.

Poldra 路 17


A number of devices are used throughout the house to control the excessive summer heat and low night temperatures, while at the same time allowing the house to be open to its environment – physically and visually. The house should provide an inviting haven of privacy for city-dwellers willing to enjoy the outdoors. It is a complimentary insertion in the full expanse of rolling hills and vast silence. It is introspective and calm.

Years after, the project has not yet materialized. All parties were satisfied then, but the clients’ priorities have changed. The project has become more of a snapshot than a finalized plan.

18  ·  Poldra


Poldra  ·  19


20  ·  House of Multiple Dimensions


House of Multiple Dimensions

House of Multiple Dimensions  ·  21


1 The House of Multiple Dimensions is a concept, an experiment and also a design. It is a design insofar as it is the offspring of architectural minds, but to reconcile the concept – multidimensionality – with a design – determinism – makes it most of all a challenge. 2 Architectural thought and practice is still mostly rooted on Newtonian physics. While Newton’s laws have provided a satisfactory explanation of the world for centuries, advances in physics since the early twentieth century showed the limits of those laws and the need for new theories and explanations. Hence, Quantum Mechanics and the Theory of Relativity. More recently, the research into subatomic particles promises truly intriguing results. An emerging ‘theory of everything’ explains the nature and behavior of all matter and all forces in terms of vibrating strings of extremely small size. Particles and forces (like gravity) are only manifestations of different vibrating patterns of those strings. The universe is a concert of resonant vibration. 3 String theory posits the existence of more dimensions than the 4 we experience (three spatial dimensions plus time). The House of Multiple Dimensions represents multi-dimensionality in the four-dimensional world by being a container where space and time have alienating characteristics and allow new realities to emerge. 4 New realities (or new experiences of reality) in the house are derived from the interaction with familiar elements that are recombined and reconfigured. The familiar experience of the room (permanence), the door (threshold), the wall (separation) have different meanings and functions here.

a room is a state . Each room in the House of Multiple Dimensions mutates perpetually. The features that usually make a room recognizable are all changeable. Therefore, although the number of rooms is fixed, the amount of different spaces is undetermined.

22 · House of Multiple Dimensions

a door is a switch . Changes in the states of each room are activated by the doors in the other rooms. When leaving a room, one changes the state of all other rooms and – since the changes are random – cannot know exactly which space one is going to enter. The door chosen will trigger specific changes in the other rooms (lighting, temperature, surface color and texture etc). Therefore, the state of each room will depend on the path taken to get there.


Rooms are placed apart in a blue and hazy mist. Doors lead not to other rooms, but to this transitional moment where events are suspended and a new decision has to be made (which door to which room?). At this point, one inhabits the wall, the separation between the rooms.

walls are a cloud .

All rooms have only one window to the same reflective surface, which, like a shattered glass, mirrors the multiple realities of the house, simultaneously.

reality as reflection .

House of Multiple Dimensions  ·  23


5 The ever-changing rooms cannot be recognized by any specific spatial feature. One cannot go back to the same room, just as one cannot relive the same event. Inside each room there is a low-lying block that contains the necessary equipment for inhabiting a house: sleeping, eating, hygiene, sitting, storage. The blocks are equally shaped and it is only by approaching and using them that each room can gain a new feature: function. Spatial ‘reality’ is as transient as an immediate urge or appetite. 6 The House of Multiple Dimensions cannot be represented by any set of permanent features. Instead, it is represented inside itself by two devices: memory and projection. Changing states of every room are recorded. Potential states are synthesized. All of these realities can be replayed and recombined. 7 Representation occurs on the surface of a huge ‘crystal’, embedded at the center of the house and intersecting all the rooms. The intersections are the ‘openings’ beyond the immediate reality of each room.

24  ·  House of Multiple Dimensions


House of Multiple Dimensions  ·  25


8 The countless faces of the crystal represent each a state of a room in the house – a limited reality, one possible configuration of events. The crystal is made of a glass material that slowly changes from fully transparent to backlit. Thus, each face of the crystal alternates between a window into the rooms and a screen where images are projected. Those images are samplings of previously occurred as well as potential states of the rooms At any moment, the crystal shows direct views into the rooms as well as projections of how the rooms were or how they could be. Because the transparency changes, the states of the rooms (current or potential) cannot be distinguished. 9 Any potential configuration has equal value; all realities coexist. In this multidimensional world, causality not linear. A door does not always open to the same room; a path does not always lead to the same destination. The state of each room (including this one) does not exclude other states: it coexists in parallel with them and all are real.

26  ·  House of Multiple Dimensions


House of Multiple Dimensions  ·  27


2


30

Out of the Depot


Out Of tHe dePOt Exhi b i t i o n d e si g n Utrechts centraal Museum 路 Utrecht, netherlands

Out of the Depot

31


What is the role of the museum? How can it fulfill its duty as a public institution today? What difficulties are faced by museums and how are these questions communicated to the public? These matters were, directly or indirectly, involved in the concept for the exhibition ‘Uit het Depot / Out of the Depot’, organized by the Utrechts Centraal Museum. The exhibition came as an effort to inform the public and to promote a debate around ‘decommissioning’. Decommissioning is the release of objects stored in museum’s archives and depots. It is usually a practical solution for exhausted storage capacity or financial shortages – the objects are usually sold on auction. Since most of any given museum’s collection is stored away and, in many cases, is never on display, decommissioning would seem logic. Furthermore, many museums are more and more intent on possessing crowd-pulling masterpieces and organizing blockbuster exhibitions. Decommissioning sometimes helps raising the funds for those ambitious efforts. It has faced opposition since it became an assumed museum management policy: fears that a common heritage would be frittered away by the very institutions charged with preserving it have caused some voices to raise against decommissioning.

32 · Out of the Depot


Out of the Depot  ·  33


As of the year 2006, decommissioning was official policy for Dutch museums. Government policies encouraged it and museum boards adopted it. The Utrechts Centraal Museum (UCM) was one of the museums to organize auctions of collection items. But the museum direction also wanted to explain to the public why this was being done, and what was the background for this initiative. An introductory exhibition provided the opportunity for that explanation.

1.44 x 1.92

1.44 x 1.92 0.75 x 1.5

0.4 x 0.6 1.0 x 0.7

1.0 x 0.7

1.2 x 1.0 1.0 x 0.7 1.0 x 1.0

0.6 x 1.2

0.6 x 0.8

0.7 x 0.9

1.0 x 1.0 0.7 x 0.9

WALL 1

1.44 x 1.92

1.0 x 0.7

1.0 x 1.0 0.7 x 0.9

We were given an exhibition room and open access to the museum’s archives and depot. We decided early on for a simple concept of printed pictures and text forming a visual narrative. The narrative emphasized the museum’s dilemma: accumulation and selec1.44 x 1.92 tion. Accumulation due to its role of repository of cultural artifacts; selection 0.75 x 1.5 0.4 x 0.6 because of the impossibility to endlessly accumulate. A judgement of the value 1.0 x 0.7 1.2 x 1.0 of the artifacts is unavoidable, and this judgement may change over time and TEXT TEXT 1.0 x 0.7 1.0 x 1.0 0.6 x 1.2 0.6 x 0.8 in different contexts. 0.7 x 0.9 To illustrate this dilemma, we used each of the two side walls of the room for an explanation of those two functions of the museum: to accumulate and to select. On the ‘accumulation’ wall (see drawing above) hung scattered WALL 1 pictures of the museum’s own depot (sometimes strangely reminiscent of a prison), remarkable artifacts found in there and other related archive mateWALL 2 rial (opposite page at the top). On the ‘selection’ wall (see drawing below), 4 big pictures were arranged on a grid; they illustrated the process of selecting objects for display and the distance between those two realms of the museum: the hidden depot and the visible exhibition rooms. While the ‘accumulation’ 3.0 x 1.5 3.0 x 1.5 pictures were of different sizes and scattered loosely, the ‘selection’ ones were equally sized and mounted orderly on the wall. Thus the picture composition too illustrated the ideas being shown. TEXT TEXT The pictures were tied together by3.0 ax 1.5continuos strip hung at eye level. The 3.0 x 1.5 strip carried text and some historical pictures that explained the evolution of museums and the practice of collecting artifacts. The UCM was included within the wider context of European museums and its evolution and role were also explained.

