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k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0fM lgb] {lzsf Guidelines for Transforming Traditional Village into Eco-Village

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k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0fM lgb] {lzsf n] vsM 8f= ljgfos k|;fb / fhe08f/ L Guidelines for Transforming Traditional Village into Eco-Village -Binayak P Rajbhandari

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cfly{s ;xof] u M POcfO{, nSh] Dau{ (AEI, Luxembourg)

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aif{ PsM @# r/ 0f ! u|fdL0f ;d'bfo;Fu 5nkmn /  cjwf/ 0ffut cled'vLs/ 0f @# r/ 0f @ :ffdflhs tyf ;|f] t gS;fÍg /  3/ w'/ L ;j] {If0f @^ r/ 0f # ;d"xx¿sf]  u7g jf k'gu{7g /  klxnf]  aif{sf]  sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f @* r/ 0f $ ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLaf/ ]  tflnd tyf cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ @( r/ 0f % ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLsf]  sfof{Gjog #! aif{ b'O{M #@ r/ 0f ^ klxnf]  aif{sf sfd /  pknlJwx¿sf]  k'g/ fjnf] sg /  bf] ;|f]  aif{sf]  sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f /  sfof{Gjog #@ r/ 0f & ;/ sf/ L lgsfosf k|ltlglwx¿;Fu 5nkmn /  ;xsfo{ #@ r/ 0f * ;fd'bflos ;+:yf Pjd\ ;d"xx¿sf]  ;zQmLs/ 0f /  kl/ rfng ## r/ 0f ( Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿ cg'¿k x/ ] s 3/ w'/ LcGtu{t ef} lts ;+/ rgfx¿sf]  lgdf{0f /  k'glgdf{0f #% aif{ tLgM $) r/ 0f !) bf] ;|f]  aif{sf sfd /  pknlJwx¿sf]  k'g/ fjnf] sg /  t] ;|f]  aif{sf]  sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f /  sfof{Gjog $) r/ 0f !! ;fd'bflos ;+/ rgfx¿sf]  lgdf{0f /  pkof] u $) r/ 0f !@ ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLaf/ ]  cfaZos tflnd, cled'vLs/ 0f /  ;xof]  u $@ r/ 0f !# Osf] len] hn]  pknJw u/ fpg]  ;] jf /  ;'lawfx¿af/ ]  cfk\mg}  j] a;fO6dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs hfgsf/ L $@

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3


e"ldsf cf] / ]sn]  jl/i7 s[lifljb 8f= ljgfos k|;fb /fhe08f/LHo"sf]  cu|;/ tfdf u|fdL0f ;d'bfosf ;LdfGts[t tyf ;fgf ls;fgx¿sf]  hLljsf] kfh{gnfO{ ;xh kfg] { /  :yfgLo :t/ df s[lifsf]  lalawLs/ 0f /  lbuf]  k4ltdfkm{t pTkfbgdf a[l4 ug] { p2] Zo / fvL ldh] l/ o/  hd{gLsf]  cfly{s ;xof] udf g'jfsf] 6df ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL k|j4{g sfo{qmd ;g\ !((& b] lv ;'? u/ ] sf]  lyof]  . ;f]  sfo{qmd g'jfsf] 6sf]  lzv/ j] zL, £ofª\km] bL /  / fn'sfb] jL uflj;x¿df ;'? ul/ Psf]  lyof]  . Ps aif{kl5 ;g\ !((* b] lv ;f]  sfo{qmd pbok'/ df klg ;~rfng ul/ Psf]  lyof]  . ;f]  sfo{qmdsf pT;fxhgs pknlJwx¿ lyP /  5g\ . To;n]  ul/ aL lgjf/ 0f, vfB ;'/ Iff tyf hLljsf] kfh{gsf]  ;xhLs/ 0fdf lglZrt ;sf/ fTds c;/ x¿ kf/ ] sf]  5 /  kfl/ / x] sf]  5 . t/  ;f]  sfo{qmd 5gf] 6 ul/ Psf]  ufpFsf s] xL 5flgPsf 3/ w'/ Ldf dfq nfu" ul/ Psf]  lyof]   . To;n]  ubf{ 5gf] 6df gk/ ] sf cGo 3/ w'/ Lsf]  v] taf/ Ldf / f;folgs dn /  / f;folgs laiffbLx¿sf]  k|of] u ul/ +bf 5] j} sf]  ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL nfu" ul/ Psf]  v] taf/ Ldf sL/ fx¿sf]  k|sf] k sfa'aflx/ }  / xg]  u/ ] sf]  kfOof]   . csf] {tkm{ nlIft ufla; tyf ufpFx¿df ;fd'bflos ;+u7g /  ;d"xx¿sf]  ;zQmLs/ 0fsf sf/ 0fn]  ubf{, ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf ;sf/ fTds pknlJw /  c;/ x¿af6 k|efljt e}  pQm sfo{qmdsf]  df+u a9] /  uof]  . nlIft ufla; tyf ufpFx¿df hLljsf] kfh{g ;'/ IffnfO{ /  kof{j/ 0fLo ;/ f] sf/  Pad\ hnjfo' kl/ jt{gsf r'gf} ltx¿nfO{ Ps} ;fy ;Daf] wg ug'{ cfjZos / x] sf]  ;Gbe{df Ans ck|f] r cyf{t ;dli6ut ;f] rcg'¿k sfo{qmd lasf; /  ;~rfng ug'{ jf~5gLo b] lvg uof]  . To;}  s'/ fnfO{ Wofgdf / fvL cf] / ]sn]  k'gM 8f= ljgfos k|;fb /fhe08f/LHo"sf]  cu|;/ tfdf Osf] len] hsf]  cjwf/ 0ff lasf; u/ L To;nfO{ Ps sfo{qmdsf ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ ;'? u/ ] sf]  xf]   . of]  cleofg cfly{s, ;fdflhs /  ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ x¿sf]  ;'lglZrttf, ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf]  lj:tf/  /  lbuf]  hLljsf] kfh{gsf]  ;'lglZrttfsf nflu :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ ;Ifd /  kl/ rflnt x'g ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { clek|fon]  ;~rflnt ePsf]  xf]  . of]  cleofg k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { sfo{df s] lGb|t 5 . cGo d'n's /  :yfgdf Osf] len] hsf lgldQ ePsf k|of;x¿eGbf of]  k|of; o; cy{df leGg 5 ls o;nfO{ dfgjclwsf/ d'vL ;f] raf6 ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf]  l;4fGt /  sfo{z} nL cg'¿k lasf; ul/ Psf]  5 .

