The ELECTRICAL ENGINEER ABOUT THE COVER: This issue features the recently concluded annual national convention and the first Power Quality Regional Conference hosted by the APQI Philippines
Fourth Quarter 2012
Table of Contents
from the office of the National President
Under IIEE spotlight
• The 37th Annual National Convention & 3E XPO 2012 • Inaguration of the new IIEE Building • Officers Turn Over Ceremonies • Disaster Preparedness and Risk Mitigation Forum
cover story Power Quaiity
• Product Assessment of Copper Clad Aluminum (Part 3)
PUP research champs IIEE National Research again
2012 IIEE Board of Governors and Officers National President VP-Internal Affairs VP-External Affairs VP-Technical Affairs National Secretary National Treasurer National Auditor Governor-Northern Luzon Governor-Central Luzon Governor-Metro Manila Governor-Southern Luzon Governor-Bicol Governor-Western Visayas Governor-Eastern/Central Visayas Governor-Northern Mindanao Governor-Southern Mindanao Governor-Western Mindanao Immediate Former President Executive Director
Jules S. Alcantara Gregorio R. Cayetano Alex C. Cabugao Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban Larry C. Cruz Florigo C. Varona Angel V. De Vera, Jr. Ronaldo G. Lamaroza Virgilio S. Luzares Eusebio A. Gonzales Jozane F. Jalbuena Edwin G. Parañal Cirilo C. Calibjo Federico C. Mercado Remegio B. Gonzales Benjamin A. Arboso Richard O. Lizardo Armando R. Diaz Ramon P. Ayaton
IIEE National Secretariat Department Heads Administrative Technical Marketing Membership
Niellisa Joy B. Bandong Ma. Elena U. Liongson Allen M. Pido Marjorie Aguinaldo-Muñoz
Publications Committee Chairman: Vice Chairman: Members: Overseer:
Rolito C. Gualvez Ronald Vincent M. Santiago Ernesto M. Cabral Marvin H. Caseda Glynn Andy O. Gayman Dr. Allan C. Nerves Roland P. Vasquez Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban
The ELECTRICAL ENGINEER The Electrical Engineer is published quarterly by the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE), with editorial and business offices at #41 Monte de Piedad St., Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines. Tel Nos. (632) 722-7383, 7273552, 412-5772, 414-5626, Fax Nos. (632) 721-6442 & 410-1899. Website: www.iiee.org.ph, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The present circulation of the magazine is 33,000 copies per issue to members and industry stakeholders. The Electrical Engineer Editorial Board Chairperson Editor-in-Chief Associate Editor: Technical Consultant: Administrative Officer:
Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban Rolito C. Gualvez Ronald Vincent M. Santiago Dr. Allan C. Nerves Ramon P. Ayaton
Advertising and Marketing Account Executive
Joan Q. Delos Santos 727-3552 loc. 101 410-189
1st Regional PQ Conference One of the vital elements that affect the productivity of manufacturing industries is power quality. It is a major concern of various stakeholders in this modern society. New equipments, machineries and gadgets are continuously being developed to improve the lives of the common people, and to improve the operation towards industrial innovation. In line with the objectives of improving the power quality in the industries through creating awareness, determining the roots of problems of power quality, and building capacity on technical, financial and managerial knowledge of power quality solutions, the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE), Asia Power Quality Initiative (APQI), International Copper Association (ICA) and Europen Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines, co-organized the 1st Power Quality Asia Conference with the theme, “Power Quality & Energy Efficiency: A Solution to Climate Change” last November 14 to 17, 2012at the SMX Convention Center. This activity is the first regional event hosted by the APQI with speakers coming from the US, Europe and other Asian countries. It strengthens the bond among the member Asian countries of APQI through the sharing of best country practices through various technical presentations. Furthermore, the activity showcases the involvement of energy efficiency and power quality in dealing with climate change.