WALL 2 WALL 3

34  ·  Out of the Depot

WALL 3

3.0 x 1.5

3.0 x 1.5

3.0 x 1.5

3.0 x 1.5


Out of the Depot  ·  35


36  ·  Out of the Depot


Out of the Depot  ·  37


This exhibition consisted mostly of objects to be auctioned. The room we used for the pictures and text was at the entrance to the exhibition and served as an introduction. Besides the exhibition, the museum organized a debate where the Secretary of State for Culture and the museum’s direction presented their views of museum policy. Lectures were also held to complement these activities. The auction took part over three days in March 2006.

38  ·  Out of the Depot


Our tasks were research, design and supervision of the production. While researching, we chanced upon some items that caught our attention, but it was mostly the mixture that delighted us. The collection of the UCM is quite eclectic in terms of styles and types of artifacts. From sculpture to clothes, pop art to classical replicas, furniture and paintings, the depots have a wealth that is never even hinted at by any thematic exhibition. Therefore, we used this opportunity to convey as much as possible of that wealth and variety.

The research also presented a chance to deepen a previous study on the evolution of the museum as institution and its role in contemporary culture, at a time when an inflationary surge in the number and size of museums seems to follow (or lead?) a general trend in the art world by which everything gets bigger and more expensive. Working on this specific assignment for this specific museum was a way to observe, record and communicate the practice of museum management, cultural politics and communication with the public.

Out of the Depot  Âˇâ€ƒ 39


40  ·  Out of the Depot


Out of the Depot  ·  41


This installation centered around the phenomenon of art in the contemporary world; more specifically, the role of the contemporary museum - the ‘sanctuary of art’ – in promoting art and its market and in accommodating its audience. This phenomenon is observed through the perspective of the architect, who has been engaged in it and has taken part in the process of giving shape to the new museum as a container of ever-expanding audiences and ambitions. A portrait is sketched of the relationship between global economy, the art market and the dimension of the contemporary museum. This portrait is accompanied by a presentation of OMA’s proposal for the expansion of the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, a project that results in an alternative approach to museum expansion and curatorial strategy.

42  ·  Expansion / Neglect


Expansion / neglect I n s t al l a t i o n f o r t he 5 1 st A rt B i e nna l e Ve ni c e , I t a l y

Expansion / Neglect  ·  43


Ba c k g ro u n d Rosa Martinez curated the 51st Venice Art Biennale together with Maria de Corral. She chose the theme ‘Sempre un po’ più lontano’ – ‘Always a little further’ – for her assemblage of contemporary artists, whose work was displayed at the Arsenale.

44  ·  Expansion / Neglect


V enue The Arsenale is an old rope-making shed that once served the shipping industry. It has a long enfilade of rooms, each usually assigned to an individual artist / installation. The room we had available was in a bare and derelict state, brick walls covered by a tiled roof held in place by steel beams and columns. Traces of a former installation were visible on the windows, where red cellophane filtered the sunlight and gave the interior an eerie atmosphere. It was decided to leave the space as it was and to use its features as the support of the installation. The simplest way to achieve this was to hang big prints from the steel beams, so that they would form boards lined up in a narrative sequence. Since the boards had both sides exposed, this presented the opportunity to split the narrative into two threads. The viewer would follow one of the threads by moving across the room in one direction, and the other thread by moving in the opposite direction.

Expansion / Neglect  Âˇâ€ƒ 45


46  ·  Expansion / Neglect “CONTEXT”, “CONTAMINATION”, “HISTORY” · 17

ONLY INTERVENTION: ELIMINATION · 18

HANGING OF ABUNDANCE · 19

AT WHAT COST MODERNIZATION? · 11 Why modernize at all …?

CONTEMPORARY ART NEEDS BIGGER SPACES · 12 None of the 2,000 rooms ‘“big” enough…

IS IT POSSIBLE TO DO ‘NOTHING’ TODAY… · 13 Can we abstain from modernization?

K · ‘95 TATE MODERN Museum as infrastructure

J · MODERNIZATION ≠ THE NEW

I · BETWEEN 1995 AND 2005 we proposed 34 soccer fields of new museum

H · THE ATRIUM AS TECTONIC INEVITABILITY

USE ‘NEGLECT’ TO EXPOSE VALUE ? · 14

F · ‘DESTINATION’ AS DESTINY

E · THE ENDLESS EXPANSION

D · EXPANSION IS THE NEW ENTROPY

C · ARCHITECTS CREATE THE ICONS OF THE MARKET ECONOMY But don’t reap its benefits the way artists do...

B · THE ART RACE

A · ART AND ARCHITECTURE Modernization of the art world: The cumulative expansion worldwide of museums has been directly proportional to the expansion of the stock market, from 2000 - when the bubble bursts, art has performed better than shares… Creating complex complicities between artists and architects… Both ‘beneficiaries’…

E X PA NS I O N

G · THE UNLIMITED AUDIENCE

‘MOTORCYCLE SHOW’ · 15 Modernity distributed across 800 rooms

CURATORIAL CALCULUS · 16 Take 8 artists / scientists / individuals each year and give them a room each… After 100 years you have the museum of the century

Above: miniatures of exhibited prints with captions

Below: working space at OMA

C on te x t

OMA’s insight into the condition of the contemporary museum can best be explained by the office’s involvement in several design competitions for museum extensions in the mid 1990’s - a period of feverish increase in museum area worldwide. The end of that era saw OMA involved with the Hermitage Museum, also for an extension project, but this time in the singular circumstances of a museum with an urban (rather than architectural) scale, and a collection that challenges any conventional curatorial strategy (three million artifacts - most of them stored away – and a total of two thousand rooms). The two threads of the narrative, therefore, became: ‘Expansion’ – a critical analysis of the worldwide art world inflation – and ‘Neglect’ – a presentation of


7

6

5

4

3

2

HERMITAGE DISPLAY · Against the white cube… History as part of the museum

SCULPTURE THEN… · Hermitage

GENERAL STAFF BUILDING INTERIOR COURTYARD · Does all dilapidation needs to be undone? Is there a virtue in neglect? Does authenticity flourish in what remains untouched?

THE EXISTING HERMITAGE COMPLEX HAS 1200 ROOMS · …the new building adds 800; the issue now becomes how to distribute 3.5 m artefacts across 2000 rooms…

THE HERMITAGE IS A FORMER PALACE, NOW USED AS MUSEUM · With the addition of the new building, it will become an urban quarter; incorporating palace square where the revolution started

THE ‘GENERAL STAFF’ BUILDING · A former office building that will become part of the Hermitage museum

N E G L E CT

1

8

HERMITAGE DISPLAY · Curatorial incorrect daylight, extreme curtains, fluorescent lights

THE NEW HERMITAGE · Does every museum need to be modernized? Do all museums need to adhere to the same technical conditions? Do all museums need to be updated? Or can a certain amount of inaction, resistance to change maintain the authenticity often erased during / as part of modernization...

9

HERMITAGE DISPLAY · Unsafe interaction

HERMITAGE DISPLAY · 10 500 Works of art on 1 m²: sex, myth, religion, military, gods, animals in close proximity

OMA’s proposal for the Hermitage museum as a counterpoint. ‘Expansion’ depicted the inflation in the art world through graphs and assorted imagery, addressing the increasing sizes of major museums, the increasing importance of private collections, the increasing values pitched by auctioned pieces and the increasing scale of artworks on exhibit. Past competition entries by OMA for museum extensions were briefly illustrated; pictures of contemporary artworks – beyond the extents of the museum – closed the series. ‘Neglect’ depicted OMA’s assessment of the current situation at the Hermitage: its semi-derelict facilities, the wealth of its collection and the way the combination of the two allows a unique experience of art. The acquisition of a new building within the former palace’s complex opens the question of how to modernize, and OMA’s proposal replies with another question: Why modernize?