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4

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jf:tjdf ;d:t dfgj hfltn]  ePsf]  5} g . To;f]  eP s]  ug] { t < xfdL cfˆgf] hLjgnfO{ Ps csf{ To;sf nflu Ps dfq pkfo 5 Tof]  xf]  /  k|s[lt;Fusf]  ;DaGwnfO{ ;d] t xfdLn]  xfd|f]  pkef] unfO{ lbuf] :t/  df Wofgdf / fvL s;/ L Aoal:yt ug{ emfg] { jf Jojl:yt ug]  { . csf] { zJbdf rfxG5f}  + /  To;sf cfwf/  df Ps eGbf xfdLn]  xfd|f k|fs[lts ;|f] tx¿sf]  csf{sf kl/ k"/ s x'g]  tj/ n]  s:tf bf] xg -w] / } gfkmf sdfpg]  nf] e_ xf] Og k|lalwx¿ /  cfly{s k|0ffnLx¿ lasf; lbuf]  Joj:yfkg -efjL k':tfsf nflu ug{ rfxG5f}  + To; laifodf uxg klg pTkfbgzLn ;|f] tx¿ af“sL / flv larf/  tyf 5nkmn ug] { /  lg0f{o lbg] _ u/ L xfd|f]  hLljsf] kfh{gnfO{ ug] { a] nf cfO;s] sf]  5 . cg'ejn]  s]  ;xh /  lbuf]  agfpg ;Sb5f}  + . b] vfPsf]  5 eg]  :yfgLo ;fgf]  u|fdL0f o;sf lgldQ xfdLn]  xfd|f]  hLjg :t/ sf]  cu|;/ tf dflysf]  ;Gbe{df bz{g, ;dfh, ;d'bfo, k|s[lt /  Hofb}  dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . pTkfbgzLn k|fs[lts ;|f]  tx¿ /  kof{j/ 0fk|ltsf]  xfd|f]  k'/ fgf]  Wj+;sf/ L ;fdfGotof s]  eGg]  ul/  G5 eg]  gfkmfd'vL dfGotfdf kl/  jt{g xfdLn]  clxn]  h]  hlt vfG5f}  + jf ug'{ cfaZos x'G5 . xfdL nf] e /  pkef] u ub{5f} + To;nfO{ ToxL ¿kdf k|lt:kwf{sf]  ;+:s[ltdf cfwfl/ t sfod / fVg k[YjL hqf tLgj6f u|x ;dfhsf]  ;6\6fdf k|]  d, ;b\efjgf, rflxG5 . t/  xfdL tLgj6f u|x t cfk;L ;xof] u /  ;fdflhs Gofodf agfpg ;Sb} gf} +  . csf] {lt/  xfdLnfO{ cfwfl/ t gofF ;dfh agfpg k|lta4 cfˆgf cfjZostfx¿ k"/ f gul/  klg x'g'kb{5 . kof{j/ 0fd} qL ufpF cyf{t k|s[lt;Fu nf] eafx] s xfd|f cGo ;a}  cfaZostfx¿ k"/ f ug] { ;fdYo{ 5 . –dxfTdf s/ drGb ufGwL k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf

5


Osf] len] hsf]  ;f] r o;}  dfGotf /  hLjg bz{gdf cfwfl/ t 5 . Osf] len] hsf]  Pp6f dfq kl/ efiff 5} g  . tyflk xfdLn]  Osf] len] hnfO{ To:tf]  ufpF jf dfgj a:tL dfg] sf 5f} + hxfFsf afl;Gbfx¿ k|s[lt tyf kof{j/ 0fd} qL Jojxf/  /  k|lalwsf]  k|of]  u ;fd"lxs lg0f{osf cfwf/  df u/ L pknJw ;|f] t /  ;Dkbfsf]  lbuf]  Joj:yfkg ub{5g\ /  hxfF pgLx¿sf ;fdflhs, efjgfTds, cfTdut, ef} lts /  cfly{s cfaZostfx¿ k"/ f ePsf x'G5g\ /  cgGt sfn;Dd lbuf]  ¿kdf k"/ f x'g] 5g\ . af:tjdf Osf] len] hsf]  ;f] r xfd|f]  b}  lgs hLjgsf]  Ps lx:;f aGg' kb{5 . o;nfO{ xfd|f]  lbgrof{sf]  efiff, nf] s ;flxTo /  nf] s ;+:s[ltn]  an lbg' kb{5, ;xof] u ug'{ kb{5 . csf] { zJbdf eGbf kof{j/  0fd}  qL ufpFsf]  hLjg bz{g, d'No /  dfGotfnfO{ xfd|f]  b} lgs efiff, nf] s ;flxTo /  nf] s ;+:s[ltsf]  s] Gb| laGb' agfOg' kb{5 . o;nfO{ k|f/ lDes afn lasf; s] Gb|b] lv ljBfno;Dd ;n{Ss}  lkmhfOg' kb{5 . ToxfFsf u'?cfdf /  u'?afx¿n]  clg o'jf /  kfsf cfdfafafx¿n]  To:tf]  lhDdf clgjfo{ ¿kdf lng' kb{5 . u} / ;/ sf/ L /  ;/ sf/ L ;ª\3;+:yfx¿n]  cfaZos 6

;xof] usf]  of] hgf agfP/  ufpF, a:tL /  :s'nx¿df sfo{qmd nfg' kb{5 . o'jf /  lszf] / Lx¿, afnaflnsf /  dlxnfx¿, pgLx¿sf Sna /  ;ldltx¿ tL sfo{qmddf cf-cfˆgf :ki6 e"ldsfsf ;fy sDd/  s;]  /  cufl8 ;g'{ kb{5 . clg dfq cfzf ul/ Psf]  kl/ jt{g Nofpg ;Dej x'g] 5  . xfdLn]  rfx] sf]  ¿kfGt/ 0f JolQmut :t/ b] lv ;dfh;Dd cfaZos x'G5 /  To;sf]  ;'?jft JolQmut kl/  jt{gb]  lv x'g' kb{5 . cf] / ] s g] kfn /  cGo u} / ;/ sf/ L ;ª\3 ;+:yfdfkm{t k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { of]  cjwf/ 0ff PsLs[t dfgjclwsf/ jfbL ;f] r /  lbuf]  ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf]  cjwf/ 0ff /  sfo{z} nLdf cfwfl/ t 5  . of]  o'/ f] k, cd] l/ sf tyf cGo d'n'sdf agfOg]  Osf] len] hsf]  cjwf/ 0ff /  dfkb08x¿eGbf leGg 5 . o'/ f] k /  ci6«] lnofsf sltko Osf] len] hx¿sf]  cjnf] sgkZrft Osf] len] hsf lalaw kIfsf ;DaGwdf lxN8/  HofS;gn]  !) j6f dxŒjk"0f{ j'+bfx¿nfO{ o;/ L / fv] sf 5g\M != dfgj ;Eotf /  xfd|f]  w/  tL dftf -k[YjL_ sf]  eljiosf lgldQ JolQmut ¿kfGt/  0f ;aeGbf dxŒjk"0f{ s'/ f]  xf]  . cfqmfds,

