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NEW LONDON ARCHITECTURE

1. GROW UP LONDON 2050

CHAPTER 1: There’s NO PLACE BUT TO GO UP

There’s NO PLACE TO GO BUT UP. Follow us on twitter @GrowUp2050


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The City of London’s footprint isn’t getting any bigger. In order to keep pace with the demand created by continued growth, The City must Grow Up. If we assume that the spatial strategy for The City remains unchanged, and the area of office space grows by around 12 million square feet in the next 15 years alone, then there really is only one direction to head, and that’s up. The City of London is a powerhouse within the UK economy. The current level of total economic activity generated within The City represents around 3.1% of the total Gross Value Added (GVA) to the UK economy as a whole. Focusing on the GVA of the Financial and Professional Services sectors alone, activity in The City accounts for 19.3% of the total in the UK. Despite, or perhaps because of the current crises in the Eurozone, The City will continue to be a safe haven for the Financial and Business Services sector globally. Over the next twenty years, total employment in The City is predicted to rise by 17% from 373,000 in 2011 (approximately 7.8% of the total employment of Greater London) to around 435,000 in 2031 (around 8% of Greater London).

Offices are the single largest use of space in The City, accounting for around 70% of all floorspace. The continued growth in City employment levels, particularly in the Financial and Business Services sectors which are responsible for 78% of all employment in The City, means that demand for high quality, sustainable office space will continue to grow. Estimates show that approximately 12,400,000 square feet (1,150,000 square metres) of office space will be added to City stock levels between 2011 and 2026 alone. Around 50-60% of that will be tall buildings in the Eastern Cluster. As The City of London grows up, it must evolve into a greener city, an attractive destination for business and leisure that accommodates different ways of working by providing a range of environments that form part of a seamlessly connected urban realm.

TIMELINE

Timeline data showing the growing city, the increase in public realm and the environmental shifts that provides the opportunity to grow up.

1945

2000

2026

2050

HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS PUBLIC OPEN SPACE AIR POLLUTION WASTE RECYCLING/REUSE BUILDING ENERGY USAGE CYCLING/WALKING COMMUTER JOURNEYS


CHAPTER 1: There’s NO PLACE BUT TO GO UP

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1960UP 2050 Previous, Current, Proposed and Potential Future Developments of the buildings in The City of London


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CHAPTER 1: There’s NO PLACE BUT TO GO UP

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THE SPACE TO GROW

NEW LONDON ARCHITECTURE


NEW LONDON ARCHITECTURE

1945

2000

2026

2050

Aggregating small land parcels into larger scale development sites that are capable of accommodating tall buildings, creates the opportunity to introduce new public realm by pulling the building back from the boundary, and by introducing pathways through the site. As new development occurs, particularly in the Eastern Cluster, the amount of landscaped urban space must increase.

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LEGEND Listed buildings Conservation area New public realm


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2. dense (city) CHAPTER 2: dense (CITY)

a tale of two dense (cities)


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if 70% of the population growth occurs in the eastern cluster, then the new public open space provided to address this growth and the deficit is equivalent to 6 football pitches by 2026.... ...and a further 9 football pitches by 2050...

...just to provide the same level of open space that the rest of the city enjoys.

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While the historic core must remain intact, the Eastern Cluster will continue its journey skywards. Currently, the overall area of open space in The City is insufficient to cope as the number of people grows. In the Eastern Cluster, which has even less public realm than The City average, creating new space must be a priority if regular congestion and overcrowding is to be avoided. The City has the highest density of public transport anywhere in the UK. The delivery of Crossrail and Thameslink in 2018, and major ongoing improvements to the underground system through to 2020, will radically increase the number of people flowing into The City at any time. The City’s network of over 150 small public spaces will therefore need to grow. Currently there is a ratio of 0.06 hectares of open space for every 1000 workers, but to accommodate the projected growth in employment out to 2031, the area of open space will need to increase by at least 5.6 hectares simply in order to maintain the current ratio. Beyond 2031, as the population continues to grow, further space will need to be created.