---The Electrical Engineer Editorial Board
iews or opinions expressed by the authors of letters, articles and research studies published in The Electrical Engineer DO NOT necessarily reflect the views of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE). The IIEE trusts the integrity of these authors. The IIEE exercises due diligent review but it is possible that the contents of the articles contributed may not be verified due to time constraints. Articles or visual materials may not be reproduced without written consent from IIEE. The IIEE reserves the right to accept or refuse submitted materials for publication. Articles, reactions and feedback from readers may be sent through e-mail at email@example.com.
from the office of the National President
2012 IIEE NATIONAL
2012 IIEE National President
Engr. Jules S. Alcantara
1. Implementation of the Amended Constitution and By Laws During the recently concluded 37th Annual National Convention, the IIEE members witnessed the election and induction of the new 2013 Board of Governors, including the regional governors for the two newly created regions of the Institute: (1) Metro Manila and (2) Western Mindanao. 2. Construction of Phase 1 of the New Building Project of IIEE Last December 14, 2012, coinciding with the Turn Over Ceremonies and Officers’ Christmas Party, the Institute inaugurated the five storey building that will host the secretariat office, additional training and conference rooms, technical document center, library space and business offices. 3. Improving the Services to Members Fourteen (14) chapters were given the Chapter Excellence Awards during the 37th Annual National Convention held in SMX Convention Center. The awardees were recognized for their dedication and unselfish service to the members and the community. The metrics used in the evaluation were those in the four (4) perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard for Chapters. Early this year, the IIEE National Secretariat likewise has its own targets in their Balanced Scorecard with the end in mind of further improving their services to the IIEE members. In the process, they were able to identify areas that need improvement such as the need for various trainings and seminars for the IIEE Secretariat’s professional development. The analysis of actual 2012 performance versus targets is now an on-going activity to be completed by mid-January 2013. 4. Improvement of IIEE Process The 2nd of ISO External Surveillance for Quality Management was held last December 7, 2012 by the Certification International, IIEE’s certifying body. The IIEE Manual of Approvals, Manual of Accounting and the updated Manual of Operations were already published and distributed during the national convention. These will serve as guides for the officers and members in the IIEE processes to attain and sustain corporate good governance in IIEE. For this year, the Institute came up with the Membership On-line Registration and E-Card System (MORE System) - an online registration system for the conferences and conventions of the Institute. This system enhanced the registration system during the recently concluded 37th Annual National Convention eliminating the usual long lines during registration and distribution of Certificates of Participation. 5. Expansion of Information Dissemination through the effective use of the Internet, the IIEE Website and community works; For this year, the Institute enhanced the IIEE Website through the updating of the activities conducted by the different local and foreign chapters, the accomplishment of the IIEE Committees, technical articles, downloadable magazines, list of expiring membership status of members and list of members whose ballots were not delivered and thus returned to sender. The Institute also established its own Facebook page administered by the Vice President for Technical Affairs that serves as an additional communication channel to the members. Community works were done for the youths in rehab in Cebu to enlighten them on the possibilities of careers in electrical technology and for them to see hope that a better life is available for them and that to realize this depends on what they decide and act on opportunities presented.
6. Promotion to Safety, Energy Efficiency, Power Quality Advocacies through Joint Efforts and Cooperation with other organizations and groups. The Institute developed a strong partnership with various government, private and industry sectors in 2012. Among of these are the Department of Energy (DOE), National Electrification Administration (NEA), International Copper Association (ICA) and other electric utilities. The first Power Quality Asia Conference was successfully conducted last November 14-17, 2012 at the SMX Convention Center, organized by the IIEE, Asia Power Quality Initiative (APQI), International Copper Association (ICA) and European Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines. This international conference focused on power quality and energy efficiency and its involvement to solve climate change. A recent application for a grant was submitted to the European Commission and SWITCH-Asia project to promote sustainable energy consumption and production with the goal of increasing the uptake of High Efficiency Motors and Drive systems in Philippine Industries. 7. Enhancing the Skills of the IIEE Members and Students and Future Master Electricians; The 37th Annual National Convention and 3E Xpo was successfully held last November 14 to 17, 2012 at the SMX Convention Center. This event aimed to provide the professional technical advancement of the members and also to inform them on the latest innovations in the electrical power industry. Almost 3000 delegates and 125 exhibitors participated in the event. The Institute also participated with the Philippine Technological Council in the implementation of the Washington Accord – an international agreement that recognizes substantial equivalence in the accreditation of qualifications in professional engineering tertiary education. An Electricians’ Academy is also to be put up by IIEE and its chapters with the aim of training barangay and unregistered electricians to become registered master electricians. 8. IIEE advocacy on preparedness in response to the effects of climate change and to disasters like earthquakes, typhoons and floods During the recently concluded 37th Annual National Convention, the Meralco Power Academy and IIEE spearheaded a presentation and forum on Disaster Preparedness and Risk Mitigation last November 15, 2012. This was attended by more than 2,000 delegates from various power industries nationwide who listened to the excellent and interesting presentations of the various leaders and experts in climate change and risk mitigation. Our country’s pride and Miss Universe-Philippines 2011, Ms. Shamcey G. Supsup, graced the occasion. The Institute also responded on the needs of our brothers and sisters from the South who were affected by the onslaught of Super Typhoon Pablo as much as IIEE responded to the victims of typhoon Sendong. IIEE’s main thrust after the initial assistance is the inspection and restoration of electricity to the flooded buildings, churches and houses. The various IIEE chapters in Northern Mindanao and Southern Mindanao were tasked on these noble undertakings.