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l/  ;fxf, k|lt:kwL{, PsnsfF6]  Wofg Psbd}  pkof] uL lalw xf]  . dflg;x¿n]  zfGt, ;xof] uL, o;n]  xfd|f]  l/ ; / fudf klg sdL lbuf]  /  Gofok"0f{ ;dfh sbflk NofpF5 . agfpg ;Sb} gg\ . $= sfd xfd|f]  b}  lgs hLjgsf]  @= TolQs}  dxŒjk"0f{ 5 k|]  dk"0f{ clgjfo{ lx:;f xf] , t/  To;nfO{ ;DaGwx¿sf]  l;h{gf . To:tf]  xfdLn]  s;/ L k"/ f ub{5f} + eGg]  k|]  dk"0f{ ;DaGw xfd|f cfˆgf s'/  fn]  7"nf]  leGgtf NofpF5 . aLrdf, xfd|f]  kl/ jf/ leq, nufj /  k|] dn]  jf:tjd}  s'g}  klg ;d'bfox¿aLr, xfd|f]  k|fs[lts vfnsf]  sfdsf]  ¿kfGt/ 0fdf ;Dkbf /  jftfj/ 0f, dfgjtf /  ;3fp k'/  \ofpF5 . vf;u/  L k[YjLk|lt klg cfaZos x'G5 . sfdsf]  u'0f:t/ df w] / } / fd|f]  To;nfO{ ;d'bfo, ;dfh /  glthf cfpF5 . hLjgsf]  u'0f:t/  kl/ jf/ sf s'g} klg ;b:o, ju{, /  dfgj ;DaGwdf t emg}  / fd|f]  /  lnËdfly k/ Dk/ fut¿kdf c;/  kfOG5 . e} / x] sf]  jf x'g]  cTofrf/ , %= dflg;x¿ hlt;'s}  k|lt:kwL{ lje]  b, lx+;f, /  zf]  if0f, tyf ePklg cyjf dfgj ;DaGwsf k[YjL -:yn, hn, /  afo'd08n_ laifodf hlt;'s}  bIf ePklg sf tTjx¿ -hldg, h+un, JolQmut åGå jf dgd'6fj h} ljs lalawtf, hn;|f] t, cfpg' t :jfeflas}  x'G5 . To;} n]  hnjfo'_ dfly k/ Dk/ fut¿kdf a] nfd}  k|efjsf/ L tl/ sfn]  åGå e} / x] sf]  bf] xgsf]  cGTo /  lbuf]  Joj:yfkg ug{ l;Sg' JolQmut Joj:yfkgsf ¿kdf klg a'em\g ;DaGw tyf ;d'bfosf]  lxtdf ;lsG5 . dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . #= JolQmut ¿kfGt/ 0f /  k|] dk"0f{ ^= ;d'bfodf s'g}  klg laifodf ;DaGw :yfkgfsf lgldQ of]  u lg0f{o ug] { sfd ;aeGbf ufxf/ f]  cEof; /  Wofg ug'{ Hofb}  kIfx¿dWo]  Ps xf]  . t/  ;Fu}  pkof]  uL x'G5 . xfdLn]  cfˆgf] of] ufEof; /  Wofg ug] { ;d"xx¿n]  cfGtl/ s zlQm jf Ifdtf klxrfg eg]  of]  sfd ;xh}  ug] { u/ ] sf]  ug{, gofF b[li6sf] 0f lasf; ug{, kfOof]   . ;+r] tgf /  laa] ssf]  clea[l4sf &= Osf] len] hsf]  bz{gsf kIfw/  lgldQ ;d]  t of]  u cEof; /  ;d'bfosf]  tof/ Lsf lgldQ k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf

7


;docefj /  w} o{sf]  efjgf Psbd}  dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . oxfFg] /  k|of] u ul/ Psf]  ;docefjsf]  efjgf k[YjLsf]  eljiosf af/ ] df ul/ g' kg] { sfdsf]  cfaZostf /  dxŒjnfO{ cg'ej ug] { laifo;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . *= Osf] len] hsf nflu cfly{s :jtGqtf Hofb}  dxŒjk"0f{ ;jfn xf]  . k|fs[lts /  JolQmut z} nLcg'¿ksf]  Wofgof] uL tyf Hofb}  sd dfgl;s bafa ePsf]  hLjg k4lt To:tf]  ;d'bfodf dfq ;Dej x'G5, hxfF ;d'bfosf ;b:ox¿sf]  hLljsf] kfh{g ufpFaflx/  uP/  sfd gubf{ klg ;'lglZrt x'G5 . (= lbuf]  hLjg k4lt /  :jtGq cy{tGq lgdf{0fdf ;aeGbf 7"nf]  afwfsf]  ¿kdf df] 6/  ufl8 / x] sf]  kfOof]  . s] xL ;d'bfon]  o;df / fd|f]  ;kmntf xfl;n u/ ] sf 5g\ t/  Osf] len] hx¿n]  of]  ;d:ofsf]  ;fdgf ;kmntfk"j{s ug{ g;s]  df pgLx¿sf p2] Zox¿ k"/ f x'g]  5} gg\  . !)= sltko Osf] len] hx¿ dfgj dnd"qsf]  c;/  sd ug{ sfo{/ t 5g\ t/  w] / } Osf] len] hx¿ o;nfO{ 9nd}  aufOlbg' kb{5 8

eGg]  larf/ d}  5g\ . sDkf] i6 agfOg]  vfnsf]  rlk{ agfPdf -uf] a/  Uof; 6\of+sdf hf] l8Psf] _ dnd"qnfO{ 9ndf aufpg /  To;kl5 l6«6d] 06 KnfG6 lgdf{0f ug{ cfaZos kg] { kfgL /  cGo ;|f] tx¿ laNs'n}  rflx+b} gg\ . o;df tn pNn]  v ul/  Psf s]  xL a'Fbfx¿ xfdLn]  yKg' kg] { x'G5 . tL o;k|sf/  5g\M • j}  slNks phf{ jf OGwgsf ;DaGwdf • / } yfg]  1fg /  k|ljlwsf af/ ] df • ;f+:s[lts klxrfg, hu]  gf{ /  k|j4{gsf ;DaGwdf • h} ljs lalawtfsf]  ;+/ If0f /  pkof] usf af/ ] df • pTkfbgzLn k|fs[lts ;|f] tx¿sf]  lbuf]  Joj:yfkgaf/ ]  • ;|f] t ;fwg /  lg0f{o k|lqmofdf dlxnf /  k'?ifx¿sf]  ;dfg kx'“r /  ;xeflutfaf/ ]   . xfdLn]  dfly pNn] lvt ;a}  a'+bfx¿nfO{ b[li6ut u/ L Osf] len] hsf dfkb08x¿ lgwf{/ 0f u/ ] sf 5f} + . tL dfkb08x¿ lgdf{0f ubf{ ;'?sf Osf]  len]  hsf ;b:ox¿sf]  ;lqmo ;xeflutf / x] sf]  lyof]   . Osf] len] hsf dfkb08x¿af/ ]  xfdL tn a] Un}  5nkmn ug] {5f} + .