Expansion / Neglect  ·  47

S · ART TO THE RESCUE OF ‘THE LAND’ Thailand

R · TIRANA Art to the rescue of the city

Q · ART TO THE RESCUE OF THE SPACE ‘Tate II’

P · SCULPTURE NOW... ‘Tate I’

N · 2003 WHITNEY ‘EXPERIENCE’ ™ Art and architecture mix

N · 2003 WHITNEY ‘EXPERIENCE’ ™ Art and architecture mix

M · 2002: LACMA Connections between different cultures

L · MOMA ‘97 Mid nineties radicalism


Metropolitan

1965: 26,570 m2

1897 Tate Britain: 10,000 m2

1959 NYC: 11,176 m2

Guggenheim

1939: 5,600 m2

MoMA

100,000

LACMA

0

1965

48 · Expansion / Neglect

1970

1880: 106,200 m2

1980

1988 Japanese Pavilion: 4,500 m2 1988 Tate Liverpool

ZKM

1990

MoMA

Tate

Guggenheim Hermitage

2000 Linbury Gallery: 1,700 m2

Pinault

MoCA

LACMA

2003 NYC Abortion: 57,000 m2

Flick

Leeum

2004 28,800 m2

2003 GSB 50,000 m2

Artprice™ index $100 invested in a work of art in January 1996 are worth on base Jan. 1996 = 100 average $134 in January 2003. Money invested in the stock 140 market in 2000 gains no value.

120 10,000

110 9,000

100 8,000

90 7,000

80 6,000

70 5,000

Museum Growth and the Economy Planned

Total Museum Growth*

500,000 6,000

5,000

4,000

Whitney

2000

OMA museum projects

3,000

2,000

1,000

500

T te Ta

1954: 1,780 m2

Whitney

2005

Planned Built

* Sum total of gross built area of following museums: Louvre, Paris; Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; Guggenheim (New York, Las Vegas, Berlin, Bilbao); Tate (London, Liverpool, St. Ives); Museum of Modern Art, New York; Whitney Museum of Art, New York

2002

2001/2 NYC Abortion: 8,540 m2

2000 Hermitage-Guggenheim Las Vegas 766 m2 2001 Las Vegas: 7,136 m2 2001 Modern & Contemporary: 30,000 m2 2002 Rio: 42,000 m2 2002 Tokyo: 116 m2 2002 Soho Close: 2,324 m2 2003 Taichung: around 10,000 m2 2003 Las Vegas Close: 6,370 m2 2003 Rio Difficulties: 42,000 m2

2000 NYC: 57,000 m2

2000 Tate Modern: 34,000 m2 2000 PS1 1,300 m2

2001

1997 Berlin: 510 m2 1997 Bilbao: 23,783 m2

1993 27,570 m2

2000

1998 LACMA West: 29,700 m2 1998 NYC: 3,212 m2

Kunsthal Stedelijk

1993 Tate St. Ives : 3,900 m2

1990 14,800 m2

1989 55,000 m2

1999

1992 Soho: 2,324 m2

1987 7,000 m2

1998

1984 6,300 m2

1982 17,000 m2

1980 17,500 m2

1997

1986 Anderson: 10,000 m2 1985 NYC Abortion: 14,400 m2

Louvre

1981 Amanson: 4,400 m2

Hermitage

1978 20,800 m2

1996

1979 Venice: 300 m2

1880: 156,000 m2

1975 2,500 m2

Total museum size* m²

1968 6,300 m2

1801: Sommerset 200 m2 1852: Hermitage 127,478 m2

1966 NYC: 8,054 m2

Art versus Money after the 90's "Bubble" Dow Joes Industrial Average US$

130

2003

DJIA US$ 12,000

900,000 11,000

Built 10,000

9,000

8,000

7,000


Above: Left:

the unlimited audience

art and architecture

– cause or effect of museum growth?

– world economic expansion is accompanied by museum growth. More and bigger art is necessary.

In recent recession times, art proved a better investment than stock. Below:

expansion is the new entropy

– the proliferation of art collections, publications and venues is toasted with a ‘list of lists’.

Expansion / Neglect  ·  49


50  ·  Expansion / Neglect


Expansion / Neglect  ·  51


3


54  ·  DMM Ozeaneum


DMM Ozeaneum S e a m use u m Stralsund, Germany

DMM Ozeaneum  ·  55


The city of Stralsund, in Northeastern Germany, has a long history as a Baltic Sea trading port and member of the Hanseatic League. Since the reunification of the country, this former Eastern German city has attracted increasing numbers of tourists, which has served as an incentive for an upgrade of its Baltic Sea shore.

56 路 DMM Ozeaneum


Left: Aerial view of central Stralsund, with the proposed design. Above: View from Baltic Sea. The museum sits between old buildings of the harbor area.

Derelict warehouses and other utilitarian buildings testify to the industrial past of the port area. Some of them are to be torn down and give place to the new Deutsches Meeresmuseum (DMM) Ozeaneum, a centerpiece of the new, more inviting Stralsund waterfront.

DMM Ozeaneum 路 57


AUSSICHTSPLATTFORM

DACHLANDSCHAFT

WERKSTÄTTEN

AUSSTELLUNG 6 ÖFFENTLICHER BEREICH_EINGANG FOYER_CAFE_KINO_MEHRZWECKSAAL DACHLANDSCHAFT _SOMMERCAFE_SPIELFLÄCHEN_OPEN AIR KINO ROBBENBECKEN ADMINISTRATION

FISCHMARKT HAMMAM

WALKAMPF AUSSTELLUNG 1 AUSSTELLUNG 2 NORDSEE

OSTSEE TECHNIK

This design is based on a continuous path along the envelope of the building – a folded surface that leads the visitor from the ground plane up to an intermediary access level and further to the top. Along the way, some outdoor features of the museum are on display. Inside, the visitor can follow another route (shown as a red line on the plans, opposite page) along big and small fish tanks, several exhibits, an auditorium and the museum cafeteria. The axonometric drawing above shows how the museum is organized on three levels: at ground level an enclosed volume (housing the big tanks, connections to neighboring buildings and the technical installations); above, an inside / outside transition (the main entrance, smaller exhibits, offices, a terrace and outdoor tank); at the top, a roof terrace allows views over the city center and the Baltic shore. 58  ·  DMM Ozeaneum


A

B

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E

9 Behinderten P

Quarantäne

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Fahrräder

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Klimatechnik

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7� �

Elektrik

Kältetechnik Aquarientechnik

Notstrom

Informationstechnik

P

Wirtschaftshof

Sicherheitstechnik

Lager

Futter

Salzlager

Service Korridor

6 Aquarienwand Relax

Relax

Relax

Servicegang +3.00

Multmediawand

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7 Multmedia

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Multimedia

Relax

C

C

Weltkarte

3

Fischmarkt

Walkampf

Nutzung und Erforschung des Meeres

Ostsee

2 Helgolandlaboratorium

1

A

C

B

E

D

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

A

M

N

O

B

Gastforscher Personalraum

Büro

Büro

Sanitair

Exponate -� Lager

Sanitair

Büro

Robben

Büro Direktor Multifunktionswerkstatt

Lager

Sekretariat

Lager

Büro

Reception

Besprechung

Aquarien-� technik

Quarantäne

Shoplager Behandl.� Robben

E-Werkstatt

Wickel-� Sanitäts-� raum Lager raum

Büro Archiv Büro

A

B

Route +0.00

E

11

10

E

Robben

9� � Sommerkino

Sommercafe

8

Cafe - Restaurant

7

Shop

Foyer

Kino

Kasse

Multifunktionaler� Saal

D

D Helgoland-� aquarium

Schwarmfischaquarium

5

Garderobe +6.00

Museumsroute

C

C

Patio

3

+6.00

Forschungsturm

Patio

Museumsroute

Patio - Walkampf

Ostsee

2 Helgolandaquarium Riesen des Meeres +2.00

1

A

C

B

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

A

K

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M

N

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B

DMM Ozeaneum  ·  59


A sea museum requires a very significant amount of technical apparatus that ensures the water in the tanks is kept in optimal conditions. In this design, most of that apparatus is kept at ground level, under the pedestrian path to the main entrance (see cross section, opposite page). Most of the main exhibition space benefits from the generous free height, which is split in different ways (see longitudinal section, opposite page). The vertical movement along the route allows the visitor to see the tanks from the side (through transparent walls) and also from above. Specific habitats are recreated in the tanks, housing live flora and fauna. The visitor is led to a flight of monumental steps that face the Baltic Sea shore, where the final exhibit is on display and the museum route ends. The exhibits are thematic and mostly document the oceanographic exploration of the Baltic Sea.