37th Annual National Convention November 14-17, 2012
Under the IIEE Spotlight
3E XPO 2012 November 14-15, 2012
... iiee spotlight 4th QUARTER 2012
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Under the IIEE Spotlight
Inauguration of the New IIEE Building & Officer’s Turn Over Ceremonies December 14, 2012
BLESSING AND INAUGURATION OF THE NEW IIEE ANNEX BUILDING The Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE) takes a leap higher as it inaugurated the 5-storey Annex Building at its main office in Cubao, Quezon City last December 14, 2012. Construction of the new building started last March 14, 2012 and was built to accommodate the continuous growth in the institute’s activities and membership, member benefits, social responsibility programs and additional personnel services of the institution. It is located besides the existing IIEE building, on a 117sq m lot acquired in July 13, 1998. This new asset provides additional office space and training rooms, a technical document center, space for an extended library, dormitory for out-of-town IIEE members who wish to avail of low-cost temporary accommodation and additional function rooms. Honored to be the ceremony’s Guest of Honor, Dr. Francisco L. Viray - former Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) and current President and CEO of PHINMA Corporation - delivered his speech before the IIEE officers, members, staff and guests who graced this occasion. He acknowledged the zeal of the institution’s constituents, building on the contributions of the former IIEE officers, which continues to spin the wheels towards a robust professional organization since the date of its conception in 1975 and since his term as the IIEE National President in 1992. Joining the ceremonial milestone are members of the Council of National Presidents (CNP), 2012 National President Jules S. Alcantara including members of the 2012 incumbent and 2013 elected Board of Governors, and Hon. Jaime V. Mendoza and Hon. Francis V. Mapile from the Board of Electrical Engineering. Also present to witness the event were members of the Ladies Auxiliary, committee chairmen and members, exhibitors, clients and contractors.
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Under the IIEE Spotlight
Meralco Power Academy and IIEE Host Advocacy on Disaster Preparedness & Risk Mitigation
Ibetter n support of the 37th IIEE Annual National Convention theme on building a safe and nation, Meralco Power Academy (MPA), together with IIIEE spearheaded a program on Disaster Preparedness and Risk Mitigation. The special plenary session was attended by over 2,000 electrical practitioners, managers, leaders and academe from various power industry players all over the country.
Key resource speakers presented the risk and vulnerabilities of the Philippines and what are the ways to mitigate or adapt to these natural hazards. The event was truly very informative and provided the delegates various knowledge on the country's vulnerability, climate change, weather pattern, seismic hazards, building/infrastructure conditions and urban planning. Afterwards, the speakers shared their experiences and ongoing programs to address these risks.
Mr. Ramon B. Segismundo, Head of Meralco Human Resources set the tone by highlighting the countryâ€™s risk level. (Bottom Left Photo)
Dr. Esperanza O. Cayanan of PAGASA-DOST presented the Weather Hazards, Trends and Climate Change. (Bottom Right Photo)
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Under the IIEE Spotlight
Dr. Renato U. Solidum Jr. of PHIVOLCS discussed the Seismic Hazards and Earthquake Map of the country.