k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf


dflg; 7"nf]  s;/ L x'G5 < clt xflgsf/ s / f;folgs ljiffbLx¿sf]  k|of] u u/ L w] / } vfB pTkfbg u/ ] /  cyjf lbgx'“ ul/ i6 vfgfsf cg] s kl/ sf/ x¿ w] / } vfP/  jf vfg g;sL kmfn] /  s'g}  klg ls;fg jf dflg; 7"nf]  x'‘b} g . To;} u/ L cfˆgf nflu k|fª\ufl/ s vfB pTkfbg -cGg, bnxg, t/  sf/  L, kmnkm"n OToflb_ ug] { /  c?sf nflu jf a] Rgsf nflu / f;folgs k4ltaf6 laiff0f'o'Qm vfB pTkfbg /  a] rlavg u/ L wgfh{g ug] { ls;fg klg ;Ddfgof] Uo x'g ;Sb} g . To:tf dflg; jf ls;fgnfO{ ;Ddfg ug'{ kg]  { sf/  0f x'‘b}  g . To;f]  eP s:tf dflg; jf ls;fgnfO{ ;Ddfg ug] { t < xfdLn]  To:tf ls;fg jf dflg;nfO{ ;Ddfg ug'{[ kb{5 h;n]  :yfgLo ;|f] t ;fwg /  / } yfg]  1fg tyf k|ljlwsf]  ;d] t ;b'kof] u u/ L jftfj/ 0f /  :jf:Yodf s'g}  xflg jf gsf/ fTds c;/  gkf/ L ;f/ f hutsf

nflu cyjf ;dfhsf x/ ] s ;b:osf nflu kf}  li6s /  :j:ys/  vfB pTkfbg, k|;f] wg /  a] rlavg ub{5 . xfdLn]  To:tf dflg;nfO{ ;Ddfg ug'{ kb{5 h;n]  cfk"mn]  vf‘bf c?sf]  / f] u, zf] s /  ef] ssf laifodf klg ;f] Rb5 /  c?nfO{ ;xof] u ug{ ;b} a tTk/  x'G5, x/ ] s 5fsdf vfgf ksfpg'cl3 g}  s] xL cGg sd ub{5 /  vfgf v] /  kmfNb} g . o;}  k|;+udf xfd|f dxfslj nIdLk|;fb b] jsf] 6fn]  ;d] t cfˆgf] ljZjljVoft v08 sfJo d'gfdbgdf ;7Ls cfzo JoQm u/ ] sf lyPM æIf] qLsf]  5f] / f]  of]  kfp 5'G5 l3gn]  5'“b} g dflg; 7"nf]  lbnn]  x'G5 hftn]  x'“b} g .Æ x/ ] s 3/ sf ;a}  ;b:on]  o;/ L ;f] lr lbP s]  x'GYof]  xf] nf < x/ ] s 3/ sf ;b:ox¿n]  o;/ L ;f] rL

If] qLsf]  5f] / f]  of]  kfp 5'G5 l3gn]  5'“b} g, dflg; 7"nf]  lbnn]  x'G5 hftn]  x'“b} g . –dxfslj nIdLk|;fb b] jsf] 6f k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf

9


Jojxf/ df nfu" ul/  lbP xfn xfdLn]  ef] lu/ fv] sf]  vfB c;'/ Iffsf]  l:yltdf s] xL ;'wf/  cfp‘bf]  xf]  . xfn xfd|f]  d'n'ssf]  hg;+Vof @,^^,)),))) /  s"n 3/  w'/  L;+Vof %$,@&,#)@ 5 . aif] {gL vfBfGg ;d:of a] xf] g'{ gkg] { 3/ w'/ L ;ª\Vof sl/ a $),&),))) 5 . xfdLnfO{ ;g\ @))*/ ( /  @))(/ !) df qmdzM !,#@,(!) d] l6«s 6g /  #,@(,(&@ d] l6«s 6g vfBfGg ck'u ePsf]  lyof]  eg]  ;g\ @)!)/ !! df $,$#,)%& d]  l6«s 6g vfBfGg art ePsf]  lyof]  . aif] {gL a] xf] g'{ kg] { vfBfGg c;'/ Iffsf]  ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf] wg ug'{ xfd|f nflu kmnfdsf]  Ro'/ f rkfP;/ x sl7g ePsf]  5  . aif] {gL x/ ] s 3/ w'/ Ln]  Ps lbgdf %) u|fd -laxfg /  a]  n'sf Ps Ps d'7L_ vfBfGg art ug]  { xf]  eg]  To;sf]  b} lgs s"n kl/ df0f

10

@)# d] l6«s 6g x'g hfg] 5 . Ps aif{df To;/  L ;l~rt vfBfGgsf]  s"n kl/  df0f &$,)(% d]  l6«s 6g x'g] 5 . aif{lbgdf o;/ L hf] ufOPsf]  vfBfGgnfO{ “ul/ aL lgaf/ 0fsf nflu ;fd'bflos kxn" cyjf "d'7Lbfg" h:tf sfo{qmddfkm{t ufp‘a:tLdf nfg ;s]  3/ kl/ jf/ sf]  vfBfGg c;'/ Iffsf]  ;d:of s] xL dfqfdf eP klg ;dfwfg x'g]  lyof]  . Osf] len] hdf :yfgLo ;d"x /  ;ldltx¿n]  o:tf ;f] rx¿nfO{ d't{ ¿k lbg ;Sb5g\ /  ;Sg' klg kb{5 . kl5 uP/  To;sf]  cg's/ 0f / fli6«o :t/ df x'g ;Sb5 . Osf] len] hdf o:tf]  ;f] rsf]  ;lx sfof{Gjogaf6 ef] vd/ L lgld6\ofGg ePkl5 / fHon]  b] ze/ L cyjf w] / } ufp‘df o:tf]  sfo{qmd lsg nfu" gug] { <

k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf


s[lif, jftfj/ 0f /  hLljsf] kfh{g xfnsf]  tyfslyt d"n k|jfxsf]  s[lif k|0ffnLcGtu{t /  f;folgs dn /  laiffbLx¿sf]  k|of] un]  ubf{ jftfj/ 0f k|b"lift x'g]  , dflg; /  a:t'efpsf]  :jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/  kg] { u/ ] sf] , /  h} ljs lalawtf gi6 x'Fb}  uPsf]  5 . To;}  u/ L pQm s[lif k|0ffnLcGtu{t t/ fO{sf v] tx¿nfO{ tf/ Gtf/  6\ofS6/ n]  hf] Tgfn]  df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf lalu|+b}  /  pj{/ f zlQm emg\ emg\ sd x'“b}  u} / x] sf]  5 .  Ps jfnL k4ltn]  ubf{ gofF gofF /  f]  u ls/  fx¿sf]  k|sf] k a9\b}  u} / x] sf]  5  . tyfslyt d"n k|jfxsf]  s[lif k|0ffnL nf]  esf]  ;+:s[ltdf cfwfl/ t 5 . Tof]  nf] e eg] sf]  k|lt PsfO hldgaf6 a9LeGbf a9L pTkfbg lngsf nflu w] / } eGbf w] / } / f;folgs dn, / f;folgs laiffbL tyf xla{;fO8x¿sf]  k|of]  u ug{‘ xf]  . To:tf]  k|lalw /  cEof;af6 df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf lau|g] , pj{/ tf gi6 x'g] , df6f] sf hLjf0f'x¿sf]  ;+Vof cToflws Go"g x'g] , h} ljs lalawtf