60 路 DMM Ozeaneum


+10.00

+6.00

+0.00

SCHNITT AA

Cross section Steps facing the Baltic Sea (left) and main entrance facing the city (right).

+18.00

Walskulptur

+10.00

+6.00

SCHNITT DD

+0.00

Longitudinal section Big tanks can be seen from the side on ground level or from above. The building’s envelope is itself an exhibition route, featuring outdoor exhibits.

DMM Ozeaneum · 61


62  ·  DMM Ozeaneum


DMM Ozeaneum  ·  63


64 路 Prada Shanghai


PRada ePiceNteR s ha ng ha i , chi n a

Prada Shanghai 路 65


LA

Los Angeles Rodeo Drive

NY

MI

TO SH

New York Soho

Milan Galleria Vittorio Emanuele

Tokyo Aoyama

Pr a d a W o rl d OMA has collaborated with Prada since 1995 in a joint creative process that has helped further Prada’s position as a leading international fashion brand. The results of this collaboration include architectural projects as well as instore technology, event design, exhibitions and a global strategy for Prada’s presence and public image through the placement of singular outlets in strategic locations around the globe. Those outlets – termed ‘epicenters’ – represent Prada’s aim of making a statement beyond fashion and commerce, by promoting cultural activities and asserting architectural value. Most Prada retail outlets, spread around many countries, are known as ‘green stores’ and are designed according to a standard. Epicenters, on the other hand, are meant to be exceptional and to attract high visibility. In recent years epicenters have been opened in Los Angeles, New York and Tokyo. A flagship store in Milan already existed; plans for an epicenter in San Francisco were made but later abandoned.

66  ·  Prada Shanghai


Shanghai The Bund

Sh anghai Ep i c e n te r New opportunities in China led to plans for a new epicenter in Shanghai. Most international fashion retailers have been persuaded to set up a significant presence there too. Not surprisingly, their location of choice is The Bund, the most cosmopolitan avenue of China’s most cosmopolitan city.

Prada Shanghai  ·  67


68  ·  Prada Shanghai


t He Bu N d

Above: Monumental facades of former financial institutions. Today, prime location for luxury

The riverside avenue known as The Bund is often considered an architectural museum, a colonial legacy of eclectic facades lining the busy road. Those facades once fronted financial and trade institutions from European and Asian occupying powers. Today, several of them are becoming showcases for some of Shanghai’s most exclusive shops, hotels, restaurants, bars, art galleries etc. But The Bund has two sides. Across the road, no monumental architecture is to be found. Instead, a raised 900 meter-long boardwalk follows the river bend. Underneath, a car park occupies most of the ground level. A strip of small shops – semi-temporary and continuously changing – serves the very numerous tourists who are attracted by the spectacular view of Pudong, across the river. The contrast is striking: one side is wealthy, staged, designed, exclusive. The other is cheap, spontaneous, improvised, utilitarian.

brands.

Above: Strip of shops tucked under the boardwalk. The shops are no deeper than 4 meters and are extremely adaptable. Left: The boardwalk, with tourists gazing at Pudong. Left below: A car park stretches under most of the boardwalk and behind the shops.

Prada Shanghai · 69


Bef or e It was decided to locate the epicenter on the ‘cheap side’ of The Bund. Comparing to the ‘expensive side’, the available commercial space here – under the boardwalk – is very long and thin, and all on one level. Even a modest amount of shop area yields a very long and thin strip along a vibrant sidewalk – an advantage in terms of visibility. Still, the presence of a high-fashion brand on this spot would be unprecedented.

Fountain

Shops

Huang Pu river

Shops

Boardwalk

Office

Office

other

souvenir

photo

restaurant

snack

tickets

EXISTING SITUATION

Greenery

70 · Prada Shanghai


TOTAL LENGTH = 225m

VIP ACCESS

STAFF ENTRANCE

PUBLIC ENTRANCE

PARKING ENTRANCE

STORE ENTRANCE

COLLECTION

VIP AREA

PRADA DESIGNATED PARKING 8 SPACES

SPECIFIC PRODUCTS / MIXED THEME

CLAIMED AREA 2175m²

2 - SEATING SPACE IS EXTENDED INTO PARKING GARAGE. BACKSTAGE IS IN WIDER SALES AREA. BOTH ARE LINKED BY A STAIR THAT CONNECTS UP TO THE BOARDWALK, SO MODELS GO UP TO THE BOARDWALK, THEN DOWN TO RUNWAY.

POSSIBLE CONFIGURATIONS

3 - SEATING SPACE AND BACKSTAGE ARE ENTIRELY WITHIN WIDE SALES AREA.

1 - SEATING SPACE AND BACKSTAGE ARE EXTENDED INTO PARKING GARAGE

INCLUDING ZONE TO BE DETERMINED 3371m²

af t er

The new epicenter should not completely displace the existing elements, but rather cohabit with them. Thus, over a length of approximately 200 meters, the epicenter ‘appears’ and ‘disappears’ behind landscape features and small shops. Selective alterations are made to the shops, boardwalk, car park and sidewalk so that Prada space, activities and imagery permeate the site without submerging it. Hidden

Embedded

Concealed

Showcase

Prada Shanghai · 71


REPERTOIRE COMMERCIALCULTURE SPECIFIC PRODUCTS EXHIBITION

MEDIA COLLECTION

FASHION SHOW SHOWCASE

CINEMA MINI BOUTIQUES SHOW ROOM

EXPOSED EMBEDDEDHIDDEN

zone 1 Exposed

zone 2 Embedded

zone 3 Hidden

diVe r sit y The epicenter is characterized by the scope of activities inside. Clothes are to be displayed and sold, but this happens in parallel with cultural activities like movie screenings, exhibitions and fashion shows. This spatial program is distributed along the length of the epicenter so that it combines with the activities already existing on the site. The coexistence of the epicenter with the existing shops, parking garage and boardwalk above allows for a play of transparencies that reveal the several depths or ‘tracks’ within the strip. This layered strip interacts with the sidewalk, by means of a changing facade and by inviting easy access of passers-by, much like the existing kiosk-type shops.

72 · Prada Shanghai


Prada Shanghai  ·  73


74 路 Prada Shanghai


Prada Shanghai 路 75


76  ·  Prada Shanghai


Prada Shanghai  ·  77


In s i d e The existing structure has some limitations. Height and depth are reduced (when compared to conventional shopping space) and the structure itself must be kept unaltered, since it serves as a flood barrier. Working with these constraints, a range of activities can nevertheless be programmed; the same ‘shell’ can be adapted to the different types of space needed in the epicenter.

Opposite page: A zone for cultural events, used for movie screenings (top) or a fashion show (bottom). Below: The showcase zone as a collection display (top) or a catwalk (bottom)..