Arch. Felinio A. Palafox Jr. of Palafox and Associates presented his recommendation and ideal urban masterplan to address and adapt to these environment hazards. The presentation culminated with a coffee table discussion where other special guests nsmely Ms. Susan M. Cruz of NCR-Office of Civil Defense shared the national disaster prevention plan, Mr. Jaime U. Paguio of CEPALCO on their recent experience on Typhoon Sendong and Engr. Rodolfo N. Ferrer of IIEE on the call for action message to the electrical engineering practitioners. This affair was moderated by Ms. Kiara B. Abaño and Mr. Eugene F. Araullo of the Meralco Power Academy together with Ms. Shamcey Supsup, Meralco’s Ambassador of light.
Dr. Benito M. Pacheco of UP Research and Development discussed on Ways to Mitigate the Risks on our Building Structure/Facilities
The ELECTRICAL ENGINEER BULLETIN
The Electrical Engineer, our quarterly magazine would like to feature technical articles and views submitted by professionals from the different Regions and its Chapters.
With this, we would like all Regional Governors to coordinate with their respective Chapters the submission of technical articles and views that is intended to be featured in “The Electrical Engineer “. We would appreciate it if you would send your submissions through email at firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com on or before the 15th of each month. For further queries regarding the matter, you may coordinate with our Publications Staff, Ms. Edith Lasin at Telephone Nos. (02) 727-3552 loc. 107; (02) 448-5211.
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POWER QUALITY IN MODERN SOCIETY W
ith the continuous innovation and fast-paced technological development, power quality is one of the major concerns of the modern society towards economic growth and development. Various fields of industries and commercial manufacturers continue to invent and create electrical machines and gadgets to sustain the needs of productivity and bring innovation in human lives.
Power Quality According to Wikepedia, “Power Quality determines the fitness of electrical power to consumer devices“. This term is used to describe the capability of electric power to drive electric loads and the ability of these loads to function properly. Several factors determine power quality such as the quality of voltage, the flow of energy through the wiring system and the system’s complexity from its point of production to the point of consumption by the end users. Furthermore, the quality of power supply can be compromised with variations from the weather, generation, demand and other related factors.
Power Quality in the Industry The need for efficient power quality is a major concern of the electrical power industry and the government nowadays. It is said to be vital in determining the productivity and operation’s efficiency of the manufacturing industry. Efficient power quality paves a way to maximize the productivity of electrical devices and equipments used by the manufacturers and by the common people. The increase in population requires an efficient electrical supply to support the common day to day activities of people that requires electricity. The labor sector relies on reliable electricity supply to maximize the efficiency of its people. According to the article, Electricity Demand, “full employment, a worthy objective, will require
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more electricity.” Workforce population in industry or commerce needs reliable electricity supply; and these population also spend their earnings on goods and services that need electricity (published in http://www. magma.ca/~jalrober/Chapter6c.htm) .
Power Quality Problem Electric devices nowadays can be too sensitive to poor power quality. This is known as the power quality problem which was defined in the article ‘Power Quality’ by BC Hydro Power Smart as the “occurrences manifested as a non-standard voltage, current or frequency that results in a failure of end use of equipment”. According to Omer GUL, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul in his article, ‘An Assessment of Power Quality and Electricity Consumer’s Right in Restructured Electricity Market in Turkey’, “the most common poor power quality problems are interruptions, voltage dips and harmonics, every single problem causes different economical losses on the same facility”. In the absence of proper and sufficient electrical power supply, an electrical device used by most manufacturers and by the common people may malfunction or worse, stop its operation. In an article ‘The Importance of Good Power Quality by Dr. Kurt Schipman, and Dr. François Delincé ABB Power Quality Products, Belgium’, “the example of total financial loss per incident due to power quality incidents in Semiconductors production sector has reached to 3800000 €.”
Electricity and Economic Development Electric power is considered as a key element of the socalled “Second Industrial Revolution” of the last quarter or so of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th Century (Rosenberg, 1998, published in The Energy Journal).
Cover Story Efficient electrical supply is necessary to support the economic growth of a certain country. The industry and other key indicators of economic development need electric power to comply with the demands of growing population and to be able sustain the efficiency of its operation. According to the article The Value of Electricity, “the growth in electricity use has tracked growth in the United States gross domestic product (GDP)”. (published in http://www.getenergyactive.org/value/economy.htm). Various studies that were conducted estimate the causality relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth using the Granger causality test.