gi6 x'g]  s'/ fdf To:tf]  s[lif k|0ffnLsf kIfw/ x¿nfO{ ;/ f] sf/  5}  g . pgLx¿nfO{ s]  jn gfkmf;Fu dfq dtna 5 . w] / } wg sdfP/  dfgl;s zflGt k|fKt ug{ ;ls+b}  g a? Tof]  u'dfOG5 eGg]  1fg klg pgLx¿nfO{ 5} g . zfob To:tf]  k|j[lttkm{ ;+s] t u/ L n] v] sf lyP xfd|f sljlz/ f] d0fL n] vgfy kf} 8\ofnn]  “d}  vfpF d}  nfpF ;'v;on jf df] h d u?F, d}  gfr'F d}  xfF;' c? ;a d?g\ b'a{nx¿ . " laiffbLo'Qm vfB kbfy{x¿af6 tof/  kfl/ Psf cg] sf}  kl/ sf/ x¿ h:t}  eft, kmnk"mn, t/ sf/ L, bfn, df;', cyjf b'w vfP/  / f] uL hLjg afFRg' s'g}  klg cy{df / fd|f]  x'g ;Sb} g . a? :j:ys/  vfgfsf]  Pp6f jf b'O{6f kl/  sf/  vfO{ :j:y /  xg' /  dfgl;s zflGt k|fKt ug'{ a'l4dfgL xf]  . dxfslj nIdLk|;fb b] jsf] 6fn]  Psbd 7Ls eg] sf 5g\ "xftsf]  d} nf ;'gsf]  y} nf s]  ug'{ wgn] , ;fu / 

xftsf]  d} nf ;'gsf]  y} nf s]  ug'{ wgn] , ;fu /  l;:g" vfPsf]  a] z cfgGbL dgn]  .

–dxfslj nIdLk|;fb b] jsf] 6f k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf

11


l;:g" vfPsf]  a] z cfgGbL dgn] ".

;Defjgf /  xG5 . To:tf]  k|ljlw ckgfpg]  ax'/ fli6«o 7"nf lab] zL To;f]  eP s]  ug] { t < cfkm\gf nflu sDklgx¿n]  gk'+;s -a0f{z+s/ _ cfaZos vfB kbfy{ :yfgLo :t/ df aLpx¿sf]  pTkfbg ub{5g\ . To:tf]  g}  pTkfbg ug] {, k|fª\ufl/ s pTkfbg aLp u/ fpg bzsf} +;Dd lg/ Gt/  ug] { :yfgLo ls;fgx¿nfO{ ;Ddfg /  cg';Gwfg ug'{ kb{5 . To;sf ;xfotf ug] {, xfd|f cfˆgf / } yfg]  1fg nflu ax'/ fli6«o sDklgx¿n]  c/ af} + vfB e08f/ 0f k|ljlw /  k/ Dk/ fnfO{ ?lkofF nufgL ub{5g\ . ;+;f/ e/ sf k'ghL{ljt /  ;Dj4{g ug]  { . ls;fgx¿nfO{ To:tf aLp cfˆgf ls;fgnfO{ s[lifsf]  cfw'lgsLs/ 0f /  ahf/  ;~hfndfkm{t pknJw Jofj;flosLs/ 0fsf]  gfddf laiffbL u/  fpFb5g\ . To:tf 7"nf lab]  zL k|of] u u/ L v] tL ug{ /  hgtfnfO{ ax'/fli6«o sDklgx¿df dG;fG6f]  , laiffbLo'Qm vfgf vfg afWo kfg]  { 8'kf] 06 /  ;] Gh] 06f gfd'b 5g\ . 7"nf gLlt /  sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ oyflz3| lab] zL sDklgx¿n]  pTkfbg u/ ] sf]  vf/ ] h ug]{  . aLp k|of] u ug{ yfn] kl5 ls;fgx¿n]  cg'jf+lzs¿kdf ¿kfGtl/ t sd pTkfbg lbg]  cfˆgf] aLp / fVg -h] g] l6sNnL df] l8kmfO8\_ vfB 5f]  8\b5g\ . gk'+;s aLpx¿ k|of]  u pTkfbg k|ljlwsf]  k|of] uaf6 ug] { ls;fgx¿n]  sfnfGt/ df x/ ] s afnLgfnLsf]  k|lt PsfO pTkfbg ;fn ax'/ fli6«o sDklgx¿n]  tf] s] hlt cToflws dfqfdf a9fpg ;lsG5 . w] / } d'No -/ sd_ ltg'{ kg] { ca:yf pQm k|lalwsf]  k|of] uaf6 afnLgfnLdf cfpg] 5 . To;nfO{ lasf;f] Gd'v jf / f] u /  sL/ fx¿sf]  lgoGq0f klg cNk lasl;t d'n'ssf ls;fgx¿sf /  fd|f]  ;Fu ug{ ;lsG5 . a}  1flgs nflu aflx/  L k|fljlws-cfly{s lx;fa lstfadf Tof]  s'/ f ;xL xf]  . em8\sf elgG5 . :yfgLo :t/  df Tof]  ;'Gbf / fd|}  s'/ f xf]  h:tf]  klg cfˆgf] aLp /  fVg 5f]  8]  kl5 xfd|f nfUb5 . t/  To:tf]  k|ljlwn]  xfd|f cfˆgf afnLgfnLsf hftsf aLpx¿ / } yfg]  jfnLgfnLsf lglZrt hftx¿ t nf] k e} ;s] sf x'g] 5g\  . To;} n]  xfd|f x/ fpg] , To;;Fu ;DalGwt / } yfg]  ls;fgx¿n]  klg To:tf]  em8\sfsf]  1fg, k|ljlw /  k/ Dk/ f x/ fpg]  k|jn ;fdgf ug}  { kg]  { x'G5 . pgLx¿sf]  12

k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf


hLljsf] kfh{gsf lgldQ Tof]  cToGt r'gf} ltk"0f{ x'g] 5 . clxn]  g}  xfdLn]  sf7df8f}  +df yfkflrlgof jf tf}  nL wfg nufpg rfx] df aLp kfOFb} g . bfª /  t/ fO{ e"efudf l;D7f/ f]  -/ ftf]  rfdnsf]  Ps hft_ /  clGb -cglb_ wfg nufpg rfx]  df aLp kfpg d'l:sn e} ;s] sf]  5 . ;fgf ls;fgsf]  afx'Notf ePsf]  xfd|f]  h:tf]  cNk ljsl;t d'n'ssf]  ;/ sf/  /  ;DalGwt ;ª\3 ;+:yf /  lj1x¿n]  of]  s'/ fnfO{ uDeL/  ¿kdf lng' kb{5 . Tolt dfq xf] Og ;/ sf/ n]  o; ;DaGwdf :ki6 gLlt /  sfo{qmd th'{df ug'{ h?/ L 5 /  ls;fg ju{nfO{ ;To tYo hfgsf/ L lbg' af~5gLo 5 .

dfq xf] Og xfd|f]  vfB rqmdf ;d] t k|j] z kfpF5g\ . To;af6 dflg;sf]  /  ufO{a:t'sf]  :jf:Yodf gsf/ fTds c;/  kb{5 .