44%

51%

48%

41% 18%

CHAPTER 2: dense (CITY)

2012

31%

2026

2050

Percentage of the city’s total public realm and population that is in the eastern cluster


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outside view corridor

The diagram shows all completed and permitted buildings in The City in excess of 75 metres in height, as well as describing the scale of potential development required to meet the space needs of future employment growth.

local views

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150m + completed/under construction 150m + permitted 150m + potential future development 100m - 150m completed/under construction 100m - 150m permitted 100m + potential future development 75m - 100m completed/under construction 75m - 100m permitted 75m + potential future development

PROVISION OF PUBLIC SPACE PROVIDES THE SETTING FOR INCREASED HEIGHT 20 FENCHURCH

LEADENHALL

SWISS RE

PINNACLE

heron tower

HEIGHT TO OPEN SPACE ratios

100 bishopsgate

1:18

1:25

1:13

1:17

1:11

1:12

Metres of height: SQUARE METRES OF PUBLIC REALM While this appears to be a significant challenge, new tall buildings can actually aid in creating public realm by delivering urban space that relates sympathetically to the human scale on the ground plane, while addressing the needs of development economics.


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3. THE GREEN CITY

NARROWER BUILDINGS INCREASE DAYLIGHT PENETRATION AT STREET LEVEL

NARROWER BUILDINGS INCREAS DAYLIGHT PENETRATION AT STREET LEVEL

TREES & GREEN SPACE HELP > AIR QUALITY > NATURAL SHADE/COOLING > ATTENUATE RAINFALL

CHAPTER 3: THE GREEN CITY

ELECTRIC/HYDROGEN PUBLIC TRANSPORT & PRT TAXIS EXISTING ROADS & SERVICES


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DISTRICT COOLING FREES UP ROOF SPACE FOR GREEN SPACE & LOCAL FOOD GROWTH CLOUD COMPUTING REDUCES BUILDING ENERGY DEMANDS, HEAT GAINS AND INCREASES MOBILITY

SE

THINNER ADVANCED LOW ENERGY FACADES PERMIT ALL GLASS BUILDING THAT ALLOWS DAYLIGHT IN/VIEWS OUT

SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE TALLER SPACE FOR CYCLISTS & PEDESTRIANS

LOW CARBON ELECTRICITY PLOT WIDTH

DISTRICT HEATING & COOLING NETWORK

CLEAN ENERGY


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WASTE

Currently, we recycle the bulk of our waste where recycling schemes exist. This is relatively easy for things like paper, cans, bottles and some types of plastic. Many products, however, are not designed with end-of-life in mind and therefore it can be difficult to separate out all of the different materials to reuse or recycle them.

CHAPTER 3: THE GREEN CITY

Unlike in the past, we do not design products to be repaired or mended to extend their life. We design for disposability. Many obsolete products like this and other waste that cannot be recycled usually ends up in landfill sites, with a small amount of kitchen waste being composted. Waste in The City is collected by a number of private contractors in diesel vehicles, leading to repeated and unnecessary journeys. Waste is then transported to landfill sites and recycling centres by road. The City of London also collects waste, adding to the number of collection vehicles on the roads. This waste is often transported by barge from Walbrook Wharf on the Thames.

In 2050, designers will take far greater notice of how products can be designed for disassembly at the end of their lives, since manufacturers are compelled to ensure products are disposed of responsibly. In addition to the large scale recycling and reuse of these materials as well as traditionally recycled products, all food and kitchen waste will be used either for composting green areas within The City, or for anaerobic digestion to create biogas which will be used to heat buildings or generate clean electricity. All remaining waste will be pyrolised or incinerated within the Greater London area to recover chemical energy from the materials, meaning zero waste goes to landfill. Waste collection will be centralised within The City, requiring fewer collection vehicles. The capacity of Walbrook Wharf will also be increased to allow greater quantities of waste to be transferred using the river.


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2012

THE DEVELOPING CITY: waste - 2012 Waste is collected by a number of private contractors in diesel vehicles, leading to many unnecessary journeys

Some food and kitchen waste is composted, although most goes to landfill

Privately collected waste transported to recycling centres and landfill sites in Essex by road

Some waste, collected by City of London, is transported to recycling and landfill sites by river

2050

THE DEVELOPING CITY: waste - 2050 Waste collection is centralised, meaning fewer collection vehicles

Remaining waste is either incinerated or pyrolised to recover chemical energy. This means zero waste going to landfill

Some waste is taken to recycling centres via electric and HYDROGEN powered vehicles Food and kitchen waste is either composted or turned into biogas via anaerobic digestion

Handling capacity of Walbrook Wharf is increased leading to greater quantities of waste for recycling being transported by river


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ENERGY

Most of the buildings in The City are heated and cooled on-site using mains gas boilers and electrically powered air conditioning systems. This electricity comes from the national grid, which uses gas, coal and nuclear power to generate electricity. Our buildings also have high internal heat gains due to IT intensive working practices and relatively inefficient lighting systems. Noise and air pollution in The City mean that the vast majority of buildings are sealed, with no opening windows to make use of cooler outside air to remove heat from buildings or to connect workers to the outside.