Government and Other Organization on Power Quality The government established the Republic Act 9136, known as the “Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations that mandates the creation of the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC). The act aims to rationalize the power industry to operate at high efficiency, reliability and quality in cost effective manner thereby making electricity available to end-users at affordable prizes. In May 2009, the Asia Power Quality Initiative (APQI) was launched in the Philippines to “create awareness and determine the roots of problems in line with power quality and to build capacity on technical, financial and managerial knowledge of power solutions”. With an aim of benchmarking the present situation and to increase the awareness of industries with regards to power quality problems in the country, moreover, to establish solutions to deal with the power quality problems in the society, the International Copper Association commissioned the Asia Power Quality Initiatives to conduct the PQ Loss Survey. The survey is also aimed at developing a knowledge base on industrial power quality concerns such as causes and effects of power quality disturbances and premium power options preferred by industrial customers.
based on facts and figures gathered; and (2) 1st Regional Power Quality Conference in Asia held last November 1417, 2012 at the SMX Convention Center. The 1st Regional Power Quality Conference with the theme, Power Quality & Energy Efficiency: A Solution to Climate Change, was co-organized by the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE), APQI, International Copper Association (ICA) and Europen Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines. This activity aimed to further understand the importance of power quality situations and the practical solutions of power quality problems. It also aimed to develop closer ties among the other APQI country members in the industry. Various well-known speakers who came from the United States, Europe and other Asian countries shared their country’s best practices. The conference featured various topics such as the Overview of Power Quality and Energy Efficiency, APQI country members’ report and presentations and Power Quality Solutions.
APQI Philippines is composed of various stakeholders with the following programs: (1) PQ Loss Survey – Benchmarking survey to determine the current power quality situation in the country and to develop strategies
4th QUARTER 2012
THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER
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PRODUCT ASSESSMENT OF COPPER CLAD ALUMINUM By Engr. Feldimir D. Siao, REE, EE, MTM
Part 3 – Issues and Concerns in Using CCA
b. Thermal Capability
After the CCA overview and review of the product standards, we shall now proceed to assessing CCA based on its technical, economic, market and environmental aspects. This section will primarily deal with the issues and concerns in CCA use.
Typically, we measure temperature rise as a determining factor of equipment capacity; a lower temperature rise means there is additional safety factor for possible overloads. Copper conductor exhibits lower temperature rise than CCA for the same current (see Figure 14). Pure copper – Full specs
TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT Evaluating the merits of CCA as a conductor considers mainly the electrical and physical properties as well as its relationship with other components of an electric system. The factors considered in the technical assessment are as follows:
Pure copper – 10% under specs
a. Wire Ampacity
With reference to the Philippine Electrical Code Part 1, the ampacity of copper-clad aluminum wire is equivalent to that of an aluminum wire. Thus, its equivalent copper wire is one metric size lower (or in American Wire Gauge, it would be two gauges lower). Let’s take for example typical home wirings of not more than three currentcarrying conductors in a raceway for THHN/THWN insulated wires rated at 90°C: Wire Size
Aluminum / CCA
*Minimum wire size for aluminum or copper-clad aluminum wire is 2 mm in diameter or 3.5 mm2 crosssectional area.
Figure 14: Thermographic images of three different cables all sold as 4-gauge audio cables and measured under identical test conditions at Cogent Audio Labs done by Car Audio and Electronics Staff.