kl5Nnf s]  xL bzsx¿df hnjfo' kl/ jt{g / fli6«o /  cGt/ fli6«o :t/ df Ps uDeL/  ;/ f] sf/ sf]  laifo ag] sf]  5 . dflg;n]  cfˆgf] ;'v ;'lawfsf nflu k|of] u ug] { lalaw k|lalwx¿sf sf/ 0f hnjfo' kl/ jt{gn]  7"nf]  ¿k lng k'u] sf]  5  . o'/ f] k /  cd] l/ sfsf lasl;t d'n'sx¿df dfq xf]  Og lasf;f] Gd'v elgg]  rLg, ef/ t, a|flhn, blIf0f clk|msf, ;fpbL c/ a /  s'a] t h:tf b] zx¿df ;d] t xl/  t u[xaf6 pT;h{g x'g]  sfj{g sltko ca:yfdf h] g] l6sNnL 8fOcS;fO8, ;Nkm/  8fOcS;fO8, df]  l8kmfO8 afnLgfnLsf hftx¿ ldy]  g, gfO6«; cS;fO8, k/  km\ xla{;fO8 -emf/ kft dfg] { / ;fog_ nf] / f] sfa{g, xfO8«f]  km\nf] / f] sfa{g, tyf lg/ f] ws x'G5g\ . To;sf]  cy{ s]  xf]  ;Nkm/  x] Shfˆnf] / fO8 h:tf xl/ t u[x eg]  To:tf afnLgfnLdf emf/  kft Uof;x¿sf]  dfqf jftfj/ 0fdf a9\b}  lgoGq0f ug{ ls;fgx¿n]  xla{;fO8 u} / x] sf]  5  . cf} Bf] lus lasf;sf]  -emf/ kft dfg] { / ;fog_ k|of] u ug'{ qmd ;'? x'g'cl3 xfd|f] jfo'd08ndf kg] { x'G5 . xla{;fO8n]  df6f]  /  kfgLdf sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf]  dfqf a9]/ @*) k|j] z u/ L jftfj/ 0f k|b"lift ug] { kLkLPd\ -!) nfvdf c+z_ ePsf] df æd}  vfpF d}  nfpF ;'v;on jf df] h d u?F, d}  gfr'F d}  xfF;' c? ;a d?g\ b'a{nx¿ .Æ

–sljlz/ f] d0fL n] vgfy kf} 8\ofn k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf

13


;g\ @)!! df Tof]  dfqf #(!=&^ kLkLPd\ k'u] sf]  tYof° k|sflzt ePsf]  5 . To;} u/ L cf} Bf] lus lasf;sf]  qmd ;'? x'g'cl3 xfd|f] jfo'd08ndf ldy]  gsf]  dfqf a9]/ &!% kLkLPd\ lyof]  eg]  ;g\ @)!! df Tof]  dfqf !&&$ kLkLPd\ k'u] sf]  5 . xl/ t u[x Uof; pT;h{gdf t] n phf{ -@%=%)%_, pBf] uwGbf -!(=$)%_, aglagfz -!&=$)%_, s[lifsf]  cfw'lgsLs/ 0f -!#=%)%_, oftfoft -!#=!)%_, Jofj;flos ejg -&=@_ /  k|b"if0fsf]  -@=*_ e"ldsf / x] sf]  tYo k|sflzt ePsf]  5 . xl/ t Uof; pT;h{gn]  hnjfo' kl/ jt{gnfO{ emg\ emg\ ;d:ofu|:t u/ fpFb}  nu] sf]  5 . kmn:j¿k cgfj[li6, cNkj[li6, cyjf v08a[li6 x'g] , af9L cfpg]  /  k} / f]  hfg] , tfkqmddf a[l4 x'Fb}  hfg]  e} / x] sf]  5  . To;} sf sf/ 0f Psflt/  jfnLgfnLsf]  pTkfbg sd x'“b}  u} / x] sf]  5 eg]  csf] {lt/  dflg;sf]  hLljsf] kfh{g emg\ si6s/  /  r'gf} ltk"0f{ x'Fb}  u} / x] sf]  5  . ;fdfGotof Ps lbgdf cyjf laxfgb] lv / ftL;Dd tfkqmddf s] xL l8u|Lsf]  kl/ jt{g x'G5 . To;} n]  $ l8u|Lsf]  kl/ jt{g eGg]  s'/ faf6 w] / } dflg;nfO{ 8/  nfUb} g . t/  ;+;f/ e/  14

;fnfvfnf ! l8u|Lsf]  kl/ jt{g x'g dxf;fu/ sf]  kfgLsf] , afo'd08nsf]  /  hldgsf]  7"nf]  efu crfSnL tflQg' kb{5 . cfheGbf @),))) aif{cl3sf]  t'ngfdf laZjsf]  afo'd08nsf]  tfkqmd # l8u|Ln]  dfq a9]  sf]  5 . t/  clxn]  b]  lvPsf]  hnjfo' kl/ jt{gnfO{ Wofg lbg]  xf]  eg]  s] xL bzsd}  Tof]  tfkqmd c? $ l8u|Ln]  a9\g]  5 . xfd|f]  afo'd08nsf]  tfkqmd $ l8u|Ln]  a9\g' eg] sf]  7"nf]  s'/ f xf]  . h} ljs k|hfltsf dflg;, hgfj/ , k+IfL, ;'IdhLjf0'f, hnr/ , af] 6la?jf, OToflbsf]  cl:tTjsf nflu hfnjfojLo cfwf/  g}  ;dfKt ePkl5 s]  x'g ;Sb5, Tof]  sNkgf u/ f} +  . To;} n]  hnjfo' kl/ jt{g xfd|f]  u|xsf]  Ps ;femf /  cToGt dxŒjk"0f{ r'gf} tL ag] sf]  5 . o;sf]  ;fdgf xfdL ;a}  k[YjLjf;Lx¿ ldn] /  ug'{ jf~5gLo ePsf]  5 . o;af6 plDsg s[lifsf]  Jofj;foLs/ 0f, cf} Bf] lusLs/ 0f, gfkmf, tyf lasl;t d'n'sn]  ckgfPsf]  af6f]  g}  7Ls xf]  /  ToxL af6f]  lx+8\g' kb{5 eGg]  h:tf dfGotf /  ts{nfO{ :yfg lbg ;lsg]  ca:yf ca afFsL / x] g . ;a} n]  cfcfˆgf] t] ;|f]  cfFvf tyf r] tgfsf]  b[li6 vf] Ng]  a] nf cfO;s] sf]  5  .

k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf


To;f]  eP s]  ug] { t < • dfly pNn]  lvt ;d:ofx¿ /  • cfk"m afrf}  + tyf c?nfO{ klg afFRg ;3fcf}  +, cfk"m vfpF /  r'gf} ltx¿af6 hf] lug tyf c?nfO{ klg v'jfcf} + eGg]  hLjg kof{j/ 0f /  k|s[lt ;+/ If0fnfO{ bz{gnfO{ Jojxf/ df ckgfpg]  . k|j4{g ug{ ;3g h}  ljs { v]  tL k|0ffnL h:tf lbuf]  s[lif • To;sf nflu cfaZos kg]  ;fdflhs /  ef} lts ;+/ rgfx¿ k4ltx¿nfO{ hLjg bz{gsf ;a} hgf ldn] /  agfcf} +, kl/ rflnt ¿kdf ckgfpg]  . u/  f}  + /  To;nfO{ emg\ dha't • ;fdflhs Gofosf]  :yfkgf /  agfpg]  sfd u/ f} +  . Osf] len] hsf]  hLjgf] kof] uL ;f+:s[lts d'No cjwf/ 0ffn]  ;d] 6] sf df] 6fdf] 6L dfGotfx¿sf]  hu] gf{ tyf k|j4{g laifox¿ log}  x'g\ . \ ;a}  txdf ug{ k|oTg/ t / xg]  .