78  ·  Prada Shanghai


Prada Shanghai 路 79


80 路 Prada Shanghai


Prada Shanghai 路 81


82 路 AIST


aist caMPus A b uja , n i g e r ia

The African Institute of Science and Technology (AIST) represents the aim of establishing a world-class higher technical education complex in Africa. Its promoter, the Nelson Mandela foundation, launched an international fund-raising campaign and an architectural competition to which 5 architecture offices were invited to take part. The goal of the competition was to select a master plan for the campus.

AIST 路 83


Ab uja

Above: View of Abuja. Aso Rock, a 400m high alluvial monolith, is the city’s main natural feature.

The selected location for the AIST was Abuja, the institutional capital of Nigeria. Abuja is a planned city, a city originally charged with the mission of testifying to the promise of an emergent young nation. Its planning concept displays the same boldness found in other modern capitals, Brasília chief among them. As in Brasília’s case, the tour de force of rapidly building a capital city from scratch brought together an impressive collaborative of politicians, city planners, architects, engineers and builders. Abuja’s most charismatic planner (though not the only one) was Kenzo Tange. His vision of the city as ‘process’ and the Metabolist approach to functionalism were points of interest in the preliminary study for this project. My own interest in rapidly implemented cities had been awoken before. I had listened to Oscar Niemeyer’s own account of the heroic effort of Brasília and the particular political, cultural and social conditions that made it possible. I had also visited Skopje, the Macedonian capital. An earthquake destroyed eighty percent of that city in 1963. The city was then rebuilt to Kenzo Tange’s master plan, winner of the competition launched by the United Nations, who also sponsored the relief effort. It was another display of collaboration between power and practice that produced results unthinkable under normal circumstances. .

Left: Kenzo Tange (pointing) presenting the plan to Nigerian officials. Below: A model of Kenzo Tange’s plan. Aso Rock’s base can be seen at the top. Opposite page: Aerial photograph with AIST site (red outline) and site pictures (page bottom).

S i te The future AIST campus will occupy a site in the south of Abuja, most of it currently a stone quarry. It is bordered by the ring road and a highway connecting the airport to the city center. A stream flows across the site and feeds a strip of lush vegetation. The brief allowed building on half of the nearly 200ha site. 84  ·  AIST


Quarry

Ring Road

Airport Road River valley

Path

Lake Quarry

Ring Road

Site aspect

Lake

River valley

AIST  ·  85


CLIMATE

TOPOGRAPHY

ACCESS

~1 k

km

m

~1

QUARRY

SEASONAL RIVER

RESERVOIR

ROCK PATH

QUARRY

QUARRY

LEAST FAVORABLE

86 路 AIST

MOST FAVORABLE

It was important to base the proposal on an appropriate environmental concept: we were faced with the severity of a continental tropical climate and explicit demands from the brief concerning sustainability and the usage of water and energy. We mapped the site for the most favorable conditions, considering exposure to seasonal winds and sun, topography and accessibility. We then focused on the most favorable area, knowing that concentrating the buildings there would make the scheme more efficient in terms of the usage of resources and comfort of the users.


The competition brief outlined the implementation of the plan over a 10 year period, phased in three steps. Ultimately, the AIST campus should accommodate 5,500 students and 400 faculty members within its educational and research structures, housing complex and sports / leisure facilities. The university proper will consist of three schools (Engineering, Natural Sciences and Management & Public Policy); Parallel to the university, research institutes will operate within the campus, providing a link to the oil industry and policy making. Faculty members, as well as some students, will be provided with oncampus housing. A concentrated plan had some advantages in terms of coordinating the complexity of the program, besides the environmental concerns mentioned before. By condensing the 236,333m2 of program in a limited portion of the 112.12ha available, we ensured the distances were minimized and a car-free circulation scheme would work. Condensing also facilitated the proximity and interaction between the users of the campus. Finally, by intentionally mixing program functions, we laid the conditions for a campus with round-the-clock activity. Articulating a concentrated lay-out with a networked program distribution, we opted for a courtyard urban typology, with a grid of enclosed courtyards raised above the ground to provide shade and freedom of movement.

SUPPORT

EDUCATION

SUPPORT

EDUCATION

?

SUPPORT

EDUCATION

HOUSING

HOUSING

HOUSING

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

The Process

1. Program is split into modular

2. Segments are arranged on a

segments.

grid. Adjancencies of program are

=

+

+

3. A grid is formed.

decided. What goes next to what?

4. The grid is laid on the site.

5. The grid is adjusted to the topo-

6. Additional elements (convocation

7. A housing district is added. It

graphy of the site.

hall, gym etc) are fit into the grid.

is a counterpoint to the grid and completes the integration into the landscape.

AIST 路 87


88  ·  AIST


AIST  ·  89


Two metaphors proved influential: the traditional courtyard building typology and the textile weave. Arrayed courtyards have proven an apt means of tackling harsh climactic conditions in North and Northwestern Africa; they have also been the favored architectural arrangement of some European university campus designs where social interaction and economical construction was sought. On a microscopic level, the textile fibers of a woven fabric display those qualities of mutual reinforcement and flexibility within a fixed framework that we wanted the campus to have.

The irreducibly simple microscopic structure allows spectacular macroscopic variety of colors, patterns and surface treatments. This springboard of creativity plays a central role in African culture, and we sought a true expression of ‘African-ness’ in that interplay of rule and improvisation.

90  ·  AIST


We worked with a simple set of rules: an orthogonal grid and modular plan elements; both were dimensioned to allow optimal cross-ventilation and minimize air-conditioning needs. The plan elements were also wide enough so that they could accommodate an interchangeable set of typologies: doublesided corridor and classrooms, single-sided corridor and classrooms / offices, open plan lecture rooms and students’ apartments.

Special program elements like the convocation hall and the indoor sports hall have a non-modular plan configuration and sit on the ground, unlike most of the classrooms, which are lifted above the ground. The landscape of the liberated ground plane includes local flora, water and different kinds of paved paths. From the ground, the activity above is visible, and the view extends across the whole campus.

AIST  ·  91


92  ·  AIST


AIST  ·  93


94  ·  Penang Tropical City


Penang Tropical City

Penang Tropical City  ·  95


MOUNTAIN

SEA

5km

SITE

GEORGE TOW N

Regional scale Connections by air to regional nodes

Local scale Left to right: Local points of interest Major local businesses SITE

i ¨

Provincial scale Left to right:

2:3 0 tohailand T

Tourism figures

0:3 0 toasa R aya S ng 0:15 to Gurne y Drive

Main attractions

SITE

SITE

0:20o tBe ach St

Local transportation 0:10 to am Air It

PENANG ISLAND

PENANG ISLAND

0:20err fy cro ssing

0:20 bridge oss ing cr 3:3 0 to KL

0:25o tBa yan Lepas

0:3 0 to Airpor t

(Propo sed bridge oss i cr ng)

96  ·  Penang Tropical City

DRIVING TIMES


CO NTEXT

Site Located between mountain and sea, just outside

This project is a competition entry for an urban redevelopment plan in the island territory of Penang, in West Malaysia. The site is a former turf club just outside Georgetown, the state capital, and is located at the foot of a dramatic mountain range covered in lush green. It is also just about 5 kilometers from the coast and, therefore, a privileged location. Relevant aspects of the surrounding urban context (transport, economical activity, tourism) were analyzed and mapped.

Georgetown, the site was formerly the grounds of a turf club. The horse-racing track is visible at the foot of the mountain.

Penang Tropical City  ·  97


T r op i c a l M o de rn it y The initiative of ‘urban redevelopment’ in this geographic context brings up the enduring question of ‘Tropical Modernity’, a lingering conundrum in Southeast Asian architectural practice that is most often met with environmental strategies and building techniques, but seldom with an eager recognition and appropriation of existing conditions and potential. The recognition of that potential was key to the concept behind our proposal. The question ‘How to build a modern tropical city?’ is partly answered by the daily flurry of activity of tropical cities building themselves - informally colonizing space, reshaping existing structures, adapting constraints... this activity provides a basic level of urban functioning regardless of what has been planned.