c. Advantages and Disadvantages of CCA The main advantages of CCA would be its relative cost and light weight. Having an aluminum conductor coated with copper provides it the performance of copper with less corrosion and same connection compatibility and solderability. At high frequency and voltage, current flows on the outer edges of the conductor through skin effect thereby CCA acts similarly like pure copper. CCA disadvantages come from those inherent characteristics of aluminum such as creep, brittleness, and higher resistance. With majority of the cable composition still aluminum, creep takes its toll on connections wherein gaps may form due to the expansion and contraction of the wire. There could be flaw in the manufacture of the wire in terms of its concentricity and uniformity of the copper
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Technical Feature clad thickness. Also, wire breaking typically happens during manufacturing due to its brittleness. Thus, care should be taken during installation to avoid breaking the wire during pulling, bending, termination and connection. Lesser conductor strands means lesser current capacity. High resistance of CCA would mean higher loss and more heating compared to the same copper wire size. d. Termination and Connection Means Being the available conductor during the start of the electric industry, copper enjoys the privilege of being the standard. Connectors and terminations are designed based on the characteristics of copper. Thus, when aluminum wires were used in the US in 1960â€™s and 1970â€™s, it caused problems on the connections and terminations that started many fires. Terminations such as those for outlets and switches should be marked CO/ALR, which means that such device has complied with the stringent heat-cycling requirements for suitability in their use with aluminum, copper and copper-clad aluminum wires. However, locally available convenience outlets and switches have no CO/ ALR markings on them and most are designed purely for copper conductors (shown in Figure 15).
e. Corrosion The bonding of copper and aluminum creates a condition where galvanic corrosion could occur. The copper coating could corrode the aluminum core due to the harsh Philippine environment with high humidity and presence of salt contaminations. Some terminal connecting means could damage the copper coating and expose the aluminum core. This portion then would corrode and increase contact resistance to some degree where it could cause electrical fire. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT Overall project cost of an electrical system determines which best wire/cable is to be used. Although wire or cable cost is the major cost component, other costs are included in the equation such as labor, tooling, ducting, connectors, terminations, convenience outlets, switches costs, etc. A project option may be evaluated with the lowest initial cost, but this may not be the best option once the entire project life is considered. This is where life cycle cost analysis becomes a favored decision making method to employ. CCA wires may cost much lower than copper wires but its higher conductor resistance would mean high operating costs due to line losses. Letâ€™s take for example a typical home electrical wiring for a small house with a 48 m2 floor area:
Figure 15: Sample of locally available outlets, and switches.
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Figure 16: Sample of 2-bedroom house plan with a total floor area of 48m2
Technical Feature Estimating the needed wires and corresponding cost and initial savings are: Copper Size, Cost/ mm2 m
CCA Size, Cost/ Unit Cost Length mm2 m Difference of Wire Savings
2.0 21.00 3.5 21.00 0.00 3.5 21.00 3.5 21.00 9.00 5.5 45.00 5.5 31.00 13.50
92 58 26 Total
0.00 522.00 351.00 873.00
Computing for the resistance at 60°C for the wires gives us:
Copper CCA in o Size, mm2 R@60 C Size, mm2 R@60oC Difference Resistance 2.0 10.3080 3.5 9.2907 -1.0172 3.5 6.5464 3.5 9.2907 2.7444 5.5 2.1227 5.5 5.4940 3.3713 Resistances are in ohm/km.
Here is an assumption of the following loads, its estimated number of hour usage per month and its respective distances from the panel box to compute their savings or additional line losses. Line Loss Load Wattage Usage Line Additional or hrs/mo Length Reduction Lighting (combined)
300 1000 180 500 15 300 180 80 80 180 120 120 225 15 1200 1000 1100 1100
40 40 360 45 60 420 360 120 120 360 150 90 120 60 60 30 180 180
10 10 10 4 4 4 20 16 26 26 14 18 26 26 30 8 14 20
0.00150 0.00499 0.00808 0.00112 0.00004 0.00629 0.01617 0.00192 0.00311 0.02102 0.00314 0.00243 0.00876 0.00029 0.02694 0.00299 0.03458 0.04940
Additional kWhr/mo Service Entrance (26 m line length) at 0.3 demand factor and 0.6 utilization factor
Washing Machine Flat iron Electric Fan Rice cooker Desk Lamp Ref (no frost) Electric Fan Electric Fan Electric Fan Electric Fan TV 21” TV 21” Computer Desk Lamp Vacuum Hair Dryer Aircon (0.75HP) Aircon (0.75HP)
Therefore, the total additional line losses is 0.60506 kWhr/mo, and say at 10 pesos per kWhr electricity cost, the initial savings is gone after 12 years. This is assuming that all costs are held constant. Compliance to the electrical code requires use of outlets and sockets that are marked with “CO/ALR”, which can be found on US brands. Most locally available outlets and sockets are designed for copper conductors only. Thus, using US brands of outlets and sockets would result in a higher overall project cost. MARKET ASSESSMENT CCA has significant market potentials for communication wires. The principle of skin effect makes CCA an ideal conductor for coaxial wires and low end LAN cables. The application of CCA as bus bars provides a low cost and lightweight alternative to copper with its excellent connection performance. It overcomes the oxidation problem with aluminum. However, the product produced should be with excellent copper and aluminum bonding, otherwise this could create a problem later with corrosion. CCA as an enameled wire could continuously be used for small motor, headphone coils and other electronic devices. As television and monitor industry sways to LCD technology from CRT technology, there would be fewer requirements as TV deflection and degaussing coils. It will not be used as winding for large motors and transformer mainly due to efficiency requirements. As power cables, it is dependent on the power industry. It will be commonly limited to small projects where cost is a major driver and copper connection performance is desired. However, distribution utilities are the major users of these power cables and for lower cost; these companies would opt to use pure aluminum power cables as an alternative to copper. Copper power cables are still the best option for high current capacity and ease in installation. For the same ampacity, cost advantage of aluminum power cables is reduced by the additional cost of insulating material needed due to its larger size. Its larger size would mean larger sized ducts, termination, and splicing kits that would increase the overall cost. Also, it is much easier to work with smaller cables than large cables.