dl:t:s dGyg /  ;d"xut 5nkmnsf nflu s] xL k|Zgx¿ • hdLg s:sf]  xf]  < • hdLg, h+un /  kfgLsf]  ;+/ If0f lsg ug] {< • hdLg, h+un, hn, h}  las lalawtf /  hghLljsfaLr s:tf]  cGt/ ;DaGw 5 <

• of]  cGt/ ;DaGwnfO{ s;/ L sfod /  fVg]  jf s;/  L emg\ dha't /  pTkfbgzLn agfpg]  < • Tof]  sfddf Osf] len] hsf ;b:ox¿sf]  e"ldsf /  bfloTj s]  s]  x'G5 <

k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf

15


@

Osf] len] hsf dfkb08x¿

Osf] len] hn]  xfn xfdLn]  ef] lu/ x] sf kof{j/  0fLo, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s /  k|flalws laifdtf Pjd\ cl:y/ tfx¿nfO{ lbuf]  ;+/ rgf, Jojxf/  tyf ;dtfk"0f{ ;f] rdfkm{t ;Daf] wg ub{5 . g] kfnL kl/ k|] Ifdf xfdLn]  Osf] len] hsf cfwf/ e"t dfkb08x¿nfO{ df] 6fdf] 6L ¿kdf tn k|:t't u/ ] sf 5f} +  . gd'gf Osf] len] h sxlng tn pNn] lvt ca:yfx¿sf]  l;h{gf /  lgdf{0f e} ;s] sf]  x'g' kb{5 . oL dfkb08x¿ k"/  f ug]  { qmddf lgdf{0fflwg Osf] len] hn]  r/  0fj4 ¿kdf laleGg ;+/  rgf /  d'No dfGotfx¿sf]  lasf; ub} { hfg' kb{5 . tL pknlJwx¿sf]  cg'udg tyf d'Nof°gsf nflu laleGg ;"rsfÍx¿sf]  pkof] u ul/ G5  . To;nfO{ cWofo # df ;dfa]  z ul/ Psf]  5  .

16

Osf] len] hsf cfwf/ e"t dfkb08x¿ != dlxnfdfly x'g]  u/ ] sf ;a}  k|sf/ sf lx+;fsf]  cGTo ePsf]  ca:yf @= afnaflnsfx¿dfly x'g]  u/ ] sf ;a}  k|sf/ sf lje] bsf]  cGTo ePsf]  ca:yf #= lzIffdf ;a}  sf]  ;dfg kx'Fr ;'lglZrt ePsf]  ca:yf $= k|fylds :jf:Yodf ;a} sf]  ;dfg kx"+r ;'lglZrt /  s'kf] if0f/ lxt ;dfhsf]  l;h{gf ePsf]  ca:yf %= dlxnfsf laz]  if :jf:Yo cfjZostfx¿ ;Daf]  wg ePsf]  cj:yf ^= k|fs[lts ;|f]  t tyf åGå Joj:yfkgdf ;d'bfosf]  ;lqmo ;xeflutf ePsf]  ca:yf &= gjLs/  0fLo phf{sf]  clwstd pkof] u ePsf]  ca:yf

k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf


*= ;3g h}  ljs v]  tL k|0ffnLsf]  Joj:yfkg, ;fdflhs ;zQmLs/  0f k|j4{g /  Jofj;flosLs/ 0f tyf dfgj /  kof{j/  0faLr :j:y ePsf]  ca:yf cGt/ ;DaGwsf]  k|j4{g ug'{ (= ;d'bfosf ;f+:s[lts klxrfg Osf] len] hsf d"ne"t kIfx¿ x'g\ . :yflkt /  ;+/ lIft ePsf]  ca:yf gjLs/ 0fLo phf{n]  lgDglnlvt rf/  !)= / } yfg]  1fg /  k/ Dk/ fut k|ljlwsf]  If] qdf k/ Dk/ fut phf{nfO{ la:yflkt ljsf;, ;+/ If0f /  k|j4{g ePsf]  ub{5M ca:yf !!= hnjfo' kl/ jt{g /  jftfj/ 0fLo != ljB't pTkfbg -;f} o{ phf{, atf;]  phf{ (wind mill) /  h} ljs ljifdtfx¿nfO{ ;fd"lxs¿kdf Uof; (biogas) af6_, ;Daf]  wg ug{ ;d'bfo 7f ttfpg -;f}  o{ ;lqmotfk"j{s nfluk/ ] sf]  @= kfgL jf sf]  phf{, atf;]  phf{ /  h}  ljs ca:yf . Uof;af6_, !@= ;fd"lxs g]  t[Tj lasf; tyf #= df] 6/  ufl8sf]  OGwg -afg:klts Gofok"0f{ ;dfhsf]  ca:yf . oL dfkb08x¿df :yfg /  t] naf6_, /  kl/ j] zcg'¿k s] xL yk36 x'g $= u|fdL0f phf{ ;]  jf -;f}  o{ phf{, ;Sb5 . t/  o;sf dfgjclwsf/  atf;]  phf{ /  h} ljs Uof;af6_ . -vf;u/  L dlxnf, afnaflnsf /  To;} n]  xfdLn]  k/ Dk/ fut ufpFaf6 ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfosf clwsf/  x¿_ Osf] len] hnfO{ 5'6\ofpg]  dfkb08x¿ ;Fu ;DalGwt tyf k|fs[lts dfly pNn] lvt kIfx¿;‘u ;DalGwt ;|f] tx¿sf]  lbuf] , kof{j/ 0fd} qL x'g' kb{5 . o; egfO /  ;f] r;‘u Joj:yfkg;Fu ;DalGwt kIfx¿nfO{ ;DalGwt 5nkmn rnfO{ :ki6tf eg]  36fpg jf sf‘65f‘6 ug{ ldNb} g . Nofpgsf nflu oxf“g] /  s] xL To:tf kIfx¿nfO{ la:tfl/ t ug{ jf pbfx/ 0fx¿ k|:t't ul/ Psf 5g\ . yKg rflx“ ldN5 . dfgjclwsf/ x¿sf]  ;'lglZrttf;lxtsf]  a} slNks lbuf]  pbfx/ 0f ! M s[lif -;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL_, dfgf} + Pp6f ufpFdf dfly pNn] lvt gjLs/ 0fLo phf{, kmf] x/ d} nfsf]  lbuf]  w] / } h;f]  dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ePsf 5g\ k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf

17


t/  ToxfF Ps rf} yfO{ -@%%_ 3/ w'/ L o:tf 5g\, hxfF rkL{ /  ;'wfl/ Psf]  r'nf]  5}  g . h+un jf ;fd'bflos jgaf6 c?n]  yfxf gkfpg]  u/ L ?v jf a'6f sf6] /  NofO{ bfp/ f agfpg]  /  To;} n]  vfgf ksfpg]  ul/ G5  . afnaflnsfsf nflu ;fFemdf k9\g, n] Vg jf v] Ng cfaZos kg] { pHofnf]  -aQL_ sf]  Joa:yf ul/ Psf]  5} g . s] xL 3/ df eg]  dl6\6t] nsf]  6'sL jf nfnl6g aflnG5 . To:tf]  ufpFnfO{ Osf]  len]  h dfGg ;lsG5 < o;sf]  l;wf hjfkm x'G5 ==;ls+b} g . Tof]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h agfpg s]  s]  sfd ug'{ kb{5 xf] nf < xfdLn]  ;f] rf} + /  atfcf} +  . pbfx/ 0f @ M dfgf} + Pp6f ufpFdf dfly pNn] lvt w] / } h;f]  dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ePsf 5g\ t/  ToxfF Ps rf} yfO{ -@%%_ hlt 3/ w'/ Ln]  v] taf/ Ldf / f;folgs dn, /  f;folgs laiffbL /  gk'+;s aLpx¿sf]  k|of] u ul/ / x] sf 5g\  . ljiffbLo'Qm vfB pTkfbg ahf/  df nu] /  a] Rb5g\ /  / fd|}  wgfh{g ul/ / x] sf 5g\  . t/  w] / } h;f]  3/ df rkL{ /  ;'wfl/ Psf]  r'nf]  5} g . To:tf]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h dfGg ;lsG5 < o;sf]  l;wf hjfkm x'G5 ==;ls+b} g . 18

Tof]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h agfpg s]  s]  sfd ug'{ kb{5 xf] nf < xfdLn]  ;f] rf} + /  5nkmn u/ f} + . pbfx/ 0f # M dfgf} + Pp6f ufpFdf dfly pNn] lvt w] / } h;f]  dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ePsf 5g\ t/  ToxfF bzdf Ps -!)%_ 3/  w'/  Ldf dlxnfdfly lalaw lx+;f x'g]  u/ ] sf]  5  . 3/ leqsf]  ;a}  lg0f{o k'?ifn]  dfq ug] { kl/ kf6L 5 . 3/ sf]  ;|f]  t Joj:yfkg, cfly{s pkfh{g, /  vr{;DaGwL s'g}  klg lg0f{o ubf{ dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;l/ s u/ fOFb} g  . To:tf]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h dfGg ;lsG5 < o;sf]  l;wf hjfkm x'G5 ==;ls+b} g  . Tof]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h agfpg s]  s]  sfd ug'{ kb{5 xf] nf < xfdLn]  ;f] rf} + /  atfcf} +  . pbfx/ 0f $ M dfgf} + Pp6f ufpFdf dfly pNn] lvt w] / } h;f]  dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ePsf 5g\ t/  Toxf“ bzdf Ps 3/ w'/ Ldf -!)%_ afnaflnsfdfly lalaw lje] b e} / x] sf]  5  . s] xL 3/ w'/ Ln]  afnaflnsfnfO{ :s'n k7fpFb} gg\ a? ufO{afv|f r/ fpg k7fpF5g\ . s;} n]  5f] / LnfO{ csf{sf]  leQf 6fNg]  hft eGb}  :s'n k7fp+b} gg\ t/  5f] / f] n] 

k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf


d/ ] kl5 j} t/ 0fL tf5{ eg] /  :s'n ;d'bfosf]  l;h{gf ug] {, k7fpF5g\ . s] xL 3/ w'/ Ln]  cfˆgf] k'/ fgf]  • kl/ jf/ b] lv ufpF;Dd ;a}  k/ Dk/ fnfO{ k5\ofP/  afnlaafx ul/  k|sf/  sf lg0f{ox¿ ;fd"lxs lbg]  jf !$ aif{d'lgsf 5f] / fx¿nfO{ ¿kdf dfq ug] {, wgfh{gsf nflu ef/  t k7fpg]  • Osf] len] hleq x'g}  ;a}  k|sf/ sf ub{5g\ . ;Nofgsf s] xL ufla;x¿df åGåx¿sf]  Joj:yfkg ufpFleq}  o:tf unt Jojxf/  x¿ cfh klg laz]  if ;+/  rgf -;fd'bflos e} / x] sf]  s'/ f k|sfzdf cfPsf 5g\  . dWo:ytf ;ldlt_ dfkm{t oL Jojxf/ nfO{ xfd|f]  sfg'gn]  ;d] t kLl8td'vL Gofo k4lt cg'¿k jGb] h nufPsf]  5 . t/  k/ Dk/ f /  ug] {, ;+:s[ltsf gfddf afnaflnsfdfly • Osf] len] hleq sfo{/ t lalaw o:tf lje] bx¿ sfod}  5g\ . To:tf]  ;d"x, Sna, ;xsf/ L /  ;fdflhs ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h dfGg ;lsG5 < ahf/ x¿sf]  sfo{;DaGwL lawfg, o;sf]  l;wf hjfkm x'G5 ==;ls+b} g . d'No, dfGotf /  ahf/  efp tyf Tof]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h agfpg s– C0f /  Aofh;DaGwL Joa:yf s;n]  s]  s]  sfd ug'{ kb{5 xf] nf < d'n'sdf k|rlnt sfg'gsf]  xfdLn]  5nkmn u/ f} + /  atfcf} +  . bfo/ fleq / xL Osf] len] hsf ;Dk"0f{ ;b:ox¿sf]  ;xeflutfdf cWoogn]  s]  b] vfPsf]  5 eg]  lgwf{/ 0f ug] { /  To;sf]  kfngf w] / } h;f]  Osf] len] hx¿sf]  ;aeGbf ug] {, 7"nf]  r'gf} lt eg] sf]  Osf] len] hsf ;b:ox¿n]  ;a} ;Fu ldn] /  a:g, Ps • d"n k|jfxsf]  cy{tGqaf6 :jtGq csf{nfO{ ;Ddfg /  dfof u/ L ldn] /  :yfgLo :jfjnDaL cy{tGqsf]  sfd ug{ l;Sg' g}  xf]  . o; ;DaGwdf lasf; ug{ k|oTg/  t /  xg]  . lgDglnlvt ;jfnx¿ dxŒjk"0f{ 5g\ o;sf lgldQ ;DalGwt laifosf la1x¿;Fu Osf] len] hsf pBdL • xfd|f] k/Dk/fut ;fdflhs o'jf, dlxnf /  k|f} 9 ;b:ox¿n]  dfGotf cg'?k Ps csf{nfO{ sfo{zfnf u/ L :yfgLo :jfjnDaL uf/ f] ;f/ f]  kbf{ ;xof]u / x] / larf/  cy{tGqsf]  pko'Qm gd'gf lasf; ug] { tyf ;|f] tx¿sf]  cfbfgk|bfg ug] { /  To;sf]  k|rf/  k|;f/  ug] {  . ug]  { dfGotf /  Jojxf/  ePsf]  k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf

19


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