CHAPTER 3: THE GREEN CITY

In 2050 the reduction in motorised vehicle traffic in The City and conversion to electrically powered vehicles will mean that the air is cleaner and the streets are less noisy. By displacing large amounts of IT loads to data centres and installing highly efficient lighting systems and associated daylight controls, our workplace internal heat gains will be drastically reduced. This will allow us to open up the windows of our new buildings where natural ventilation can be used to remove the heat from offices.

For older buildings, which may still require air conditioning, cooling will be either done on-site or via the new City district cooling network which uses water from the Thames to remove heat from offices. Electricity will be provided either by a decarbonised smart grid or by localised combined heat and power centres which would use the old gas network to transport low carbon hydrogen to power fuel cells. Electricity generation will also be augmented by some on-site generation, such as photovoltaic cells. When heating is required, the extended City district heating network will be used to transport low carbon heat from the CHP plants.


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2012

THE DEVELOPING CITY: ENERGY - 2012 Some decentralised electricity generation exists (Citigen) with waste heat being used in vicinity

Electricity generation is centralised and mainly produced from gas, coal and nuclear, transported via a passive grid

Most cooling and heat generation is currently done on-site at an individual building level

2050

THE DEVELOPING CITY: ENERGY - 2050 Gas grid reinforced and now used to transport hydrogen for fuel cells

Significant developments of district energy infrastructure for heating and cooling

Greater decentralised electricity generation with waste heat being used in vicinity

Many new buildings do not require cooling

Some buildings retain on-site heating and cooling systems

Tidal Thames used for river water cooling

Electricity production has been decarbonised, grid has become smarter and more responsive


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WATER

Nearly all the water we use in our buildings comes from the potable water network, meaning we wash our dishes, flush our toilets and irrigate our green spaces with drinking water. Given the fact that nearly all external surfaces in The City are impermeable, with little attenuation, rainfall runoff has to be dealt with by the sewage system, frequently leading to overflows which end up in the Thames.

CHAPTER 3: THE GREEN CITY

In 2050, reduced annual rainfall and an increased working population will mean we have to be a lot more careful about how we use water. Our buildings will have built-in rain and grey water treatment systems, meaning that water can be reused on site for flushing toilets and irrigation of green spaces. Although we will get less annual rainfall due to the effects of climate change, we will be subjected to more intense rainfall events when it does come. This increases the load on the sewage network. The Thames Tideway Tunnel will prevent a lot of this waste water and sewage ending up in the river, and increased sustainable urban drainage in the permeable green spaces of the public realm will also add to the surface water attenuation capacity of The City.


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2012

THE DEVELOPING CITY: WATER - 2012

Minimal permeable surfaces in the City means rainfall goes straight into the sewage system

All water used in buildings is taken from the potable water network

Sewage outfalls discharge into the Thames during periods of intense rainfall when the sewers can’t cope

All City of London sewage is treated at Beckon in east London

2050

THE DEVELOPING CITY: WATER - 2050

Increased permeable surfaces and green areas reduce the amount of surface water runoff into the sewage system during rainfall

Increased rainwater and greywater harvesting for irrigation and flushing toilets reduces load on the potable water network

Completion of the Thames Tideway Tunnel means raw sewage and excess rainfall is no longer discharged to the river

All City of London sewage is treated at Beckon in east London


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tRANSPORT

Currently, most City workers travel to work using public transport. The City is served by seven London Underground lines, three national rail termini and the Docklands Light Railway. An extensive network of diesel powered buses operates throughout The City but they often have to share road space with private cars and taxis. Bicycle and pedestrian routes can be narrow and congested, because of increases in the numbers of City workers cycling and walking to work. The City is served by two river transport piers, but services are expensive and the services are not fully utilised. Apart from the river service, public transport is crowded as hundreds of thousands of workers try to arrive in the City at the same time.

CHAPTER 3: THE GREEN CITY

In 2050, Crossrail will have added significant capacity to the existing public transport network. More widely adopted flexible working hours mean that despite significant growth in the working population, the public transport system will be able to cope. The removal of private vehicles and taxis from The City will restrict vehicular activity to autonomous electric buses and private rapid transport vehicles, controlled by computer and satellite navigation. This, combined with an increase in public realm, will provide an enhanced environment for cyclists and pedestrians. River transport for workers, waste and freight will also be improved, with an increase in capacity for waste and freight at Walbrook Wharf and more piers for commuters.