98  ·  Penang Tropical City


Penang Tropical City  ·  99


Pr ogr am The program was given: 1.67 million square meters of new urban substance, mostly housing, but also offices, hotels, and communal health, cultural, entertainment and retail facilities. The method of organizing it was hinted by the surroundings of the site: islands of modernization within a continuous texture of spontaneous greenery. In planning terms, this corresponds to contained areas of maximum investment and value – the islands – amid informally organized territory – the greenery. The ‘islands’ are the foci of the infrastructure and the places of planned urbanity (housing, hotel and offices), while the green backdrop remains largely unplanned but is punctuated by prominent communal facilities (concert hall, clinic, retail outlets etc) around which urban activity should develop spontaneously, in the manner of the Asian tropical city.

?

TROPICAL OPICA MO IMPROVI D IMPROVISED INFO INFORMAL L

DERE GULATED DE

MES SY S

ACT IV VE

LOU D FLEXIBLE FLEXI E

LOW OW INVESTMENT T

SMALL MALL S CAL E

SOF O T

GREEN R N

UBIQUITOU U US

NON-TYPOL OGI OGICAL DISTIBUTE STIBU D

100  ·  Penang Tropical City

PL LANNED FO OR MAL RE EGULA TE OR RDERED PA AS SIVE QU UIET FI IXED HI IGH INVE LA ARGE SC A HA ARD GR REY IC CONOGR A TY YPOLOGIC CO ON SOL ID


1.67 MILLION SM

RESIDENTIAL 55,200 SM

RESIDENTIAL 775,500 SM

RESIDENTIAL 775,500 SM

HOTELS 142,500 SM

RESIDENTIAL 129,330 SM

OVT SCHOOLS 8,500 SM

OVT SCHOOLS 8,500 SM

CH

RESIDENTIAL 144,300 SM OFFICE 314.700 SM

HOTELS 142.590 SM

SERVICE APARTMENTS 93,000 SM

NVENTIO N CENT 37,000 SM

RESIDENTIAL 295,200 SM

HOTELS 235,900 SM

CAL CEN ,300 S

Cultur 50,000 SM

HARMO 500

OFFICE 314.700 SM

RETAIL 93,000 SM

Publi 71,000 SM

OFFICE 314.700 S

LIBRARY 16,000 SM

RETAIL 227,500 SM

RESIDENTIAL 58,500 SM

RESIDENTIAL 93,000 SM

SEVICE APARTMEN 93,400 SM

RETAIL 227,500 SM

PHILHARMONIC 5,500 SM LIBRARY 16,000 SM CHILDREN'S MUSE UM 10,000 SM PENANG EXPERIENCE 4,000 SM (2) GOVT SCHOOLS 18,500 S MEDICAL CENTER 9,300 SM MOSQUE 1,500 SM CONVENTION CEN TER 37,000 SM PMU/TNB 17,000 SM WATER RESERVOIR 2,000 SM

PROPO SED PROGR AM

PROGR AM

BUBBLES

"HARD" PROGRAM & "SOFT" PROGRAM

L MODERNITY

PROVI D PROVISED INFO INFORMAL L

DERE GULATED DE

MES SY S

ACT IV VE

LOU D EXIBLE EXI E

INVESTMENT T

ALL S CAL E

SOF O T

GREEN R N

UBIQUITOU U US

TYPOL OGI OGICAL DISTIBUTE STIBU D

PL LANNED FO OR MAL RE EGULA TED OR RDERED PA AS SIVE QU UIET FI IXED HI IGH INVESTMENT LA ARGE SC A ALE HA ARD GR REY IC CONOGR AP APHIC TY YPOLOGIC AL CO ON SOL IDATED

Penang Tropical City 路 101


102  ·  Penang Tropical City


Penang Tropical City  ·  103


104  ·  Penang Tropical City


is La Nds Each island is mono-functional, accommodating one given housing typology or a specific function such as hotel or offices. The islands are regulated territory, where planning parameters are controlled and the environment is designed. This presents an opportunity to assign each island to a different designer and thus further accentuate their different identities. Individualizing the islands facilitates the creation of ‘addresses’, but also enhances the encounter between these hyper-differentiated types that takes place in the fluid middle-ground. Because they are mono-functional, the islands depend on their surroundings. Interaction is thus maximized.

HOTELS

SEMI-DETACHED HOUSING CONVENTION CENTER RESIDENTIAL TOWERS CIRCULAR HOUSING GARDEN HOUSING WATER TOWERS PARK APARTMENTS

SHOPPING MALL SERVICED APARTMENTS OFFICE TOWER SUPERLINK HOUSING

400m

300m

200m

100m PENANG EXPERIENCE 50m

SECONDARY SCHOOL INDOOR SPORTS PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S MUSEUM

LIBRARY PHILHARMONIC HALL MEDICAL CENTER

10m

MULTIPLEX MOSQUE

Penang Tropical City · 105


HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEHLOTEL HOTEL HOTEL GREEN HOTEL DISTIBUTED

HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL HOTEL

SMALL FLEXIBLE 106 SCALE 路 Penang Tropical City

HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING people HO USING H O UFLEXIBLE SING HOUSING HMESSY OUSING

ACTIVE IMPROVISEDLOW INVESTMENTLOUD people

ACTIVE people

NON-TYPOLOGICAL

people

UBIQUITOUS

SOFT

GREEN

HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HINFORMAL OUSING HOUSING

IMPROVISED

ACTIVE

people

GREEN

NON-TYPOLOGICAL DEREGULATED UBIQUITOUS LOW INVESTMENT INFORMAL DISTIBUTED

HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSIN HO SI HOUSIN O HO SING HOUSING HO SING HOUSING HOU S I N G H NG MESSY O U S I LOUD HOUSING HOUSING H O U S I N G H ODEREGULATED USING

LOUD ACTIVE

SMALL SCALE FLEXIBLE people

HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING H ING ING NG H NG HOUS HOUSING HOUSING HOUSING

INFORMAL SOFT

DEREGULATED

MESSY

SMALL SCALE

LOW INVESTMENT

people

DEREGULATED

IMPROVISED

O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

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O O O O O O O O

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C C C C C C C C

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I I I I I I I

UBIQUITOUS

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

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C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

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C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

ACTIVE

NON-TYPOLOGICAL

DEREGULATED

O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

INFO

GRE

LOUD people MESSY

DISTRIBUTED

people


Ident it y Each island’s identity is clearly recognizable from the middle-ground between them. This middle-ground is used to emphasize existing conditions, and to accommodate the unstable, dynamic mutation of urban life. Certainty is added in measured portions, then mixed to unpredictable results.

Penang Tropical City  ·  107


108  ·  Penang Tropical City


Soup The purpose of the dichotomy between the islands and their surroundings is not strict separation, but rather a merger of different conditions. The islands provide the desired development value, but that value is anchored on the intrinsic potential dynamism of the Asian city. This awoke the metaphor of the Asian soup - hot, substantial, rich in flavor and textured contrasts.

Penang Tropical City  Âˇâ€ƒ 109


WATER RESERV

HO

PENANG EXPERIENCE

f easiBi L it y The feasibility of the plan called for some atypical solutions – the road network and car access to the islands, for example. All the infrastructure had to be compatible with a phasing sequence that made optimal investment sense.