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Technical Feature Utilization of CCA as building wires will have problems in getting the approval of many local electrical regulating bodies. It may be approved for use in underdeveloped countries but usage will be with restrictions. For the Philippines, CCA can be used similar to that of aluminum with ampacities equal to that of aluminum. CCA loses its cost advantage due to the next larger size requirement in comparison to the equivalent copper wire. Thus, entry of CCA into our local wires market would be possible through these methods: 1. Commercial promotions as same size replacement to copper conductors having the same ampacity with a 30 to 35% savings. 2. Misrepresentation of the wires by not following labeling requirements to identify that it is copper clad aluminum. 3. Mixing of several strands of CCA wires with copper wires in a stranded wire or cable. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Copper is a 100% recyclable material. It can be recycled over and over again without losing its chemical or physical properties. It is this recyclability that we are able to preserve this precious metal. CCA hampers the effective recycling of copper due to the following reasons:
and aluminum content in CCA cannot be separated thoroughly by fire refining due to their affinity. Also, there is no developed hydrometallurgical refining technology to completely separate the two metals. c. Contamination in Scrap Copper Refining Waste CCA wires can create huge losses to scrap copper recycling and refining business since the aluminum content of CCA could contaminate a batch of clean copper wire scraps resulting in a substandard production. Purity of the recycled batch will result to lower value. CONCLUSION Copper-clad aluminum is an aluminum conductor coated with copper to improve corrosion resistance and connection compatibility. Despite this, it still retains most of aluminum’s weakness such as brittleness, creep, and lower conductivity and strength than copper. During times when costs of basic materials become extremely high, it is natural to look for alternatives. Interest in the possible utilization of CCA takes stage when copper prices are high and such interest wanes when copper price drops. This type of cladded conductor is not new; it’s been available for over 40 years. CCA has found its application as a conductor taking advantage of the skin effect.
a. Difficulty in Retrieval of CCA Mixed with copper wires, it is difficult to distinguish CCA since it has the same appearance as that of pure copper wires. For bus bars and large diameter CCA wires it may be distinguished by looking at the cross sections. However, for thin CCA wires having same appearance with copperclad steel and pure copper wires, it will be extremely difficult and impractical to sort them out manually. Unlike copper-clad steel which can be separated by magnetic separation, there is no means of automatically separating CCA.
For utilization of CCA as building wires, the local market for the utilization of CCA is not ready. This is because most of the available electrical outlets and sockets in the market are designed for compatibility with copper conductors only. Cost of electrical outlets and sockets with “CO/ALR” are relatively higher, easily canceling initial savings with CCA wires. Its higher resistance also increases electricity cost due to line losses.
b. Separation of the Two Metals in CCA
Environmentally, CCA can create problems in the future concerning the effective recycling of copper unless advance methods of separating copper and aluminum can be developed.