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2012

THE DEVELOPING CITY: TRANSPORT - 2012 Narrow city streets congested and not cycle/pedestrian friendly Seven London Underground lines currently run through The City

Three national rail termini

Crossrail currently under construction

Docklands light railway

Limited penetration of river transport

Extensive bus network, running on diesel with some hybrid engines

2050

THE DEVELOPING CITY: TRANSPORT - 2050 Extensive private transport free area in City and surrounds – shared cycling/pedestrian space

Deliveries inside restricted AREA zone occur at night

River transport enhanced to move more people, freight and waste

Network of autonomous buses and PRT taxis


CHAPTER 4: Know place like London

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NEW LONDON ARCHITECTURE

4. KNOW PLACE LIKE LONDON Follow us on twitter @GrowUp2050


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The workplace is now defined by shared space rather than physical place. One of the key roles of all cities is to provide a forum for people to connect with each other. The City of London will evolve to accommodate the different ways of working encouraged by the knowledge economy. Follow-me technology will unlock London, providing workers with access to a rich variety of different spaces both within the building and broader public realm, rather than the singularity of experience that has traditionally been the norm. While the Financial Services sector will continue to dominate the overall leasing profile of The City into the future, as the knowledge economy matures the mix of other tenant types will broaden as premium technology, media and data analytics businesses increasingly seek space within The City, or on its periphery. This shift is already occurring. London’s time has come! It’s time for to develop a vibrant social fabric where people are free to work in a mode that suits them. A range of different workplace configurations will be required to meet the varied workstyles of different tenants. Where efficiency is the key driver large regular floorplates are best. In most cases these floorplates can only be created where there is an opportunity to consolidate the small, irregular land parcels associated with the existing urban grain of The City.

Increasingly, however, many businesses are exploring ways of working that recognise that their people are highly mobile, both within and outside of the office. In this kind of workplace a broad menu of spaces are provided, and staff are encouraged to use whatever space best supports the particular activity they are undertaking at that point in time. This nimble approach to workplace, often called Activity Based Working (ABW), can be more easily accommodated within the irregularities of the traditional city grain than those uses that demand large regular floorplates. While it is probable that there will be continued demand for large regular floorplates, to service activities such as trading, the growth of micro businesses engaging in collaborative forms of production, such as crowdsourcing, will also drive demand for relatively small spaces clustered together in ways that encourage collaboration between organisations.

REAL-TIME WORKING DECISION pROCESS

OLD RESULT DESK

IN ANY SPACE

MEET

NOW IN ANY SPACE

VIDEO CONFERENCE

ONE-ON-ONE

MEET

TELEcorridor conversation CONFERENCE

TEAM MEETING

CLIENT MEETING

RESULT

FUTURE RESULT IN ANY SPACE

THE CLOUD

Virtual or Physical Meeting

ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD


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BLEISURE CITY (The Future Labaratory)

By 2050 there will be no more highly valued space than that in The City. As business and leisure converge, an organisation’s City presence will increasingly be used to leverage face-to-face interactions between senior staff and their most valued clients. In a time where virtual interactions have routinely replaced the physical, people will continue to come to The City to enjoy its urban grain, scale and variety of spaces and environments.

CHAPTER 4: Know place like London

The widespread uptake of more flexible working practices will drive a greater level of activity across an expanded working day. This ‘always-on’ global business culture, where connection between the workplace and broader environment is facilitated by ubiquitous follow-me technology, will blur the traditional boundaries between business and leisure activities, leading to an increased demand for destinations within The City that support high level client interaction, both within and outside the traditional workplace.

Anonymous Interior of a London Coffee House, 1668. From Pim Reinders, Thera Wijsenbeek et al., Koffie in Nederland: Viereeuwen culturgeschiendenis, (Zutphen: Walberg Pers; Deft: Gemeente Musea Delft, 1994), 64.


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WORLD CITY PATTERNS In the Eastern Cluster, where the level of redevelopment will be most intense, The City’s urban form will have the greatest opportunity to expand and evolve in a way that meets the needs of the burgeoning Bleisure society. Comparing the scale of new public realm that will need to be created with that of other great cities from around the world demonstrates that this challenge will require more than just great street furniture and a few judiciously placed trees to be successful. This new public realm presents a design opportunity at least equal to that of the buildings that sit within it.

CHAPTER 4: Know place like London

LONDON


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BUSINESS NEW YORK

PARIS

TOKYO

+

LEISURE Beach

Country house

=

Event

A Carpet of opportunity


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