Land use

Road traffic

On Ground

MULTIL EVE L AIR-BORNE (Car ele vator)

4 LEVELS

Above Ground

LANDBRI DGE

1 LEVEL

6 LEVELS

Above Ground

LAND USE

2 LEVE LS

TRAFFIC

Above Ground

2 LEVELS PODIUM

PODIUM

2 LEVELS

PROPO SED PENANG OUTER RING ROAD PROPO SED SCOT LAND RO AD FLYOVE R

0.5 Above Ground 1.5 Belo w Ground

2 LEVELS

INNER LOOP

PODIUM

OUTER LOOP LOC AL ROADS SERVICE NETWORK

1 LEVEL

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3 LEVELS

Underground

R

DE

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2 LEVELS

Split-le vel Above Ground

110 · Penang Tropical City

SS PA

1 LEVEL

Underground

On Ground


VOIR

SEMI DETACHED HOUSES GARDEN HOUSING

OTELS

GE

LANDBRID

CONVENTION CENTER

WATER TOWERS

RESIDENTIAL TOWERS

CIRCULAR HOUSING

OFFICE TOWERS

MALL SUPERLINK HOUSING SS PA

R

DE

UN

SERVICED APARTMENTS

PARK APARTMENTS

PHASE 1 - 1:3000 Phase 1

PHASE 3 - 1:3000 Phase 2

PHASE 4 - 1:3000 Phase 3

Penang Tropical City 路 111


112  ·  Penang Tropical City


End Not e Although starting from a specific context - Southeast Asian modernity - this project raised questions and advanced strategies that transcended its immediate scope. The investigation of complementarity, interdependence, contrasts, border conditions, large-scale urban programming and locally present potential lays a base that is relevant to the wider urban and architectural debate. The value of this proposal extends, therefore, beyond a solution for urban redevelopment in Penang or a representation of the modern tropical city. It extends to a reflection about some of the most crucial aspects that challenge the contemporary city and its shaping.

Penang Tropical City  Âˇâ€ƒ 113


114  ·  Penang Tropical City


Penang Tropical City  ·  115


116  ·  CCTV / TVCC


CCTV / TVCC C h i n e s e C e n t r a l Te l e v i s i on Head q u a r t e r s , Cu l t u r a l Ce n t e r, M e d i a P a rk a nd sup p o rt f a c i l i t i es

CCTV / TVCC  ·  117


CO N TEXT CCTV is located in the Beijing Central Business District (CBD). The CBD is a showcase for China’s ambition of modernity, a territory where architecture competes for height. The race for tallness is futile, a predictable parade of temporary victories. The CCTV complex presents an escape from the dictates of the standard skyscraper typology - stacked repetition - and an engagement of urban territory through form and program.

Great Wall

Beijing International Airport Ruins of Yanminguyuen

Fragrant Hills Park

New Technology Area

Summer Place

International Olympic Sports Center

BTV Shijingshan Amusement park

Existing CCTV

New Embassy Area Chaoyang Park

Wangfnjing Street

Shopping Street

Shijingshan Amusement Park

Financial District

Embassy Area

Yuyuantan Park

CCTV Tower

Worker's Gymnasium& Stadium

Forbidden City

Tinanmen Square

Beijing Railway Station

Beijing West Railway Station

Tiantan Park

CBD

Beijing Amusement Park

Beijing World Park Beijing Economic& Technological Development Area

118  ·  CCTV / TVCC


Pr ogr aM

S tu d io

One structure (CCTV) accommodates all facilities required for the televisionmaking process (administration, offices, production areas, news production areas, broadcasting and support areas). They are arranged in a loop that promotes the interconnectedness of the process and the people involved in it. A second structure (TVCC) accommodates the public facilities: a theater, recording studios, several cinema rooms, a ballroom, news conference rooms, a hotel and two restaurants. Support facilities (electrical power generation, truck parking and security central) are housed in a third structure,

S k y

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CCTV / TVCC 路 119


L oop CCTV is organized as a three-dimensional loop. A linear route inside this loop connects all the facilities and personnel involved in the process of making television. Visitors are also allowed to use this route and get a glimpse behind the scenes on selected key locations inside the building.

8 F3

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120  ·  CCTV / TVCC

ne nin za ez M

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CCTV / TVCC 路 121


122  ·  CCTV / TVCC


CCTV / TVCC  ·  123


124  ·  CCTV / TVCC


Facade 150

151

Hotel Lobby 159

Health Club / Hotel Reception

156

157

Theater

CCTV / TVCC  ·  125


View from the stage

TV CC Th eate r The theater is one of the main features of TVCC. It seats 1,500 people and allows different configurations, depending on the nature of the performance. The desired flexibility called for innovative design solutions as well as state-of-the art expertise in acoustics, visual performance and comfort. The result is a theater that pushes some of the boundaries of the rather restrictive science of theater design. The theater is an integral part of TVCC with its own requirements, from the public access and foyer arrangement to the artists’ facilities, recording studios, accessibility and security.

Studio lobby

126  ·  CCTV / TVCC

Artists’ lounge


Foyer

Theater entrance

Access to theater boxes

Access to balcony

CCTV / TVCC  ·  127


128  ·  CCTV / TVCC


TV CC Hot el A hotel tower is contained within the envelope of the building. The rooms rise in two 80m high stacks, forming a central atrium surrounded by a ballroom, wellness center and restaurants. TVCC was designed to accommodate the international media facilities for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and is, therefore, equipped with press release rooms and offices for press correspondents.

F31 F30 F29 F28 F27

F26 F25 F24 F23 F22 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17 F16 F15 F14 F13 F12 F11 F10 F09 F08 F07

F06 F07 F07 F06 F05 F04 F03 F02

F01

SWIMMING POOL SHOPS HOTEL RECEPTION KITCHEN

DINING AREA SPECIALTY SHOPS

HOTEL

DIGITAL CINEMAS

THEATRE FLY TOWER NEWS RELEASE\ EXHIBITION AUDIO VISUAL ROOMS RECORDING STUDIO 200 m2 60 m2 CONTROL ROOM

80 m2 CONTROL ROOM OFFICES / LOUNGES

60 m CONTROL ROOM 2

SERVICE BOX THEATER

480 m2 RECORDING STUDIO

CULTURAL CENTER

CCTV / TVCC  ·  129


130  ·  CCTV / TVCC


CCTV / TVCC  ·  131


Reality

Top: CCTV, November 2005 Above: CCTV, April 2006 Below and bottom: TVCC, March 2006 Opposite page: CCTV, September 2005

132  ·  CCTV / TVCC

CCTV / TVCC was a unique opportunity to take part in a project that embodies many aspirations, contains significant symbolism and also stirs polemics. This is perhaps inescapable given the political and economical context that generated it, a context of change, marked by bold initiatives under unique conditions. Those conditions set the mood for us, an overworked project team who ‘lived the impossible’ as a daily reality.


CCTV / TVCC  ·  133


134  ·  CCTV / TVCC


CCTV / TVCC  ·  135


Fuller Projection: The Dymaxion™ Air-Ocean World Map 136

·

Epilogue


Epilogue

Epilogue  ·  137


Wh at, w h er e, w h e n, who Below is a timeline of the work I have done since 2001, as a staff architect (w h e r e and w h a t columns) and autonomously (m o r e column). On the opposite page, a map shows the locations of the projects listed in the timeline. • indicates the location of an OMA project; • indicates a location of an Architekten Cie. project; • indicates a location of an assignment developed in independent practice. The following pages list additional data and credits for the featured projects.