The outer coating of CCA wire cannot be easily stripped away from its aluminum core. At present, the copper
For the electrical practitioner, the first and foremost objective is electrical safety, which is the main purpose
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Technical Feature of the profession. Electrical safety against fire hazards is ensured through adequate design, right selection of materials, proper installation and correct maintenance of the electrical facilities. The selection criteria for the conductor material should be:
Connection compatibility Oxide resistance Performance Preferred by Industry Environmentally Friendly Reliable and Safe
2. Bureau of Product Standards – DTI, Philippine National Standard, PNS 35-1 2004, Electric Wire and Cables Rated 600 volts – Part 1: General Specification 3. Bureau of Product Standards – DTI, Philippine National Standard, PNS 260 2004, Electric Wire and Cables – Annealed Copper Wires - Specifications 4. CAE Staff, The Difference between Copper and Copper Clad Aluminum Cable, Car Audio and Electronic Review, www.caraudiomag.com, July 21, 2010 5. Mirae Special Metal Co., Ltd., Company Profile and Copper-Clad Aluminum Product Catalog 6. Gemphil Special Metals, Inc., Copper-Clad Aluminum Atomic Bonding (CAAB) Company and Product Catalog
REFERENCES 1. Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, 2009 Philippine Electrical Code Part 1, Volume 1
7. C. Kun, Some Issues on the Application of CCA in Domestic Cable & Wire Industry, Shanghai Electrical Cable Research Institute (SECRI)
4th QUARTER 2012
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The different types of UPS systems
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IIEE national research win for PUP fourth top win on five years Oopps… Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP) did it again, for the third straight time!
By: Kaycee B. Victorio and Marita S. Barrientos
Another group of electrical engineering students from PUP, once again, bagged the championship title in the recently concluded Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines (IIEE) National Research Contest, November 14. It is the third-straight win for PUP and fourth time to clinch the top award since the contest began in 2007.
This year’s competition listed five finalists from different universities and colleges all over the country. University of Mindanao took home the second place, followed by Technological Institute of the Philippines Manila and Rizal Technological University which tied for third place. All finalists were exhibited in the Expo 2012 in the SMX Convention Center Exhibition Hall from November 14-17.
The team presented the project Design and Development of Economical Adapted Called the Phantom Load Blocker for Selected Household Appliances. The research focused on the elimination of the standby-power on electrical and electronic devices left plugged on convenience outlet.
IIEE National Research Contest is spearheaded by the IIEE’s Academic Affairs Committee. The Contest was also held at the SMX Convention Center, in conjunction with the 37th IIEE Annual National Convention.
The team is composed of Danny V. Dela Cruz, Jason Christopher M. Loyola, Ben Altru P. Manabat and Syrile P. Pascual. Other members of the team are Michael S. Abalos, Aileen DT. Caritero and Allan M. Mejia. Retired Department of Electrical Engineering Chair Cesar C. Buenavides, EE Laboratory Head Faustino R. Rural and EE Instructor Kristian Carlo B. Victorio served as advisers. PUP got high marks from the panel of judges composed of Allan Bacudo from Department of Energy, Pablo Acuin, Department of Science and Technology and Rhoniel Caringal, Manila Electric Company. Caringal commented that the project must be patented immediately after the competition. This is the fourth IIEE research title for the PUP since its first win during the 2008 contest with an energy source from sodium hydroxide-mix batteries. It was later followed with a first-runner up finish the following year for an electric fishing apparatus. PUP made big come-back during the 2010 contest with the Urine-to-Energy Converting Attachment for Metro Manila Development Authority urinals. Another top prize followed in 2011 with Pasig River sediments-to –energy project that is projected to illuminate the Manila’s famous river line.
The PUP Champion Team and EE professors pose with the members of the IIEE National Research Contest panel of judges and Academic Affairs Committee. (L-R) Pablo Acuin, Department of Science and Technology; Allan Bacudo, Department of Energy; Jayson Francisco, PUP EE Instructor; Jason Christopher M. Loyola; Ben Altru P. Manabat, Danny V. Dela Cruz; Syrile P. Pascual; Adviser Faustino R. Rural; RhonielCaringal, Manila Electric Company; IIEE Academic Affairs Chairman Ronald Vincent M. Santiago of Mapua Institute of Technology. Photo credits from JerjohnRoiTesorio (EE IV/PUP).
4th QUARTER 2012
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