Wh er e

Whe n

Wh at

M o re  page

Architectural A ssociation London, United Kingdom

Sep

May SSE – Shenzhen Stock Exchange

2006

AIST Campus, Abuja  Central Square, Guangzhou

60

‘Out of the Depot’ Exhibition 

26

House of Multiple Dimensions 

18

Baltic Pearl, St. Petersburg

2005

Prada Epicenter Shanghai ‘Expansion / Neglect’ exhibition 

32

Prada Epicenter Shanghai 

42

‘Genetics of the Modern Museum’ Study Penang Tropical City  72 Almere / Koningin Julianaplein Cordoba Congress Center CNM – China National Museum Quarter 75, Moscow

CCTV / TVCC – China Central Television  94 2004

OMA – O ffice for Metropolitan A rchitecture Rotterdam, Netherlands

Jul Loosduinen Apartments HAL Laboratory

JHK Architecten Utrecht, Netherlands

Deltion College Campus Feb 2003 www.bravodacosta.com Oct Osdorp Urban Redevelopment Rabobank Headquarters DMM Ozeaneum Poldra Country House 

12

‘Het Nieuwe Landhuis’ 

6

Sheltered Housing Block 2002 Waterfront Development, Copenhagen Westerdokseiland Housing, Amsterdam

de Architekten C ie. Amsterdam, Netherlands

Sep

2001

138  ·  Epilogue


Shanghai

Beijing

• cctV cNM

• Pr a da Guangzhou ce Nt r a L s Qu a r e

•• Shenzhen sse

Penang

St. Petersburg B aLtic Pe ar L

Copenhagen

Moscow

• Quarter

• Ptc

75

• wat erfroNt • dMM

Stralsund

B Lo o k 5 s tudy H e t Nieuwe La NdH uis Almere Amsterdam The Hague o sdo rP r eiN ei we s t e r d o kse iL a N d k .j . PLei • Venice Lo o sduiN sdui eN BieNNa Le

Logroño

• Peri

Cordoba Aljezur

• ccc

• Po Ldra

Abuja

• aist

Epilogue · 139


Project d at a

aist campus Location Abuja, Nigeria · Status Master plan competition entry · Date February 2006 · Program Educational facilities, research institue, housing · Built area 236,333m² · Site 112.12ha in southern expansion district OMA – office for metropolitan architecture: Partners in charge Rem Koolhaas, Floris Alkemade · Project team Ademide Adelusi-Adeluyi, Ade­kunle Adeyemi, Pablo Barrera, João Bravo da Costa, Christian Brimmer, Haiko Cornelissen, Maria Derevencova, Beth Hughes, Felix Tonnis ‘Uit h et D ep o t /  Out of t he D e p ot’ Ex hibit ion Location Utrecht, Netherlands · Date February 2006 p r o j e c t t e a m João Bravo da Costa, Emilie Gomart ‘Ex pansio n /  N e gl e c t ’ Install at io n Location Venice, Italy · Date June 2005 OMA – office for metropolitan architecture: Partners in charge Rem Koolhaas, Reinier de Graaf · Project team João Bravo da Costa, Emilie Gomart, Jens Hommert, Felix Madrazo, Brendan McGetrick, Holger Pausch, Alexander Reichert, Todd Reisz Prada Epicenter Shanghai Location Shanghai, China · Status Preliminary Design · Date June 2005 Program Fashion outlet, showcase, store, cultural area, parking · Built area 2,175m² · Site Circa 200m along the Bund (riverside avenue) OMA – office for metropolitan architecture: Partner in charge Rem Koolhaas · Project architect Shohei Shigematsu · Project team Joshua Beck, João Bravo da Costa, Levent Kerimol, Mee Michelle Liu Penang Tr o p i c a l C i ty Location Penang, Malaysia · Status Master plan competition · Date December 2004 · Program Housing, offices, hotels, retail, public facilities, cultural facilities · Built area 1,670,000m² · Site 104.81ha, 5km west of Georgetown

140  ·  Epilogue

OMA – office for metropolitan architecture: Partner in charge Ole Scheeren · Project team João Bravo da Costa, Catarina Canas, Ivo van Capelleveen, Miha Cebulj, Eric Chang, Jens Eberhardt, Pieter Janssens, Trine Kobbelvedt, Julius Kranefuss, Felix Madrazo, Yusuke Okabayashi, Marc Verheijen Associate architect Ang Chee Cheong · Renderings Frans Parthesius · Photography Hans Werlemann H ous e o f M u lt iple D i m e n sio n s Status Competition entry for the Shinkenchiku Residential Design Competition 2004, proposed by Steven Holl · Program Conceptual design p r o j e c t t e a m João Bravo da Costa, Rob van Houten · Science Martijn Meel­ huijsen CCT V /  T V CC Location Beijing, People’s Republic of China · Project phase Extended preliminary design, EPD handover · Program China Central Television Corporation’s television station and headquarters, cultural center, support facilities and media park · Built area 575,000m² · Site 18ha in new Central Business District · Budget €600,000,000 OMA – office for metropolitan architecture: Partners in charge Rem Koolhaas, Ole Scheeren · Project manager Dongmei Yao · Project designers Shohei Shigematsu, Erez Ella · Project architects Adrianne Fisher, David Chacon, Charles Berman · Senior architects Anu Leinonen, Chris van Duijn, Hiromasa Shirai · Architects Gabriela Bojalil, João Bravo da Costa, Catarina Canas, Holly Chacon, Stephane Derveaux, Keren Englman, Gaspard Estourgie, Chris James, Abhijit Kapade, Michel van de Kar, Peter Lee, Xiaodong Liu, Stuart Maddox, Joseph Monteleone, Cristina Murphy, Daan Ooievaar, Andre Schmidt, Torsten Schroeder, Wenchian Shi, Tian Tian Xu, Dirk Zschunke · Trainees Jeffrey Bolhuis, António Bran­co, Max Burianek, Gonzalo Cantos, Shangwen Chiu, Steffen Ell, Pedro Gama, Hendrik Gruss, Yiannis Kanakakis, Suse Koch, Lawrence Leung, Menno van der Meer, Florian Pucher, Beatriz Ramo, Max

Rink, Beatrice Schiavina, Max Schwitalla, Manuel Shvartzberg, Arianna Spaccasassi, Laurent Troost, Steffie Wedde, Anna Weilhartner · Support May yan Fan, Jasmine Tsoi ECADI – east china architectural design institute (in Rotterdam): Project architects Wang Xiaoan, Li Yao, Xu Jialong · Architects Chen Li, Fan Yifei, Guo Yi­ ming, Huang Renying, Jiang Wenwei, Jiang Xinhua, Sun Yu, Wu Zheng, Xiang Ming, Xu Nuo, Zhao Weiliang. consultants: Structural engineering Arup · Building services Arup · High rise engineering DMJMH+N · Acoustics Dorsser Blesgraaf · Scenography Ducks­ Scéno · Facade Front · Vertical transport Lerch Bates & Associates · Food Services Romano Gatland Studio and broadcast design Sandy Brown Associates · Buildability Stephen Scanlon · Lighting design LPA · Model Made by Mistake · Photography Hans Werlemann D M M O ze a n e u m Location Stralsund, Germany · Status 2nd phase competition · Date April 2002 · Program Marine life and science exhibits, indoor and outdoor tanks, support facilities, offices, cafeteria, terrace · Site former industrial plot on the Baltic Sea harbor area de architekten cie. – architecture & planning: Partners in charge Branimir Medić, Pero Puljiz · Project architect Andreas Huhn · Project team Pasqual Bendicho, Søren Bjarnø, João Bravo da Costa, Sophia Neuhaus P o l dra Location Aljezur, Portugal · Status Preliminary design · Date March 2002 · Program Guest house and residence · Built area 900m² · Site 2ha plot in rural area of southwestern Portugal a r c h i t e c t João Bravo da Costa H e t N ie u w e La n dh u is Location Almere, Netherlands · Status Competition entry · Date May 2001 Program Single-family house, home office · Built area 530m² · Site 3,000m² plot in Almere Buiten residential suburb p r o j e c t t e a m Eli Aschkenasy, João Bravo da Costa, Theo Veldboer


Fu r th er r e f er en c e

Domus d’Aut or e #1: Pos t- O c c upa n c y AMO & Koolhaas, Rem. Editoriale Domus, 2006 cct v by oma Architecture and Urbanism July 2005 special issue, A+U Publishing Co., Ltd ar chpl us 1 74 & 175 ARCH+ Verlag GmbH Cont ent Koolhaas, Rem, ed.Taschen, 2004 Pr of ession A r c h i te c t 1987- 2002 Crimson & De Architekten Cie, Uitgeverij 010 Publishers, 2002

Epilogue  ·  141


142  ·  Epilogue


Epilogue  ·  143


Workbook 2006